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Edwin N.

Orogo 2002-99073 UP-OU

This website was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
Information System (IS) 201 - Computer Ethics
at the University of the Philippines Open University
Faculty-In-Charge: Dr. Maria Lurenda Suplido -
Unit 1 Basic Ethical Concepts and Issues
Module 1 What is Ethics?
Module 2 Ethics and the Law
Module 3 Preliminary Theories
Module 4 Finalist Theories
Module 5 Moral Problems
Module 6 Computer Ethics
Unit 2 Application of Ethical Principles to Selected Issues in Computing
Module 7 Computer Abuses
Module 8 Privacy Issues
Module 9 Social Justice Issues
Module 10 Free Speech Issues
Module 11 Intellectual Property Rights
Module 12 Computer Crimes
Module 13 Related Philippine Laws
SAQ 1-1
1. Three definitions of ethics
A. This is derived from the Greek term ethnos, which means character or custom. Its equivalent term in
Roman is the word mores, from which words like morality, moral, and moral are derived.
Catholic Monogamy vs. Muslim Polygamy For Catholics having many wives is unethical or immoral
while for Muslims having several wives is all right as long as the husband loves all his wives and provides
for them all.
B. Ethics is the study of the morality of human actions.
Robinhood mentality vs. Stealing The mere act of getting something from others without their consent or
approval is considered by many as unacceptable, while some people thinks it is ok especially if it is for the
greater good of other people especially their family.
C. Ethics focuses on the care for the soul.
Ascetism vs. Hedonism Ascetics believe that refraining from physical pleasures is good for the soul,
while Hedonists believe that full self-abandonment and enjoyment of physical pleasures is lifes real
2. Applied Ethics:
Internet Publishing
Publishing in the Internet today requires new Laws on intellectual property rights and a Code of Ethics.
The Internet has evolved so rapidly and has become accessible to millions of people worldwide.
Unfortunately, it has been difficult to regulate because its content crosses national boundaries and is

available to anyone who has the means to access it. Not all countries today have existing laws that
regulate Internet publishing.
As a new medium for publishing, many people have used it to distribute and reproduce information. This
requires governments to establish laws on intellectual property rights to prevent theft of intellectual work.
The Internet is a text-oriented medium wherein content is available immediately upon publication and is
accessible for months and years after publication. Content is easily updated and can be viewed any time.
Existing laws and codes of ethics on printing and broadcasting need to be modified for Internet publishing.
Authors have to be more responsible because many people are influenced and affected by what they
write. It is immoral to take credit of someone elses idea and use anothers work without permission.
3. Case of Rona
As a judge, my judgment would be based on the law and not on ethics. Rona could get away with what
she did if any of the definition of ethics is accepted as basis of the judgment.
Jojos case against Rona is on her transgression of the law of community B. Therefore, Rona should be
tried whether she is guilty of the accusation or not. Evidence clearly shows that Rona is guilty of breaking
the law of community B, and therefore should be judged guilty and sentenced with the corresponding
penalty. As a judge from a neutral territory, it is only fair to respect and uphold the law of the community
where the crime was committed.
The case is like that of a Filipino going to Saudi Arabia and committing a crime there. Once caught, he
should be punished for breaking the law and face the penalties as required by law. Ignorance of the law
cannot be used as an excuse for breaking it.
4. Ethical Norms. When does an act become ethical or unethical?
I believe that humans did not just evolve from nothing. We are created by a more powerful being called
God. God is the one who designed and produced the first humans. In the beginning, God was their
teacher. God taught them how to live and the purpose of their existence. But the first couple was deceived
by the devil and was led to decide for themselves what is right and wrong instead of learning it from God.
Since then, Ethics has been defined by the majority of people and not by God. Thankfully, God has not
left humans totally ignorant of his ethical standards. For centuries, God has worked with a chosen few to
whom he reveals how humans should live. The Bible is a compilation of the redeeming work of God in
bringing us to the knowledge of him and his ways that lead to righteousness.
Without God no one can be truly righteous. No one is capable of following perfectly any code of ethics.
For example, the Ten Commandments given to the nation of Israel by God is not an exhausted dos and
donts, yet none can obey them perfectly.
Gods laws are based on love and could only be observed if his kind of love is in us. Since most people
today have not personally known the true God and have not received his Holy Spirit, most people today
are naturally unethical in most of their ways. For what is ethical or unethical is known only through a close
relationship with the true source of the code of ethics for humans, God himself.

