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Instrumentation Engineering

Transducer, Mech. Measur. and Indus. Instru.

Copyright By NODIA & COMPANY

Information contained in this book has been obtained by authors, from sources believes to be reliable. However,

neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its

authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This book

is published with the understanding that Nodia and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting

to render engineering or other professional services.

B-8, Dhanshree Tower Ist, Central Spine, Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur 302039

Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150

www.nodia.co.in

email : enquiry@nodia.co.in

TRANSDUCER, MECH. MEASUR. AND INDUS. INSTRU.

YEAR 2012

Q. 1

ONE MARK

A capacitive motion transducer circuit is shown. The gap d between the parallel

plates of the capacitor is varied as d ^ t h = 10-3 61 + 0.1 sin ^1000pt h@ m . If the value

of the capacitance is 2 pF at t = 0 ms , the output voltage V0 at t = 2 ms is

(A) p mV

2

(B) p mV

(C) 2p mV

.

a

i

d

o

(D) 4p mV

Q. 2

n

i

.

o

c

.n

w

A strain gauge is attached on a cantilever beam shown. If the base of the cantilever

vibrates according to the equation x ^ t h = sin w1 t + sin w2 t , where 2 rad/s < w1 ,

w2 < 3 rad/s , then the output of the strain gauge is proportional to

(A) x

(B) dx

dt

2

(C) d x2

dt

d ^x - y h

(D)

dt

YEAR 2012

Q. 3

TWO MARKS

A dynamometer arm makes contact with the piezoelectric load cell as shown. The

g -constant of the piezoelectric material is 50 # 10-3 Vm/N and the surface area

of the load cell is 4 cm2 . If a torque t = 20 Nm is applied to the dynamometer,

the output voltage V0 of the load cell is

Q. 4

Q. 5

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

(A) 4 V

(B) 5 V

(C) 10 V

(D) 16 V

emptied through a horizontal pipe of diameter 0.05 m. A pitot-static tube is

placed inside the pipe facing the flow. At the time when the difference between

the stagnation and static pressures measured by the pitot-static tubes is 10 kPa,

the rate of reduction in water level in the drum is,

1

1

(A)

(B)

ms-1

ms-1

200 5

75 10

1

1 ms-1

(C)

(D)

ms-1

50 10

40 5

n

i

.

o

c

d

o

.

a

i

If the volume of the liquid filled is V , the natural frequency of oscillations in the

liquid level about its mean position, due to small perturbation, is

gV

g

(A) D

(B) 2 2

V

D2

p

2 2p

(C)

gD

2 p V 1/3

1

.n

w

(D) 1

p

g

D

force F (in Newton), as a function of distance x from its base, is given by

y ^x h = 0.001Fx2 a1 - x k m . The angular deformation q at the end of the cantilever

3

is measured by reflecting laser beam off a mirror M as shown in the figure.

Q. 6

The translation S of the spot of laser light on the photodetector when a force of

F = 1 N is applied to the cantilever is

(A) 1 mm

(B) 3 mm

(C) 6 mm

(D) 12 mm

Q. 7

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

2

x = 1 m on the cantilever to measure the effect of time varying forces, the ratio

4

of their output is

(A) 12/7

(B) 40/11

(C) 176/23

(D) 112/15

YEAR 2011

Q. 8

ONE MARK

(A) The balancing style during walk of the patient

(B) the auditory activity of the patient

(C) the visual activity of the patient

(D) the cardiac activity of the patient

Q. 9

Q. 10

Q. 11

2 dTi + Ti - Ta = 0 , where Ti and Ta are the indicated and ambient temperatures,

dt

respectively, both in cC , and time is in second. The - 3 dB cut-off frequency in

the frequency response of the thermometer is

(A) 1 Hz

(B) 1 Hz

2

4p

(C) 1 Hz

(D) 2p Hz

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

at qcC is given by E = 38.74q + 3.3 # 10-2 q2 + 2.07 # 10-4 q3 - 2.2 # 10-6 q4 +

higher order terms, assuming the cold junction compensation. The sensitivity of

thermocouple at 100cC is approximately

(A) 45.34 mVcC

(B) 42.75 mV/cC

(C) 38.74 mV/cC

(D) 0.06 mV/cC

.

w

temperature transmitter has a range of 0-500cC and provides 4-20 mA current

output. The measured temperature and the output current have a straight line

relationship with positive slope. The temperature is determined form the voltage

measured across a resistance of 500 W in the current loop. If the voltage measured

across the resistance is 4 V, the temperature of the furnace is

(A) 100cC

(B) 125cC

(C) 150cC

(D) 200cC

Q. 12

(A) Richter scale

(B) acceleration due to gravity

(C) speed of sound

(D) atmospheric pressure

Q. 13

to a 3 kHz sinusoidal source and ideal semiconductor diode bridge-based phase

sensitive demodulator circuit. The core of the LVDT remains static at 15 mm

above the ideal null position. The frequency of the voltage observed at the input

of the low-pass filter is

(A) 1 kHz

(B) 1.5 kHz

(C) 3 kHz

(D) 6 kHz

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2011

Q. 14

TWO MARKS

are given :

Diameter of the orifice

= 0.2 mm ,

= 0.8 mm ,

Supply pressure

= 1.4 # 102 kPa (gauge),

Ambient pressure

= 0 (gauge).

