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Classical music regularly features in pop culture, forming background music for movies,
str. 4-13
television programs and advertisements. As a result most people in the Western
World
regularly and often unknowingly listen to classical music; thus, it can be argued that the
relatively low levels of recorded music sales may not be a good indicator of its actual
popularity. In more recent times the association of certain classical pieces with
PTA
ISTORIJA
major
events
has led to briefMUZIKE
upsurges in interest in particular classical genres. A good
example
of this was TRADICIJA
the choice of Nessun
from Giacomo Puccini's opera Turandot as
EVROPSKA
(1.dorma
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the theme tune for the 1990 Soccer World Cup, which led to a noticeable increase in popular
interest in opera and in particular in tenor arias, which led to the huge sellout concerts by The
Three Tenors. Such events are often cited as helping to drive increases in the audiences at
many classical concerts that have been observed in recent times.

2 HISTORY
(See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_composers_time-line)
The major time divisions of classical musici (i.e. music produced from roughly the 9th
century to present times, and rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music)
are:
Early music period, which includes:
Medieval (476 1400) and
Renaissance (1400 1600),
Common practice period, which includes:
Baroque (1600 1750),
Classical (1730 1820) and
Romantic (1815 1910) periods, and
Modern and Contemporary period, which includes:
20th century (1900 2000),
Contemporary classical (1975 current), and
21st century (2000 present).

PERIODS OF EUROPEAN ART MUSIC


EARLY
Medieval
Renaissance
Baroque

(5001400)
(14001600)
(16001760)
COMMON PRACTICE

Baroque
Classical
Romantic

(16001760)
(17301820)
(18151910)
MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY

20th-century
Contemporary
21st-century

(19002000)
(1975present)
(2000present)

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The dates are generalizations, since the periods overlapped and the categories are
somewhat arbitrary.
For example, the use of counterpoint and fugue, which is considered characteristic of
the Baroque era, was continued by Haydn, who is classified as typical of the Classical
period. Beethoven, who is often described as a founder of the Romantic period, and
Brahms, who is classified as Romantic, also used counterpoint and fugue, but other
characteristics of their music define their period.

The prefix neo is used to describe a 20th century or contemporary and 21st-century
composition written in the style of an earlier period, such as Classical or Romantic.
Stravinsky's Pulcinella, for example, is a neoclassical composition because it is stylistically
similar to works of the Classical period.

2.1 R OOTS
(Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_music)
The roots of Western classical music lie in early Christian liturgical music, and its
influences date back to the Ancient Greeks. Development of individual tones and scales was
done by ancient Greeks such as Aristoxenus2 and Pythagoras. [9] Pythagoras created a
tuning system and helped to codify (srb kodovati, ifrovati) musical notation. Ancient Greek
instruments such as the aulos a reed instrument) and the lyre a stringed instrument similar
to a small harp) eventually led to the modern day instruments of a classical orchestra. [10] The
antecedent to the early period was the era of ancient music from before the fall of the Roman
Empire, AD 476. Very little music survives from this time, most of it from Ancient Greece.

2.2 E ARLY PERIOD (M EDIEVAL AND R ENAISSANCE MUSIC)


(Main articles: Medieval music and Renaissance music, See also: List of Medieval
composers and List of Renaissance composers)
2.2.1 M EDIEVAL PERIOD
The Medieval period includes music from after the fall of Rome, AD 4763, to
about AD 1400 (early fifteenth century). Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or
Gregorian Chant, was the dominant form until about AD 1100. [11] Polyphonic music
(multi-voiced) developed from monophonic chant throughout the late Middle Ages
from about 12th century and into the Renaissance, including the more complex voicings
of motets.
Early medieval music
(before 1150)
Early chant traditions:
Plainsong, Gregorian chant
Early polyphony: organum

High medieval music


(1150-1300)
Ars antiqua
Troubadours and trouvres
Notre Dame School of

Late medieval music


(1300-1400)
France: Ars nova
Italy: Trecento Ars nova
that includes the secular

Aristoksen iz Tarenta uneo neke kasne pitagorejske ideje, bio i ostao verni Aristotelov sledbenik.
Grammar: The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number . Unlike AD, which
traditionally precedes the year number , CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be
written at all). Thus, the current year is written as 2011 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as
2011 CE, or as AD 2011), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is
represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital
letters, or with full stops (e.g., " BCE" or "C.E.").
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Troping, sequnces
Liturgical drama

polyphony (Leonin, Perotin)


