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Comprehensive Weld Inspection Solutions

From Manual to Automated NDT Technologies


Olympus offers a wide range of innovative testing products to meet all
requirements related to the following technologies and inspection techniques:
pulse-echo (PE), TOFD, combined TOFD/PE, phased array UT, linear scans, and
sectorial scans.
Solutions
Ultrasound / Eddy Current / Phased Array

Microscope Imaging / Optical Metrology

X-Ray Fluorescence / XRD Analysis

Remote Visual Inspection / Videoscopes

www.olympus-ims.com

AUGUST 2015 / Vol. 18/ No. 3

www.aws.org

Guided Bend Testing


Using Borescopes
PMI Q&A
Understanding
Caulking

New OmniScan Solution for Weld


Weld Inspections
New phased arrra
ray probes,
robes, wedges, and improved
oved versions of SetupBuilder and MXU 4.2 software
softwar for
use with the OmniScan
mniScan phased arr
array
ra
ay flaw detector increase
e
ease
the efficiency
ef
of weld inspections.

Compound Scan
NDT
T SetupBuilder softwar
software
e now offers the capability to
t perform
form compound scans in which a single-gr
single-group
oup compound scan
generates
es similar cover
coverage as two sectorial scans.

Higher probability
obability of det
detection
Inspection of thick
thicker material
Higher inspection speed
Shorter
er setup and calibr
calibration time
Faster
er data analysis

Weld Series Probes


obes

Dual Matrix Array


Arr Probes
NEW A31 and A32 Weld
W
Series phased array
arr probes
and wedges simplify and
standardize
e inspections
with fewer designs.
They improve
ove signal-tosignal-t
noise ratio
atio and feature
featur
an ergonomic
gonomic design for
improved
oved coupling.

For Info, go to www.aws.org/adindex

NEW Dual matrix array


arr
(DMA) probes
obes consisting
of two matrix array
arr probes
generate
e tr
transmit-receive
longitudinal (TRL) sound
beams to
o drastically
dr
improve
ove signal-to-noise
signal-t
ratio
atio for the inspection
of cladded pipes and
austenitic
enitic or nickel
nick alloys.

www.olympus-ims.com
.olympus-ims.com

AWS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION


Join or Renew:

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REV. 11/14

8669 NW 36 St, # 130


Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org
Type of Business (Check ONE only)
A
q Contract construction
B
q Chemicals & allied products
C
q Petroleum & coal industries
D
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E
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F
q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
G
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H
q Transportation equip. air, aerospace
I
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M
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01
q President, owner, partner, officer
02
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03
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13
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09
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11
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Technical Interests (Check all that apply)
A
q Ferrous metals
B
q Aluminum
C
q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
D
q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
E
q Ceramics
F
q High energy beam processes
G
q Arc welding
H
q Brazing and soldering
I
q Resistance welding
J
q Thermal spray
K
q Cutting
L
q NDT
M
q Safety and health
N
q Bending and shearing
O
q Roll forming
P
q Stamping and punching
Q
q Aerospace
R
q Automotive
S
q Machinery
T
q Marine
U
q Piping and tubing
V
q Pressure vessels and tanks
W
q Sheet metal
X
q Structures
Y
q Other
Z
q Automation
1
q Robotics
2
q Computerization of Welding

August 2015 Vol. 18 / No. 3

Features

22
Cover photo: Internal orbital weld
inspection at Kreisler Industries using
a Hawkeye rigid borescope and video
system. (Photo courtesy of Gradient
Lens Corp., Rochester, N.Y.)

INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is


published quarterly by the American Welding
Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located
at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166;
telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R.
Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss.
Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified,
nonmembers in the United States and its
possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries;
$20.00 per year for noncertified members and
students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and
$7.00 single issue for members. American Welding
Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130,
Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and
additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society,
8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166.
Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational, or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles,
provided customary acknowledgment of authors
and sources is made. Starred () items excluded
from copyright.

24

A Guided Bend Testing Primer


by Albert J. Moore Jr. / Heres a comprehensive look at guided bend
testing / 17
Internal Weld Inspection Using Borescopes
by Douglas S. Kindred / These tips will help you select the right borescope
for your application / 22
Tips for Better Positive Material Identification
by Alex Thurston / This Q&A offers insight into alloy material verification
with X-ray fluorescence analyzers / 24
Understanding Caulking
by Brent E. Boling / What caulking is, where it comes from, and how it
applies to structural steel work today is explained / 26

Departments
Editors Note................................6

Mark Your Calendar...................36

News Bulletins.............................8

Certification Schedule................38

Mail Bag ....................................12

Red Hots ....................................40

Print and Product Showcase ......14

Logos .........................................42

Just the Facts..............................30

Classifieds..................................44

The Answer Is ............................32

Advertiser Index ........................44

AWS MISSION STATEMENT


The mission of the American Welding Society
is to advance the science, technology, and
application of welding and allied joining
processes woldwide, including brazing, soldering,
and thermal spraying.

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

Editors Note

By Mary Ruth Johnsen


Dear Readers,

Publisher
Andrew Cullison, cullison@aws.org

Ive mentioned this before, but


when I joined the staff of the Welding Journal more than 26 years ago Inspection
Trends hadnt even been thought of back
then the full extent of my welding
knowledge was that it was used to join two
pieces of metal together. Since then, Ive
learned a lot about welding and Im adding
to my inspection knowledge as well. And
Ive tried my hand at welding enough times
that I know for certain that I am lousy at it. My awareness of my own
lack of ability has made me truly appreciate the people who are really
good at it.
Still, after not only researching and writing many articles for both
publications, but certainly in proofreading everything that goes into the
magazines all these years, I would have thought Id read something on
every possible welding- and inspection-related topic out there. Goes to
show me not to get too full of myself, because theres still plenty I dont
know.
This issue proves my point. I had never heard the term caulking
associated with welding before. I knew what caulk was and what it
meant to caulk something, that caulk is used to seal things such as
around windows or bathtubs and showers to keep water from getting
where it shouldnt. But I never connected caulking with welding.
Brent Boling has written an article for this issue to help you understand when and where caulking can or cannot be used. I found the historical background Brent provided very interesting, and think you will
too.
Theres lots of other good stuff in this issue as well. Al Moore gives
a thorough explanation of guided bend testing. Theres a Q&A related to
positive material identification using X-ray fluorescence analyzers, and
another feature article offers tips for selecting the right borescope for
your internal weld inspection application.
If you like these articles or have ideas for topics youd like to see
covered in Inspection Trends, please call me at (800) 443-9353 ext. 238
or send me an e-mail to mjohnsen@aws.org. I look forward to hearing
from you.

Editorial
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen, mjohnsen@aws.org
Associate Editor
Kristin Campbell, kcampbell@aws.org
Assistant Editors
Melissa Gomez, mgomez@aws.org
Annik Babinski, ababinski@aws.org

Design and Production


Production Editor
Zaida Chavez, zaida@aws.org
Senior Production Coordinator
Brenda Flores, bflores@aws.org
Manager of International Periodicals
and Electronic Media
Carlos Guzman, cguzman@aws.org

Advertising
Manager of Sales Operations
Lea Paneca, lea@aws.org
Senior Advertising Sales Executives
Sandra Jorgensen, sjorgensen@aws.org
Annette Delagrange, adelagrange@aws.org
Senior Advertising Production Manager
Frank Wilson, fwilson@aws.org
Subscriptions Representative
Evelyn Andino, eandino@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 NW 36th St., #130
Miami, FL 33166-6672
(800/305) 443-9353
Copyright
Copyright 2015 by American Welding Society in both
printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein.
Data and information developed by the authors of specific
articles are for informational purposes only and are not
intended for use without independent, substantiating
investigation on the part of potential users.

American
Welding
So
6

Inspection Trends / August 2015

News Bulletins
Coldwater Machine Opens Weld Evaluation
and Testing Lab
Coldwater Machine Co.s Solid State Joining Center recently opened a materials evaluation and testing lab for weld
inspection.
This on-site service provides prompt verification of weld
integrity, which will help the company shorten development
time for laser, solid-state, and arc welding customers.
The company has invested in a new abrasive cut-off saw,
metallurgical microscope with digital imaging, and a
grinding/polishing station for the lab in order to provide microstructural evaluation in addition to its mechanical testing capability for weld tensile strength and hardness.
Customers can bring in their weld samples for evaluation
by contacting the lab at (419) 678-4877 or e-mailing
info@coldwatermachine.com.

AWS Certification Dept. Seeks Exam


Questions
The American Welding Societys (AWS) Certification
Dept. is asking students and experienced Certified Welding

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Inspectors (CWIs) and Senior Certified Welding Inspectors


(SCWIs) to submit questions they think would be a valuable
addition to the CWI Fundamentals exam, which is an open
book exam. Submissions should include the question text,
five answer choices, indication of the correct answer, and the
corresponding specific reference information.
Questions must be developed utilizing one of the following references:
AWS A1.1, Metric Practice Guide for the Welding Industry
AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of
Welds.
Also, questions should come from the following subject
areas:
Welding processes
Heat control and metallurgy (carbon and low-alloy steel)
Weld examination
Welding performance
Definitions and terminology
Symbols welding and NDE
Test methods NDE
Reports and records

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Duties and responsibilities


Safety
Destructive tests
Cutting
Brazing
Soldering.
To submit your question(s) and to see guidelines for writing good questions, visit www.aws.org/submit-questions.html.
You will also be asked for your contact information and be given the opportunity to win a $100 AWS voucher.

YXLON Partners with Racing Team

YXLON recently became a partner of the Lotus F1 racing


team and has provided the team with a computed tomography inspection system.
YXLON International, Hamburg, Germany, a producer
of X-ray and computed tomography systems, recently joined
the British Lotus F1 Team as a technical partner.
The company will provide its Y.MU2000-D X-ray system in a special configuration that includes variofocus tube
and computed tomography. The team intends to carry out
most of its inspection tasks with this system in the future.

ASQ Awards Scholarship to Education


Company VP
The American Society for
Quality (ASQ) recently awarded
the first Paul Borawski Scholarship to Katie Berman, vice president of Curriculum Advantage,
Inc., an education technology
company. With the scholarship
award, Berman will be part of a
21-member cohort in the ASQ
Emerging Quality Leaders Program, which will include corporate visits, leadership seminars,
virtual coursework, mentor support, and team projects.
Katie Berman
The scholarship is named after Paul Borawski, who retired
in 2014 after 27 years at ASQ. He was CEO of the organization at the time of his retirement.

Pennsylvania Company Offers NDE Classes


Aerial Energy Resources, LLC (AER), Smithton, Pa., is offering nondestructive examination (NDE) training courses in
Belle Vernon, Pa. Courses will be conducted over a six-week
period and potential attendees can sign up for one or more
courses.

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

All courses are taught by professionals utilizing hands-on


learning techniques with traditional elements, and AER provides all the equipment needed. All courses are in compliance
with ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CP-189 requirements. The instructor is an ASNT Level III in the method with more than
20,000 hours of field experience with phased array ultrasonic
testing.
Courses available are phased array basic, phased array advanced, phased array advanced crack sizing, magnetic particle testing Level I and II, dye penetrant testing Level I and II,
ultrasonic testing Level II, and visual inspection Level II.
The schedule and additional information is available on
the companys website at www.aertesting.com. AER is a testing and research and development laboratory with a strong
focus on advanced applications.

System One president and CEO. As a combined national entity, we will offer our clients significant value and expertise
on ensuring compliance with regulated industry quality
guidelines.
Jeff Sengenberger, Quality Programs director, will assume
the role of vice president, Quality Solutions, at System One.