The maximum value of the sensitivity is

(A) 4.0 MPa/mm

(B) 5.6 MPa/mm

(C) 6.4 MPa/mm

(D) 7.3 MPa/mm

Q. 15

Q. 16

Q. 17

C 0 = 0.01 mF ) is connected in two adjacent arms of an ac bridge in such a way

that the output voltage of the bridge is independent of the frequency of the

supply voltage. Supply to the bridge is 1 V at 1 kHz, and two equal resistance

(R = 3.9 kW) are placed in the other two arms of the bridge. The bridge sensitivity

is

(A) 0.001 mV/pF

(B) 0.05 mV/pF

(C) 0.1 mV/pF

(D) 0.5 mV/pF

n

i

.

o

c

d

o

.

a

i

magnet and coil assembly is given by Y (q) = 3 + cos (5q) mWb , where q is the

angular position (in radian). The amplitude and frequency of the output voltage,

signal, respectively, are

(A) 4 mV and 45.8 Hz

(B) 30.2 mV and 4.8 Hz

(C) 30.2 mV and 30.2 Hz

(D) 288 mV and 45.8 Hz

.n

w

2 (dTi /dt) + Ti - Ta = 0 , where Ti and Ta are the indicated and ambient

temperatures, respectively, both in cC , and times is in seconds. The - 3 dB cutoff frequency in the frequency response of the thermometer is

(A) 1 Hz

(B) 1 Hz

2

4p

(C) 1 Hz

(D) 2pHz

YEAR 2010

Q. 18

Poissons ratio for a metal is 0.35 Neglecting piezo-resistance effect, the gage

factor of a strain gage made of this metal is

(A) 0.65

(B) 1

(C) 1.35

Q. 19

ONE MARK

(D) 1.70

The diameters of 10000 ball bearings were measured. The mean diameter and

standard deviation were found to be 10 mm and 0.05 mm respectively. Assuming

Gaussian distribution of measurements, it can be expected that the number of

measurements, it can be expected that the number of measurements more than

10.15 mm will be

(A) 230

(B) 115

(C) 15

(D) 2

Q. 20

Q. 21

Q. 22

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

P.

Radiation Pyrometer

Q.

Dall tube

R.

Pirani gauge

Flow measurement

S.

Gyroscope

Temperature measurement

maximum displacement of 10 mm from

of the seismic mass is

(A) 3947.84 m/s2

(C) 314.15 m/s2

Q. 24

(D) 100.00 m/s2

to an amplifier. The minimum input resistance of the amplifier so that the error

in recording the transducer output does not exceed 2% is

(A) 10 kW

(B) 49 kW

(C) 490 kW

(D) 1.2 MW

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

YEAR 2010

Q. 23

its mean position. The peak acceleration

TWO MARKS

The velocity v (in m/s) of a moving mass, starting from rest, is given as dv = v + t .

dt

Using Euler forward difference method (also known as Cauchy-Euler method)

with a step size of 0.1 s , the velocity at 0.2 s evaluates to

(A) 0.01 m/s

(B) 0.1 m/s

(C) 0.2 m/s

(D) 1 m/s

d

o

n

.

w

figure. Relevant thermocouple emf data (in mV) is given below. The cold junction

is kept at 0cC . The temperature is 30cC in the other parts of the system. The

emf V0 is measured to be 26.74 mV. The temperature of the hot liquid is

Temperature

Emf of Chromel-Constantan

Emf of Copper-Constantan

10cC

0.591

0.391

20cC

1.192

0.789

30cC

1.801

1.196

370cC

26.549

19.027

27.345

19.638

380cC

(A) 370.0cC

(C) 376.6cC

(B) 372.4cC

(D) 380.0cC

Q. 25

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

A differential pressure transmitter is used to measure the flow rate in a pipe. Due

to aging, the sensitivity of the pressure transmitter is reduced by 5%. All other

aspects of the flow meter remaining constant, change in the sensitivity of the flow

measurement is

(A) 10.0%

(B) 5.0%

(C) 2.5%

(D) 2.2%

YEAR 2009

Q. 26

ONE MARK

(A) 3

(B) 2.7

(C) 2.4

YEAR 2009

Q. 27

.

a

i

TWO MARKS

A stroboscopic system is used for measuring the speed for a rotating shaft. The

shaft has on target mark on it. The maximum strobe rate at which synchronism is

achieved is r1 flashes per minute. The next lower flash rate at which synchronism

is achieved is r2 flashes per minute. The speed of the shaft in rpm is

(B) r1 r2

(A) r1 r2

r1 - r2

r1 + r2

(C)

Q. 28

n

i

.

o

c

(D) 2.1

r 22

r1 - r2

d

o

.n

w

(D)

r 12

r1 + r2

The fig. Shows the cross-sectional diagram of an orifice flow meter with an orifice

radius R. Point a is 30 R upstream while points b and c are 0.8 R and 30 R

downstream from the orifice respectively. The pressures at points a, b and c are

Pa, Pb and Pc respectively. Then

(B) Pb > Pc > Pa

(C) Pa > Pb > Pc

(D) Pa > Pc > Pb

Q. 29

The values of the material constant b for thermistors P and Q are 4000 K and

3000 K, respectively. The resistance of each thermistor at 298 K is 2 kW. At 373

K the ratio of thermistor P to that of thermistor Q will be closest to

(A) 1.33

(B) 1.00

(C) 0.75

(D) 0.50

Q. 30

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Four strain gauges are fixed on a cylindrical shaft to measure tourque, as shown

in the figure.

The figure shows an arrangement for measuring small angular displacements in a

vertical plane. A non-conducting tube of length 2l and rectangular cross section

(width W, height d) is bent along an arc of a circle with radius R>>d, centered

at P. Four electrode plates of length l and width W are placed to form two curved

parallel plate capacitors C1 and C2 with a negligible gap between them. The tube

contains water with an air bubble of rectangular cross section (width W, height

d) and length 1/4 the capacitors are connected in a bridge circuit as shown in the

figure, where the bridge has ac excitation Vi . Angular displacement Dq occurs

about the point P.

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

Q. 31

Q. 32

.

w

d

o

n

The range of angular displacement (in radians) this system can measure is

(A) - I to + I

(B) - I to + I

8R

8R

4R

4R

(C) - 3I to + I

(D) - I to + I

4R

4R

R

R

V0 /Vi

The sensitivity

is

Dq

(A) inversely proportional to R and I

(B) inversely proportional to R and directly proportional to I

(C) directly proportional to R and I

(D) directly proportional to R and inversely proportional to I

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2008

Q. 33

ONE MARK

(A) a charge amplifier

(B) a differential amplifier

(C) an instrumentation amplifier

Q. 34

(A) linearly increase with temperature

(B) exponentially increase with temperature

(C) linearly decrease with temperature

(D) exponentially decrease with temperature

YEAR 2008

TWO MARKS

n

i

.