SAQ 2-1
1. Relevance of the study of law
Law governs everything that exists. Breaking a law, even if we are totally ignorant of it, does not excuse
us from getting the penalty for breaking it. For example, a little child is not excused from dying if it jumps
from a ten-story building. The law of gravity is constant and unchanging. With this in mind, it is only logical
for us to study law in order for us to not live contrary to it. Otherwise, we would be breaking laws and
reaping its penalties, which could not only harm us but kill us.
2. Two laws governing computer use
Republic Act 8732 - An Act Providing for the Recognition and Use of Electronic Commercial and NonCommercial Transactions, Penalties for Unlawful Use Thereof, and Other Purposes.
This underlying non-jural law in this Act is Physical Law. With the enactment of this law, other decrees,
laws, rules and regulations that are inconsistent with the provisions of the Act are repealed, amended, or
modified. It remains in force and effect unless it is declared unconstitutional. All Filipino citizens are
subject to the benefits, privileges, and statutory rules established under this Act. It promotes constancy,
regularity, uniformity and imperativeness in the field of electronic commerce in the Philippines.
Republic Act 8293 An Act Prescribing the intellectual Property Code and Establishing the Intellectual
Property Office, Providing for Its Powers and Functions, and for Other Purposes
This Act may have the elements of Moral and Natural Laws. Moral Law in the sense that it is concerned
with acceptable behavior or conduct by the people in the country. It is based on the unwritten principle of
respect for the ideas others, truthfulness and faithfulness in the use of information, obedience with rules
and regulations, etc. Natural Law because it promotes righteousness, justice, equity and fairness.
3. Case of Melinda
Divine Law
If Melinda is a Christian, she transgressed the law on stealing. By selling pirated copy of the software, she
is getting money that should have been for the manufacturer of the software.
Natural Law
Even if there is no law against copying software and selling it to friends and acquaintances for profit,
Melinda still breaks the natural law on intrinsic goodness in humans. She acts unfairly against the
software manufacturer and puts her own interest first before the owner of the software. This kind of
action, if perpetuated by many people, would naturally result to chaos.
Moral Law
Melinda has become immoral by committing what she knew was wrong. The computing environment in
which we live value respect for the right of owners of intellectual property, promotes compliance with
computer norms and laws, and condemns computer crimes and abuses.

Physical Law
This act would naturally result financial profits for Melinda as well as bad reputation. If caught by
authorities, Melinda will have to go to jail and probably pay a certain amount to the manufacturers.

SAQ 3-1
A. Your classification of moral issues in computing
1. Software piracy - MGB
Software piracy is morally bad when someone reproduces a copy of the software and sells it for profit,
produces exactly the same or similar version without giving proper credit to the original author, or simply
produces it and distributes it to others. It is not immoral to copy the software if someone who has a
licensed copy of the software simply makes a backup copy of the original.
2. Pornography on the Net - MB
Pornography is morally bad because it degrades sexuality. God creates sex and he declares it good. The
God-given purposes of sex are distorted by pornography, which elicits lust, infidelity, homosexuality,
incest, bestiality and other immoral acts.
3. Creation of worms and computer viruses - MGB
Creation of worms and computer viruses is morally bad when it is intended for malicious purposes like to
steal information. However, it could be used like a vaccine poison to kill another poison to cure or
prevent a potentially destructive system from wreaking havoc in the network. The way some worms and
viruses work could be used to gather information that could help protect the majority of computer users.
4. Infringement of intellectual property rights (of computer programmers) - MB
Computer programmers have the right to their programs just like inventors to their inventions, musicians
to their music, etc. Though there could be similarities in some programs created by two different
programmers, no two programmers could create applications that are exactly the same in code structure,
sequence, and organization.
5. Violation of privacy (in communications via Internet) - MGB
Violation of privacy in communication via Internet is morally bad because there is information not intended
for the public. For example, messages sent via electronic mail should remain confidential and not shared
to those who are not intended to receive it. Company e-mails is not intended for personal use and is not a
property of the employee but of the company. In this case, the company has the right to know the
contents of the company e-mails for proper management and protection. Privacy in this case is violated if
confidential information is shared to other companies or individuals that are not part of the company.
6. Plagiarism - MB
Plagiarism is morally bad because it is an act of stealing. It is copying the written work of others. Copying
programs written by other programmers and claiming it as your own could be an act of plagiarism. It
involves lying, cheating, theft, and dishonesty.