Spectronics Selects Global Customer Service


Manager

System One Acquires AECOMs Quality


Programs Business
System One, Pittsburgh, Pa., recently acquired the Quality
Programs business from AECOM. It will be integrated into
System Ones Quality Solutions business to provide a full slate
of workforce solutions and quality engineering, product assurance, asset integrity, inspection, and testing services.
Now known as Quality Programs, the operation previously was part of URS Corp., which joined AECOM in October 2014.
Quality Programs brings a wealth of knowledge, experiences, and best practices to the table, said Troy Gregory,

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

10

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Debra Hammond

Spectronics Corp., Westbury, N.Y., recently promoted


Debra Hammond to Global
Customer Service Manager.
She has been with the company
more than 20 years. In her new
position, Hammond will be responsible for streamlining the
daily work flow of both the international and domestic customer service departments,
which will be referred to as the
Global Customer Service Dept.
in the future.

OMS Launches Inspection Service


Optical Metrology Services (OMS) recently began an inspection service to analyze the critical internal girth features

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

of oil and gas pipeline welds in the firing line.


The service, named Auga, combines high-resolution
video camera technologies with laser scanning capabilities to
gather detailed 360-deg pipe geometry data from within the
entire girth weld. It can be attached directly to an internal
line-up clamp and configured to report on a wide variety of
attributes. Additionally, traditional weld inspection processes
may take up to an hour to complete, but Auga collects the
data in minutes.
The equipment can be integrated with OMSs WeldAnalysis software, which is designed to capture, analyze, and
report the results.

microstructure examination, and elemental analysis. In addition, compression testing, high cycle fatigue, creep testing, crack propagation/crack growth testing, evaluation of
welds for GE Aviation and Pratt & Whitney, and more was
added to the labs list of previously approved mechanical,
metallurgical, chemical, and specimen preparation services.
The company has been Nadcap accredited in materials
testing since 1994.
In other news, the company recently added John
Malack of Quakertown, Pa., as a customer service representative. Malack will service new and existing customers who
place orders for materials testing, nondestructive testing,
and calibration services.

Laboratory Testing Expands and Renews


Nadcap Accreditation

John Malack

Laboratory Testing, Inc. (LTI),


Hatfield, Pa., recently renewed
and significantly expanded the
scope of its Nadcap accreditation
in materials testing for the aerospace industry. Nadcap is the Performance Review Institutes aerospace industry accreditation
program.
The lab has achieved accreditation for broader mechanical
testing specimen preparation,
metallurgical evaluation of welds,

$6450.3&13*/54


T R E N D S

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For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

11

Mail Bag
Reader Concerned about Lack of
Documentation
I am a CWI who has been certified for 12 years. I have 40
years of experience in welding, fabrication, and erection.
The issue that concerns me on the majority of the job sites
where I am requested to perform an inspection is the lack of
compliance with the AWS code requirements when they are in
the job specifications. When the general contractors are required to hire an erection/welding contractor to perform welding in accordance to AWS D1.1, etc., they fail to ensure that the
welders certifications are up to date and on site when I arrive to
perform the inspection. The welders may or may not have the
proper documentation required to perform the work in accordance with the applicable code; the welder certification papers
are out of date, not properly filled out by the company qualifier
or the CWI who performed the test; and the companies do not
know they are required to have a WPS for review, or even
know what a WPS is. The problem is when I bring this to their
attention, the arguments begin: Well the other inspector never
asked for this, or this is the way we have always done it, why
are you being hard on us, etc.
As an inspector, I try to keep my cool and explain to them
that these are necessary to ensure the work is being performed
as required by the Engineer of Record, job specifications, and
applicable code requirements. I try to help everyone as much as
I am allowed to without causing a conflict of interest. Sometimes I just want to throw my hands up and find another career
or retire altogether, but I have been doing this so long and its

all that I know. I keep on going and try to educate as many as I


can on the importance of having their documents in order to do
the job right.
I enjoy the Inspection Trends magazine and the articles are
very informative.
Charles (Sandy) Arendsen
AWS CWI and NDE Level II
Apex Geoscience, Inc.

Making Welding Procedure Specifications


More Useful
Regarding The Answer Is, on pages 24 and 25 of the Winter 2015 Inspection Trends. Some ideas advanced in the codes
have merit that never penetrates through the clouds to touch the
earth. Welding Procedure Specifications rarely have an impact
on commercial work in the San Francisco Bay area. There are
many problems and Albert Moore put his finger on one of
them. His solution needs a little detail in the manner of working
it up from each manufacturers data. Then the manufacturer
should provide the chart on each spool.
(Inspection Trends) brings practical, useful information repeatedly. Articles as valuable as this one should be accumulated
on a website and accessed by teachers and trainers. Thanks.
Keep up the good work.
Thomas Troy
AWS CWI, ASNT Level II UT

BRING BRAND AWARENESS


TO YOUR COMPANY

American Welding Society

By placing your product video on the AWS website.

www.aws.org

Contact AWS for more information at 800-443-9353


Sandra Jorgensen at Ext. 254, email: sjorgensen@aws.org / Annette Delagrange at Ext. 332 , email: adelagrange@aws.org

12

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Print and Product Showcase


Borescopes Offer
Annotation Feature
Users of Hawkeye V2 video
borescopes can now add notations to the
still images and video footage they capture. Through use of the annotation feature, inspectors can now document their

notes as well as the date of an inspection


on their inspection images. The video
borescopes feature flexible, durable,
tungsten sheaths and come with an LED
light source that is 1.45 times brighter
than its predecessor in the 4-mm-diameter version and 2.1 times brighter in the
6-mm V2 version. The borescopes also
offer four-way articulation.
Gradient Lens Corp.
www.gradientlens.com

American W
Welding
elding Society
STANDARDS
ST
TAANDARDS
www.aws.org
www
w..aws.org

THE 1 KNOWN
THE WORLD OVER

Ultrasound Camera
Upgraded

D1.1
The company recently released a
hardware upgrade to its DolphiCam ultrasound camera and accompanying DolphiCam Expert software. It now offers a
12-dB signal-to-noise ratio. The software offers new functions including a
new tablet mode with an improved user
interface, multiview support, and a new
drilled hole inspection tool that makes it
easy to size and measure interlaminate
defects in drilled holes. The software update is available free of charge to existing customers.
DolphiTech
www.dolphitech.com

Ring Lights Provide Sectional


Lighting

TTAKING
AKING
A
PRE-ORDERS
PR
NOW!
visit W
Weld.ng/2015d1
eld.ng/2015d1
e
14

Inspection Trends / August 2015

The Models RL28Q and RL16Q


ring lights provide sectional lighting

control under high magnification for


laboratory and inspection applications.
They feature a sealed body with an IP
65 rating, a quadrant controller with a
touchpad that transitions the brightness
from off to full output. The four quadrant zones can be individually turned
on and off. The compact products offer
several mounting options.
Orled
www.orled.com/IT04/28Q

Device Measures Intensity


and Visible Light

ures both ultraviolet and visible light.


The AccuPro Plus (XP-4000) three-inone multipurpose sensor can measure ultraviolet, visible, and blue light. They
each feature a three-button interface that
makes it easy to toggle between measurement modes. Overall accuracy is
greater than 5% per NISTstandards.
Full-color display settings are available
in English, French, German, Chinese,
and Spanish. The units comply with
ASTM specifications for magnetic particle and fluorescent particle inspection.
Spectronics Corp.
www.spectroline.com

Software Allows Real-Time


Access to Inspection Data

The AccuPro series of digital radiometer/photometers can measure intensity and visible light simultaneously.
The series includes two models: the standard AccuPro (XP-2000) has a dualwavelength sensor detector that meas-

InspectionWorks Connect provides


real-time access to live inspection
video and data from anywhere in the
world. The secure, encrypted product is
embedded in NDE devices without the
use of any additional equipment. It is
also zero-install, which means users
only need a web browser to log in remotely. It provides live video streaming of inspections; collaboration tools,

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

including two-way chat communication and telestration; cloud-based infrastructure; wireless connectivity; and
over-the-air software updates. It is currently available for use with visual inspections on the GE XLG3 and Mentor
Visual IQ videoprobes, as well as the
Mentor EM eddy current portable.
GE Measurement & Control
www.gemeasurement.com

Computed Radiography
System Sets Up Quickly
The HPX-Pro portable computed
radiography system can be set up in less
than 5 min to produce high-quality digital images for quick analysis and rapid
reporting. The scanner weighs 35 lb, includes a replaceable air filter and vent to
ensure the air is clean and adequately
circulated inside the scanner. It features a
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keep the scanner dust and dirt free.
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continued from page 43

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

15

By Albert J. Moore Jr.

Feature

A Guided Bend Testing Primer


The types of guided bend tests that can be used, and how test assemblies are prepared,
tested, and evaluated are explained

Fig. 1 The dashed lines show the orientation of two


specimens that are said to be transverse to the longitudinal
axis of the weld. The number of specimens required is
specified by the applicable welding standard. Note the
direction of rolling. The properties of elongation as well as
tensile strength and yield strength are influenced by the
direction of rolling.
A guided bend test is a destructive
test used to evaluate a welded coupon.
Most welding standards include bend
testing as an acceptable method of
evaluating the soundness of a welded
coupon to ensure it is free of defects
such as incomplete fusion, incomplete
joint penetration, excessive porosity,
slag inclusions, etc. Alternatives to the
guided bend test may include
radiographic examination or, in the
case of API 1104, the nick break test.
This article will explore what types of
guided bend tests can be used, and how
the test assembly is prepared, tested,
and evaluated.
Hot rolled metals used for welded
assemblies have mechanical properties
that are anisotropic. That is, the
mechanical properties parallel to the
direction of rolling are superior to
those perpendicular to the direction of
rolling or in the through-thickness

Fig. 2 The dashed lines show the orientation of the


specimen relative to the longtitudinal axis of the weld. The
longitudinal specimen may be subdivided into shorter
lengths to provide the number of bend specimens required
by the applicable welding standard.

direction. The
direction of roll is
a factor to
consider when
laying out the test
assembly that will be welded. The
severity of the guided bend test may
cause the welded sample to tear and
fail to meet the acceptance criteria if
the orientation (direction of rolling) is
incorrect.
Figures 1 and 2 show the proper
relationship between the direction of
rolling and the longitudinal axis of the
weld.
There are two types of guided
bend tests. The one used most often is
the transverse guided bend test, which
is used when the test assembly consists
of base metals that are the same
specification, grade, or have similar
mechanical properties. When dissimilar
base metals with different mechanical
properties are joined, a longitudinal
guided bend test is performed.
A guided bend test deforms the
specimen in a way that stretches the

outermost fiber of the convex surface


by some specified amount. The
elongation required is a function of the
properties of the base metal and/or
filler metal used. The thickness of the
test specimen must also be considered
when determining the correct diameter
of the bend mandrel to use to ensure
the required elongation is attained. The
welding standard will specify the
diameter of the bending mandrel or it
will provide an equation used to
calculate the appropriate mandrel
diameter.
One such equation can be found in
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code Section IX, Article IV, and AWS
B2.1, Specification for Welding
Procedure and Performance
Qualification. Both welding standards
use the same equation and require the
same bend diameter. NAVSEA S9074AQ-GIB-010/248, Requirements for
Welding and Brazing Procedure and
Performance Qualification, also
utilizes the same bend diameters. One
must determine the base metal group of

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

17

Fig. 3 Transverse face bend.

Fig. 4 Transverse root bend.

Fig. 5 Transverse side bend.

Fig. 6 Longitudinal face bend.

Fig. 7 Longitudinal root bend.