o

c

Q. 35

The speed of a gear having 60 teeth is measured using a proximity sensor. The

output of the proximity sensor is fed to a counter with a gating of 1s. The counter

indicates a value of 120. The speed at which the gear is rotating is

(A) 60 rpm

(B) 120 rpm

(C) 600 rpm

(D) 1200 rpm

Q. 36

is subjected to a constant acceleration of 5g .The steady state output of the

transducer will be

(A) 0 V

(B) 100 mV

d

o

.n

w

(C) 0.5 V

Q. 37

(D) 5 V

speciman as shown. The characteristic is tabulated below. The reference junction

is at 2cC . The meter reads 48 mV . The correct temperature of the specimen is

Temperature

(cC)

(mV)

(A) 13cC

(C) 48cC

Output

Q. 38

.

a

i

10

20

30

40

50 60

70

80

90

35

45

55

65

75

85 95

105

115

125

(B) 46cC

(D) 50cC

A strain gauge has a nominal resistance of 600 W and a gauge factor of 2.5 . The

strain gauge is connected in a dc bridge with other resistance of 600 W each. The

bridge is excited by a 4 V battery. If the strain gauge is subjected to a strain of

100 mm/m , the magnitude of the bridge output will be

(A) 0 V

(B) 250 mV

(C) 500 mV

(D) 750 mV

Q. 39

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

The torque in a rotating shaft is measured using strain gauges. The strain gauges

must be positioned on the shaft such that the axes of the strain gauges are at

(A) 0c with respect to the axis of the shaft

(B) 30c with respect to the axis of the shaft

(C) 45c with respect to the axis of the shaft

(D) 90c with respect to the axis of the shaft

Q. 40

(A) the transducer is shielded and the shield is kept at ground potential

(B) a guard ring is provided and it is kept at ground potential

(C) the transducer is shielded and the shield is kept at the same potential as

the moving plate

(D) a guard ring is provided and it is kept at the same potential as the moving

plate

Q. 41

tissue before it encounters and interface with a layer tissue at normal incidence.

The amplitude attenuation factors of fat and liver are 0.075 Npcm- 1 /MHz and

0.1Npcm- 1 / MHz respectively. The amplitude reflectivity coefficient of fat-liver

interface is 0.1. Taking both attenuation and reflection losses into a account, the

amplitude loss in (in dB) of echo pulse when it returns to the transducers is

(A) 0.74

(B) - 2.6

(C) - 6

(D) - 33

.

a

i

YEAR 2007

Q. 42

in

.

o

c

d

o

n

.

w

ONE MARK

Match the essential amplifier characteristics with the sensing applications given

below :

Amplifier Characteristics

P.

Sensing Applications

current and high input impedance.

and very high input impedance.

Q. 43

Wheatstone bridge.

Glass electrode pH sensor.

CMRR.

(A) P-L, Q-M, R-N

measurement of static force

(B) P-M, Q-N, R-L

cantilever subjected to a bending force F.

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Which configuration given the maximum change in resistance for this force ?

(A) P

(B) Q

(C) R

(D) All have equal change in resistance

Q. 44

(A) Potentiometric sensor

(B) Amperometric sensor

(C) Conductometric sensor

Q. 45

.

a

i

d

o

.n

w

n

i

.

o

c

introduced in different configurations as shown in the figures below :

(A) P and Q but not in R

(B) R only

(C) Q only

(D) P and R but not in Q

Q. 46

the beginning and the end of the washout are the same. Let T, V, and F denote

temperature, volume and molar fraction (of N2 ) respectively; subscripts S and L

denote the spirometer and the lung; and t1 and t2 the beginning time and the end

time of the experiment, respectively.

Then

F (t ) V (t )

(A) VL = TL = s 2 s 2 G

TS FL (t1) - FL (t2)

F (t ) V (t )

(B) VL = TL = L 2 S 2 G

TS FL (t1) - FL (t2)

(C) VL = FL (t1) VL (t2)

(D) VL = TS FS (t2) VS (t2)

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2007

TWO MARKS

Q. 47

Two sensors have measurement errors that are Gaussian distributed with zero

means and variance s12 and s22 , respectively. The two sensor measurements x1 and

x2 are combined to form the weighted average x = ax1 + (1 - a) x2, 0 # a # 1

. Assuming that the measurement errors of the sensors are uncorrelated, the

weighting factor a that yields the smallest error variance of x is

2

2

(B) 2 s1 2

(A) 2 s2 2

s1 + s2

s1 + s2

(C) s2

(D) 0.5

s1 + s2

Q. 48

area at to form a differential pressure gauge as shown in the figure below. When

p1 = p2 the common liquid level is denoted by A. When p1 > p2 , the liquid level

in the well is depressed to B, and the level in the tube rises by l along its length

such that the difference in the tube and well levels is hd .

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

(B) sin- 1 :hd + at D

(A) sin- 1 : 1 - a w D

aw

hd at

l

(C) sin- 1 :hd - at D

(D) sin- 1 :hd + a w D

aw

at

l

l

Q. 49

.

w

flow. When the measured static pressure difference p1 - p2 , between the inlet and

the throat is 30 kPa, the flow rate is found to be 50 liters per second. Assume that

the coefficient of discharge remains the same.

Q. 50

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

(A) 33.3

(B) 39.3

(C) 40.8

(D) 54.2

used to measure the temperature of a liquid in a both. The excess temperature of

the thermometer and the liquid over the ambient are q (t) and ql (t), respectively,

where t denotes the time. If ql (t) = kt , where k is a constant, the steady state

error, defined as lim [q (t) - ql (t)], is

t"3

(A) 3

(B) 0

(C) - k

Q. 51

(D) - kt

the volumetric flow rate and pressure drop per unit length are recorded. In a

second straight tube having twice the internal diameter of the first one, Fluid B

records the same pressure drop per unit length at the same volumetric flow rate.

