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Chapter 13 Reading Worksheet

Name _____________________

1. List at least 4 properties of viruses:


1) Contain a single type of nucleic acid DNA or RNA
2) Contain protein coat that surrounds the nucleic acid sometimes enclosed by an
envelope of lipids, proteins, and carbs
3) Multiply inside living cells by using the synthesizing machinery of the cell
4) Cause synthesis of specialized structures that can transfer the viral nucleic acid
to other cells
2. Define host range and state what determines host range.
Host Range: the spectrum of host cells the virus can infect
- Determined by the viruss requirements for its specific attachment to the
host cell and the availability within the potential host of cellular factors required for viral
multiplication
- Outer surface of the virus must chemically interact with specific
receptor sites on the surface of the cell
3. Describe each of the following viral structures/components and indicate whether each
component is found in all viruses or some viruses.
Capsid
- Protein coat that protects the nucleic acid of a virus
- Structure ultimately determined by viral nucleic acid and accounts for most
of the mass of a virus
- Composed of protein subunits called capsomeres
- Some are single type of proteins, some have several types
- Arrangement is characteristic of particular type of virus
- ALL viruses
Nucleic acid (core)
- Made of either DNA or RNA
- ALL viruses
Envelope
- Covers capsid composed of combination of lipids, proteins, and
carbohydrates
- SOME viruses
Spikes
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Carbohydrate-protein complexes that project from surface of envelope


Method of attachment of some viruses to host cells
Associated with ability of certain viruses to clump red blood cells
Means of identification reliable characteristics of viruses
SOME viruses

4. What metric unit is used to express the size of a virus?


- Nanometers (nm)
5. Compare and contrast enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.
- Enveloped
- Enter cell by fusion of viral envelope with animal cell membrane and
releases capsid into host cell cytoplasm
- Roughly spherical
- Some animal viruses released from host cell by extrusion process that coats
virus with layer of host cells plasma membrane layer becomes viral envelope
- Non-enveloped
- Enter animal cell by endocytosis
- Capsid of non-enveloped virus protects nucleic acid from nuclease enzymes
in biological fluids and promotes attachment to susceptible host cells
6. Define viral species.
- A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche
(host)
- Common names used for species
- Subspecies designated by a number
7. List at least 4 properties that are used to classify viruses.
1) Nature of the nucleic acid in the virion
2) Symmetry of the protein shell/capsid
3) Presence or absence of a lipid membrane/envelope
4) Dimensions of the virion and capsid
8. What is a bacteriophage and how are bacteriophage cultivated?
- Bacteriophage: living host cell where viruses grow
- Grown either in suspensions of bacteria in liquid media or in bacterial cultures on
solid media
- Bacteriophage sample mixed with host bacteria and melted agar
- Agar containing bacteriophages and host bacteria then poured into a petri
plate containing hardened layer of agar growth medium
- Virus-bacteria mixture solidifies into a thin top layer that contains a layer of
bacteria approximately one cell thick
- Each virus infects a bacterium, multiplies, releases several hundred new
viruses
- Newly produced viruses infect other bacteria in the immediate vicinity
more new viruses are produced
9. Briefly describe three ways of growing animal viruses.
1) In living animals
- Animal inoculated with specimen then observed for signs of disease or
killed so infected tissues can be examined for virus
2) In embryonated eggs
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- Hole drilled in shell of embryonated egg, viral suspension or suspected


virus-containing tissue is injected into eggs fluid
- Virus injected in membrane most appropriate for its growth
- Growth signaled by death of embryo, by embryo damage, or by formation
of typical pocks or lesions on egg membranes
- Still used to grow viruses for some vaccines
3) In cell cultures
- Consist of cells grown in culture media in the laboratory
- Generally homogenous collection of cells and can be propagated and
handled similar to bacterial cultures more convenient to work with than whole animals
or embryonated eggs
- Cell culture lines started by treating slice of animal tissue with enzymes
that separate individual cells
- Cells suspended in solution that provides osmotic pressure, nutrients,
growth factors needed for cells to grow
- Normal cells tend to adhere to glass or plastic container and
reproduce to form monolayer
- Viruses infecting monolayer sometimes cause cells of
monolayer to deteriorate as they multiply
10. Contrast the following terms: in vivo
and in vitro
- In vivo: in the living organism
- Experiment done in vivo is done in the body of a living organism as
opposed to in a laboratory method that does not use living organism as host of test
- In vitro: in glass (test tube)
- In vitro test is done in glass or plastic vessels in laboratory
11. Define CPE (cytopathic effect):
- Visible effect on host cell, caused by virus, that may result in host cell damage or
death
12. List several methods used to identify viruses.
1) Cytopathic effect
- Must microscopically examine tissue/cell cultures to visualize CPE
2) Serological tests
- Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient
- Use antibodies to identify viruses in neutralization tests, viral
hemagglutination, and Western blot
3) Nucleic acids (molecular tests)
13. Briefly describe the steps in the multiplication of a generic animal virus. (p. 373
and following)
1) Attachment
- Virus attaches to host cell via receptors on animal cell membranes
- Receptors are proteins and glycoproteins normally found in the cell
membrane
2) Entry/Penetration
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- Endocytosis (pinocytosis) by non-enveloped viruses