Fig. 8 The weld is not properly


centered on the convex surface of
the transverse bend. This is a
common problem when testing
dissimilar base metals with different
properties of elongation. This is an
unacceptable bend specimen.

the base metals being evaluated. ASME


groups the base metals by P-numbers,
AWS B2.1 groups them by Mnumbers, and NAVSEA
S9074-AQ-GIB-010/248 groups the
base metals by S-numbers. Likewise,
the filler metals are grouped by Fnumbers or by A-numbers.
Generally, the properties of the
filler metal match the elongation of the
base metal. There are exceptions, such
as in the case of aluminum alloys. In
the case of aluminum, the filler metal
F-number must be considered when
determining the proper bend mandrel
diameter. The applicable welding
standard will provide the necessary
direction in selecting the proper bend
mandrel diameter. AWS D1.2,
Structural Welding Code Aluminum,
takes into consideration the properties
of the base metal and the filler metal
used. To select the proper bend mandrel
diameter, one must know the M-number
of the base metal(s) and the F-number
of the filler metal. All aluminum test
specimens must be machined to in.
thick prior to bend testing.
The equation provided by ASME
Section IX, Article IV, is
A=T

(100% - x%)

x%
where A (in customary units, inches) is
the required bend mandrel diameter, T
is the thickness of the specimen to be

18

bent, and x% is the elongation required


by the welding standard.
An example is as follows:
P/M/S number for carbon steel = 1
(from the applicable welding standard).
The elongation of the base metal is
specified as 20% or more (from the
applicable welding standard based on
the base metal group, i.e., P-number,
M-number, etc.)
The thickness of the specimen is
in.
100-20
80
A = 0.375
= 0.375 = 1.5 in.
20
20
Once the required bend diameter
has been determined, the appropriate
guided bend test is selected. If the base
metals being joined are the same, a
transverse bend test is used. If
dissimilar base metals are welded, a
longitudinal bend test is used or
strongly recommended. Figure 1
depicts the orientation of the test
specimen for a transverse guided bend
test, and Fig. 2 depicts the orientation
for a longitudinal guided bend test.
The dimensions of the guided bend
specimens are specified by the
applicable welding standard. Generally,
the specimens are 1 in. wide T,
where T is the thickness of the test
specimen (when it is no more than
in. thick). The length must be adequate
to fit the bending machine. Typically, 6
to 8 in. in length is sufficient.
The dimensions for guided bend

Inspection Trends / August 2015

test specimens and the bend diameter


for API 1104 are not consistent with
the other welding standards commonly
used in the United States. Where
ASME, AWS, and NAVSEA require a
carbon steel bend specimen to elongate
20%, API 1104 requires a 9%
elongation for a specimen thickness
in. API uses the same bend diameter
regardless of the properties or the
thickness of the pipe material. AWS,
ASME, and NAVSEA require multiple
bend mandrels, whereas API utilizes a
one-size-fits-all approach.
The transverse guided bend test
can be a face, root, or side bend. The
type is dependent on the thickness of
the test coupon. Specimens measuring
in. thick or less are usually bent as
either face or root bend. Specimens
in. or thicker are usually tested using
side bends. Guided face bends are bent
in the testing machine so that the face
of the weld is stretched (elongated),
and the root of the bend is compressed.
That is, once the specimen is bent, the
face is centered on the convex surface
and the root is centered on the concave
surface. The guided root bend is bent
so that the root of the weld is stretched
and is centered on the convex surface

Fig. 9 Preparing the bend


specimen.
of the bent specimen and the face is
centered on the concave surface of the
bent specimen. When the test assembly
is thicker than in., a transverse side
bend can be used to eliminate the need
to machine the specimens to in.
thick. There is no side bend option
when using longitudinal bends.
Longitudinal bends removed from
coupons thicker than in. must be
machined to reduce the thickness to
in. In the case of a longitudinal face
bend, the root surface is removed by
machining to reduce the thickness to
in. The face surface is machined to
reduce the specimen to in. thick
when a longitudinal root bend is
required. Regardless of the type of
bend test, the specimens are bent so
that the face surface, root surface, or
the full cross section of the weld is
elongated.
Figures 37 depict the face, root,
and side bends, respectively.
In Fig. 3, the transverse face bend
elongates the face of the weld so the
weld face forms the convex surface.
The convex surface is examined and
evaluated to determine whether it is in
compliance with the acceptance
criteria. The acceptance criteria
specifies the maximum size of any
open discontinuities and the sum of the
dimensions of the discontinuities.
The transverse root bend shown in
Fig. 4 places the root of the weld in
tension. The root of the weld is
elongated and forms the convex
surface, which is then evaluated to
determine if the specimen meets the
acceptance criteria of the welding
standard. Open discontinuities such as
cracks, porosity, incomplete fusion,
etc., must be evaluated. The transverse
side bend shown in Fig. 5 is used when
the thickness of the test assembly is
thicker than 38 in. It eliminates the need
to machine the specimens to 38 in.
thick.
In all cases, the convex surface is
visually examined for open

Fig. 11 Schematic of a wraparound bending machine.

Fig. 10 Plunger and die bending


machine. A transverse side bend is in
position and ready to bend.
discontinuities. Cracks on the ends of
the bent specimen are not part of the
evaluation. Open discontinuities on the
convex surface are evaluated and
compared to the acceptance criteria of
the applicable welding standard. This is
where the differences between the
welding standards come into play. The
acceptance criteria of ASME is not the
same as AWS D1.1 or API 1104, etc.
The acceptance criteria of AWS D1.1 is
different from API 1104. The
acceptance criteria for guided bend
tests in AWS D1.1 and NAVSEA
S9074-GIB-AQ-010/248 are the same.
It is important to note the
differences in the acceptance criteria
and the mechanics of the bend tests.
The differences in acceptance criteria
mean that a guided bend test that meets
API 1104 does not meet the
requirements of ASME Section XI,
AWS D1.1, or NAVSEA S9074-AQGIB-010/248. A guided bend test that
meets ASME Section IX does not meet
AWS D1.1 or NAVSEA, but one that
meets AWS D1.1 or NAVSEA does
meet ASME Section IX. These
differences should be noted when
accepting WPSs or welders qualified to
an alternate welding standard.
Figures 6 and 7 show how
longitudinal bends are used when two
dissimilar metals are welded. The
longitudinal guided bend test
eliminates the possibility of the
specimen shifting in the fixture when
the bending load is applied. A
transverse specimen (consisting of

dissimilar metals) will often slip


toward the more ductile base metal,
thus the convex surface is properly
centered and the sample cannot be
evaluated properly.
Longitudinal bends are permitted by
some welding standards for thin sheet
metal thicknesses that would require a
small bend diameter. It is nearly
impossible to keep the weld properly
centered when the transverse bend test
requires a small bend diameter Fig. 8.
The longitudinal bend test eliminates
that problem. A drill of the proper
diameter can be gripped in a shop vise
and the longitudinal specimen bent
around the drill.
The test specimens must be
properly prepared prior to bending. The
face reinforcement, backing if used, or
root reinforcement must be removed
flush with the surface of the specimen.
The exception is when qualifying to the
requirements of NAVSEA S9074-AQGIB-010/248. In that case, if the weld
joint is welded as a complete-jointpenetration groove weld, without
backing, melt-through is left intact for
the transverse root bend.
Grinding the specimen with a disk
grinder is commonly how specimens
are prepared for bending Fig. 9. The
extent of grinding must be limited
when removing weld reinforcement,
backing bars, and surface
discontinuities such as undercut,
porosity, incomplete fusion, incomplete
joint penetration, etc., so the thickness
of the weld and HAZ are not below the
surfaces of the adjacent base metal.
Scratches from grinding must be
aligned along the long axis of the bend
specimen so they are perpendicular to
the axis of the bend. Scratches that are
parallel to the bend axis tend to act as
stress risers and initiate cracks that
must be evaluated. The longitudinal
edges can be rounded with a grinder or
file to mitigate the probability of a

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

19

Moore Feature IT Summer 2015.qxp_Layout 1 9/18/15 11:14 AM Page 20

Fig. 12 Longitudinal guided bend


specimen with a failure due to
incomplete fusion.

Fig. 13 Transverse side bend,


double-V groove.

Fig. 15 Transverse root bend with


piping porosity.
Fig. 14 Transverse root bend with
corner tears.

Fig. 16 A specimen removed from


a pipe assembly and subjected to a
transverse face bend test.
corner tear. Once again, the appropriate
welding standard must be reviewed to
determine the maximum allowable
corner radius.
The bending operation can
proceed once the specimens are
prepared. There are two common
bending machines used for this
purpose. The most common is the
plunger and die type.
Figure 10 shows a plunger and die
bending machine that has been in use
for more than thirty years. The
diameter of the plunger and die are
fixed. Different plunger and die sets are
required for different properties of
elongation and each test thickness. A
common mistake is to use the same
plunger and die for all types of base
metals without regard for the specimen
thickness or elongation.
Another type of bending machine

20

Inspection Trends / August 2015

is the wrap-around machine Fig. 11.


The wrap-around machine is easier to
adapt to different base metals.
Different diameter mandrels can be
used to bend materials with different
properties of elongation and/or
thicknesses. This is handy when testing
dissimilar metals or pipe having
different wall thicknesses. It is a
must when testing heat-treatable
aluminum alloys that tend to
concentrate the bend in the HAZ that
has been softened by overaging.
While it has not been mentioned
previously, all the welded samples
must pass the applicable visual
acceptance criteria before being cut
and prepared for bending. Welded
assemblies that fail to pass the visual
examination are not subjected to a
guided bend test. Proper evaluation of
the convex surface after the specimen
has been bent is the next step in the
process. Only the as bent convex
surface is evaluated. That is, no further
grinding or sanding of the convex
surface is permitted before the final
evaluation. Cracks or tears initiating on
the ends of the specimen are typically
disregarded unless there is clear
evidence of incomplete fusion, slag
inclusions, incomplete joint
penetrations, etc. The applicable

welding standard must be reviewed to


determine what acceptance criteria is
applied. AWS D1.1 has the most
stringent criteria when compared to
ASME Section IX or API 1104,
whereas API 1104 has the least
stringent criteria.
Figure 11 shows a schematic of the
wrap-around-style bending machine. It
shows the sample loaded and the
handle in the starting position (solid
lines). The handle is wrapped around
the central mandrel so the cam follower
forces the specimen against and around
the required mandrel diameter. Once
the handle is moved to the final
position (dashed lines), the specimen is
bent through a full 180-deg arc. The
convex surface is then compared to the
acceptance criteria provided by the
welding standard and either accepted
or rejected.
The acceptance criteria for most of
the welding standards are similar, but
have minor variations. Generally, with
the exception of corner cracks, any
open discontinuity larger than in. in
any direction is rejected. AWS D1.1
goes a step further and states that the
sum of all open discontinuities larger
than 132 in., but less than in., must be
less than or equal to in. The standard
width of the specimen is typically 1
in. Narrower bend specimens are
permitted for small-diameter pipe and
API 1104. ASME does not limit the
number of -in. open discontinuities,
as long as they are not more than in.
This is not a subtle difference between
ASME Section IX and AWS D1.1. It is
a factor that should be considered
carefully by the engineer when
entertaining the thought of allowing the
welder and WPSs to be qualified to an
alternative welding standard.
Figure 12 depicts a longitudinal
guided bend specimen with a crack that
resulted from incomplete fusion
between the weld and the adjacent
Monel base metal. This is a dissimilar
joint between HY80 and Monel. The
weld displays a mottled appearance
due to differences in the hardness of
the grains in the weld deposit. The
sample failed because the length of the
open defect is more than in.
Figure 13 shows a double Vgroove that failed the side bend. The
open tears are due to incomplete fusion
between weld beads and the groove
face. Each tear is less than in., but
the sum exceeds in. The transverse
side bend is used when the welded

assembly is thicker than in.