Assuming fully developed flow conditions in the tubes, the ratio of the dynamic

viscosity of Fluid B to that of Fluid A is

(A) 16

(B) 32

.

a

i

(C) 64

Q. 52

n

i

.

o

c

(D) 128

operation is 0cC -150cC . The excitation voltage is 5 V and a series resistor of 1 kW

is connected to the thermistor

d

o

.n

w

(A) 4.0 mW

(B) 4.7 mW

(C) 5.4 mW

(D) 6.1 mW

Q. 53

electrode obeys the Nernst equation perfectly. The electronic voltmeter, with

which the potential is being measured, has an input impedance of 1011 W and a

gain of 100. If the pH of the analyte changes from 6.5 to 7.8, the change in voltage

observed on the voltmeter is

(A) less than 6.8 V

(B) between 6.8 V and 7.19 V

(C) Between 7.2 V and 7.49 V

(D) Greater than 7.49 V

Q. 54

process transfer relationship between the steady state heater power and chamber

temperature is assumed to be linear with a slope of 2 W/cC . The heater power is

the sum of the output of a proportional controller having a proportional band of

200% and a constant offset of 500 W . The temperature achieved for a set point

of 300cC is

(A) 260cC

(B) 60cC

(C) 275cC

(D) 150cC

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Blood flow through a straight segment of an artery is measured using a Doppler

flowmeter. The probe is oriented at an angle of 45 to the longitudinal axis of the

artery. It is known that Doppler shift is proportional to the velocity of the blood in the

direction of propagation of sound from the prob and the frequency generated from the

probe. The velocity of sound in blood is 1500 m/s and the maximum blood flow velocity

to be measured is 110 cm/s .

Q. 55

than 3 kHz . The maximum source frequency (probe output), to the nearest MHz,

should be

(A) 2 MHz

(B) 3 MHz

(C) 5 MHz

Q. 56

(D) 10 MHz

In above Q., If the piezoelectric crystal of the probe is made of quartz (Youngs

modulus Y = 80 # 109 N/m2 , r = 2.65 # 103 kg/m3 the maximum thickness of

the crystal required to resonate at the frequency determined above, to the nearest

mm, is

(A) 1 mm

(B) 2 mm

(C) 3 mm

(D) 4 mm

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

and an ADC shown in the figure below.

.

w

d

o

n

Note that the bridge supply and the analog reference input for the ADC are derived

from the same 10 V DC source.

Q. 57

The gain of the differential amplifier for utilization of the full range of the ADC

(which is ! 10 V ) is

(A) 10

(B) 20

(C) 30

(D) 40

Q. 58

measurement system

(A) decreases by 5%

(B) does not change

(C) increases by 5%

(D) increase by 200%

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2006

Q. 59

ONE MARK

Veena Contracta is the cross section where the flow area is a minimum for a

restriction type flowmeter. For an orifice meter, if d is the diameter of the orifice

opening, then the area of the vena contracta is approximately

2

2

(A) pd

(B) 0.99pd

4

4

2

(C) 0.8pd

4

Q. 60

2

(D) 0.6pd

4

A digital voltmeter (DVM) is used to measure the voltage under the condition

shown in the following figure.

n

i

.

o

c

Given that T1 = 300cC, T2 = 100cC and T3 = T4 = 20cC , the meter will indicate

a voltage of

(A) 11.0 mV

(D) 15.4 mV

(C) 16.5 mV

(D) 17.6 mV

Q. 61

.

a

i

d

o

.n

w

(A) Change in ionizing potential

(B) Change in thermal conductivity

(C) Deformation of elastic body

YEAR 2006

TWO MARKS

A capacitive type displacement transducer consist of two triangular plates, placed

side by side, with negligible gap in between them and a rectangular plate moving

laterally with an uniform air gap of 1mm between the fixed plates and the moving

plate. The schematic diagram is shown below with appropriate dimension.

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Q. 62

With the position of the moving plate shown in the figure above, the value of the

capacitance C1 and C2 thus formed are

(A) C 1 = 2.14 pF, C 2 = 1.29 pF

(B) C 1 = 14.17 pF, C 2 = 21.25 pF

(C) C 1 = 339 pF, C 2 = 212 pF

(D) C 1 = 18.16 nF, C 2 = 23.2 nF

Q. 63

in the following figure. Assuming ideal op amp, the output voltage under the

conditions mentioned above is

(A) 0.012 V

(C) 1.23 V

Q. 64

Q. 65

.

a

i

An accelerator has a seismic mass of 100 mg and natural frequency of 1 kHz , with

g the acceleration due to gravity, the static sensitivity of the accelerometer in

(nm/g) is

(B) 9.81 # nm/g

(A) 2.58 nm/g

2

(C) 7.28 # 10 nm/g

(D) 6.28 # nm/g

d

o

n

.

w

A glass plate is overcoated with a thin film as shown below. The reflectance of

the combination is monitored with a radiation of 600 nm wavelength. If ng and n f

are refractive indices of the glass plate and film material respectively with ng > n f

then reflectance reaches a minimum when the geometrical film thickness equals

(A) 600 nm

(B) 300 nm

(C) 150 nm

(D) 100 nm

YEAR 2005

Q. 66

in

.

o

c

(B) 0.354 V

(D) 2.541 V

ONE MARK

pressure of 105 Pa. The bulk modulus for aluminium is 68.6 GPa. The change in

the diameter of the sphere in microns, when placed in vaccum is

(A) 0.018

(B) 0.024

(C) 0.032

(D) 0.038

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Q. 67

given 10- 6 w2 , where w is the angular speed in rad/s, is transmitted to a spring

with the non-linear characteristic F = 16p2 x2 , where F is the applied force and x

is the spring compression in meters. The sensitivity of the device in mm.s is

(A) 1

(B) 1

p

2p

(C) 1

(D) 1

3p

4p

Q. 68

that of the effective float diameter and the tube taper is small. When the volume

flow rate of a fluid is Q1 , the float stands at a height of 70 mm from the inlet and

when the volume flow rate of the fluid is Q2 , the float moves to a height of 20 mm

from the inlet. The ratio of the flow rates Q1 /Q2 is

(A) 3.5

(B) 0.29

(C) 0.082

Q. 69

n

i

.

o

c

(D) 12.3

In a falling-ball viscometer, the ball attains terminal velocities of 0.01 m/s for oil

A and 0.002 m/s for oil B. Assuming the oils have the same density and oil A has

kinematic viscosity of 5 # 10- 3 m2 /s , the kinematic viscosity of oil B in m2 /s is

