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# TRANSPORTATION AND ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

## 1 . What do you understand by Transportation problem ?

It is a special type of linear programming model in which th goods are shipped from
various origins to different destinations. The objective is to find the best possible
allocations of goods from various origins to different destinations such that the total
transportation cost is minimum.
2.

m
Min Z =
i=1

## Cij xij subject to the constraints

j=1

n
xij = ai i = 1,2, .., m
j=1
m
xij = bj j = 1,2, .., n Where
i=1
ai = Number of units available in iththe origin
bj = Number of units required in jth destination
Cij = transportation cost from iththe origin to jth destination
3.

## What is an unbalanced transportation problem ? How to solve it?

A transportation problem is said to be unbalanced if the total supply is not equal to
the total demand ie
m

ai bj
i=1

j=1

the unbalanced transportation problem is converted in to a balanced one by adding a dummy row
or dummy column whichever is necessary. The unit transportation cost for the dummy row or
column elements are assigned zero. Then the problem is solved by the usual procedure.
4. Define (i) Feasible solution (ii) Basic feasible solution (iii) Non-degenerate solution
Feasible solution : A set of non-negative values xij satisfies the constraint equation is called a
feasible solution.
Basic feasible solution : A basic feasible solution is said to be basic, if the number of positive
allocations are m+n-1 . If the number of allocations are equal to m+n-1, it is called nondegenerate basic feasible solution.
5. What do you understand by degeneracy in a transportation problem
If the number of occupied cells in a m x n transportation problem, is less than (m+n-1) , then the
problem is said to be degenerate.
6. When does a TP have a unique solution ?
While doing optimality test, if a empty cell evaluations ie ij = Cij (ui + vj) are positive, then
the problem is said to be have an unique solution.
7. What is the purpose of MODI method ?
MODI method is the test procedure for optimality involves examination of each unoccupied cell
to determine whether or not making an allocation in it reduce the total transportation cost and
then repeating this procedure until lowest possible transportation cost is obtained.
8. List any three approaches used with TP for determining the starting soloution (or) the
initial basic feasible solution.
a.

North West corner rule (ii) Least cost entry method (iii) Vogels approximations method.

9. How will you identify that a TP has got an alternate optimal solution ?
While doing optimality test, if any empty cell evaluation ie
ij = Cij (ui + vj) = 0 then the problem is said to have an alternate optimal solution.
10. When do you say that the occupied cell is in independent position ?
When it is not possible to draw a closed loop from the allocations, the occupied cell is in
independent position .
11. What is maximization type transportation problem and how these problems are solved?
The main objective of transportation problem is to minimize the transportation cost. In
maximization type problems, the objective is to maximize the profit or maximize the total sales.

To solve these problems, we have to convert all the cell entries by multiplying 1. Then the
problem is solved by the usual method.
12.
a.

## Write down the basic steps involved in solving a transportation problem.

To find the initial basic feasible solution

b. To find an optimal solution by making successive improvements from the initial basic feasible
solution.
13.

State the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a feasible
solution to a transportation problem?
The necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of feasible solution is a solution that
satisfies all conditions of supply and demand.

## 14. What is an assignment problem ? Give two applications ?

It is a special type of transportation problem in which the number of jobs allocated for different
machines or operators. The objective is to maximize the overall profit or minimize the total cost
for a given assignment schedule.
a.

It is used in production environment in which the number of jobs are assigned to number of
workers or machines in such a way that the total time to complete all the jobs will be minimum.

## b. It is used in traveling salesman.

15. What do you mean by an unbalanced AP?
Since the assignment is one to one basis the problem have a square matrix. If the given problem
is not a square matrix ie the number of rows and columns are not same then it is called
unbalanced assignment problem. To make it a balanced assignment add a dummy row or dummy
column and then convert it into a balanced one. Assign zero cost values for the dummy row or
column and solve it by usual assignment method.
16. State the difference between TP & AP
Assignment
Allocations are made one to one

Transportation
More than one allocation is possible in each

a square matrix.

## column. Hence the table will be a

square matrix.
It will always provide degeneracy

## any column will be equal to 1

positive quantity.

