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Physics105

PhysicsfortheLifeSciencesI
Mechanics,Thermodynamics,andOscillators
CourseManual
PHYS 105
Sections: 03A + 04A
Even Days: 11:00 + 1:00
Text:
College Physics, 9th Edition
with Enhanced WebAssign

By Raymond A. Serway and Chris Vuille


Fall 2012
Dr. Tom Kirkman

Home work will be assigned via WebAssign.net. Generally homework is due


before midnight on the following lecture day. Late homework will be assessed a
15% penalty. While the web promises global connections, it often promotes
isolation. Consider avoiding web-induced isolation by forming a problem solving
group. (Everybody's problems will be slightly different, but the algebra and
thought required to solve the problems will be the same.) Or just work the
homework with classmates in our Physics Library PEngel 104; I'll then be near
by when you have questions. Note that assigned homework should just be the
start to developing your problem solving skills: work extra odd problems and
check the answer in the back of the textbook!
To use WebAssign for homework you will need the access code you
purchased with your textbook to self-register for your course section.
1. Go to http://www.webassign.net/login.html
2. Click on the I have a class key button below the Login button
3. Enter the class key corresponding to your class section listed below:
11:00 Section 03A

csbsju 7919 7051

1:00

csbsju 8613 6133

Section 04A

Topic 1 Fundamentals
Cycle 1, Day 2
Reading: To The Student & Chapter 1
Objectives:
1. Be able to give standard units of distance, mass, and time in the MKS (SI)
system.
2. Be able to use the following prefixes: giga, mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro (),
nano. Understand scientific notation and, in particular, the E notation used
by computers and WebAssign.
3. Be able to perform dimensional analysis.
4. Be able to correctly apply uncertainties in measurements and significant
figures (sigfigs) to calculations.
5. Be able to convert units (e.g., miles per hour to meters per second).
6. Be able to make order of magnitude estimations.
7. Be able to use fundamental algebra and trigonometry (sine, cosine,
tangent and Pythagorean theorem) and perform conversions between
rectangular and polar coordinates.
Equations to Know from Memory:
2

Pythagorean Theorem:

r =x y

Sine of angle:

sin=

y
r

Cosine of angle:

x
cos=
r

Tangent of angle:

y
tan =
x

Topic 2 One-Dimensional Kinematics


Cycle 1, Days 46
Reading: Chapter 2
Objectives:
1. Be able to define mathematically and in words and graphs: displacement,
speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, average acceleration, and
instantaneous acceleration.
2. Be able to graph motion and interpret motion graphs.
3. Be able to solve problems involving uniformly accelerated motion using
the equations of motion.
Equations to Know from Memory:
x x f x i
x x f xi
v

Average Velocity:
;
t t f t i
Displacement:

v 0v
(for constant a)
2
x
Instantaneous Velocity: v lim v lim
t 0
t 0 t
v v f v i

Average Acceleration: a
t t f t i
v
a lim a
Instantaneous Acceleration:
lim
t 0
t0 t
Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
(for Free Fall replace x with y and a with g):
1
v =v 0at
x=v 0 t a t 2
v 2 =v 202 a x
2
v =

Physical Constants to Know:


Acceleration due to gravity:

g=9.80 m / s =32 ft /s

Topic 3 Vectors and Two-Dimensional Kinematics


Cycle 2, Days 24
Reading: Chapter 3
Objectives:
1. Be able to state the definitions of vector and scalar quantities (and give
examples of each).
2. Be able to multiply and divide a vector by a scalar.
3. Apply trigonometry to find rectangular components of a vector.
4. Be able to add and subtract vectors graphically and with the use of
rectangular components.
5. Be able to define displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors.
6. Be able to solve projectile motion problems.
7. Be able to calculate relative velocities.
Equations to Know from Memory:
A

Trigonometric Expressions for Vectors:


2

2
x

A =A A

2
y

A
A

A=
x
y

A x = A cos

tan =

A y = Asin

Ay

Ax

r =r f
ri

Displacement Vector:
v av

r
t
a av

Acceleration Vector:

v lim

t 0

a lim

t 0

v
t

Equations of Motion:
2
1
v x =v 0 x a x t x=v 0 x t a x t
2

v 2x =v 20 x 2 a x x

y=v 0 y t 1 a y t 2

v y =v 0 y2 a y y

v y =v 0 ya y t

Ax

A A= A2x A2y

Velocity Vector:

For Projectile Motion:


Relative Velocity:

Ay

a x =0

v x =v 0 x =v 0 cos

v AB =

v AEv BE

v= v x v y

=tan
a y =g

vy
vx

v 0 y =v 0 sin

Topic 4 Newton's Laws


Cycle 2, Day 6; Cycle 3, Days 24
Reading: Chapter 4
Objectives:
1. Be able to state the difference between mass and weight.
2. Be able to state Newton's three laws and explain their implications to
physical phenomena. Be able to explain in words the meaning of notations
F and mi x i .
like:
3. Be able to define the Newton.
4. Be able to define in words and mathematically Newtons law of universal
gravitation.
5. Be able to distinguish between inertial and non-inertial reference frames.
6. Be able to describe the difference between static and kinetic friction.
7. Be able to work with tension, compression, and normal forces.
8. Be able to apply Newton's laws to problems in one and two dimensions.
9. Be able to make free body diagrams
Equations to Know from Memory:
Newtons First Law:
Newton's Second Law:
Newtons Third Law:

12

21

Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation:


Weight:

w=mg

g=

Fg
m

Conditions for Equilibrium:


Frictional Forces:

F0

v =constant unless

F=m a
=F

=G

ME
2
E

m1 m2
r2

=9.80 m /s2

R
F=0

f s s n static

F g=G

v=constant
f k = k n kinetic

Topic 5 Work, Energy, and Power


Cycle 4, Days 46
Reading: Chapter 5
Objectives:
1. Be able to define in words and mathematically work, kinetic energy, and
potential energy and make calculations of each.
2. Be able to describe the difference between conservative and
nonconservative forces.
3. Be able to mathematically apply the Work-Energy Theorem.
4. Be able to state and apply the principle of conservation of energy.
5. Be able to graphically find the work done by a varying force.
6. Be able to solve problems involving springs.
7. Be able to define power, define the unit of power, and calculate power.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Work: W F cos x
2
1
Kinetic Energy: KE mv
2

Hooke's Law: F=kx


Gravitational Potential Energy: PE gmgy

2
1
Spring Potential Energy: PE s 2 kx

Work-Energy Theorem:
W
P=
=F v
Power:
t

W ncW c = KE

W nc= KE PE g PE s=E f E i

Topic 6 Momentum and Collisions


Cycle 5, Days 24
Reading: Chapter 6
Objectives:
1. Be able to define and calculate momentum and impulse.
2. Be able to apply Newton's laws to impulse and change of momentum
problems.
3. Be able to state and apply the law of conservation of linear momentum.
4. Be able work out elastic and inelastic collision problems.
5. Be able to work out glancing collision problems.
6. Be able to describe how rocket propulsion works in terms of momentum.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Impulse: I
F t (more generally: area under force vs time curve)
Momentum:
p m
v
p=m v f m
vi
Impulse-Momentum Theorem: I =
Conservation of Momentum:

pi= p f

e.g., 2 objects m 1
v 1 im 2
v 2 i=m 1
v 1 f m2
v2 f
Applied to 1-D Perfectly Inelastic Collisions:
m 1 v 1 im2 v 2 i=m 1m 2 v f
Applied to 1-D Elastic Collisions:
1
m1 v 21i 1 m2 v 22 i= 1 m1 v 21 f 1 m 2 v22 f
m 1 v 1 im 2 v 2 i=m 1 v 1 f m 2 v 2 f
2

v 1 iv2 i =v 1 f v 2 f

Topic 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation


Cycle 5 Day 6, Cycle 6 Day 2
Reading: Chapter 7
Objectives:
1. Be able to relate angular displacement to arc length, angular velocity
to tangential velocity, and angular acceleration to tangential
acceleration. Be able to appropriately use and convert angular units of
degrees and radians.
2. Be able to use the equations of motion for constant angular acceleration.
3. Be able to relate centripetal acceleration to angular velocity and identify
centripetal forces.
4. Be able to state Newton's law of universal gravitation and apply it to
problems.
5. Be able to describe the difference between bound and unbound systems in
terms of their mechanical energy.
6. Be able to state and apply Kepler's Laws.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Arc Length:

s=r

Angular Velocity:

Angular Acceleration:

=2 f

Tangential Velocity:

v t =r

Tangential Acceleration:

a t =r

v
=r 2
r
Equations of Rotational Motion for constant :
=i t 1 t 2
=i t
2
Centripetal Acceleration:

ac=

Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation:


Gravitational Potential Energy:

PE g=G

F=G
m 1 m2
r

= i 2

m1 m2
r2

Topic 8 Rotational Dynamics


Cycle 6, Days 46
Reading: Chapter 8
Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Be able to define torque and moment of inertia


Be able to work problems involving static equilibrium.
Be able to calculate the center of gravity of a distributed object.
Be able to state and use the relation between torque, angular acceleration
and moment of inertia.
5. Be able to solve problems and draw free body diagrams in situations
involving torque.
6. Be able to define rotational kinetic energy and angular momentum.
7. Be able to apply the conservation of angular momentum to problems.
Equations to Know from Memory:
F
Torque: =rF sin
Moment of Inertia: I = mr 2
Newton's Second Law for Rotation:
Rotational Kinetic Energy:
Work-Energy Theorem:
Angular Momentum:

KE r = 1
2

=I

I 2

W nc= KE t KE r PE

LI

Conservation of Angular Momentum:

t
=0 I i i=I f f

Topic 9 Fluids
Cycle 7 Days 6; Cycle 8 Days 24
Reading: Chapter 9
Objectives:
1. Be able to describe the differences between solids, fluids, gases, and
plasmas.
2. Be able to state the relationship between stress and strain and apply it to
the elasticities of length, shape, and volume.
3. Be able to define density and pressure and determine pressure change
with depth in a fluid.
4. Be able to state and apply Pascal's principle.
5. Be able to state and apply Archimedes' principle.
6. Be able to define the viscosity of a fluid in words.
7. Be able to distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow.
8. Be able to apply the equation of continuity for problems involving
incompressible fluids.
9. Be able to explain Bernoulli's equation in terms of conservation of energy.
10.Be able to apply Bernoulli's equation to problems.
11.Be able to explain the contributions of surface tension and cohesive and
adhesive forces to capillary action.
12.Be able to state the importance of the Reynolds number.
13.Be able to describe diffusion, osmosis, and Stokes Law.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Deformation of solids: stress=elasticmodulusstrain
F
m
Density: =
Pressure: P=
V
A
Variation of pressure with depth: P=P 0 g h
B=fluid V fluid g

Archimedes Principle:
Continuity Equation:

A1 v 1= A2 v 2

Bernoulli's Equation:

P1 1 v 21 gy 1=P2 1 v 22 gy 2
2

Physical Constants to Know:


Unit of Pressure, Pascal:

1 Pa=1 N/m 2

1 atm=1.0110 5 Pa

Topic 10 Thermal Physics


Cycle 8, Day 6; Cycle 9, Day 2
Reading: Chapter 10
Objectives:
1. Be able to state and apply the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
2. Be able to describe the Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin temperature scales
and convert from one to another.
3. Be able to explain and calculate thermal expansion.
4. Be able to state and apply the Ideal Gas Law.
5. Be able to state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases and apply
the results of the theory.
6. Be able to state in words the meaning of notations like:
( v 2 ) =v rms

Equations to Know from Memory:


Kelvin to Celsius:

T C =T K 273.15

Celsius to Fahrenheit:

T F = 9 T C 32

Thermal Expansion:

L= L 0 T

Ideal Gas Law:

PV =nRT

Kinetic Theory:

P= 2
3

v rms =

N
V

1
2

m v2

3kBT
m

A= A0 T
1
2

m v = 3 kB T
2

3 RT
M

Physical Constants to Know:


Avogadros Number:

N A =6.021023 particles /mol

Boltzmanns Constant:

k b=1.3810

23

J /K

Universal Gas Constant: R N A k B =8.314 J / Kmole

V = V 0 T
U= 3 nRT
2

Topic 11 Heat and Energy Transfer


Cycle 9, Day 46
Reading: Chapter 11
Objectives:
1. Be able to state the difference between internal energy, temperature, and
heat.
2. Be able to use and define specific heats and latent heats.
3. Be able to work simple heat transfer and calorimetry problems.
4. Be able to work heat transfer and calorimetry problems involving phase
changes.
5. Be able to describe the differences between energy transfer by conduction,
convection, and radiation.
6. Be able to state the significance of the emissivity, e, of a material and its
range of values.
7. Be able to apply Stefans Law to radiative heat transfer.
8. Be able to explain the greenhouse (atmospheric) effect in terms of Stefans
Law.
Equations to Know from Memory:
c

Specific Heat:
Phase Changes:

mT
Q=m L

Thermal Conduction:
Stefans Law:

P =kA

T hT c
L

R-factor:

R=

L
k

P = A e T 4

Physical Constants to Know:


1 cal 4.186 J

Note: 1 food calorie is equal to 1000 calories.

1 Cal = 1 kcal

Topic 12 Thermodynamics
Cycle 10, Days 24
Reading: Chapter 12
Objectives:
1. Be able to calculate the work done on or by a gas.
2. Be able to state and apply the First Law of Thermodynamics.
3. Be able to describe and graph isobaric, adiabatic, isovolumetric, and
isothermal processes and calculate changes in thermodynamic quantities
for these processes.
4. Be able to define and graph a Carnot cycle.
5. Be able to state the Second Law of Thermodynamics in 2 ways.
6. Be able to distinguish between reversible and irreversible processes.
7. Be able to discuss the operation of heat engines and heat pumps and
calculate work done, efficiencies, and coefficients of performance assuming
a Carnot cycle.
8. Be able to define entropy and calculate changes in entropy for systems.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Work done on a gas (constant P):
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Isobaric Process: Q=n C p T

W=P V

U=QW

Adiabatic Process:

Q=0

P V =constant

Isovolumetric Process:

W =0

Q=n C v T

Isothermal Process:

U=0

W =Q

W =n R T ln

Cp
Cv

Vf
Vi

W eng
Q
=1 c
Q h
Q h
Q
Q
Heat Pumps: COP cooling mode= c
COP heating mode= h
W
W
Tc
Q
Carnot Engines: e C =1
Entropy: S r
Th
T
Enthalpy: H=U+P V
Gibbs Free Energy: G=H TS
Heat Engines:

W eng=QhQc

Physical Constants to Know:


Molar specific heat of monatomic gas at constant volume:
Molar specific heat of monatomic gas at constant pressure:

C v 3 R
2

C p 5 R
2

Topic 13 Oscillations
Cycle 11, Days 46; Cycle 12, Days 24
Reading: Chapter 13
Objectives:
1. Understand the concepts of amplitude, frequency, period, and angular
frequency. Appropriately use radians in trigonometric functions.
2. Be able to apply conservation of energy to simple harmonic oscillator
problems.
3. Be able to work simple harmonic oscillator problems using displacement,
velocity, and acceleration.
4. Be able to calculate the angular frequency for a simple harmonic oscillator.
5. Be able to describe the difference between transverse and longitudinal
waves.
6. Understand the concepts of amplitude, frequency, wave speed and
wave length.
7. Be able to describe constructive and destructive interference using the
superposition principle.
Equations to Know from Memory:
Hooke's Law: F s=kx
Simple Harmonic Motion:

Elastic Potential Energy:

m
Mass on a Spring: v = k A2 x 2 T =2
m
k
x=
A
cos
2
f
t

Periodic Position:
v =A sin 2 f t
Periodic Velocity:
Periodic Acceleration:
a= A 2 cos 2 f t
L
Simple Pendulum: T =2
g
F
Wave Speed: Generally v = f on a string v =

f=

1
T

PE s 12 kx 2
=2 f =

k
m