(A) 15 # 10- 3

(B) 20 # 10- 3

(C) 25 # 10- 3

(D) 30 # 10- 3

d

o

.

a

i

.n

w

Q. 70

boiling water at 100cC . It takes 30 seconds to reach 96.5cC . The time required

to reach a temperature of 98cC is

(A) 32.5 s

(B) 34.6 s

(C) 35.6 s

(D) 38.6 s

Q. 71

A control loop structure is shown in the figure with FC, FT, TC and TT denoting

Flow Controller, Flow Transmitter, Temperature Controller and Temperature

Transmitter respectively. This loop is an example of

(B) feed forward control

(C) split range control

(D) cascade control

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2005

TWO MARKS

Q. 72

specification of ! 1.0% of true or ! 0.3% of full scale, whichever is higher. The

sensitivity of the sensor is experimentally obtained by taking its readings at true

temperature 25cC and 75cC . The maximum error in sensitivity, expressed as

percentage of its ideal value is

(B) ! 0.21%

(A) ! 0.105%

(C) ! 1.05%

(D) ! 2.1%

Q. 73

cC . The barometer reading corrected for the standard temperature 0cC with b

denoting the volumetric expansion coefficient of mercury in 0cC- 1 is

h

(A)

(B) h (b + T)

1 + bT

(C) h (1 + bT)

Q. 74

(D) h (b - T)

Figure given below shows an ultrasound flowmeter with the transducers separated

by a distance L = 25 mm with the line joining the transducers making an angle 60c

with the direction of the flow. The transit time difference between upstream and

downstream measurements is 10 ns with the sound velocity in the medium being

1000 m/s. Assuming that the size of the transducers is very small as compared to

the diameter of the pipe, the flow velocity is

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

.

w

d

o

n

(C) 0.4 m/s

Q. 75

(B) 2 m/s

(D) 40 m/s

circuit, drawing lagging current. The power factor if one of the wattmeters reads

zero is

(A) 0.5

(B) 0.8

(C) 1.0

(D) 0

The temperature-emf characteristics of iron-constantan and copper-constantan

junctions, with the reference junctions at 0cC , are given by E1C = 5.3TmV and

ECC = 43TmV , over an appropriate temperature range, where T is in cC . It is

known that AD 590 is an IC temperature sensor with can drive a current of

(273 + T) mA at TcC into an appropriate load resistance.

Q. 76

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

temperature can vary between 100cC , the maximum error, expressed as a

percentage of the emf developed, due to ambient temperature variation in the

range 0cC , is

(A) 8.182

(B) 22.5

(C) 45

(D) 81.82

Q. 77

A thermocouple is made using a copper and an iron wire. Its measuring junction

is kept at a temperature of 100cC and the reference junction is kept at the

ambient temperature of 30cC . The emf developed would be

(A) 700 mV

(B) 1000 mV

(C) 3010 mV

(D) 5300 mV

Q. 78

temperature error for the iron-constantan thermocouple in the circuit shown in the

figure such that the output voltage V0 is proportional to the measuring junction

temperature Tm . The values of RL and E for exact compensation, assuming ideal

components, are

.

a

i

d

o

.n

w

n

i

.

o

c

(C) 5.3 kW 1.447 V

(D) 1 kW, 303 mV

A bonded metal strain gauge has the following specifications :

Gauge factor = 2.0

Unstrained resistance = 120 W at 0cC

Maximum operation temperature = 150cC

Temperature coefficient of resistance = (2 # 10- 5) cC- 1

Maximum tensile and compressive strain = 2 # 10- 2

Q. 79

expressed as the percentage of resistance change due to maximum tensile strain

only, assuming self-heating effects to be negligible,is

(A) 0.0625

(B) 0.625

(C) 6.26

(D) 7.5

Q. 80

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Two strain gauges, with the specifications given above are mounted on a structural

member in a push-pull configuration, connected in a bridge along with two

standard resistances, whose output is fed to an amplifier as shown in the figure.

The output voltage V0 per unit battery voltage, under maximum loading, is

(B) - 0.37V

(D) 0.4 V

(A) - 04V

(C) 0.37 V

Q. 81

Q. 82

Q. 83

of a macro-accelerometer by factor of 100. If the natural frequency of the macroaccelerometer is w when the natural frequency of the micro-accelerometer will be

(A) 100 w

(B) 10 w

(C) 0.1 w

(D) 0.01 w

in

.

o

c

.

a

i

design temperature = 10 V/MPa , zero drift = 0.01 V/cC , sensitivity drift

= 0.1 ^V/MPa/cC h. When the sensor is used in an ambient temperature 20cC

above the design temperature, the output from the device is 7.4 V . The true value

of the temperature will be

(A) 0.71 MPa

(B) 0.68 MPa

(C) 0.65 MPa

(D) 0.61 MPa

d

o

n

.

w

is shown in figure. The armature resistance in ohm and torque constant in N-m/A

of the motor respectively are

(A) 1.76, 0.68

(B) 1.75, 0.85

YEAR 2004

ONE MARK

Q. 84

(A) accidental error

(B) systematic error

(C) interference error

(D) random error

Q. 85

roughness and wavines. In roughness measurement, the wavelengths that are

filtered out are

(A) half the cut-off wavelength

(B) shorter than the cut-off wavelength

(C) equal to the cut-off wavelength

(D) longer than the cut-off wavelength

Q. 86

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

For a proving ring used in a press, the value of force and its uncertainty are given

as 12355 ! 2354 N without any rounding off. If the error should be rounded off at

the maximum to two significant figures only, the value of the reading is rounded

off as

(A) 12300 ! 2300 N

(B) 12360 ! 2350 N

(C) 12400 ! 2300 N

Q. 87

A quartz peizo-electric type pressure sensor has a built in charge amplifier. The

sensor has a sensistivity of 1 mV/Pa. It is subjected to a constant pressure of 120

kPa. The output of the transducer at steady state is

(A) 0 mV

(B) 100 mV

(C) 120 mV

(D) 120 mV

Q. 88

of 100 ms and unity gain. It is immersed in a heat bath whose temperature is

varying at 1cC/s from 0cC. When the actual temperature of the heat bath is 70c

C, the reading of the thermocouple will be

(A) 70.1cC

(B) 71cC

(D) 69cC

(C) 69.9cC

Q. 89

A viscous damper consists of a sliding piston and a cylinder filled with oil of

kinematic viscosity 5 # 10 - 5 m 2 /s. A damping force of 20 N is applied on the

piston and the steady state velocity reached is 10 mm/s. The damping co-efficient

of the damper is

(A) 2 Ns/mm

(B) 4 Ns/mm

(C) 10 Ns/mm

(D) 20 Ns/mm

Q. 90

.