## 17. How do you convert the maximization problem in to a minimization one ?

To solve the maximization problem in to minimization assignment problem, first convert the
given maximization matrix in to an equivalent minimization matrix form by multiplying 1 in all
the cost elements. Then the problem is a maximization one and can be solved by the usual
assignment method.
18. Give the linear programming form of A.P.
Objective is to minimize the total cost involve.

Min Z

i=1

j=1

## x11 +x12 + x13 + + x1n = 1

x21 +x22 + x23+ + x2n

= 1

## x31 +x32 + x33 + + x3n

= 1

.
xn1 + xn2 + xn3 + . + xnn

19. What is the name of the method used in getting the optimum assignment ?
Hungarian method.
20. What is the indication of an alternate solution in an assignment problem ?
If the final cost matrix contains more than the required number of zero for assignment at
independent position then it indicated that the problem has an alternate optimal solution.

21. What do you inderstand by resticted assignments ? Explain how should one overcome it ?
In assignment problems, it is assured that the performance of all the machines and operators are
same. Hence any machine can be assigned to any job. But in practical cases, a machine cannot do
all the operations of a job and operator cannot do all kinds of tasks. Therefore a high processing
time is assigned to the impossible cell (M or ) and then it will be solved by the usual
assignment method. In the final assignment the restricted cell will not be present.
22. Write two theorems that are used for solving assignment problems
Theorem 1 : The optimum assignment sschedule remains unaltered if we add or subtract a
constant to / from all the elements of the row or column of the assignment cost matrix.
Theorem 2 : If for an assignment problem all Cij 0, then an assignment schedule (xij) which
satisfies Cij xij = 0 , must be optimal.
23. Write the mathematical formulation of an assignment problem.
n

Min Z =

i=1

j=1

xij

=1

xij

=1

i=1

j=1
xij

0, otherwise

## Cij = Cost of assigning the n th job to m th machine.

24. What is traveling salesman problem and what are its objectives ?

In this model a salesman has to visit n cities. He has to start from a particular city, visit each
city once and then return to his starting point. The main objective of a salesman is to select the
best sequence in which he visited all cities in order to minimize the total distance traveled or
minimize the total time.
25. Why assignment problem will always provide degeneracy ?
In assignment problem, the allocation is one to one basis therefore, the number of occupied cells
in each row and each column will be exactly equal to 1. Hence assignment problem will always
provide degeneracy.
26. Why a transportation technique or the simplex method cannot used to solve an assignment
problem
The transportation technique or simplex method cannot be used to solve the assignment problem
because of degeneracy .

PART-B

Source

1. Obtain the initial solution for the following TP using NWCR, LCM, VAM

1
2
3
4
Demand

A
2
3
5
1
7

Destination
B
7
3
4
6
9

C
4
1
7
2
18

Supply
5
8
7
14
34

Destination
A
B
C
D
Supply
3. Solve the following TP.
P
5
4
2
6
20
Q
8
3
5
7
30
Destination
R
5
9
4
6
50
Capacity
Demand
10
401
202 303
100
1
2
2
3
10
2
4
1
2
15
3
1
3
1
40
Demand 20
15
30
Source

Source

2. Solve the TP where the cell entries denote the unit transportation costs.

Factory

F1
F2
F3
Demand

D1
19
70
40
5

Warehouse
D2
D3
30
50
30
40
8
70
8
7

D4
10
60
30
14

Supply
7
9
18

Factory

1
2
3
4
Requirement

A
9
7
6
6
4

B
12
3
5
8
4

Warehouse
C
D
9
6
7
7
9
11
11
2
6
2

E
9
5
3
2
4

Source

1
2
3
Demand

A
11
21
8
30

Destination
B
C
20
7
16
20
12
8
25
35

D
8
12
9
40

Supply
50
40
70

F
10
5
11
10
2

Available
5
6
2
9

Source

Destination
A
1
40
2
44
3
38
Demand 40

B
25
35
38
20

C
22
30
28
60

D
33
30
30
30

Supply
100
30
70

FROM

## 8. Solve the following unbalanced TP.

1
2
3
Demand

1
5
6
3
75

TO
2
1
4
2
20

3
7
6
5
50

Supply
10
80
15

Source

9. Consider the following transshipment problem involving 4 sources and two destinations.
The supply values of the sources S1, S2, S3 and S4 are 200 units, 250 units, 200 units and
450 units respectively. The demand values of the destinations D1 and D2 are 550 units and
550 units, respectively. The transportation cost per unit between different sources and
destination
10. ns are summarized in the following table. Solve the transshipment problem.
Destination
S1
S1
0
S2
10
S3
15
S4
18
D1
15
D2
10