7. Spamming - MGB
Spamming is morally bad if it is intended to destroy and done by infringing on the right of privacy of
others. It could be good if the message sent benefits the recipients like giving out warnings or useful
information to others.
8. Hacking - MGB
Hacking is morally bad if it is intended to steal private information or destroy a computer system. Hacking
to simply test the security of a computer system and find ways to strengthen it is not bad.
9. Computer abuse - MB
Computer abuse is morally bad. The word abuse connotes that something is used beyond its normal use.
Anything done to abuse something, computers included, is wrong. Otherwise, the thing abused will
eventually fail to function, thereby ending its usefulness to others.
10. Computer crimes in general - MB
Computer crimes are morally bad. All crimes are bad. Otherwise, we should not call it a crime. A crime is
a violation of the right of other people. It is destructive and causes hurt and suffering. All crimes have
corresponding punishments because it is not morally acceptable, and usually violates most of the nonjural laws.

B. 5 Cases How adherents of ethical egoists and altruism would analyze the following
Case 1: Roger designed a computer program that would make detection of enemy codes easier.
Egoists would think that Roger is out to prove that he is good at cracking any code. He is more interested
in cracking the code rather than on helping his country defeat the enemy. Roger is the kind of person who
delights more in the process of solving a problem than on the benefits of solving a problem. His work is
not motivated by love for his country but by his own desire for intellectual challenge and accomplishment.
Altruists would argue that Roger is loyal to his country and has its security foremost in his mind when he
created the program. He is concerned with the welfare not only of himself but also of his people.
Designing the program is also a way he can contribute to scientific and technological development.
Case 2: Perla plans to buy licensed software in the U.S. using royalties from the sale of her book on
computer ethics, and donate the software to her alma mater.
Egoists would say that Perla might be trying to redeem her bad reputation in her alma mater by doing
something praise worthy, trying to get a favor from school officials in return for something else (e.g., Her
daughter to be honored as valedictorian of the class), or simply likes to become popular at her school.
On the other hand, altruists would say that Perla is practicing what she preaches in her ethics book by
buying licensed software and is really concerned with the students of her alma mater. She also wants the
school to have licensed software that the students can use to learn and become better individuals.
Case 3: Marjo wants to create a virus that would affect only laptop operations.

Egoists will tell us that Marjos dream is no different from any other programmers. All programmers, they
would argue, seek to create a program that only they have thought of and developed. His chance of being
recognized as a computer genius and a formidable programmer should increase if could create a more
virulent virus.
Case 4: Baba debugged a secret code of the NBI that allowed her to access all computer systems of the
agency. She plans to sabotage the whole system as a form of revenge for what she considers to be the
NBIs violation of her human rights.
Baba is clearly doing something to preserve herself. She hacks and infiltrates the NBI system to stop it
from snooping at her private files or information. Self-protection and self-preservation is but the natural
action of any human, according to the egoists. Revenge is getting back at those who hurt us and are
considered a threat to our self.
Case 5: Tikya and John-John were contracted to design and develop a website for government agencies
in the Philippines at the cost of P1 million. An added feature of the contract is that they would be
contracted as computing consultants of the government.
Tikya and John-John is not doing the job to just help the government agency have a website that can be
used to serve the Filipino people. They are in it for the money and for the reputable position of
consultants. Both may even have an agenda to influence government officials to their way of running the
government by being computing consultants. They are thrilled by the fact that they will not only earn large
amount of money but also a good reputation and an opportunity to run the government from behind the
government officials.