a

i

d

o

.n

w

n

i

.

o

c

To avoid the effect of fringing, the potential of the guard ring of a capacitance

transducer, shown in Fig. is to be made equal to

(B) half of the excitation voltage

(C) the voltage of the fixed plate

(D) the voltage of the moving plate

YEAR 2004

Q. 91

TWO MARKS

A device for measuring large internal diameters consists of two arms X and Y of

length 50 mm each and pivoted at A (Fig. Q.31). These are fitted with 3 equal size

rollers of diameter 10 mm. The arms are fitted with tilt sensors, which indicate

the angle of inclination of the arms with reference to the axis of gravity measured

in clockwise direction . If these angles of inclination of the arms X and Y are 90c

and 140c respectively, then the internal diameter of the measured device is

Q. 92

Q. 93

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

(A) 110.6

(B) 118.6 mm

(C) 120.3 mm

(D) 128.3 mm

measuring the diameter of a cylindrical part having a nominal diameter of 12

mm. During measurement, misalignment of the centerline of the work piece and

measuring instrument has occurred. If the tilt of the shaft axis is 3c then the error

in the measurement is

(B) 2.76%

(A) 1, 74%

(C) 2.32%

(D) 1.86%

A cylindrical piece ground on a center-less grinding machine is uniformly three

lobed. The contour of the lobed surface has the smaller radius r1 = 10 mm and

the larger radius r2 = 10.3 mm. The size of a truly circular ring gauge, which just

fits over this cylindrical pies, is

(A) 20.3 mm

(B)20.346 mm

.

a

i

(C) 20.465 mm

Q. 94

in

.

o

c

.

w

d

o

n

(D) 20.521

Input x

10

Output y 9.5 8.4 7.8 7.4 6.1 5.4 5.2 4.6 3.2 1.9 1.1

For the given data, the slope of the best-fit line applying least square method is

(A) 0.921

(B) - 0.803

(C) 0.819

(D) - 0.945

Q. 95

of a macro-accelermeter by a factor of 100. If the natural frequency of the macroaccelerometer is w, then the natural frequency of the micro-accelerometer will be

(A) 100 w

(B) 10 w

(C) 0.1 w

(D) 0.01 w

Q. 96

Sensitivity at the design temperature = 10 V/MPa, Zero drift = 0.01 V/cC,

Sensitivity drift = 0.01 (V/MPa)/cC

When the sensor is used in an ambient 20 cC above the design temperature, the

output from the device is 7.4 V. The true value of the pressure will be

(A) 0.71 MPa

(B) 0.68 MPa

(C) 0.65 MPa

(D) 0.61 MPa

Q. 97

Q. 98

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

mounted parallel semicircular plates with a small separation between them as

shown in Figure. A dc voltage is connected across the terminals of the capacitance

sensor as shown. For a constant angular velocity w, the waveform of the current

i (t) will be

(A) dc

(B) sinusoidal

(C) triangular

(D) square

.

a

i

Q. 99

n

i

.

o

c

A strain gauge of resistance 120 W and gauge factor 2.0 is at zero strain condition.

A 200 kW fixed resistance is connected in parallel with it. Then the combination

will represent an equivalent strain of

(B) zero

(A) + 5290 mm/m

(D) - 300 mm/m

d

o

0 and 300cC. With reference junction at 0cC, the emf induced at 100cC and 300

cC are

E100 = 5268m V, E300 = 16325 mV

Then the nonlinearity at 100cC as a percentage of full scale is

(A) + 3.23%

(B) - 1.06%

(C) - 0.96%

(D) + 3.23%

.n

w

Q. 100

of 32.768 kHz. The clock loose 30.32 s every 23 days. The actual resonance

frequency of the crystal is

(A) 32.7685 kHz

(B) 32.768 kHz

(C) 32.7675 kHz

(D) 32.7670 kHz

Q. 101

When testing a specimen, an echo from a flaw is recorded 0.05 mass after the

transmitted pulse. If the velocity of sound in the test object is 6.0 km/s then the

flaw is at a depth of

(A) 120 cm

(B) 60 cm

(C) 30 cm

(D) 15 cm

Q. 102

in a pipe of diameter 50 mm. The flux density in the liquid has peak value of

0.1 T. The output from the flowmeter is taken to an amplifier of gain 1000 and

input impedance of 1 MW. If the impedance of the liquid between the electrodes

is 200 kW, then the peak value of the amplifier output voltage for an average flow

velocity of 20 mm/s is

(A) 1.365 V

(B) 1 V

(C) 0.1 V

(D) 0.083 V

Q. 103

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

the solution is now doubled. Assuming that Beer-Lamberts law holds good for

both the cases, the transmittance of the second would be

(A) T

(B) 2T

2

(C) T2

Q. 104

(D)

min., arterial oxygen content is 0.30 ml/ml and venous oxygen content is 0.20 nl/

ml. The cardiac output in 1/min. is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 0.5

(D) 1.5

YEAR 2003

Q. 105

ONE MARK

Which one of the following is a derived unit (NOT a basic unit) in SI system ?

(A) Candela

(B) Coulomb

(C) Kelvin

(D) mol

in

.

o

c

Q. 106

(A) 10 MPa

(B) 1 MPa

(C) 100 Pa

(D) 1 Pa

Q. 107

Which of the following flow meters has the lowest pressure drop for a given range

of flow?

(A) Orifice meter

(B) Venturi meter

.

a

i

Q. 108

.

w

(D) Rotameter

Different types of transducers and signal conditioning circuits are given below.

Match the transducer with the appropriate signal conditioning circuit commonly

used with it.

P.

Thermocouple

1.