Figure 14 shows a pipe specimen
subjected to a transverse root bend. The
corner tears were probably the result of
improper specimen preparation. Notice
the test specimen did not have the
corners rounded. Had the sample been
prepared properly, it may have passed
without the corner tears. The root of
the weld, harder than the base metal, is
pushed out slightly during the bending
operation.
The specimen curls up slightly at
the ends of the weld, a telltale
indication this is the root bend in a pipe
sample.
Figure 15 shows a transverse root
bend that failed due to piping porosity.
The test assembly was welded using an
E7018 electrode that was stored in an
electrode oven. However, the oven was
not plugged in because the contractor
said he was trying to save money by
not wasting electricity.
Figure 16 shows a specimen taken
from a welded pipe. The specimen is a
transverse face bend. Other than a few
scratches, there are no open
discontinuities. The specimen passed
even though the corners were not
rounded as permitted by the applicable
welding standard.

welded assembly, removing, preparing,


testing, and evaluating the test assembly
as directed by the applicable welding
standard. Every welding standard has
unique requirements that must be
understood in order to properly perform
the test and to evaluate the specimen
once it is bent. Time spent reviewing the
welding standard to verify the proper
mandrel diameter is being used and the
specimen is properly prepared and
identified is time well spent.

ALBERT J. MOORE JR.


(AMoore999@comcast.net) is vice president, Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton, Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified
Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP
NDT Level III in RT, UT, MT, and PT. He
is also a member of the AWS Certification
Committee and the Committee on Methods of Inspection of Welds.

Summary
Guided bend testing is one of the
most widely used methods of
evaluating welded test assemblies.
While it takes time and effort to
prepare the test specimens properly, it
can be less expensive than radiographic
examination, and it can provide quicker
results when the facilities needed to
perform radiography are not close at
hand. Some welding standards require
welder performance qualification
coupons welded with the short
circuiting transfer mode of gas metal
arc welding (GMAW-S) to be
evaluated using guided bend tests.
Radiographic testing is not an
acceptable method of qualifying a
welder who welded the test assembly
using GMAW-S.
Once welders pass their
performance qualification tests, it is not
uncommon for them to save the bend
samples as visual evidence they passed
the test. Passing the first performance
test is a proud moment in a welders
career.
The inspector is responsible for
performing visual examination of the
For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

21

Feature

By Douglas S. Kindred

Internal Weld Inspection Using Borescopes


The key to proper borescope inspection is choosing the right scope for your particular
application

Inspection of internal orbital welds in an aircraft fuel system using a Hawkeye rigid
borescope and video system.
Quality assurance professionals and
weld inspectors often need to inspect
internal welds welds that are often
deep inside a part or assembly, or are in
some way not easily accessible. In these
situations, borescopes are invaluable
remote visual inspection tools, allowing
you to get your eye inside the part.
Borescopes are essentially the same
as medical endoscopes, but are intended
for industrial use to inspect any type of
bore. They allow production or quality
control personnel to look inside small
and complex parts and to visually
inspect with great detail. Borescope
diameters range from about 0.5 up to 10
mm, and lengths range from about 2 in.
to more than 50 ft. There are three basic
types: rigid borescopes, flexible fiberoptic borescopes, and flexible and rigid
video borescopes Fig. 1.
Rigid borescopes use a series of
relay lenses to relay the image down a
22

long, narrow tube. They are always the


best option if you have a straight path to
inspect. Rigid borescopes have the
highest image quality, lowest price, and
are more durable. Some can be used
both for straight ahead (0 deg) and 90deg viewing of the welds. These scopes
can be used either by eye or they can be
attached to a video camera. In a factorytype setting, a video camera is the way
to go.
Flexible fiber-optic borescopes use
a bundle of optical fibers to relay the
image down a long, flexible tube. They
are necessary when the tubes are bent or
you just have to get around some type of
a bend or obstruction. They have lower
resolution due to the use of fiber optics
rather than conventional lenses. Fiberoptic scopes are higher priced and are
typically more fragile, but they will get
you around the bend if that is what you
need to do. Many hydraulic, fuel, and

Inspection Trends / August 2015

pharmaceutical applications utilize bent


tubes with welded fittings. These
flexible scopes are just the ticket for that
type of inspection.
Video borescopes incorporate the
latest technology. Rather than using the
relay lens systems used in rigid
borescopes, or a fiber-optic image
guide as in fiber scopes, video
borescopes have a micro video camera
at the tip of the scope. This gives the
user a flexible scope with much better
resolution, displayed directly onto a
video monitor, handheld or desktop
device, or laptop or desktop computer.
Video borescopes deliver the quality of
a rigid scope, but with a flexible shaft.
They often have two- or four-way
articulation allowing the user to
literally steer the scope around bends.
These systems offer convenience and
portability. They feature everything
you need to conduct a remote visual
inspection, and the ability to capture
still images or video, all in one small,
lightweight, handheld package.
One of the most common
applications of borescopes is the
inspection of orbital welds inside
stainless steel tubes and fittings. These
tubes are used in a variety of fields,
including aircraft fuel systems (see lead
photo), power generation, hydraulic
systems for aviation (Fig. 2) and heavy
equipment, pharmaceutical
manufacturing, food processing,
chemical processing, and oil and gas
equipment. Borescopic inspection is
often the only way to look inside these
difficult-to-reach parts and systems.
In most cases, operators employ
orbital welding with an integral filler
metal, machined directly into a fitting.
Inspectors examine each weld to ensure
theres no lack of penetration of the weld
bead through the base metal, which
typically is titanium, nickel, or stainless
steel. For instance, the key factor in

Fig. 2 A weld inside an aircraft


hydraulic line. The HAZ and slag are
evident.

Fig. 1 Examples of rigid, flexible, and video borescopes.

Fig. 3 Longitudinal weld inside a


welded and drawn stainless steel tube.

Fig. 4 Shown are broken weld joints


detected during inspection of an
arterial stent with a rigid borescope.

making high-quality welds in titanium is


cleanliness. Thus, inspectors look for
weld porosity or contamination.
Performing a borescopic
inspection on the first workpiece gives
the welder or welding operator
immediate feedback on whether the
penetration is acceptable without
waiting for X-ray results. Doing so
provides immediate feedback, reduces
the cost of rework, and decreases the
likelihood of a nonconforming part
ever reaching the customer. This allows
the operator to change welding
parameters as necessary to ensure a
conforming part.
There is also a big benefit to adding
video capability to the inspection
process with the addition of a video
system attached to the borescope. Video

systems provide blown-up views, so


they give inspectors an enhanced picture
of welded joints. Welders can just lay
down a tube and twirl the scope around
to easily and quickly inspect their work.
The video system is also a great tool for
welder training on visual requirements.
By using a borescope, the inspector
can get a great view of the heat-affected
zone (HAZ), and can clearly see slag
and voids in an imperfect weld.
Another application for borescopic
inspection is the manufacture of the
tubing itself. The majority of stainless
steel tubing is manufactured using the
welded and drawn method Fig. 3.
Borescopes can be used to inspect the
longitudinal weld joint inside these
tubes as part of the quality control
process. This is particularly important

in medical tubing.
Borescopes are used to inspect
internal welds and braze joints in all
kinds of assemblies in automotive,
aviation, and heavy equipment. Typical
examples include inspecting welds
inside large aircraft oil coolers,
radiators, and other heat exchangers.
Structural welds that are difficult to
access can be inspected as well.
A wide variety of miniature medical
products are manufactured using
microwelds. Medical products such as
endoscopes and endoscope accessories,
microvalves, and arterial stents are a few
examples Fig. 4. Very small-diameter
borescopes allow visual inspection of
these critical components.
Video borescopes are also very
useful for inspection of welds in
structural steel in buildings, bridges, etc.,
in situations where you simply are not in
a position to get a good look with the
naked eye. The videoscope allows you to
see the problem, capture the image, or
video the entire inspection.
The key to proper borescope
inspection is choosing the right scope for
your particular application. Inspectors
sometimes want one tool to do it all.
Thats a nice concept, but it doesnt
always work. If the path is straight, use a
high-quality rigid scope. If the path is
bent or extra long, youll either need a
fiberscope or a flexible video borescope.
The right high-quality borescope makes
all the difference.
DOUGLAS S. KINDRED is
president and chief scientist,
Gradient Lens Corp., maker of Hawkeye
precision borescopes, Rochester, N.Y.,
www.gradientlens.com.

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

23

Feature

By Alex Thurston

Tips for Better Positive Material Identification


An experienced inspector discusses alloy material verification with X-ray fluorescence
analyzers
analysis accuracy of XRF can detect significant deviations in specified chemistry
and alert the user to potential problems
or the need for laboratory analysis.

Q: As someone heavily involved in


PMI testing, what are the main benefits you see for welding-related applications?

A handheld XRF analyzer being used for positive material identification of a


weld in a metal beam.
In the world of alloy fabrication,
material inspection, and plant piping
system maintenance, handheld X-ray
fluorescence (XRF) analyzers, with
their simple point and shoot functionality, have become the standard choice
for quickly identifying material mixups and improving material control.
Recently, George Fairbanks, owner of Fairbanks Inspection & Testing,
was interviewed regarding his positive
material identification (PMI) tricks of
the trade. Fairbanks has more than 30
years of experience with PMI and is a
long-time user of the X-ray tube-based
XRFs commonly used today. A longtime member of the American Welding
Society (AWS), Fairbanks served eight
years as the District 9 Director.

Q: Can you tell us how field instrumentation has changed since the
1980s?

A: When I was introduced to positive


material identification, our instrumenta24

tion filled a 16-ft room. In the early 90s,


we purchased a portable optical emission
spectrometry (OES) instrument the size
of a desk. While these early OES analyzers were large, they provided a level of
accuracy that made me feel comfortable
putting my name on a report. In the mid80s, I had my first experience with
field-portable XRF. They were isotopebased systems in those days.
It was not until 2005 that I actually
purchased my first X-ray tube-based
handheld analyzer. This first analyzer
was great at testing 300 and 400 series
stainless, nickel alloys, titanium,
cobalt, and some copper alloys.
While XRF analyzers are not able to
detect carbon content, they are still a
valuable tool for evaluation. For example, XRF can identify a whole host of alloys with reasonable accuracy. Also,
XRF can differentiate increasing chromium levels between carbon steel, carbon
Mo and 1 Cr up to the specifications
of the 13 Cr in 400 series stainless steel
(SS) grades. The individual element

Inspection Trends / August 2015

A: X-ray flourescence allows for a


quick and accurate verification of materials prior to the start of fabrication,
during fabrication, and at the completion. It is beneficial to precheck carbon
steel, SS, Cr, Ni, Al, Ti, Cu, and Co
grades. This includes both base metals
and filler metals. Oftentimes, not all of
the materials being repaired or replaced
have paperwork on the original materials used in fabrication. X-ray flourescence can determine what type of material will be welded or used to replace
the current material. We see this a lot
with equipment made not only in the
USA but also by foreign manufacturers. A good set of reference books is invaluable for verification of foreign or
proprietary materials to compare criteria or find the closest match.
X-ray fluorescence is a great aid for
checking flux cored arc welding filler
metal to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) requirements for
Mn maximum limits based on the A
numbers in iron-based specifications.
A small breach in a quality system
can result in a catastrophic failure. X-ray
flourescence is successful in detecting
wrong filler metals by looking at the actual chemistry compared to looking for a
grade. For example, on a 9 Cr fabrication, an analysis determined that the base
metals met the 9 Cr requirements, but
several of the weld chemistries fell between 1.5 and 3% Cr, and were also low
in Mo content. These weld chemistries
were too low as a result of incorrectly
using ER70S-2 filler metal.

An example of an analysis report.