SAQ 4-1
1. Most appealing finalist theory
Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics
This finalist theory appeals to me because it is holistic, balance, and more spiritual. It is concerned with
the development of whole person, particularly his character and his intellect. In determining what is moral,
John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism uses the heart while Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperatives uses the
Utilitarianism focuses on feelings to determine what is right. Anything that makes a person happy is
considered good or moral. And any action that makes more people happy is correct. But it seeks to
please the self first without much regard on how an action affects others. This theory doesnt appeal to
me because it doesnt give strong standard of morality that applies to all people. It could lead to chaos
because what could make one happy could make others unhappy. The account in the Bible about Adam
and Even shows us that the Fall of Man started when Even saw the fruit and it looked so fresh and
delicious. She probably thought that doing something pleasurable as eating of the fruit couldnt be wrong.
But God was unhappy of the couples disobedience and humanity followed their action ever since.
Categorical Imperatives relies on what one thinks. It is mans own rules that become the basis of his

actions. Whatever mans will dictates is good regardless of the result of the action. Morality is dependent
on what he determines promotes good will. A person, therefore, should develop his mind and utilize it to
determine for himself what is right and wrong. This theory also reminds me of Satan when he offered
Adam and Eve the fruit of the tree of good and evil. After eating of the fruit, the couple thought they
became wise, capable of determining for themselves what is good and evil. Since they have rejected God
by their disobedience, they have relied on themselves for knowing what is good.
Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics is also known as Virtue Ethics. This is more appealing to me because it is
more concerned with virtue. Although it is also humanistic in its approach, meaning without God in
determining what good, it is nevertheless more spiritual and balance. It talks about the development of
ones character and intellect. Happiness is achieved by thinking as well as by feeling. What the mind says
must always agree with what the heart feels. This unity alone determines if an action is virtuous or moral.
Since man is left to himself to determine for himself what is wrong and right, Aristotle, though considered
as one of the wisest man who ever lived, also was not able to determine a constant or mean state that
should tell us what is moral. Thankfully, God has not totally left man ignorant of his standard of morality.
He gave us the Bible, his instruction manual on how to live, and reveals to a few his divine purposes for
2. Most predominant theory
John Stuarts Mills Utilitarianism
I think that the most predominant finalist theory in the world of computing today is John Stuarts Mills
Utilitarianism. For example, the Internet has become a medium of entertainment and commercialism,
which aim mostly to gratify the senses. Many sites offer different products that please the eyes (movies),
ears (music), mouth (food), flesh (gadgets, pornography), etc. Any thing that makes people happy or
satisfies the senses is found in the Internet. It is where one finds no boundaries in doing whatever he
wants without thinking of rules to follow. For example, many are happy breaking rules on relationships
(infidelity in chat rooms), killing other people and conquering the nations (brutality in games), and stealing
confidential and private information (hacking). Computing is utilized to gain happiness because it has the
capability to bring pleasure without violating existing rules or set morals.

SAQ 5-1
1. Moral Problems
Chief of Police story - The story illustrates the problem of moral obligation.
2. Most pervasive moral problem
In my opinion, the most pervasive moral problem in this situation is the Problem of Moral Obligation. As a
police officer, he has the moral obligation to follow the law. In this case, it is his duty to arrest his own son
for violating the law by hacking computers. However, doing so conflicts with what he wants because, as
the father, he doesnt want his son to suffer by going to jail. He may feel that he has the moral obligation
to protect his son, which is contrary to his moral obligation to protect the society from hackers.