DC Bridge

Q. Strain gage

2.

R.

Piezoelectric

3.

Charge amplifier

S.

L.V.D.T

4.

5.

Instrumentation amplifier

(B) P-1, Q-5, R-2, S-3

(D) P-4, Q-1, R-3, S-2

(C) P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-5

YEAR 2003

Q. 109

d

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TWO MARKS

model as

RT = R0 (1 + 0.004 T)

where T is the temperature in cC.R0 = 100 W with a variation of !2W. The true

model of the RTD is

RT = R0 (1 + 0.004T + 6 # 10 - 7 T2)

The worst-case error magnitude in the resistance value that will be introduced, if

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

(A) 2 W

(B) 2.8 W

(C) 3.0 W

Q. 110

(D) 3.4 W

Measurement of large external radius is possible with the help of an angle piece

and a screw gage as shown in Figure. The radius R can be expressed from the

measurement of H and q as

(A) Hsinq

1 - sinq

(C) Htanq

1 + sinq

Q. 111

n

i

.

o

c

(B) Hcosq

1 - cosq

(D) Hsinq

1 - cosq

.

a

i

d

o

time constant of 5s. The sensor of the instrument is placed inside an oil bath whose

temperature has a sinusoidal variation with amplitude of 10 cC and a period of

20s around an average temperature of 200 cC. The sinusoidal component at the

output of the instrument will have amplitude.

(B) 5.37c C

(A) 0cC

(C) 8.27cC

.n

w

(D) 10cC

The table provides the thermo-emf sensitivity of five materials with reference to

platinum around 273 K

Material

Constantan

Nickel

Copper

Iron

Nichrome

Sensitivity

(mVK - 1)

- 35

- 25

+6

+ 18.5

+ 25

Q. 112

The thermocouple pair that gives the maximum sensitivity around 273 K is

(A) Platinum-Constantan

(B) Nichrome-Constantan

(C) Nickel-Constantan

(D) Copper-Nickel

Q. 113

Two copper-constantan thermocouples are connected such that the two constantan

wires are joined together. The two copper wires are connected to the input of a

low noise chopper stabilized differentials amplifier having a gain of 1000. One of

the thermocouple junctions is immersed in a flask containing ice and water in

equal proportion. The other thermocouple is at a temperature T. If the output of

the amplifier is 2.050 V, the temperature T is

(A) 205c C

(B) 102.5c C

(C) 51.25cC

(D) 50c C

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

Q. 114

gage factor of -100. The resistance of the gage, when a compressive strain of 100

mm/m is applied, is

(A) 900 W

(B) 990 W

(C) 1010 W

(D) 1100 W

Q. 115

given in Figure. The output V0 is

(A) V- 0 = E C

3C

(C) V- 0 = E C - 3 C

C +3 C

Q. 116

(B) V- 0 = E 3 C

C

(D) V- 0 = E C + 3 C

C -3 C

in

.

o

c

of 1600 pF and a leakage resistance of 1012 W is connected to a charge amplifier

as shown in Figure. If a force of 0.1 sin 10 t N is applied to the transducer, the

output-amplitude of the charge amplifier is

.

a

i

(A) 0.141 mV

(C) 1.414 mV

.

w

d

o

n

(B) 0.232 mV

(D) 1.732 mV

Q. 117

element, decreasing the mass while maintaining all other parameters of the sensor

unchanged will

(A) reduce both natural frequency and steady-state sensitivity

(B) increase both natural frequency and steady-state sensitivity

(C) increase natural frequency but reduce steady-state sensitivity

(D) increase natural frequency without affecting steady-state sensitivity.

Q. 118

For a steady flow of liquid, the float of the rotameter will remain in a particular

position when

(A) drag force is balanced by weight of the float and buoyancy force

(B) weight of the float is balanced by the drag force and buoyancy force

(C) buoyancy force is balanced by the drag force and weight of the float

(D) drag force and buoyancy together is slightly greater than the weight of the

float

Q. 119

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

K is the constant of transformation and x the input quantity being sensed. The

resistor is connected to an ideal, opamp signal conditioning circuit of Figure. The

value of R is 100 W, K is 0.004 and x is 75. The output V0 is

(A) - 400 mV

(C) - 300 mV

Q. 120

(B) - 4 mV

(D) + 600 mV

.n

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YEAR 2002

Q. 122

.

a

i

d

o

(C) 3.92

Q. 121

n

i

.

o

c

change in the output temperature is 7cC for 5.60 litres per minute of cardiac

output with an integration time of 10 s. For a second measurement, with all other

parameters remaining unchanged, the change in the temperature is 10cC with an

integration time of 20 s. The cardiac output in litres per minute for this will be

(A) 5.60

(B) 4.21

(D) 1.96

ONE MARK

arrangement reduces non-linearity by eliminating

(A) the odd order harmonics

(B) the even order harmonics

(C) both odd and even harmonics

(D) offset

designed to measure

(A) acceleration

(B) velocity

(C) displacement

(D) force

Q. 123

approximate time taken by the thermocouple to reach 98% of the steady state

value is

(A) equal to the time constant of the thermocouple

(B) equal to twice the value of the time constant of the thermocouple

(C) equal to four times the value of the time constant of the thermocouple

(D) independent of the time constant

Q. 124

viscosity of oil. In order to obtain viscosity, it is necessary and sufficient if one

measures

(A) pressure drop across the capillary

(B) volume of fluid collected in a given time

(C) Both A and B

(D) Not only A and B but also one must ensure that the flow is laminar

Q. 125

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

shield while taking measurements in a high temperature gas. The principal reason

for providing the shield is

(A) to reduce conduction and convection errors

(B) to reduce radiation error

(C) to provide temperature compensation to the Seebeck voltage

(D) to improve air supply to the sensing element for better response

Q. 126

A pitot-static tube is used for measuring velocity of a gas, flowing in a duct. The

velocity is proportional to

(A) square root of the total pressure measured by the tube

(B) the total pressure measured by the tube

(C) difference between total and static pressures

(D) square root of the difference between total and static pressures

Q. 127

of them can be considered as a single capacity system with the capacity of the

thermal-well higher than that of the sensor. The overall measuring system will

(A) have equal time constants

(B) have zero damping

(C) be a non-interactive system

Q. 129

TWO MARKS

In a rotameter, used for measuring flow rate of a fluid, pa = pressure above the

float, pb = pressure below the float, A = area of float, V = volume of the float,

d1 = density of float material, d2 = density of the fluid, g = acceleration due to

gravity.