Motet

music in Italy
Mannerism and Ars
subtilior

1309-1378 Papal court moves to Avignon Babilonian captivity


1378-1417 Greate Schism

Audio example
"Breves dies hominis"ii by either Leonin or Perotin (3 min 32 s, 208 kbps)
2.2.2 R ENAISSANCE PERIOD
The Renaissance period was from AD 1400 to 1600 (although, establishing the end
of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance is difficult). It was characterized by
greater use of instrumentation, multiple interweaving melodic lines, and the use of
the first bass insruments . Social dancing became more widespread, so musical forms
appropriate to accompanying dance began to standardize.
It is in this time that the notation of music on a staff and other elements of musical
notation began to take shape. [12] This invention made possible the separation of the
composition of a piece of music from its transmission ; without written music,
transmission was oral, and [ oral transmission ] subject to change every time it was
transmitted. With a musical score, a work of music could be performed without the
composer's presence. [11] The invention of the movable-type printing press in the 15th
century had far-reaching consequences on the preservation and transmission of
music. [13]
Typical stringed instruments of the Early Period include the harp, lute, vielle, and
psaltery, while wind instruments included the flute family (including recorder4), shawm
an early member of the oboe family, trumpet , and the bagpipe. Simple pipe organs
existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties. [14]
Later in the period, early versions of keyboard instruments like the clavichord and
harpsichord began to appear. Stringed instruments such as the viol had emerged by
the 16th century, as had a wider variety of brass and reed instruments. Printing
enabled the standardization of descriptions and specifications of instruments, as well as
instruction in their use. [15]
Early Renaissance music
(14001467)
isorhythm and extreme
syncopation dropped
"drive to the cadence"
prominent feature around
mid-century

Middle Renaissance music


Late Renaissance music
(14671534)
(15341600)
trend towards more
Venetian School (Basilica
complexity in polyphonic
San Marco di Venezia):
sacred music (end of the
polychoral style
15th century): Jacob
Roman School (Vatican):
Obrecht and Johannes
Giovanni Pierluigi da
Ockeghem
Palestrina
trend towards simplification English Madrigal School:
(early 16th century):
for three to six voices

recorder = blokflauta (renesansna flauta), drveni duvaki instrument sa uzdunim vazdunim jezikom.

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Josquin des Prez (FrancoFlemish School), G. P.


Palestrina (Council of
Trent)
passages of homophony

Musica reservata

1517

Lutherian Reformation begins


(Martin Luther, 1483-1546)

1524

1st Lutherian chorale collection

1545-63

Counter-Reformation Council of Trent


(Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, ca.1525-1594)

Audio example
"Amicus meus" by Toms Luis de Victoria (2 min 47 s, 58kbps)

TOMS LUIS DE VICTORIA


Toms Luis de Victoria, sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria (1548 20 August
1611), was the most famous composer of the 16th century in Spain, and one of the most
important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni da Palestrina and
Orlando di Lasso. Victoria was not only a composer, but also an accomplished organist and
singer. However, he preferred the life of a composer to that of a performer.[1] He is
sometimes known as the "Spanish Palestrina" because he may have been taught by
Palestrina.[2]
See: < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toms_Luis_de_Victoria >

"Stabat Mater" (excerpt) by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (2 min 47 s, 58kbps)