- Fusion of viral envelope with animal cell membrane by enveloped viruses
3) Uncoating
- Separation of viral nucleic acid from capsid
4) Biosynthesis
DNA Viruses
- Viral DNA enters host cell nucleus
- Transcription and translation of viral genes to make viral proteins
- Replication of viral DNA
RNA Viruses
- Biosynthesis and assembly occur in cytoplasm of host cell
- Viral mRNAs are made and translated into viral proteins (including capsid
proteins)
- Viral RNA (genome) is synthesized
5) Maturation
- Viral nucleic acid is packaged into capsids made by transcription and
translation of viral genes
- Complete virons assembled
6) Release
Non-enveloped Viruses
- Released by RUPTURE through host cell membrane
- Usually destroys host cell
Enveloped Viruses
- Released by BUDDING through host cell membrane
14. Name the two general methods used for entry of animal viruses into animal cells.
1) Budding: release of enveloped virus through plasma membrane of an animal cell
- Doesnt kill host cell immediately, in come cases host cell survives
2) Rupture: release of non-enveloped viruses from host cell plasma membrane
- Usually results in death of host cell
15. Define oncogenic:
- Viruses capable of inducing tumors in animals
16. Define transformation.
- Tumor cells acquire properties that are distinct from properties of uninfected cells
or from infected cells that dont form tumors
17. List several oncogenic viruses and the cancers they are associated with.
Oncogenic DNA viruses
- HPV: Human papilloma virus
- EBV: Epstein-Barr virus
- HBV: Hepatitis B Virus

Oncogenic RNA viruses


- HTLV-1
- HTLV-2: Human T cell leukemia viruses

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- FeLV: Feline leukemia viruses


18. Describe latency (latent infection) and name several viruses known for latency:
- Condition in which pathogen remains in host for long periods without producing
disease
- No symptoms during latency; viruses not usually released
- Simplexvirus: produces cold sores
- Varicellovirus: chickenpox
- HTLV-1 and HTLV-2: leukemia
19. Describe what is meant by persistent or chronic viral infection and provide an
example:
- A disease that occurs gradually over a long period viruses continuously released
- Typically fatal
- Human papillomavirus: cervical cancer
- HIV-1 and HIV-2 (lentivirus): HIV/AIDS
- Hepatitis B virus: liver cancer
20. Define prion.
- Infectious agent consisting of a self-replicating protein, with no detectable
nucleic acids
21. Describe the general pathology of prion diseases: (top right column, p. 383)
1) PrPc produced by cells secreted to cell surface
2) PrPSc may be acquired or produced by an altered PrPc gene
3) PrPSc reacts with PrPc on cell surface
4) PrPSc converts the PrPc to PrPSc
5) The new PrPSc converts more PrPc
6) The new PrPSc is taken in, possibly by receptor-mediated endocytosis
7) PrPSc accumulates in endosomes
8) PrPSc continues to accumulate as endosome contents are transferred to
lysosomes
- Result is cell death
22. Name three well-known prion diseases:
- Mad Cow Disease
- Kuru
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
- Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker Syndrome
- Fatal Familial Insomnia
23. Provide a common name for each of the viruses in the Herpeviridae listed below and
name a disease caused by each: (p. 375)
HHV1 and HHV2
- Simplexvirus
- Cold sores
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HHV3
- Varicellovirus
- Chickenpox
HHV4
- Lymphocryptovirus
- Infectious mononucleosis
HHV5
- Cytomegalovirus
- CMV inclusion diseas
HHV6
- Roseolovirus
- Roseola
HHV7
- Roseolovirus
- Infects most infants, causing measleslike rashes

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