SAQ 6-1
A. Case of Daan
1. Commandments on computer Daan violated:

Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work.

Daan interfered with Kaels computer work by causing PC to fail to function.

Thou shalt not use other peoples computer resources without authorization.
Kael obviously did not authorize Daan to use his computer to test a computer virus.

Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect.
Installing a computer virus on anyones computer is inconsiderate and disrespectful.

2. No, I would not tell Daan. I probably would feel awful about what I did, but it only would make the
situation worse if Kael knew what I did. Anyway, computer viruses could come from different sources and
Im probably the last one Kael would suspect of bringing it to his computer. If we are truly friends, it would
be better to keep our friendships by not revealing to him my mistake and just promising to myself that I
will never do it again. I would offer help to Kael, including financial, if he has not enough money to buy a
new motherboard. I would also do my best to help him in whatever computing problem he may have in
the future to compensate for the wrong Ive done against him.
3. If I were Kael, I probably would get mad with Dan and have him buy me a new motherboard. I could
forgive if he is truly sorry for what he did and asks for forgiveness. But I would not trust him anymore as I
used to. Our friendships would probably suffer and not be the same as before.
B. Three precepts on computer use
1. Thou shall not use a computer to steal.
Stealing is against the non-jural laws. It is an act considered by many who believe in God as contrary to
the divine nature of God. Many religions prohibit stealing. It is also against natural law for it distracts
harmony and order and results in chaos and disarray. Stealing confidential information like government
secrets and selling it to those against the government can lead to the fall of the government and fighting
among the people. Stealing is also an unaccepted behavior or not a part of normal conduct, thus, is
against the moral law. Some societies even give seemingly harsh punishment as cutting the hand of the
one who steals. The law of nature, or physical law, is also broken when stealing is committed. Getting
caught stealing will naturally result in getting hurt or punished.
2. Thou shall not appropriate other peoples intellectual output.
This is against moral law. It is considered unethical to many societies. Many believe that people have a
right to protect their ideas and value it as their own property. Intellectual property right is accepted and
protected by many countries. Information today has been a valuable commodity that is being produced
and sold like any other products distributed commercially. Information is an intellectual output and
therefore should be properly appropriated.
3. Thou shall think about the social consequences of the program you write.
Ethical egoists would agree to this precept but would add that it should be done in order for the
programmer to know whether the program will benefit him by doing it for the society. The main concern of

egoists is not the improvement or development of the society, rather, his own personal interest. If the
society becomes mad at the programmer because of the program, the consequence would not be
acceptable. To the ethical altruists, doing this precept means that the programmer shold always put the
interest of society first. His main concern is to really help the society improve its condition.
C. Two ethical issues
Computer Piracy
Computer piracy is an ethical issue in computing because it is an act of stealing, which is cosidered
morally wrong. Illegal copying of compact disks is becoming rampant. With the unauthorized reproduction
and distribution of original copies of softwares, many software developers are and distributors are not
able to protect their intellectual property rights and not gain the profit they seserve for the work they have
Internet Pornography
Internet pornography involves sexual abuse, indecency, brutality, degradation, among other unacceptable
pratices. It is not only against moral law but also contrary to divine law. Victims of pornography lose their
dignity as human beings. The intended divine purpose of sexuality is distorted and treated as nothing but
some sort of entertainment to cater to the lust of the eyes and the flesh. Addiction and distorted
perceptions to sex result in the mind of those hooked into pornography, which often lead to worse acts of
rape, incest, polygamy and other immorality. Computer technology is a tool that should be used for the
advantage of the people or for their own disadvantage. Pornography is disadvantageous to people,
including to those who profit from it, because the soul becomes polluted and debased.
D. Legislation governing computer use
The government is responsible for protecting the people. Anything that could affect the rights, freedom,
security and well being of the people should be monitored and controlled by the government. This
includes computer use. With the advent of computer technology and its widespread use in our society
today, the people are very much affected by how it is used. It has permeated every aspect of our society,
from the highest level of government to the lowest level in school. Public and private agencies, groups
and individuals, services and businesses use it. With the proliferation of computers and its growing role in
our society, the people are ones who are ultimately affected if its use is not regulated by the government.
For example, pornography could ruin the lives of many people and piracy could result to loss of business
and violations of intellectual property rights. Hackers could go on stealing private and vital information
from individuals, companies and government without getting punished
for it.