Q: On the other hand, what are the


drawbacks or points of concern for
handheld XRF with regard to welding-related PMI applications?

Screen shot showing grade for ER316


weld material.
larger surface areas may create an unwanted influence on the test results.

Screen shot displaying grade match


for 316 stainless steel base metal.
stamped from the mill that is what it is
supposed to be, and do not pay attention to the chemistry.

Q: What other things have you

A: There are four common sources of

learned that you feel might add to


this discussion?

confusion:
1. First, theres a lack of familiarity with material specs for the base metal.
2. Second, confusion caused by the
filler metal chemistry not exactly
matching the base metal chemistry. The
filler metal is typically overalloyed to
account for dilution.
3. Third, when the filler metal is
very different from the base materials,
perhaps when joining carbon steel to
stainless or nickel alloys, the resulting
weld fails to resemble any of the
preweld material chemistries.
4. And, fourth, when materials
meet more than one classification, from
overlapping chemistry ranges.
Another area that can be tricky to
test has to do with the samples size,
shape, and distance from the XRF analyzer, which can influence test results.
For example, some of the materials that
are influenced by these factors are expanded metals, very small or inaccessible fillet welds, and thin filter screens.
For an inspector, knowing when to
use the analyzers collimator function is
important for the best accuracy. Testing
with the standard beam spot size (10
mm) on small parts or using the smaller
collimated beam spot size (3 mm) on

A: By having a procedure in place, it


enables inspectors to follow a systematic testing process. Incorporating reference materials into our standard operating procedure keeps us from reporting erroneous results and allows
verification of accuracy with unknown
materials. Reviewing the accuracy deviation, plus or minus, will keep you
from thinking you found something
out of spec by 0.002%. Knowing that
the XRF elemental analysis accuracy
is 10% helps with looking at minor
percentages that are over or under a
required spec. Having a known reference standard to check your instrument against after standardizing is
critical.
Developing and using separate
chemistry libraries for common base
metals and filler metals are critical for
accurate PMI. The XRF operators
should be aware that numerous alloys
can overlap specified chemistry
ranges for two separate grades, such
as SS303 and SS304, and other examples can be found when looking at the
400 series SS.
Too many times the operators
look at the base metal specification
only, or think since something is

Q: In an industrial setting, productivity and value are always a concern. Is there anything you would
like to add on this topic?

A: Performing PMI when materials are


received and stamping them as approved increases the likelihood that the
final product meets the intended specification. Verifying materials at the start
of the job prevents costly rework and
the removal of incorrect materials. Repair work is costly and often results in
unacceptable delays. Catching incorrect materials prevents reduced service
life and can prevent serious accidents
from unexpected failures.
While handheld XRF delivers onthe-spot material compositions and alloy grades, a key component of an effective field inspection is qualified inspectors. Developing a training program to ensure personnel are well
aware of differences and similarities in
material specifications and applications
is a plus for any company.

ALEX THURSTON is
applications scientist, Metallurgical
Group Leader, Olympus Scientific
Solutions Americas, Waltham, Mass.,
www.olympus-ims.com.

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

25

Feature

By Brent E. Boling

Understanding Caulking
A look at the history of its use can help us understand whether we can or cannot use
caulking today

Fig. 2 A weld with no chisel marks.

Fig. 1 Caulking to hide a crater crack.


Caulking is a condition that can
occur from the improper use of slag removal tools. This article will examine
what caulking is, where it comes from,
and how it applies to our work in structural steel today.
As AWS CWIs, we need to be careful about not only what we say, but
when and how we say it. Rather than a
lack of knowledge or training on the
part of the inspector, welder, and/or fabricator management, communications
can simply be misunderstood. For example, I recently discovered a welder on
my shift had just completed grinding
down the entire width and length of a
weld, about 20 ft, because another thirdparty inspector working with me had
marked it for caulking. He had only
marked a short area of the weld, but the
welder got the word from his supervisor
and believed that everywhere a chipping
gun had been used was caulking and
needed to be ground for correction. That
was not what the inspector had said nor
marked on the part, but was how the
communication came down the chain of
command to the welder.
I was not able to use the same
weld to show the welder what was being marked for repair (probably a good
26

thing in many ways), and had to use a


different weld entirely to point out
what I believed was happening. The
next day, I made sure the other inspector and I were on the same page as to
how we looked at the issue. That
evening, I clarified everything with the
welder and shift lead person.

The History of Caulking


To understand caulking, I believe
we need to look back to see where the
term came from and how it became part
of our current welding terminology.
Some of the earliest references
available on caulking are related to
boats and ships made of wood and
other materials. After all other work
had been completed, they would use a
dull chisel-style tool to drive various
materials into the seams to seal or
caulk them. This practice continued
for sealing wooden barrels, storage
tanks, and other items. This method
was also used extensively for doing
repairs as the wood aged, dried out between fillings of liquids, and went
through various stages of degradation
or decomposition.

Inspection Trends / August 2015

As time passed, steel became a


material of choice for many purposes,
especially in the shipbuilding industry.
Early on, rivets were the primary fastening system as welding had not yet
been perfected and proven in application. Having worked as a boilermaker
back in the late 1970s through the mid
1980s, I was fortunate to have worked
with some elderly welders who had
worked during the time when rivets
were used in many applications. They
worked on projects like boilers, ships,
storage tanks, and other fabricated
items with riveted joints. The amount
of overlap, spacing of the rivets, and
methods of installation would vary depending upon the application, pressure,
material thickness, and several other
variables. One method that remained
basically the same as in previous generations was the sealing of the seams.
The dull chisel tool and a hammer of
earlier times remained in use. They
were used to place repeated light blows
on the edge of the overlapped steel to
deform the corner so it caulked the
seam.
The practice was used even more
extensively to complete repairs of leaks.
Changes in temperature, pressure, stress-

es, and other in-service conditions would


loosen the joints and allow movement.
Sometimes leaks would develop that required attention. They were treated by
caulking the seam driving more of the
corner material into it. This was sometimes combined with welding added material onto the corner first, then caulking
it into the seam.
It is important to our application to
note that repeated light blows were used
to push material into the joint and caulk
the seams, thus sealing off the leaks.
Heavy blows would weaken the joint at
the rivets and cause more leakage. Light
blows can cause plastic deformation and
are directly attributed to caulking, so
telling the inspector that you werent hitting it hard enough to caulk the weld was
not a valid position. Welds can be
caulked using light or heavy blows. Plastic deformation is the issue.
The American Welding Society
(AWS) was established in 1919, at the
close of WWI, when it was decided an
organization with a wide variety of
membership from industry including educators, researchers, welders, inspectors,
engineers, and management was essential to further the development of welding and incorporate it into American productivity. The work began during the
war when many industry experts came
together to help develop welding as an
integral part of manufacturing and maintenance of wartime equipment. This
work included development of codes,
standards, and specifications to establish
a baseline of procedures that would give
the greatest potential for successful completion of welding projects.
Rivets, caulking, and then the establishment of welding and all of its procedures made up the foundation of the
knowledge available. This would obviously make for a practical application of
caulking as it applied to work being
done during this transition between riveting procedures and those for welding.

Caulking Defined
With this information as our background, lets look at how AWS currently defines caulking. We will begin with
D1.1: 2010, Structural Welding Code
Steel, Clause 5.28: Caulking shall
be defined as plastic deformation of
weld and base metal surfaces by mechanical means to seal or obscure discontinuities. Caulking shall be prohibited for base metals with minimum
specified yield strength greater than 50

Fig. 3 A weld showing limited marks.

Fig. 4 A weld showing many marks and no caulking.


ksi [345 MPa].
For base metals with minimum
specified yield strength of 50 ksi [345
MPa] or less, caulking may be used,
provided:
1. All inspections have been completed and accepted
2. Caulking is necessary to prevent coating failures
3. The technique and limitations
on caulking are approved by the
Engineer.
Secondly, in the Commentary, section C-5.23 Caulking: The code has
historically prohibited any plastic deformation of the weld or base metal
surfaces for the purpose of obscuring
or sealing discontinuities. However,
since some minor discontinuities may
interfere with the integrity of the coating system, limited caulking may now

be used for the softer welds and base


metals when approved by the Engineer.
There are no prohibitions against
the use of mastic or nonmetallic fillers
for cosmetic reasons provided that all
required inspections of the weld and
base metal have been completed and
accepted prior to application.
Finally, A3.0:2010, Welding Terms
and Definitions, defines caulking as
plastic deformation of weld and
adjacent base metal surfaces by
mechanical means to seal or obscure
discontinuities.
The term plastic deformation has
been introduced, which I should explain
since many of you do not deal with it on
a daily basis. Think back to your basic
metallurgy from the seminar and/or selfstudy in preparing for the CWI exams.
Once the stresses applied to a member

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015 27

Fig. 5 An example of overlap.


take it beyond the elastic limit, it will
take on a permanent deformation, plastic
deformation, which does not allow it to
return fully to its original condition. The
term applies to any material that has its
shape, profile, and/or structure altered by
any means or force so that it cannot return to its original state. This is not limited to the forces that put a bend in a
beam, but also includes items like a chisel and hammer used to alter the profile
of a weld.
In this article, we will narrow our
attention to a threefold purpose as applied to D1.1: 1) Identify caulking in todays applications, 2) identify when
caulking is acceptable, and 3) identify
when caulking is unacceptable/
rejectable.

Applying the Definitions


Take note of the phrases to seal or
obscure discontinuities, and for the
purpose of obscuring or sealing discontinuities. Both apply directly to the
obscuring of discontinuities so that an
inspector would overlook them. When
we see a weld the welder has deformed
extensively, thus changing the weld
profile, we wonder what discontinuity
he or she is trying to obscure Fig. 1.
Is it undercut, overlap, porosity, or a
crack? Can we prove the welder was
attempting to obscure a discontinuity?
Since caulking is a condition that requires the inspections to be completed
prior to it being done for any purpose,
it will require correction most of the
time. If the original contour of the weld
has been altered, it has undergone plas28

tic deformation.
AWS CWIs should know what an
untouched finished weld looks like
Fig. 2. The question is, how many blows
constitute caulking? One well-placed
blow with a chisel over a crack can deform the weld face and caulk the crack.
This brings us to the issue of intent. Has the weld undergone plastic
deformation in order to obscure or seal
an area of unacceptable discontinuities? Obviously there is only one way
to be 100% sure. Were you in the production area enough to see the weld before it was caulked? Was the welder
experiencing some difficulty and then
instead of removing the bad weld just
grabbed the chipping gun and caulked
it? Are remnant indications of discontinuities visible so you can document
your decision to mark the weld for correction? If you did not see it prior to
the caulking, did the welder admit
there was a problem when questioned
about the appearance of the weld because he or she did not know it was an
unacceptable repair method?