2.3 C OMMON PRACTICE PERIOD


The Common Practice Period is when many of the ideas that make up western
classical music took shape, standardized, or were codified. It began with the Baroque
era, running from roughly 1600 to the middle of the 18th century, i.e. ca. 1750. The
Classical era followed, ending roughly around 1820 (1830). The Romantic era ran
through the 19th century, ending about 1910.
2.3.1 B AROQUE MUSIC
(Main article: Baroque music, See also: List of Baroque composers)
Baroque music (ca. 1600 1750 / 1760) is characterized by the use of complex tonal
counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo a continuous bass line. The beginnings of
the sonata form took shape in the canzona, as did a more formalized notion of theme and
variations. The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and
chromati cism in music took full shape. [16]
During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ
became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the
form generally seen today. Double reeded instruments like the oboe and bassoon
became somewhat standardized.
Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical
and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more
common. [17]
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Instrumental ensembles began to distinguish and standardize by size, giving rise to


the early orchestra for larger ensembles, with chamber music being written for smaller
groups of instruments where parts are played by individual (instead of massed) instruments.
The concerto as a vehicle for solo performance accompanied by an orchestra became
widespread, although the relationship between soloist and orchestra was relatively simple.
The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice,
especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune
keyboard instruments. For example, equal temperament made possible Bach's WellTempered Clavier. [18]
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, Italian pronunciation: [antnjo luto vivaldi] (4 March 1678
28 July 1741), nicknamed il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") because of his red hair, was an
Italian Baroque composer, priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice. Recognized as one of
the greatest Baroque composers, his influence during his lifetime was widespread over Europe.
Vivaldi is known mainly for composing instrumental concertos (concertos), especially for the
violin, as well as sacred choral works and over forty operas.

Early baroque music


(16001654)
use of figured bass
harmony and harmonic
progressions as the linear
underpinnings of polyphony
use of the tritone Giovanni
Gabrieli important
transitional figure
Claudio Monteverdi
"modern" approach to
harmony and text (opera
L'Orfeo, 1607)

Middle baroque music


(16541707)
demand for chamber music
and keyboard instruments
Jean-Baptiste Lully and
Johann Fux
Arcangelo Corelli and his
trio sonata5
Antonio Vivaldi works
based on the principles in
Corelli's trio sonatas and
concerti
The middle Baroque
England Henry Purcell

1678 1741

Antonio Vivaldi

1685 1750

Johann Sebastian Bach

1685 1759

George Frideric Handel

Late baroque music


(16801750)
the full absorption of
tonality as a structuring
principle of music
Domenico Scarlatti
George Frideric Handel
Johann Sebastian Bach
Georg Philipp Telemann

Audio example
Sonata in D minor for 2 violins and continuo "La Follia" by Antonio Vivaldi (10 min
14 s, 128 kbps)
"Toccata et Fugue en r mineu", uvre pour orgue by Johann Sebastian Bach
(disputed), performed by Ashtar Mora (8 min 34 s, 95 kbps)
[Recorded c. 2006-12-29; Composed c. 1707.]

A trio sonata is written for two solo melodic instruments and basso continuo, making three parts in all,
hence the name trio sonata. However, because the basso continuo is usually made up of at least two instruments
(typically a cello or bass viol and a keyboard instrument such as the harpsichord), performances of trio sonatas
typically involve at least four musicians. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basso_continuo)

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(27.12.2013)

OPTA ISTORIJA MUZIKE


EVROPSKA TRADICIJA (2. DEO)
2.3.2 C LASSICAL PERIOD MUSIC
(Main article: Classical period (music), See also: List of Classical era composers)
The Classical period from about 1750 to 1820 (1830) established many of the
norms of composition, presentation and style, and was when the piano became the
predominant keyboard instrument. The basic forces required for an orchestra became
somewhat standardized , although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of
instruments was developed in the following centuries. Chamber music grew to include
ensembles with as many as 8-10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop,
with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands. The opera buffa (opera
buffa vs. opera seria), a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into
its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of
virtuoso playing skill. Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord, which had been part of
the traditional continuo in the Baroque style, and were often led by the lead violinist now
called the concertmaster. [19]
Wind instruments became more refined in the Classical period. While double reeded
instruments like the oboe and bassoon became somewhat standardized in the Baroque, the
clarinet family of single reeds was not widely used until Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791) expanded its role in orchestral, chamber, and concerto settings.
Baroque / Classical transition ca. 1730-1760
aka Galant, Rococo, or pre-Classical
Domenico Scarlatti
Christoph Willibald Gluck Operatic
reforms; wrote no operas in German (!)
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach6
Circa 17501775
Joseph Haydn

Circa 17751790

Circa 17901830

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Ludwig van Beethoven

1732-1809 Joseph Haydn (Austrian) "father of the Symphony" and "father of the
String Quartet", a close friend of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Austrian) and
a teacher of Ludwig van Beethoven (German).
1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart brought his genius to Haydn's ideas and
applied them to two of the major genres of the day: opera, and the virtuoso
concerto.
1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, Haydns pupil,

C.P.E. Bach and Gluck are often considered to be founders of the Classical style.