SAQ 7-1
1. Spamming vs. flaming
Spamming relates to how the message(s) are distributed. Spamming means flooding the system with
messages in an inappropriate way, regardless of the content of those messages.
Flaming can be done either to one person or many. It refers to the content of a message rather than on
the manner of how it is done. It is an act of making other people angry, insulting a group or individual,
and/or criticizing others. This could be done by spamming if it is intended for many people or by sending
an email to a person.
2. Computer worms and viruses

Computer Virus
A computer virus is a program created by computer programmers. It requires a host in order to make
copies of itself on computer disks. Viruses have the ability to self-replicate once it has infected program
files, programs in disk sectors, and files that use macros. Viruses cause strange things to happen to the
computer software. Other viruses are programmed to do nothing so that it will not be detected. Viruses
hard disks by running infected downloaded files or by placing an infected floppy disk in a drive. It could
spread very fast among computers on a networked and through e-mail file attachments. They waste disk
space and memory, delay computer operations, and increase the likelihood of system crashes. Many also
have destructive routines to alter or overwrite data.
Computer Worm
A worm computer program is like a virus but it replicates itself without modifying a host. An e-mail worm
spreads from one computer to another primarily through e-mail file attachment. It can be mailed to many
people in an instant by a person or by the virus itself. Simply reading an e-mail can spread a worm to
3. An example of computer abuse
Hacking is an example of computer abuse that I believe is morally wrong. Hacking involves unauthorized
access to a computer and its contents. It may involve stealing private and confidential information and
services. Many people consider stealing an immoral act and is against computer ethics. Hackers may
also be doing their thing out of hatred or as revenge. This is also morally wrong because it violates
computer ethics of not using the computer to harm other people. Doing so degrades the human soul
instead of caring for it.

SAQ 8-1
An example of violation of privacy
File Privacy
Any computer document produced either by an individual in his private home or in his office should
remain private. No one has should open any document unless authorized by the individual who created
the file himself. Documents produced for the company may be considered company property only when
the individual has submitted the final document to the company. Any idea that came from the individual is
considered his property. It becomes company property when he has given it to the company. Therefore,
not all files, including those produced using company computer, do not belong to the company. I would
strongly argue that it is a violation of file privacy if the company insists on having access to all the files of
its employees.

SAQ 9-1
1. An example of social justice issue

InfoNet (Volume II, No. 3, 3rd and 4th Quarter 2003 issue) reports about the digital divide that exists in the
country and the solutions being undertaken by various sectors to address this issue. It focuses on the
access to computer technology by people with disabilities and the women in our society.
The needs of People With Diasabilities (PWDs) are advocated by the National Council for the Welfare of
Disabled Persons (NCWDP), a "government agency mandated to formulate policies and coordinate the
activities of all agencies in the government and the private sector with regard to disability issues and
concerns." Computer training institutes for the deaf have also been established by the private sector to
give opportunities to PWDs to learn how to use the computer. Featured in the report was the Manila
Christian Computer Institute for the Deaf (MCCID), a shelter for the blind, started by Jojo Esposa Jr.
The Resoruces for the Blind, Inc. (RBI) is another institution which aims to help the blind. It was
established to provide numerous services for the visually impaired. RBI now implements programs that
provide computer training to blind high school students. Public schools involved in the program are given
computers, the screen reader software package, a braille printer, and the needed training by teachers and
A report on women empowerment highlights the creation of websites recognizing and promoting women's
involvement in information technology and other issues pertaining to them. Some of the groups who are
now actively involved in this movement includes Isis Manila, headed by Resource Center Administrator
Rhona O. Bautista. Isis primarily "creates oppportunities for women's voices to be heard, strengthen
feminists analyses through information exchange, and promotes solidarity and support feminist
movements across the globe."