A Call For Caution


One blow can be cause for correction if the presence of discontinuities can
be affirmed. But we must take reasonable care when calling a condition caulking. The slight indications remaining after running the chipping gun down the
weld to remove slag do not qualify as
plastic deformation or caulking. If the
marks have reasonable distance between
them, there are no indications of the
presence of discontinuities, or the face of

Inspection Trends / August 2015

the weld is not totally obscured in its appearance, then the chipping hammer was
not used to caulk the weld and hide a
discontinuity Figs. 3, 4.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 5, we
were able to prove that caulking was
performed to obscure discontinuities.
The weld in Fig. 1 had crater cracks
and the one in Fig. 5 had overlap/excessive reinforcement. Corrective action was performed, but the excessiveness of the plastic deformation was sufficient in these two cases to support
corrective action without the witness of
the discontinuities, especially when
performed prior to inspections being
completed. Why? Once the weld has
been caulked, any discontinuities are
not visible, and it is thus unknown if
they were present and rejectable.
Root passes can be a problem at
times for slag removal when either
shielded metal arc or flux cored arc
welding are used. Welders may use the
needle scaler or chipping gun more aggressively to accomplish this slag removal. They may even cause more deformation than we would really like to
see. An inspector must use good judgment in ascribing cause and motive. If
you are present and observing the operation, you can easily witness the presence or absence of discontinuities as
the slag comes loose and even caution
the welder about continued use of the
tool following slag removal.
Fabricators and their personnel
should be trained well enough to realize
the inherent problems they may be creating when they peen or caulk welds, especially root and cover passes. The effects of peening and caulking upon cooling rates, grain boundaries, stress risers,
and other factors is worth keeping in
mind in order to not jeopardize the structural integrity of the project.
While D1.1 is clear that caulking
is a consideration when ascribed directly to the obscuring and/or sealing of
discontinuities, that does not mean
there are no other considerations because of the stresses that will be created as a result of caulking, especially in
the root pass and on the weld face of
the final pass/layer. Instead of covering
up a problem, they may well be creating an additional problem. Cracks can
be initiated from this process and remain unnoticed unless magnetic particle or ultrasonic testing is required.
Those processes should find the discontinuity regardless of its visibility to
the unaided eye. If you have been

trained properly, why would you cover


up a problem that you are only going to
have to go back and fix later anyway?
Why not just stop and fix it correctly
before adding even more weld metal
that will also need to be removed to get
to the problem? Chipping guns should
not be used to open up the groove to
make sure the following pass has sufficient room to receive adequate penetration and fusion. It clearly constitutes
plastic deformation when you are moving material that much. A grinder or air
carbon arc gouging equipment should
be used for opening up such areas.
After having made a case for using
caution with caulking, it is also important for the inspector to know the conditions under which caulking may be used.
First is the condition that all inspections are complete and any visible
discontinuities do not render the part
unacceptable.
Second, caulking is necessary to
prevent coating failures.
Finally, caulking, though allowed
under the above listed circumstances, is
only allowed with limited material applications and when approved by the engineer. That approval will often take time
that the fabricator doesnt have. Unless
you have some good extenuating circumstances, why even bother? Make
sure the welders are properly trained to
complete acceptable welds that will not
need caulking.

and the welds are determined to be acceptable per Table 6.1 and all applicable specifications.
2. D1.1 requires caulking to be corrected when used to deform weld profiles because of the inability to determine if rejectable discontinuities were
present before caulking took place.
These rejectable discontinuities could be
items such as porosity, undercut, overlaps, and/or cracks Figs. 1, 5.
3. The use of caulking is rejectable
if applied to a weld prior to inspections
being completed even if it was not used
to hide a discontinuity and/or if the prior approval of the engineer had not

been obtained. It is impossible to tell if


there are discontinuities hidden under
the surface.

BRENT E. BOLING
(inspector@arctechwelding.com) is
president of Arc-Tech Welding, Inc.,
Prescott Valley, Ariz. He is also an
AWS CWI with a Bolting
Endorsement, and an ASNT Level II
in VT.

Conclusions
There are several lessons we can
learn from this information:
Inspectors need to be careful when
answering questions posed by the
welders.
We inspectors need to do our research
to make sure we are correctly interpreting and applying terminology from the
applicable code.
Inspectors need to be eyewitnesses as
much as possible to the work in
progress on the job.
Caulking is a real concern that the inspector should be educated on to not
abuse in application.
Keeping these points in mind, we
then draw these conclusions regarding
our threefold purpose:
1. The use of caulking is acceptable under D1.1 when approved by the
engineer and according to the parameters listed in the code for material
strength. Caulking may occur only after inspections have been completed
Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

29

Just the Facts

By Jim Merrill

Preheat/interpass temperatures need to be considered as they relate to the production welding that will be performed.
The question of minimum preheat/interpass temperature and qualified procedures per AWS D1.1:2010,
Structural Welding Code Steel1, is a
question routinely asked by both CWIs
and fabricators. The two most frequently asked questions are
1. Can I qualify out of minimum
preheat/interpass altogether or can I
qualify for a lower preheat than is prescribed in Table 3.2?
2. Is the minimum preheat/interpass temperature that was used to develop the procedure qualification to be
used for all welding procedures qualified by that procedure qualification
record (PQR) regardless of material
thickness (thicker or thinner) or restraint?
The overall premise of AWS D1.1
concerning preheat/interpass temperature is stated in clause 5.5 as follows:
The preheat and interpass temperature shall be sufficient to prevent
cracking. Table 3.2 shall be used to determine the minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for steels listed in
the code.
While it is understood that this is
quoted from the prequalified section of
the code, the purpose for preheat/interpass temperature is clearly stated
sufficient to prevent cracking.
When searching Section 4 Qualification, the code gives further direction on
preheat/interpass temperature as it relates to qualifying a welding procedure.
Clause 4.7.4 reads in part as follows:
The minimum preheat and interpass temperature should be established
on the basis of steel composition as
shown in Table 3.1. Alternatively, rec-

ognized methods of prediction or


guidelines such as those provided in
Annex I, or other methods may be
used. Preheat and interpass temperatures lower than required per Table 3.2
or calculated per Annex I may be used
provided they are approved by the Engineer and qualified by WPS testing.
Therefore, the answer to question
number 1, Can I qualify out of minimum preheat/interpass altogether or
can I qualify for a lower preheat than is
prescribed in Table 3.2? is yes, provided a number of conditions are met.
1. Its sufficient to prevent cracking
2. It has been approved by the Engineer
3. It has been qualified by Welding
Procedure Specification (WPS) testing
4. However, if the preheat/interpass temperature is less than Table 3.2,
but has been calculated per Annex I,
the Engineers approval and WPS testing are not required.
The decision to attempt to utilize a
lower preheat or no preheat at all
should be considered and engineered
very carefully. Many CWIs and fabricators suggest that if a PQR test plate is
produced and it does not exhibit cracking and all of the mechanical tests results are within the acceptable range,
that is sufficient evidence the preheat
utilized is adequate, and therefore, the
procedure should be accepted. It must
be taken into consideration that the
PQR test plate and the production weld
may be very different in mass, length,
and restraint. These differences may
create a very different heat transfer,
weld restraint, and time between individual passes being placed. The differ-

ence in time may allow the interpass


temperature to become much lower
than was experienced during PQR testing. Depending on the joint configuration and the materials placement in a
fabrication or erection, the level of restraint may be very different from that
of the PQR. Even plates that are welded with free edges may have a very different level of restraint due to the
weight of the material being welded.
When considering a deviation from the
prescribed preheat/interpass temperatures, the PQR test plate needs to be
evaluated by the engineer to determine
if it is a reasonable representation of
the production welding that it will be
representing. Only when the Engineer
is convinced that the PQR test plate is a
sufficient representation of the actual
production welding should he or she
give his/her approval.
The second question: Is the minimum preheat/interpass temperature that
was used to develop the procedure
qualification to be used for all welding
procedures qualified by that PQR regardless of material thickness (thicker
or thinner) or restraint?
No is the simple answer to this
question.
There are examples where CWIs
have enforced excessive preheat/ interpass temperatures on relatively thin
plate based on an unlimited thickness
procedure qualification. An example
would be the qualification of A572
grade 60 or 65 for a change in joint
geometry. Table 3.2 requires a preheat
of 150F for material more than
through 1 in. thick. The material
thickness for unlimited qualification is
continued on page 43

1. Note that when D1.1:2015 is released, Table 3.2 will be Table 3.3 and Annex I will be Annex H.

30

Inspection Trends / August 2015

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The Answer Is

By K. Erickson and A. Moore

The Society is not responsible for any statements made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors are for specific
informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

Q: I am a vendor auditor with a


large company located in the northeast United States. I recommend and
qualify numerous fabrication contractors for projects nationwide. I often am presented information relative to companies having standard
American Welding Society (AWS)
welding qualifications and Certified
Welding Inspectors (CWIs) on staff
and in the field. I find this is only
partly accurate as the majority of the
time CWIs are only contracted out
as/when needed. Is this ethical?

A (by K. Erickson): Good question. I


have come across this same scenario
many times. Companies have marketed
their fabrication and field services with
the representation of directly employing an in-house AWS CWI. When doing so, this does provide greater credence to the potential customer that the
welding and quality program is established and is being overseen by a certified individual on a continuous basis.
The reality may be that an AWS
CWI is contracted out as/when needed
and utilized for the capacity of only
those projects that require a CWI as the
responsibility of the contractor to provide for. Fabricators could also have an
agreement with a local inspection company or independent CWI to provide
for services again as needed but who is
not directly employed by the fabrication company.
There is no doubt that the wording
and presentation by a potential vendor
may not be totally accurate or correct,
but does provide it the flexibility of
having an AWS CWI at its disposal
when required without the cost of directly employing a full-time CWI. If it
is a condition of qualification for your
company that the vendor currently (a
specific time period) employs active
CWI(s) on staff full time, then this can
be verified with minimal effort.
1. Obtain a copy of the CWIs current certification and confirm this information through the AWS website.
2. Confirm that each individual is
a direct employee of the fabricator and

Fig. 1 The general setup for demagnetizing the pipe. Multiple coils consisting of several cable wraps spaced along the length of the pipe distribute the
magnetic field along the entire length of the pipe. The piece of scrap steel and
electrode are used as the on/off switch to eliminate the need to switch the power supply on and off under a load (not good for the machine). If a DC power
supply is used, the polarity must be reversed each time the system is energized
with the electrode. Reverse the polarity by moving the C-clamp to the scrap
steel and striking the arc onto the steel piece the clamp was attached to. Then,
with the next cycle, switch the clamp and strike the arc against the scrap steel
plate again. With both AC and DC, the process must be repeated at least 20
times, reducing the current a small amount each time followed by removing
the cable wraps one at a time.
for how long each has been employed
at the company without any breaks in
employment.
3. Ask what are the tasks and functions of each CWI.
4. Review the welder qualifications, Procedure Qualification Records
(PQRs), and Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) for the vendor. You
can expect some updates, revisions,
and additions to welders and weld procedures annually. If you notice that the
majority of the welding documentation
is dated from many years past, you
may want to search deeper and determine why the welding program is not
current.
5. Ask for copies of previous inspection reports from similar and/or
current projects to confirm the inspection information they contain.
6. Note: This can also be applied
for nondestructive examination qualification and inspections.

In regard to weld inspection and applying WPSs and general welding requirements by company, it is important
that each CWI is knowledgeable about
this information and can couple this
with each contract specification. Consistency is the key and documentation is
the proof that applies prior to, during,
and upon completion of each project.

Q: We are having a difficult time


welding a load of steel pipe that was
recently purchased. The welders said
the reason for the welding problems
is because the pipe is magnetized.
What would cause the pipe to become magnetized, and what can we
do to correct the problem?

A (by A. Moore): The pipe could be


magnetized, as suggested by your
welders, and the causes are many. The
residual magnetic field could be caused
continued on page 34

32

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Welding Society
American Welding
EDUCA
ATION
T
EDUCATION
www
w..aws.o
www.aws.org

Save the Date


FOR 2015 FABTECH
CONFERENCE LINE-UP
So Youre the New Welding Engineer
November 10-11, 2015
This popular two-day conference is now a FABTECH mainstay.
Learn from industry experts how to ask the right questions that will get
you the results you need, help you save money, and keep you out of
trouble.

Electron Beam Conference


November 10-11, 2015

Photo courtesy of TWI Ltd"

This two-day event begins with a tutorial in electron beam welding


following by plenary sessions featuring four keynote speakers. These
keynote speakers will inc
include
lude interna
internationally
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internationally
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States.
tes.