Which of the following equations describes the equilibrium of the float

(A) ^pb - pa h A = Vg ^d2 - d1h

(B) ^pa + pb h A = Vg ^d2 + d1h

(C) ^pa - pb h A = Vg ^d2 - d1h

(D) ^pb - pa h A = Vg ^d2 + d1h

o

n

.

w

properties has a diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 2 mm . Its voltage sensitivity

constant is 4500 V/mm . If the voltage output is 127.3 V , the applied load is

approximately

(A) 100 N

(B) 200 N

(C) 127.3 N

Q. 130

a.

i

d

YEAR 2002

Q. 128

in

.

o

c

(D) 6.4 N

One method of measuring the radius of an arc ^Rh, is to allow a roller of radius

^r h to oscillate to and fro on the arc and measure the average time per oscillation

T second. The roller will then have a linear acceleration of 2g/3, where g is

acceleration due to gravity. In such an experiment, the value of radius of arc can

be found from the expression

(A) ^T 2 g/6p2h + r

(B) ^T 2 g/6p2h - r

(C) ^T 2 g/6p2h

(D) ^6r2 /T 2 g h

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

YEAR 2001

Q. 131

ONE MARK

(A) 10-4 g/L and the solution is acidic

(B) 10-4 g/L and the solution is alkaline

(C) 10 4 mg/L and the solution is acidic

(D) 10-4 mg/L and the solution is alkaline

Q. 132

(A) horizontally with flow inlet in a specific direction

(B) horizontally with flow inlet in any direction

(C) vertically with flow inlet at the bottom and the outlet at the top

(D) vertically with flow inlet at the top and outlet at the bottom

Q. 133

Q. 134

n

i

.

o

c

(A) orifice meter

(B) rotary vane type meter

(D) ultrasonic flow meter

.

a

i

(A) measuring flow rate of a gas

(B) measuring the temperature of a gas

d

o

(D) analysing the composition of a gas

YEAR 2001

Q. 135

.n

w

TWO MARKS

List I

List II

1. Optical pyrometer

Q. Humidity

2. Knudsen gauge

3. Sling psychrometer

S. Intensity of radiation

(A) P-1, Q-2, R-3, S-4

(C) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2

(B) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3

(D) P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1

YEAR 2000

Q. 136

ONE MARK

in figure. The transducer is

(C) platinum RTD

(D) PTC thermistor

Q. 137

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

List I

List II

1. IR spectroscopy

Q. Scintillation counter

2. Oxygen analyser

R. Thermopile

3. Gas chromatography

S. Zirconia probe

(A) P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-3

(C) P-3, Q-1, R-4, S-3

Q. 138

(B) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-3

(D) None of the above

List I

List II

P. LVDT

Q. Piezoelectric crystal

2. Charge amplifier

R. pH probe

S. Thermocouple

(A) P-1, Q-3, R-4, S-2

(B) P-3, Q-2, R-4, S-1

Q. 139

.

a

i

List I

P. Pirani gauge

d

o

n

Q. Venturi meter

R. Radiation pyrometer

S.

.

w

Load cell

YEAR 2000

Q. 140

in

.

o

c

List II

1. Temperature measurement

2. Vacuum pressure measurement

3. Force measurement

4. Flow measurement

(B) P-4, Q-3, R-2, S-1

(D) None of the above

TWO MARKS

Among the bonded metal strain gauges, the foil type is more popular than the

wire type because

(A) error due to transverse strain is much less in foil type

(B) gauge factor is much higher in foil type

(C) the foil type is much more insensitive to temperature variation

(D) None of the above

Q. 141

(A) helium

(B) nitrogen

(C) ammonia

Q. 142

(D) oxygen

(A) Orifice plate

(B) Flow nozzle

(C) Venturi tube

Q. 143

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

The characteristics of a control valve is shown in figure. The type of the valve is

(B) linear

**********

d

o

.

a

i

.n

w

n

i

.

o

c

TRANSDUCER,MECH.MEASUR.ANDINDUS.INSTRU.

ANSWER KEY

TRANSDUCER, MECH. MEASUR. AND INDUS. INSTRU.

1

10

(B)

(A)

(B)

(D)

(A)

(B)

(B)

(D)

(B)

(B)

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

(B)

(B)

(C)

()

(D)

()

(B)

(D)

(D)

(B)

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(A)

(C)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(C)

(A)

(D)

(D)

(A)

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

(A)

(D)

(A)

(D)

(B)

(C)

(A)

(B)

(C)

(B)

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

(*)

(D)

(B)

(B)

(B)

(C)

(B)

(C)

(C)

(D)

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

(A)

(C)

(D)

(C)

(A)

(B)

(D)

(B)

()

(A)

61

62

63

64

65

66

(B)

(B)

(B)

(A)

(B)

(B)

71

72

73

74

75

76

(C)

(C)

(A)

(C)

(A)

(B)

81

82

83

84

85

(B)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

91

92

93

94

(D)

(B)

(C)

(B)

101

102

103

104

(D)

(A)

(D)

(B)

111

112

113

(D)

(C)

(D)

121

122

(D)

(A)

131

132

(A)

in

.

o

c

67

68

69

70

(D)

(A)

(C)

(B)

77

78

79

80

(A)

(C)

(A)

(B)

87

88

89

90

(D)

(D)

(C)

(A)

(A)

96

97

98

99

100

()

(A)

(D)

(A)

(C)

105

106

107

108

109

110

(B)

(*)

(*)

(D)

(*)

(A)

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

(B)

(A)

(A)

(D)

(B)

(D)

(*)

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

(C)

(D)

(B)

(B)

(A)

(A)

(A)

(A)

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

(C)

(B)

(D)

(D)

(D)

(C)

(B)

(B)

(C)

141

142

143

(C)

(C)

(A)

.

w

i

d

o

n

95

(D)

a.

86

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