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Audio example
"Symphonie Nr. 40", g-moll KV 550 (Kchel-Verzeichnis number), Movement:
1. Molto allegro (excerpt), by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (8 min 34 s, 95kbps)
Conductor: Simon Schindler, Ensemble: Fulda Symphonic Orchestra
[Date: 2001-03-18]

The Classical period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic (German:
Wiener Klassik), since W. A. Mozart, Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), and Ludwig van
Beethoven (1770-1827) all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert (17971828) was born there.
Renewed interest in the formal balance and restraint of 18th century classical music led
in the early 20th century to the development of so-called Neoclassical style, which
numbered Stravinsky and Prokofiev among its proponents, at least at certain times in their
careers.
Wikipedia, Classical period (music). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_period_(music)

2.3.3 R OMANTIC ERA MUSIC


(Main article: Romantic music, See also: List of Romantic composers)
The music of the Romantic era from roughly the second decade of the 19th century to
the early 20th century was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic
line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art
forms. Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms (even as those were being
codified), with free-form pieces like: nocturnes, fantasias, and preludes being written where
accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or
minimized. [20] The music became more chromatic, dissonant, and tonally colorful, with
tensions (with respect to accepted norms of the older forms) about key signatures
increasing. [21] The art song or Lied came to maturity in this era, as did the epic scales of
grand opera, ultimately transcended by Richard Wagner's (1813-1883) Ring cycle. [22]
In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons,
as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility. Increasing
interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred7 the
creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music. The
piano achieved its modern construction in this era (in part due to industrial advances in
metallurgy). It became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the
instrument spurred a large number of piano builders. Many symphony orchestras founding
dates, go back this era. [21] Some musicians and composers were the stars of the day, whereas
some fulfilled both roles, like Niccol Paganini (1782-1840) and Franz Liszt (18111886). [23]
The family of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew. A wider array of
percussion instruments began to appear. Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the
introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes. The
size of the orchestra grew from typically around 40 in the Classical era to be over 100 in the
Romantic era. [21] [ For example, Gustav Mahler's (1860-1911) Symphony of a Thousand
(1906) has been performed with over 150 instrumentalists and choirs of over 400. ]
7

spur = encourage, incite, stimulate, inspire.

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It was in this era that European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow
colonial expansion into other parts of the world. There was also a rise, especially toward
the end of the era, of nationalism in music as composers such as Edvard Grieg (18431907), Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), and Antonin Dvok (1841-1904) echoed
traditional music of their homelands (as well as, in some cases, political sentiments of the
time) in their compositions. [24]

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and The (Russian) Five: Mily Balakirev, Cesar Cui, Alexandar
Borodin, Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.

The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful.

The major time divisions of the music of the Romantic era classical music (music
produced from roughly the second decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century) are:
Classical/Romantic era transition (composers born from about 1750 to 1799)
Early Romantic era (composers born from about 1800 to 1819)
Middle Romantic era (composers born from ca. 1820 to 1839)
Romantic era/20th century transition (composers born from ca. 1860 to 1880)
Classical/Romantic era transition
composers (born 177099)
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
Early Romantic era
composers (born 180019)

Middle Romantic era


composers (born 182039)

Late Romantic era


composers (born 184059)

Vincenzo Bellini
Johannes Brahms
Hector Berlioz
Camille Saint-Sans
Felix Mendelssohn
Georges Bizet .
Frdric Chopin
Nationalism in music
Robert Schumann
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
Franz Liszt
Antonn Dvok
Richard Wagner
Edvard Grieg
Giuseppe Verdi .
Giacomo Puccini