Thermal Spray Basics


November
November 10, 2015
This free conference is a basic introduction to thermal spray benefits
and covers four major areas: processes, equipment, aapplications
pplications ,
and industr
ge.
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usage.

Visit the AWS


AWS
W Conference website
websit at
at
www.aws.org/conferences
www
w.a
. ws.org/conferences to sign up, or to learn more

continued from page 32

by the influence of the earths magnetic


field. Transporting long, slender ferromagnetic materials in a northerlysoutherly direction can produce a residual magnetic field in the members. Another cause could be grinding the bevel
on the ends of the pipe in preparation
for welding. If the pipe ends were machined, the cutting action of a singlepoint cutting tool can also induce a
residual magnetic field in the pipe.
With that in mind, if the welders
attempt to correct the problem by
wrapping the welding cable around the
pipe, the problem could be amplified. A
longitudinal magnetic field is developed in the pipe when an electrical current is passed through the welding cables wrapped around the pipe. In other
words, the welders just turned the pipe
into an electromagnet. The intensity of
the magnetic field is proportional to the
current and to the number of cable
wraps around the pipe. The intensity of
the longitudinal magnetic field is increased if the number of cable wraps is
increased or if the current flowing
through the cable is increased.
Once the pipe is magnetized, from
whatever cause, it is necessary to de-

magnetize the pipe before attempting


to weld it. There are several methods
used to demagnetize the pipe. If the
strength of the residual field is limited,
a sharp blow or two from a hammer
may be sufficient to reduce the strength
of the residual field. If the strength of
the field is too strong and the hammer
blows are not sufficient to destroy the
residual field, more complicated means
will have to be employed. If an AC
power supply is available, it can be
used to reduce the residual magnetic
field. If a DC power supply is available, it can be used, but the technique
required is more involved.
The strength of the magnetic field
is most intense when the magnetizing
current is flowing through a conductor.
The strength of the residual magnetic
field is greatly reduced when the magnetizing current stops flowing and the
magnetic field collapses. We use that
principle to our advantage to demagnetize the pipe.
We reduce the residual magnetic
field in the pipe in a series of steps.
The strength of the induced magnetic
field must be greater than the residual
field strength of the pipe. My recom-

mendation is to wrap the welding cable


around the pipe 12 to 15 times. Briefly
energize the coils with the maximum
current available from the AC power
supply. Deenergize the coil and reduce
the current by 10 to 15 A and reenergize the coil briefly. Deenergize the
coil and reduce the current another 10
to 15 A. Repeat the process until the
power supply is at the minimum current setting. Always reduce the current
while the system is deenergized. Once
the power supply is at its lowest current setting, start removing one wrap of
welding cable and reenergize the coil
and deenergize the coil. Remove another wrap of welding cable and reenergize and deenergize. Repeat the sequence until there are no more wraps
of welding cable around the pipe.
The same process can be used if a
DC power supply is available. There is
one complication when using a DC power supply, the polarity must be reversed
each time the coils are deenergized. The
sketch shows how the pipe can be set up
for demagnetizing Fig. 1.
When done properly, the residual
magnetic field left in the pipe should
be negligible.

Inspection Trends encourages


question and answer submissions.
Please mail to the editor
(mjohnsen@aws.org).
KENNETH ERICKSONis manager of
quality at National Inspection & Consultants, Inc., Ft. Myers, Fla. He is an
AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector,
an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in four methods, and provides expert
witness review and analysis for legal
considerations.
ALBERT J. MOORE JR. is vice
president, Marion Testing & Inspection,
Canton, Conn. He is an AWS Senior
Certified Welding Inspector and an
ASNT ACCP NDT Level III. He is also a
member of the AWS Certification
Committee and the Committee on
Methods of Inspection of Welds.

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

34

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Mark Your Calendar


Note: A diamond () denotes an AWS-sponsored event.

NDT 2015 and Materials Testing 2015. September 810. The International Centre, Telford, UK. Contact British Institute of NonDestructive Testing, +44 (0)1604 89 3811, www.bindt.org, or
info@bindt.org.

25th ASNT Research Symposium. April 1114, 2016. Astor


Crowne Plaza New Orleans, New Orleans, La. Contact American
Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
www.asnt.org.

International Symposium Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE). September 1517. Technical University Berlin,
Peter Behrens Halle, Berlin, Germany. Contact BAM Federal Institute
for Materials Research and Testing, www.ndtce2015.net/home.

19th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing.


June 1317, 2016. International Congress Centre, Munich, Germany. Contact German Society for Non-Destructive Testing, 49 30
67807-120; e-mail: conference@wcndt2016.com, or www.wcndt2016.com.

ASNT Annual Conference 2015. October 2629. Salt Palace Convention Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Contact American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or www.asnt.org.

Educational Opportunities

Ill. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, or


www.fabtechexpo.com.

GE Inspection Academy Courses. Online e-courses, on-site


classes, and week-long classroom programs in the major industrial
evaluation techniques. For information, visit www.geinspectionacademy.com.

World Conference on Acoustic Emission. November 1013.


Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Contact International Society on Acoustic Emission, Conference
Secretariat Dr. Zhanwen Wu, wcae2015@163.com or +86-1059068313.

NDE Classes. Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill.,


offers NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, Radiation Safety, and Eddy
Current, as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection. For more
information, contact (708) 974-5735; wdcs@morainevalley.edu;
morainevalley.edu/NDE.

FABTECH 2015. November 912. McCormick Place, Chicago,

EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills


training in visual examination, ultrasonic examination, ASME Section
XI, UT operator training, etc. Contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 5476174, e-mail: sstogner@epri.com.
Nondestructive Examination Courses. A course schedule is available
from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357; (860) 7398950; FAX (860) 739-6732.
Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. One- and twoweek courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and
Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact Real Educational Services, Inc.;
(800) 489-2890; info@realeducational.com.
CWI/CWE Course and Exam. A ten-day program presented in Troy,
Ohio. Contact Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, (800) 3329448; www.welding.org; hiwt@welding.org.
T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses. CWI preparation, NDE courses, including ultrasonic thickness testing and advanced phased array. On-site
training available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., 193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA
92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX (714) 255-1580; ndtguru@aol.com;
www.testndt.com.
NDE Training. NDE training at the companys St. Louis-area facility
or on-site. Level III services available. For a schedule of upcoming
courses, contact Quality Testing Services, Inc., 2305 Millpark Dr.,
Maryland Heights, MO 63043; (888) 770-0103; training@qualitytesting.net; www.qualitytesting.net.
CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training
Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held yearround in Allentown, Pa., and at customers facilities. Contact: Welder
Training & Testing Institute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884,
info@wtti.edu, or visit www.wtti.edu.
For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

36

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Certification Schedule
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
Location
Baton Rouge, LA
Chicago, IL
Las Vegas, NV
Philadelphia, PA
Seattle, WA
Rochester, NY
Mobile, AL
Portland, ME
Charlotte, NC
San Diego, CA
Minneapolis, MN
San Antonio, TX
Salt Lake City, UT
Anchorage, AK
Miami, FL
Idaho Falls, ID
St. Louis, MO
Houston, TX
New Orleans, LA
Fargo, ND
Portland, OR
Pittsburgh, PA
Anchorage, AK
Miami, FL
Long Beach, CA
Indianapolis, IN
Tulsa, OK
Nashville, TN
Shreveport, LA
S. Plainfield, NJ
Beaumont, TX
Atlanta, GA
Des Moines, IA
Detroit, MI
Roanoke, VA
Corpus Christi, TX
Cleveland, OH
Spokane, WA
Sacramento, WA
Miami, FL
Annapolis, MD
Dallas, TX
Chicago, IL
St. Louis, MO
Los Angeles, CA
Orlando, FL
Reno, NV
Houston, TX
Miami, FL
Corpus Christi, TX

Seminar Dates
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Exam only
Aug. 914
Aug. 914
Aug. 914
Aug. 1621
Aug. 1621
Aug. 1621
Aug. 1621
Exam only
Sept. 1318
Sept. 1318
Sept. 1318
Sept. 1318
Sept. 27Oct. 2
Sept. 27Oct. 2
Sept. 27Oct. 2
Sept. 27Oct. 2
Sept. 27Oct. 2
Exam only
Oct. 49
Oct. 49
Oct. 49
Oct. 49
Oct. 1116
Oct. 1116
Oct. 1116
Oct. 1823
Oct. 1823
Oct. 1823
Oct. 1823
Exam only
Oct. 2530
Oct. 2530
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Exam only
Exam only
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Exam only
Exam only

Exam Date
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 15
Aug. 15
Aug. 15
Aug. 22
Aug. 22
Aug. 22
Aug. 22
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Oct. 3
Oct. 3
Oct. 3
Oct. 3
Oct. 4
Oct. 8
Oct. 10
Oct. 10
Oct. 10
Oct. 10
Oct. 17
Oct. 17
Oct. 17
Oct. 24
Oct. 24
Oct. 24
Oct. 24
Oct. 31
Oct. 31
Oct. 31
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 17
Dec. 19

9-Year Recertification Seminar for


CWI/SCWI
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken
at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Location
Orlando, FL
Denver, CO
Dallas, TX
Seattle, WA
New Orleans, LA
Miami, FL

Seminar Dates
Aug. 1621
Sept. 1318
Oct. 49
Oct. 1823
Oct. 2530
Dec. 611

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)


Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Welding Sales Representative


(CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)


CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Location
Cleveland, OH
Norfolk, VA

Seminar Dates
Sept. 28Oct. 2
Oct. 1216

Exam Date
Oct. 3
Oct. 17

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)


The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Location
Dallas, TX
Chicago, IL
Pittsburgh, PA
Miami, FL

Seminar Dates
Aug. 1721
Sept. 28Oct. 2
Oct. 1216
Exam Only

Exam Date
Aug. 22
Oct. 3
Oct. 17
Nov. 14

Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)


ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam.
Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online,
visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.

38

Inspection Trends / August 2015

NDT Red Hot Product Listings


Why Wait for Weeks
When You Can Have It
In days!
We specialize in eddy current
probes, ultrasonic transducers,
adapters, cables, and reference
standards.
UT wedges for both regular and
phase arrays.
We repair and calibrate all brand
of Eddy Current and Ultrasound
Flaw Detectors.

Carestream HPX-PRO

E-Course Highlights Weld Discontinuities and Defects

Award-Winning Portable
Digital NDT

Concentrating on identifying and defining


various types of discontinuities and defects
to determine the common causes of those
welding problems, this e-course covers:
Weld inspector responsibilities related to
discontinuities and defects Identification
and definition of weld discontinuities and
defects Common causes of discontinuities related to shape, size
and contour Common causes of discontinuities related to internal
inconsistencies and weld metal irregularities Common causes of
discontinuities related to weld and base metal properties. This course
is intended to assist anyone involved in arc welding inspection, quality
control, engineering, or supervision.
At your own pace from your computer, take the Discontinuities and
Defects E-Course today.
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
400 Trade Square East, Troy, OH 45373
(800) 332-9448 Fax (937) 332-9550
www.welding.org

For the second time Carestream NDT


has been recognized by Frost &
Sullivan for an outstanding product.
The HPX-PRO portable CR system
was awarded the New Product Innovation Award. The HPX-PRO
CR system is built for image quality, improved productivity and
extreme portability. Its quick to deploy and rapidly produces images
with a new single-pass scan/erase protocol. The INDUSTREX software allows for fast set-up and imaging, with batch mode capability
to keep up with extreme process conditions like pipeline imaging.

See Us at FABTECH Booth S5667

Paul Biver
(585) 627-8051
www.carestream.com

40

Inspection Trends / August 2015

See Us at FABTECH Booth N9027

Andrew NDT Engineering, Corp.