S2
6
0
20
25
20
25

S3
24
6
0
10
60
25

S4
7
12
8
0
15
23

D1
24
5
45
30
0
4

D2
10
20
7
6
10
0

11. A firm having 2 sources S1 & S2 wishes to ship its products to 2 destinations
D1 & D2. The number of units available at S1 & S2 are 5 & 25 resp. and the
product demanded at D1 & D2 are 20 & 10 units respectively. The firm
instead of shipping directly decides to investigate the possibility of
transshipment. The unit transportation costs (in rupees) are given in the
following table. Find the optimal shipping schedule.
Source

Destination

Available

S1
0
2
3
4
-

Source

S1
S2
Destination
D1
D2
Demand

S2
2
0
2
4
-

D1
3
2
0
1
20

## 12. Solve the AP:

A
1
9
4
8

B
4
7
5
7

C
6
10
11
8

D
3
9
7
5

A
10
15
35
17

B
25
30
20
25

C
15
5
12
24

D
20
15
24
20

I
II
III
IV
13. Solve the AP:
I
II
III
IV

Men
I
II
III
IV
V

A
1
2
5
3
1

B
3
4
6
1
5

C
2
3
3
4
6

D
8
1
4
2
5

E
8
5
6
2
4

Machine
1
2
11
17
9
7
13
16

3
8
12
15

4
16
6
12

5
20
15
16

Jobs

A
B
C

D2
4
4
1
0
10

5
25
-

D
E

21
14

24
10

17
12

28
11

26
15

Job

## 16. A company is faced with the problem of assigning 4 machines to different

jobs (one machine to one job only). The profits are estimated as follows.
A
3
7
3
6
5
5

1
2
3
4
5
6

Machine
B
6
1
8
4
2
7

C
2
4
5
3
4
6

D
6
4
8
7
3
4

Job

## Solve the problem to maximize the profit.

17. Determine the optimum assignment schedule for the following assignment
Problem. The cost matrix is given below.
Machine
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
11
17
8
16
20
15
B
9
7
12
6
15
13
C
13
16
15
12
16
8
D
21
24
17
28
2
15
E
14
10
12
11
15
6
If the job C cannot be assigned to machine 6, will the optimum solution change?
18. A company has four machines to do three jobs. Each job can be assigned to one and only
one machine. The cost of each job on each machine is given in the following table.
1
18
8
10

A
B
C

2
24
13
15

3
28
17
19

4
32
19
22

## What are job assignments which will minimize the cost.

19. Write the algorithm for Hungarian method.
20. There are four machines in a machine shop. On a particular day the shop got Orders for
executing five jobs (A, B, C, D & E). the expected profit for each job on each job on
machine is as follows:
1

A
32
41
57
18
B
48
54
62
34
C
20
31
81
57
D
71
43
41
47
E
52
29
51
50
Find the optimal assignment of job to machines to maximize the profit. Which
job should be rejected.
21. A marketing manager has five salesmen working under his control to be
assigned to five sales territories. Taking into account the sales potential of the territories
and the capabilities of the salesman, the marketing manager
estimated the sales per month(in thousands of Rs.) for each combination and is presented
as below. Find the assignment of salesmen to sales Territories to
maximize the sales value per month.
Salesmen
1
2
3
4
5

A
32
40
41
22
29

Sales Territories
B
C
D
38
40
28
24
28
21
27
33
30
38
41
36
33
40
35

E
40
36
37
36
39

22. Solve the following assignment problem using Hungerian method. The matrix entries are
processing times in hours.
Job
1
2
3
4
5

1
20
4
23
17
16

Operator
2
3
22
35
26
24
14
17
15
16
19
21

4
22
24
19
18
19

5
18
7
19
15
25

23. Five wagons are available at five stations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. These are required at five stations
I, II, III, IV and V. the mileages between various stations are given by
From
1

I
10

II
5

To
III
9

IV
18

V
11

2
3
4
5

13
3
18
11

29
2
9
6

6
4
12
14

12
4
17
19

14
5
15
10

covered?