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ReproductiveHealth

ReproductiveHealth
Itisdefinedasthetotalwellbeinginallaspectsofreproduction.

Indiaasacountryensuresreproductivehealthtoall,andsince1951,
successivegovernmentshaveintroducedanumberofprogrammestoensure
this,e.g.,
familyplanningandRCH(ReproductiveandChild
Healthcare)programmes
.

Theaimoftheseprogrammesistocreateawarenessamongpeopleabout
thevariousaspectsofreproductivehealth.

Severalaudiovisualaidsandpamphletshavebeendevelopedbyboth
governmentalandnongovernmentalorganisations.

Awarenessisbeingcreatedamongschoolchildrenbyintroducingsex
educationinschools.

Itisessentialtoprovidemedicalassistancetopeoplewithproblemsrelated
toSTDs,pregnancy,contraceptionandinfertility,especiallyinvillages.

Amniocentesis
(foetalsexdeterminationbasedonchromosomalpattern)
hasbeenbannedtocheckfemalefoeticide.

PopulationExplosion

Improvementinthequalityoflifeduetoallrounddevelopment(better
healthfacilitiesandimprovedconditionsofliving)hasleadtoalarge
increaseintheworldpopulation(around1billionintheyear2000).

Thecausesofpopulationexplosionare:

Declineindeathrate(includingmaternalmortalityrateandinfant
mortalityrate)

Increaseinthenumberofpeopleinthereproducibleage

Populationexplosioncausesascarcityofeverybasicneed.

Therefore,ithasbecomeessentialtocheckthisincreaseinpopulation.

Onechildnorm,increasingthemarriageableageandpromoting
contraceptivemethodsaresomeofthewaystocheckpopulationexplosion.

BirthControl

Itisessentialtoensurebirthcontroltocheckpopulationexplosion.

Successivegovernmentshavecomeoutwithvariousprogrammesthat
encouragesmallerfamiliesbymeansofvariouscontraceptivemethods.

Contraceptivemethodsareoftwotypes:

Naturalmeansofcontraception

Artificialmeansofcontraception

NaturalMethods

Avoidingthecomingtogetherofovumandsperm

Periodicabstinence
:Avoidingcoitusfromdays10to17ofthe
menstrualcycle

Coitusinterruptus
:Withdrawalofpenisbeforeejaculation

Lactationalamenorrhea
:Itistheabsenceofmenstruationduring
lactation.So,inthelactationperiod,thechancesofconceptionare
almostzero.

ArtificialMethods

Physicallypreventingthecomingtogetherofovumandsperm

Barriers
:Includecondoms,diaphragms,cervicalcapsandvaults

Intrauterinedevices

(IUDs)
:Theyreleasehormonestocause

phagocytosisofsperms,ortheyreleasecopperionstodecreasesperm
motility.

Oralcontraceptivepills
:Theycontainhormoneseither
progesteroneorprogesteroneoestrogencombination.

Surgicalmethods
:Includevasectomy(removalofapartofthevas
deferensinmales)andtubectomy(removalofapartofthefallopian
tubesinfemales)

MedicalTerminationofPregnancy&Sexually
TransmittedDiseases

MedicalTerminationofPregnancy(MTP)

Intentionalorvoluntaryterminationofpregnancybeforethefullterm

Alsocalledinducedabortion

Hasaroleindecreasingpopulationbecomesessentialwhencontinued
pregnancymayprovetobefataltothemother,foetusortoboth

InIndia,MTPislegal,butwithcertainstrictconditionssoastoprevent
femalefoeticide.

Butinsomeplaces,MTPisusedwithamniocentesis,andwhenthefoetusis

female,itisaborted.Suchpracticescanprovetobefataltothemotheras
well.
SexuallyTransmittedDiseases(STDs)

DiseaseswhicharetransmittedsexuallyarecalledSTDs.

Alsocalled
venerealdiseases
(VD)or
reproductivetractinfections
(RTI)

SomeoftheSTDsare:

Gonorrhoea

Syphilis

Chlamydiasis

Genitalherpes

Genitalwarts

Trichomoniasis

HepatitisB

AIDS(canalsobetransmittedbysharinginjectionneedlesorsurgical
instruments,bloodtransfusion,andfromtheinfectedmothertothe
foetus)

WiththeexceptionofAIDS,genitalherpesandhepatitisB,otherdiseases
arecurable.

Whennotdetectedandtreatedintime,theycanleadtopelvicinflammatory
diseases,abortions,stillbirths,ectopicpregnancies,infertilityandeven
cancer.

Therefore,prevention,andtimelydetectionandcureofthesediseasesare
essentialtoensurereproductivehealth.

Someofthepreventivemeasuresare:

Avoidingsexwithunknown/multiplepartners

Useofcondoms

Tocheckwithadoctorwhenindoubt

Infertility

Manycouplesallovertheworldareunabletoproducechildren.

Someofthereasonsforinfertilityare:

Congenitaldiseases

Drugs

ImmunologicalandPsychologicalfactors

Specialisedfertilityclinicscanhelpdiagnoseandtreatinfertility.

Thecouplescanbeassistedtohavechildrenthroughtechniquescalled

assistedreproductivetechnologies(ART).
AssistedReproductiveTechnologies

Invitrofertilisation(IVF):Fertilisationtakesplaceoutsidethebody(test
tubebaby).ThefollowingtechniquesareincludedinIVF.

ZIFT
Itstandsforzygoteintrafallopiantransfer.InZIFT,thesperm
fromadonormaleandtheovafromadonorfemalearefusedinthe
laboratory.Thezygotesoformedistransferredintothefallopiantube
atthe8blastomeresstage.

IUT
Itstandsforintrauterinetransfer.Inthistechnique,embryos
withmorethan8blastomeresaretransferredintotheuterus.

GIFT
Itstandsforgameteintrafallopiantransfer.InGIFT,females
whocannotproduceovum,butcanprovidesuitableconditionsforthe
fertilisationofovum,areprovidedwithovumfromadonor.

ICSI
Itstandsforintracytoplasmicsperminjection.Inthismethod,
spermisdirectlyinjectedintothecytoplasmoftheovum.

Artificialinsemination
Inthistechnique,thesemencollectedfrom
thehusbandoradonorisinjectedintothevaginaoruterus.Thiscures
theinfertilityarisingfromtheinabilityofthemalepartnertoejaculate,
orduetolowspermcount.