Contact: Cuong Le
(408) 710-0342
cuongle@andrewndt.com
www.andrewndt.com

NDT Red Hot Product Listings

Booth #
N28044
20
15

Weld-i Zoom HD Weld Monitoring Camera System


The Weld-i Zoom Full HD 3G-SDI Camera captures real-time, detailed color
video images of your welding process with
10x magnified views of the weld. Post
weld inspections are performed quickly
and keep the operator at a safe,
standoff distance.
InterTest, Inc.
303 Route 94
Columbia, NJ 07832
Office: (908) 496-8008
weld@intertest.com
www.intertest.com

Reduces time for periodic


inspections/tests.
Installs on both smooth and
corrugated jacketing.
Patented design seals and protects
against corrosion under theinsulation (CUI),
chemical, and UV exposure of the elastomer
sleeve.

info@ndtseals.com 800-261-6261

Booth #
N28044
20
15

Weld-i 1000 Weld Monitoring Camera System


BEST SELLER! The iShot Weld-i 1000 camera system saves resources and time by verifying the quality of automated welds in real time. This
inspection system combines a specially housed, high-resolution color
CCD camera with air or water cooling capabilities, allowing it to withstand
the punishing environments of automated welding. The camera head is
compact, measuring 1 inch in outer diameter and 3 inches in length.
The CCU allows control of focus and iris for the ever-changing weld
process conditions.

Saint-Gobain
Saint-Gobain is a world class
manufacturer of equipment and
consumables for the thermal spray
coatings industry. Our expansive
equipment experience dates back to
1920 with the development of the
first oxyacteylene flame wire gun followed by Rokide Spray
Systems, Plasma Spray Systems, PTA and many innovative materials.
We offer a wide range of consumables in the form of powder, flexible
cords, Rokide rods and wire for use in many different applications
and industries. We supply our own raw materials, and this enables us
to develop a product to meet your exact needs.

InterTest, Inc.

303 Route 94
Columbia, NJ 07832
USA Office: (908) 496-8008
weld@intertest.com
www.intertest.com

1 New Bond Street,


Worcester, MA 01615
(800) 243-0028 (508) 795-2380
coatingsolutions@saint-gobain.com
www.coatingsolutions.saint-gobain.com

(800) 940-1471 (281) 424-3200


equip@iris9000.com www.iris-inspection.com

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

41

Advertiser Logo Page

42

Inspection Trends / August 2015

Just the Facts


continued from page 30

1 in. There are inspectors who will enforce 150F preheat/interpass temperature on material to in. in thickness due to the 150F PQR preheat/interpass temperature. by this logic, we
could also assume that it would be appropriate to use 150F for material
that is more than 1 in. thick. Clearly
this is not a high enough preheat/interpass temperature for, say, a 3-in.thick highly restrained weldment of
the same material.
Preheat/interpass temperatures
need to be considered as they relate
to the production welding that will be
performed. Table 3.2 should in most
cases be considered the minimum
preheat/interpass value to be used in
production. There are a number of
welding situations where these minimum values will not be sufficient and
the values will need to be pushed
higher. There are relatively few situations where the weld will benefit
from lower preheat/interpass values.

In addition, CWIs need not enforce


relatively high preheat/interpass values in situations where they are not
warranted or needed. The preheat/ interpass values developed in the PQR
serve to validate the temperatures
prescribed in Table 3.2 for the materials and thickness they represent for
most situations.

JIM MERRILL, PE
(Jim.Merrill@amec.com), is senior
principal engineer with AMEC Foster
Wheeler, Environment & Infrastructure, San Diego, Calif. He is an AWS
Certified Welding Inspector, a registered metallurgical engineer, and a
member of the AWS D1 Structural
Welding Committee, D1Q Subcommittee on Steel Structures, D1I Subcommittee on Reinforcing Steel, and D1
Task Group 4 on Inspection.

Print and Product


Showcase
continued from page 15

CMOS X-Ray Detector Delivers High Resolution


The Rad-icon 2022 CMOS X-ray
detector features 2064 x 2236 pixel
resolution, an active area of 20.4 x
22.1 cm, and 99-micron pixel size.
The detectors deliver real-time imaging of up to 30 frames/s, high sensitivity, and high resolution in a large-area
device that is fully integrated and
available with a fast Gigabit ethernet
or Camera Link interface. It is suitable
for industrial X-ray inspection, scientific imaging, and nondestructive examination including weld inspection,
wire bond, and printed circuit board
inspection, computed tomography, and
other industrial imaging applications.
It offers an 8-in. by 9-in. format.
Teledyne DALSA
www.teledynedalsa.com

CAN WE TALK?
The Inspection Trends staff encourages an exchange of ideas with you, our readers. If youd like to ask a question,
share an idea, or voice an opinion, you can call, write, e-mail or fax. Staff e-mail addresses are listed below, along with
a guide to help you interact with the right person.
Publisher
Andrew Cullison
cullison@aws.org, Extension 249

Peer Review Coordinator


Sonia Aleman
saleman@aws.org

Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen
mjohnsen@aws.org, Extension 238

Managing Editor
Zaida Chavez
zaida@aws.org, Extension 265
Design and Production

Associate Editor
Kristin Campbell
kcampbell@aws.org, Extension 257

Senior Production Coordinator


Brenda Flores
bflores@aws.org, Extension 330
Production

Assitant Editor
Annik Babinski
ababinski@aws.org, Extension 256

Senior Advertising Executive


Annette Delagrange
delagrange@aws.org, Extension 332
Advertising Sales

Assitant Editor
Melissa Gomez
mgomez@aws.org, Extension 275

Senior Advertising Executive


Sandra Jorgensen
sjorgensen@aws.org, Extension 254
Advertising Sales

Manager of Advertising Sales


Operation
Lea Paneca
Lea@aws.org, Extension 220
Promotion and Advertising
Senior Advertising Production
Manager
Frank Wilson
fwilson@aws.org, Extension 465
Advertising Production
Welding Journal Dept.
8669 NW 36th St. #130
Miami, FL 33166
(800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-7404

Inspection Trends / Summer 2015

43

Advertiser Index
American Society for Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
www.asnt.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 222-2768

J. P. Nissen Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC


www.nissenmarkers.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(215) 886-2025

Atlas Evaluation & Inspection Services/Inst. of Nondestructive Testing . . .8


www.indt.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(908) 463-0041

NDT Seals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8


www.ndtseals.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 261-6261

AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13, 33, 35, 39


www.aws.org/education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 455

Olympus NDT, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC


www.olympus-ims.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 419-3900

AWS Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31


www.aws.org/foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 250

OCI-Orange County Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36


www.orangecountyinspections.webs.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(714) 345-2770

AWS Member Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16, 37


www.aws.org/membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 480

SciAps, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC


www.sciaps.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(339) 927-9455

AWS Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29


www.aws.org/publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353

Triangle Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15


www.trieng.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 878-1500

AWS Technical Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14


www.aws.org/technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 340

United Technical, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


www.unitedtechllc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(249) 667-9185

FABTECH 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
www.fabtechexpo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 297

Welder Training & Testing Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


www.wttiweldtestcoupons.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 223-9884

FlawTech, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


www.flawtech.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(704) 795-4401

NDT Red Hot Product Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40, 41


Inspection Trends Advertiser Logos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

Gradient Lens Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21


www.gradientlens.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 536-0790
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

IFC = Inside Front Cover


IBC = Inside Back Cover
OBC = Outside Back Cover

ISTUC/Instituto de Soldadura y Tecnologias de Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34


www.istuc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(52) - 442-2201486 & 2201699

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Sandra Jorgensen at ext. 254
sjorgensen@aws.org
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adelagrange@aws.org
44

Inspection Trends / August 2015

AWS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION


Join or Renew:

Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647

Online: www.aws.org/membership

CONTACT INFORMATION
q New Member q Renewal
q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr.

Please print Duplicate this page as needed

Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate: _____________________________ E-Mail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone (

)__________________________ Secondary Phone (

)______________________

Were you ever an AWS Member? q YES q NO If YES, give year________ and Member #:____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Address:________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
City:_____________________________________State/Province:__________________________________
Zip/PostalCode:_____________________Country:______________________________________________
Who pays your dues?: q Company q Self-paid Sex: q Male q Female
Education level: q High school diploma q Associates q Bachelors q Masters q Doctoral
q Check here if you learned of the Society through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members # (if known):________
q Check here if you would prefer not to receive email updates on AWS programs, new Member benefits, savings opportunities and events.

INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP
Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
q AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (One Year)......................................................................................................$86

AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (Two Years) SAVE $25 New Members Only....................................$147
q New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS ONLY:


A.) OPTIONAL Book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling)
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35
q Individual Members outside the U.S (includes International shipping)...........................................................................$85

ONLY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit https://app.aws.org/membership/books
q Jeffersons Welding Encyc.(CD-ROM only) q Design & Planning Manual for Cost-Effective Welding q Welding Metallurgy q Welding Inspection Handbook
Welding Handbook Selections: q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 5) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
Pocket Handbook Selections: q PHB-1 (Arc Welding Steel) q PHB-2 (Visual Inspection) q PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)

B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal Hard Copy (for Members outside North America)
q Individual Members outside North America (note: digital delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $16.80 for Welding Journal subscription and $4.00 for the AWS Foundation.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP
Please choose your Student Membership option below.
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$15
Digital delivery of Welding Journal magazine is standard for all Student Members.

q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$35


Includes one-year Welding Journal hard copy subscription. Option available only to students in U.S., Canada & Mexico.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT......................................................................................$_____________

PAYMENT INFORMATION
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card.
q Check q Money Order q AMEX

q Diners Club q MasterCard

q Visa

q Discover

q Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy) ________ / ________


Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
OFFICE USE ONLY Check #:_______________________________ Account #____________________________________
Source Code: IT
Date:_________________________________ Amount:_____________________________________
REV. 11/14

8669 NW 36 St, # 130


Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org
Type of Business (Check ONE only)
A
q Contract construction
B
q Chemicals & allied products
C
q Petroleum & coal industries
D
q Primary metal industries
E
q Fabricated metal products
F
q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
G
q Electrical equip., supplies, electrodes
H
q Transportation equip. air, aerospace
I
q Transportation equip. automotive
J
q Transportation equip. boats, ships
K
q Transportation equip. railroad
L
q Utilities
M
q Welding distributors & retail trade
N
q Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
O
q Educational Services (univ., libraries, schools)
P
q Engineering & architectural services (incl. assns.)
Q
q Misc. business services (incl. commercial labs)
R
q Government (federal, state, local)
S
q Other
Job Classification (Check ONE only)
01
q President, owner, partner, officer
02
q Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
03
q Sales
04
q Purchasing
05
q Engineer welding
20
q Engineer design
21
q Engineer manufacturing
06
q Engineer other
10
q Architect designer
12
q Metallurgist
13
q Research & development
22
q Quality control
07
q Inspector, tester
08
q Supervisor, foreman
14
q Technician
09
q Welder, welding or cutting operator
11
q Consultant
15
q Educator
17
q Librarian
16
q Student
18
q Customer Service
19
q Other
Technical Interests (Check all that apply)
A
q Ferrous metals
B
q Aluminum
C
q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
D
q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
E
q Ceramics
F
q High energy beam processes
G
q Arc welding
H
q Brazing and soldering
I
q Resistance welding
J
q Thermal spray
K
q Cutting
L
q NDT
M
q Safety and health
N
q Bending and shearing
O
q Roll forming
P
q Stamping and punching
Q
q Aerospace
R
q Automotive
S
q Machinery
T
q Marine
U
q Piping and tubing
V
q Pressure vessels and tanks
W
q Sheet metal
X
q Structures
Y
q Other
Z
q Automation
1
q Robotics
2
q Computerization of Welding

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