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# ECE 445 Analysis and Design of Power Electronic Circuits

## Problem Set 5 Solutions

Fall 2002

Problem PS5.1
Erickson, Problem 2.1
Solution
(a) First, assign the inductor voltage drop vL (t) in the direction of inductor current i(t). When the switch
is in position 1, vL (t) = Vg and when it is in position 2 vL (t) = v(t). The inductor voltage vL (t) is shown in
Figure 1. Applying inductor volt-second (flux) balance gives,
hvL (t)i
V

## = DTs Vg + D0 Ts v(t) DTs Vg + D0 Ts V = 0

D
= 0 Vg
D

where D0 = 1 D and the small-ripple approximation has been used to estimate v(t) V . To determine I,
the equilibrium value of the inductor current, we use amp-second (charge) balance on the capacitor current
v(t)
ic (t). When the switch is in position 1, iC (t) = v(t)
R and when it is in position 2 iC (t) = i(t) R . The
capacitor current iC (t) is shown in Figure 1. Applying charge balance gives,








v(t)
v(t)
V
V
0
0
+ D Ts i(t)
DTs
+ D Ts I
=0
hiC (t)i = DTs
R
R
R
R
D
V
Vg
D Vg
=
I =
=
RD0
(D0 )2 R
(1 D)2 R

iT

iD

Vg

iC (t)

i(t)

vL (t)
L

vL (t)

+
v(t)

iC (t)
v(t)/R

Vg
DTs

D 0 Ts

DTs

D 0 Ts

v(t)

i(t) v(t)/R

Figure 1: Buck-boost converter: inductor voltage vL (t) and the capacitor current iC (t).

V. Caliskan

## ECE 445 Analysis and Design of Power Electronic Circuits

Problem Set 5 Solutions

Fall 2002

(b) Figure 2 shows the plots for the equilibrium voltage V and current I versus duty ratio D.
V

I
0.5

Vg
2Vg /R
D
0.5

Figure 2: Plots for the equilibrium voltage V and current I versus duty ratio D.
(c) DC design specifications are Vg = 30V, V = 20V, R = 4 and fs = 40kHz. The switching period
Ts = 1/fs = 25s.
(i) Using our results from part (a), we get
V
V
D
20
D=
= 0.4
=
=
Vg
1D
V Vg
20 30
I=

D
0.4 30V
Vg
=
= 8.333A
2
(1 D) R
0.62 4

(ii) Using the waveform for the inductor current i(t) shown in Figure 3, we can estimate the ripple
magnitude for the inductor
Vg
Vg DTs
DTs L =
2i =
L
2i
Choosing i to be ten percent of I (i = 0.1I) gives
L=

Vg DTs
(30V)(0.4)(25s)
=
= 180H
2(0.1I)
2(0.833A)

(iii) Using the waveform for the capacitor voltage v(t) shown in Figure 3, we can estimate the ripple
magnitude for the inductor
2v =

v
V
V DTs
DTs
DTs C =
RC
RC
2vR

C=

V. Caliskan

V DTs
(20V)(0.4)(25s)
=
= 250F
2vR
2(0.1V)(4)

## ECE 445 Analysis and Design of Power Electronic Circuits

Problem Set 5 Solutions
i(t)

Fall 2002

v(t)
i

D 0 Ts

DTs

v
DTs

D 0 Ts
t

Figure 3: Buck-boost converter: inductor current i(t) and capacitor voltage v(t).
(d) When the transistor is on iT = i(t), otherwise iT = 0. The transistor drain current is illustrated in
Figure 4. Given that the average value of the inductor current I = 8.333A and DTs = 10s, the values
for the minimum and maximum values of the inductor current for 10% ripple are iT,max = 9.167A and
iT,min = 7.5A. Therefore, the peak value of the transistor drain current is 9.167A for 10% inductor current
ripple. If we increase the current ripple to 50%, the values for the minimum and maximum transistor current
become iT,max = 12.5A and iT,min = 4.167A. Therefore, the peak value of the transistor drain current is
12.5A for 50% inductor current ripple.
(e) When the diode is on iD = i(t), otherwise iD = 0. The diode current is illustrated in Figure 4.
Given that the average value of the inductor current I = 8.333A and D0 Ts = 15s, the values for the
minimum and maximum values of the diode current for 10% ripple are iD,max = 9.167A and iD,min = 7.5A.
Therefore, the peak value of the diode current is 9.167A for 10% inductor current ripple. If we increase the
current ripple to 50%, the values for the minimum and maximum diode current become iD,max = 12.5A and
iD,min = 4.167A. Therefore, the peak value of the diode current is 12.5A for 50% inductor current ripple.
Note that iT + iD = i(t).
iT

iD
iT,max

iD,max

iT,min

i
iD,min

DTs

D 0 Ts

DTs
t

D 0 Ts
t

Figure 4: Buck-boost converter: transistor drain current iT and diode current iD . Note that these figure are
not to scale. For our problem DTs = 10s and D0 Ts = 15s.

V. Caliskan

## ECE 445 Analysis and Design of Power Electronic Circuits

Problem Set 5 Solutions

Fall 2002

Problem PS5.2
Erickson, Problem 2.4
Solution
First assign the inductor voltage drop vL (t) in the direction of the inductor current i(t) with the positive
sign on the left side of the inductor. When the switches are in position 1, vL (t) = Vg v(t) and when they
are in position 2 vL (t) = Vg v(t). The plot of the inductor voltage vL (t) is shown in Figure 5. Applying
inductor volt-second (flux) balance gives,
hvL (t)i
M (D)

## = DTs (Vg v(t)) + D0 Ts (Vg v(t)) DTs (Vg V ) + D0 Ts (Vg V ) = 0

V
=
= D D0 = 2D 1
Vg

where D0 = 1 D and the small-ripple approximation has been used for v(t) V . The plot of the converter
gain M (D) versus the duty ratio D is shown in Figure 5.
M (D)

vL (t)
Vg v(t)
DTs

1
D 0 Ts
t

D
0.5

Vg v(t)

Figure 5: Inductor voltage vL (t) and the plot of converter gain M (D) versus duty ratio D.

Problem PS5.3
Midterm Problem MT1.1
Solution
Please see the Midterm 1 Solutions on the course web site for the solution to Problem MT1.1.

V. Caliskan