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1.

End of World War 1 found USA as the worlds largest creditor and the richest country
-Wilson thought it was a war to end all wars
2. US society disagreed with Wilsons views
-Congressmen felt that his New Diplomacy would not be in the best interests of the US
-USA should contribute to international peace by becoming a beacon for other nations to
imitate
-Should not be automatic involvement as a consequence of US membership
Anglo-American guarantee
How it came about:
-USA signed a different peace treaty with Germany and did not become member of LON
-French preoccupied with fate of Rhineland
-Terms of treaty difficult to maintain
-USA and Britain offered a military guarantee to come to her aid if Germany attacked
Honouring the guarantee:
-Wilson hoped that LON would take care of aggression
-British counted on USA to assist
-Neither the TOV nor the associated documents was ratified by the US Congress which
meant the guarantee was not binding for USA, and therefore not mandatory for Britain
Retreat from the Anglo-American guarantee:
-American policy of isolationism
-political atmosphere in Britain in the 1920s (no public support, Britain feared getting
dragged into conflict, France had made its own alliances)

Disarmament
-Washington Naval Agreements
1921- President Harding called for conference, based on naval disarmament and triggered
by developments in Far East
Motivations for naval agreement: to avoid an expensive naval arms race among the
powers
-USA had little support from Congress for further naval expansion
-Britain thought if one to one agreement was there then they didnt have to worry about
Far East and focus on other things eg. strengthening Germany, improving British
economy

-Japan thought if expanding navy, it means spending money, and they would have to use
it, feared naval expansion would hurt other sectors of economy
Made sense for everyone to do this
The Four Power Agreement
-USA Britain France Japan
-Territorial rights in respective possession in Pacific
-Agreed to defend each other if rights threatened third parties
Five Power Agreement
-USA Britain France Japan Italy
-limit naval forces by establishing ratio for fleets -> 5:5:3 for USA Britain and Japan,
France and Italy allowed to have fleets half size of Japanese navy
-Not to build battleships and cruisers for 10 years and to destroy ships if above ratio
Nine Power Agreement
-Fear that China would be international sick man and contribute to rivalries among
nations with interests in Pacific region
-Open Door Policy and guaranteed territorial integrity of China (cant allow one country
to control, but all nine powers can control)
Measures taken to assist China financially by giving her greater control over
customs income
Japan to give back Chinese territory of Shantung Peninsula
How successful?
-First step to disarmament on international level, at least theyre attempting something
-Although progress was made on issues related to the Far East, no one was going to
enforce and failed to prevent Manchuria incident
-Success of disarmament was because it was small/because you need large infrastructure,
not easy to arm in secret