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Romantic era/20th century transition


composers (born 186080)
Gustav Mahler
Richard Strauss
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Max Reger
Other prominent late-century figures include:
Gabriel Faur (1845-1924)
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
Erik Satie (1866-1925)
Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915)
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)
1797-1828 Franz Schubert ranked among the greatest composers of the early
Romantic era; best known for his more than 600 Lieder. "Lied" or "art song"
is setting of romantic poems to music, typically arranged for a solo voice
(singer) and piano. (German: Lied, plural Lieder)
1803-1869 Hector Berlioz Symphonie fantastique (1829); one of the early instances
in classical music of systematic use of, so called, ide fixe, the musical
concept and technique closely related to leitmotif (German: Leitmotiv).
1813-1883 Richard Wagner the earliest composer most specifically associated with
the concept of leitmotif. His cycle of four operas, Der Ring des
Nibelungen, written between 1853 and 1869, uses hundreds of leitmotifs,
often related to specific characters, things, or situations. Wagner had raised
the issue of how music could best unite disparate elements of the plot of a
music drama in his essay "Opera and Drama" (1851); the leitmotif technique
corresponds to this ideal.
1835-1921 Camille Saint-Sans In 1908, at age 73, Saint-Sans was probably France's
most celebrated composer, and he had extensive experience in theater music.
Thus, he was a logical choice for such a prestigious venture as being one of
the first celebrated composers to write a musical score to a silent period
motion picture The Assassination of the Duke of Guise. La Mort du duc
de Guise (original French title), often referred to as L'Assassinat du duc de
Guise, is a French historical film directed by Charles Le Bargy and Andr
Calmettes, one of the first silent period films to feature an original film score.
It was 18 minutes long, a considerable run time for the day. The score
integrates small-scale dramatic details within a large-scale musical form to a
degree rarely equaled during the rest of the silent period. The premire was
held on 17 November 1908. Information about how he approached the
project is scarce and ambiguous. Bonnerot, his biographer, tells us that he
worked out the music "scene by scene before the screen"; and that because of
the approach of winter he left Paris before the film's premire, leaving
Fernand LeBorne to conduct the orchestra.8
1770-1827 Richard Wagner, Gabriel Faur, Claude Debussy and Erik Satie

Saint-Sans had a piano reduction of the score, dedicated to LeBorne (conductor), published by Durand that
year.

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Audio example
"Ride of the Valkyries" from the opera "Die Walkre" ("The Valkyries") by Richard
Wagner (4 min 18 s)
Pyotr (Ilyich) Tchaikovsky - Symphony No.6 in B minor, Op.74 'Pathetique' (1893).
IV. Finale: Adagio lamentoso (B minor, 171 bars)
University of Chicago Symphony Orchestra; conductor: Barbara Schubert
[A Tchaikovsky Tapestry - Mandel Hall - 30 January 2010]

R OMANTIC MUSIC
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romantic_music)
Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the
late 18th or early 19th century. It was related to Romanticism, the European artistic and
literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in
particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany.
Contents
1 Background
3 Trends of the 19th century
1.1 Romanticism
3.1 Non-musical influences
2 Traits
3.2 Nationalism
See also:
Wikipedia, List of Romantic composers.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Romantic_composers >
Wikipedia, Neoromanticism (music).
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoromanticism_(music) >
1 B ACKGROUND
1.1 Romanticism
The Romantic movement was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that
originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the
Industrial Revolution (Encyclopdia Britannica n.d.). In part, it was a revolt against social
and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific
rationalization of nature (Casey 2008). It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts,
music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography (Levin 1959,[page needed]),
education (Gutek 1995, 22054), and natural history (Nichols 2005,[page needed]).
2 T RAITS
Characteristics often attributed to Romanticism, including musical Romanticism, are
(Kravitt 1992, 9394):
a new preoccupation with and surrender to Nature
a fascination with the past, particularly the Middle Ages and legends of medieval
chivalry
a turn towards the mystic and supernatural, both religious and merely spooky
a longing for the infinite
mysterious connotations of remoteness, the unusual and fabulous, the strange and
surprising

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