2. Denial of access as a social justice issue

Denial of access is a social justice issue. Social justice is concerned with the welfare of the people. Denial
of access to people who are unauthorized to access confidential files is for the welfare of the people
because it is a way of safeguarding information.
It is accepted that not all people have the right to all information out there. Any institution or individual has
the right to withhold information from other people. In fact, information has become a commodity in
todays age and many people have become rich by generating and selling information.
Giving out all information to all people does not necessarily promote social welfare. For example,
information on how to make bombs is made available to all people, it could be used to blow properties
and people up. Company information and trade secrets could also be given out to its competitors if
anyone can access its files.
Denial of access could be against the promotion of welfare of the people if everyone is prevented from
accessing information that the public can use for their growth and development. Information on
government services should be accessible to all people so that they can benefit from it and work with the
government in developing themselves and the nation.

SAQ 10-1
1. An issue discussed from 6 perspectives
1. Ethical Relativism Pornography is good as long as it doesnt hurt anybody. In fact, many people enjoy
it. They find delight and pleasure in them. It is merely another form of entertain. Many have benefited by
pornography by earning their living out of it. Pornographers are also helping their actors earn money.
2. Ethical Absolutism Pornography is against moral and divine laws. There are more people who feel
and believe that it is wrong and bad not only to the victims of pornography but also the perpetuators of it.
It is against moral standards because it is against the respect and honor of the human body and its
intended purposes.
3. Ethical Egoism and Ethical Altruism Pornographers are doing it for their own benefit. Pornography
makes lots of money. It is big business anywhere in the world. Some of those involved in it are doing
because they feel good having to do whatever they want. The desires of the flesh and the eyes are
catered and fed. Altruists may say that it is good because it helps some to be in touch with their true
desires and can act them out for their own sanity.
4. John Stuart Mills Utilitarianism Those who love pornography are delighted and pleased by it. It
makes them happy. They dont bother thinking about its consequences or effects to others and whats
involved in producing it. What they are concerned about is whether they feel good after watching it. If it
does makes them happy, then it is good for them.
5. Kants Categorical Imperatives Pornographers believe that it pornography is good. They think and are
convinced that it brings good will to them. The fact that many people buy pornographic materials means
that it is something needed by many. So, it is their duty to satisfy that need by producing the materials.
They have determined in their mind that they are doing good to those who love pornography.
6. Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics Pornography is unacceptable since it is against moral and intellectual
virtues. It promotes greed and lust instead of generosity and temperance. People who are consumed by it
become controlled by their emotions instead of their mind. They give in to their selfish desires instead of
heeding what they learned as good or moral. Happiness that is not based on sound moral principles is
wrong. That is the kind of happiness pornography offers.
2. Chat groups and free expression
No. I am not interested in chat groups that hold no barrier as far as free expression and communication
are concerned, especially if that means anyone is free to be indecent, vulgar, insulting, misleading,
disrespectful of others and do other unacceptable acts in the chat room. Id rather join a group with
focused discussion and follows certain rules and observes proper etiquette in the chat room. We are
social beings and as part of any group we should observe acceptable behavior as well as content, tone
and manner of speaking. It is always good to be open, honest, truthful and respectful in communicating
with others even in the Internet. Besides, it is a waste of time and money for me to join the group. Id
rather spend my money on buying a good book or spending my time reading, talking with respected and
knowledgeable people on the subject I want to learn, or doing a research in the library.

SAQ 11-1
Case 1. Whelan vs. Jaslow
The court proved that Ms. Whelan studied Jaslows Dentalab program and copied its structure. This is
unethical because the program is intellectual property of and had been copyrighted by Jaslow. This is the
same as stealing something from someone else and breaking a law.
Case 2. Computer Associates vs. Altai
Altai knew that it is wrong to copy the program of Computer Associates. That is why it created a new
version of the program using new programmers not associated with Altai. This is an ethical move on the
part of Altai. It only shows that Altai didnt want a program originally created and copyrighted by another
company to be labeled as theirs. Unfortunately, the program created by the new programmers has
similarities with Computer Associates program. Altai is not anymore morally liable for it since it was an
original program that probably followed the same principles of programming used by Computer
Associates programmer.
Case 3. Apple vs. Microsoft and HP
The courts decision in this case is based on the copyrighted look and feel registered by Apple for its
graphical user interface. Since the graphical design of Microsofts Windows 2.03 and HPs New Wave are
not exactly the same, Apple can not claim that Microsoft and HP copied its interface design.
Case 4. Lotus vs. Paperback Software and Mosaic Software
Here it appears that Paperback Software and Mosaic Software copied the menu structure or the
arrangement of commands in the menu hierarchy in Lotus 1-2-3. Even if the codes were different on the
programs, copying a copyrighted menu structure is considered a violation and, therefore, unethical.

SAQ 12-1
1. What constitutes computer crimes
a. Fraud
b. Unauthorized computer access
c. Stealing of confidential information
d. Misrepresentation
e. Damage to person or property
f. Economic sabotage
g. Violation of peoples rights
2. Three examples of computer crimes
Nicodemo Scarfo Jr. thought the Internet was a foolproof way of running his gambling operation little
did he know that he was under virtual surveillance every time he typed in his computer password. Scarfo,
a New Jersey mobster, was sentenced last month to the maximum 33 years in federal prison after

pleading guilty to running an illegal gambling ring.

02/28/99 -- Lenoir, NC -- Sharon Lopatka, 35, left her Hampstead, Maryland home for North Carolina, on
Oct. 13, 1998 to willingly be sexually tortured ro death by a man she had met on the Internet. She was
killed 3 days later. She left a note telling her husband she visiting friends in Georgia and would not be
coming returning. Her body was found in a shallow grave behind a mobile home. Robert Glass, 45, was
charged with first-degree murder.
The FBI more than 89 persons in over 20 states were charged in the crackdown on the proliferation of
child pornography via the Internet. During "Operation Candyman," over 266 searches were conducted,
with more anticipated. 27 persons arrested admit to the molestation of over 36 children. -- Operation
Candyman -- On 01/02/2001, FBI Houston undercover agent identified 3 Yahoo groups posting,
exchanging and transmitting child pornography. One web site depicted the Yahoo Group as: "This group
is for People who love kids. You can post any type of messages you like too or any type of pics and
NET." (sic) The FBI said it shut down the pornography ring with criminal charges against 86 people in 26
states. Those sought or already arrested included 2 Catholic priests, 6 other clergy members, a school
bus driver and at least one police officer.

SAQ 13-1
1. Laws controlling the use of computer technology
The government is responsible for protecting the people. Anything that could affect the rights, freedom,
security and well being of the people should be monitored and controlled by the government. This
includes computer use. With the advent of computer technology and its widespread use in our society
today, the people are very much affected by how it is used. It has permeated every aspect of our society,
from the highest level of government to the lowest level in school. Public and private agencies, groups
and individuals, services and businesses use it. With the proliferation of computers and its growing role in
our society, the people are ones who are ultimately affected if its use is not regulated by the government.
For example, pornography could ruin the lives of many people and piracy could result to loss of business
and violations of intellectual property rights. Hackers could go on stealing private and vital information
from individuals, companies and government without getting punished for it.
2. Your decision on the Hacking case
Leilani Garcia is guilty of hacking. Although the password was given to her by one of the IT officials of the
school, she is still not authorized to use it to gain access to the schools computer system and do
whatever she wants. All employees of any company have his or her own designated duties and
responsibilities. If accessing the computer system and using any information she gained from the system
is beyond her duties and responsibilities, Garcia violated authorization procedures. What is acceptable
practice to employees may actually be unacceptable to management. It is not an excuse to abuse
authority and position for the benefit of the self.