Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

Resistance and Adoption towards Written Music at the Crossroads of Modernity: Gradual

Passage to Notation in Turkish Makam Music


Author(s): Ali Ergur and Nilgn Dorusz
Source: International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol. 46, No. 1 (JUNE
2015), pp. 145-174
Published by: Croatian Musicological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24327332
Accessed: 24-02-2016 12:01 UTC

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/
info/about/policies/terms.jsp
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content
in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.
For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Croatian Musicological Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to International Review of
the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. ErgurGradual

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Passage

to Notation in Turkish Makam

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Music

Ali Ergur2 - Nilgn


Dogrusz3
u>aiatasaray

Resistance
and Adoption
towards
Written Music
at the Crossroads
of
Gradual
Modernity:
Passage
to Notation
in Turkish
Makam
Music1

iragan Cd No: 36
34349 ISTANBUL
Turkey
E-mail: aergur@gsu.edu.tr
UDC: 781.24-

is a sound

world of significations that


actors attribute to its specific social context. In this
music acquires
a status of polysmie
conception,
language

as

socio-cultural

phenomenon,

which

inserts into it a symbolic function. (Green, 2006: 202)


Adorno stresses that music without signification, a
coherence of the tones would
phenomenological
resemble

to an

acoustic

kaleidoscope.

Nevertheless

the opposite
side, the fixing of signification on
specific musical units would mean the end of the
music, even of the musicality. (Adorno, 2002: 114)

the part of the production of social abstrac


tions, musical symbolism begins with its codifica
tion in its own
technical
ontology,
through
Besides

standardizations

that can

appear

in written

7.033.3.9

Original Scientific Paper


Izvorni znanstveni rad
Received: April 23, 2014
Primljeno: 23. travnja 2014.
Accepted: March 18, 2015
Prihvaceno: 18. ozujka 2015.

Introduction
Music

university

Ortaky

or

- Rsum
Abstract
Turkish makam music was
at its origins, an orally
transmitted, learned and
performed tradition. The
to written music
passage
started a hot debate that
caused
a sharp division
between
among musicians,
the defenders of the mek
system and those who are
for writing both the contem
porary works and the older
ones. We analyze this
apparently technical issue
as a sign of modernization
in Turkey. The rising need
to write music and to
consume
written music
in
have been considered,
our view, as explicit manifes
tations of modern attitudes
related to rationalization
and standardization.
We
stress that the evolution of
the Turkish makam music
reveals a series of indica
tions for situating
modernization
in Turkey.

ported by the Scientific Research


2
Professor, Galatasaray
University, Department of Sociology.
3
Professor, Istanbul Technical University, Turkish Music

neyworas:
lunwy

Turkish
modernity

music
Ottoman
music
makam

music
modernization
in music
written

music

Conservatory.

cultural

1 This

article

is an outcome

of the project 15.502.001


sup
Fund of Galatasaray
University.

change

145

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music
Gradual Passage

1: 145-174

unwritten forms. Music need not to appear


significations through sounds. Nevertheless
a culture

modernizes.

As

Western

Europe

in written forms in order to transmit


writing seems to be a rising need as
began

to

move

toward

an

industrial

society starting in the fifteenth century, a variety of measures became standardized


along the way. Music and its technical tools have gradually rationalized through
and spatially expanded
standards. This was a natural conse
well-calculated
quence of two principal disembedding mechanisms of the modernity at institutional
level: (1) The proliferation of symbolic tokens into the everyday life; and (2) recon
struction of the social on expert systems. (Giddens, 1992: 22) Money plays a crucial
role in such a transformation of human relations through a comprehensive
insti
tutionalization of the value, which continuously converts them into anonymous

exchanges, due to symbolic token's (money) ontology that is structurally inde


pendent from the essence of things that it valorizes. (Simmel, 1999: 116) Just as
and

currency

measurements

such

as

distance,

and

time,

became

weight

the technical components of music have also been standardized.


standardized,
The diatonic scale system, codified in the seventeenth century, became a matter of
convention. Although most of the critics of the Turkish modernization
ascribe
to
a
or
Western
similar
modernity
European
project,
sociological
developments
have been observed in Ottoman Empire and republican Turkey, even if the
historical dynamics were quite different. Indeed the Ottoman society experienced
a modernization
process from early eighteenth century onward. During the
second

half

of the

eighteenth

and

the

entire

nineteenth

two

centuries,

opposing

forces were observed in Ottoman society: at the same time that state political
power was dramatically declining, cultural change and institutional renovation
were also in play. Especially in urban areas, modern life forms emerged.
As

it has

been

rationalization
characteristics

the

process.
of the

is not exclusive

case

in Western

According

rationalization

to Western

music.

Europe,

music

also

has

been

subject

to a

to Weber, notation is one of the most salient


in Western

Europe.

Different cultures

Weber

notes

have

made

that

notation

use of some

notation systems, yet either they remained technically limited, or they vanished
historical forces annihilated them. The growth of polyphonic music in
Europe necessitated the development of a system to communicate a polyphonic

because

musical

conception began to rise, as a projection of slowly growing commercial


of fixed
logic, the systematic need to express nuances and the indispensability
etc.
as
well
as
musical
nuances.
for
scales,
durations,
accents,
Thus,
pitches,
prac
tical reasons, 'measured
notation' was progressively expanded.
(Weber, 1998:
117-121)

in Turkish Makam music


Although the historical path of the modernization
did not follow the same socio-economic
a
similar
rationalization
steps,
process
took place from the 18th century on. Besides the hidden temperament of the
sound system, other signs of a significant change have been observed since that
time. The reduction or simplification of rhythmic patterns is a stunning indicator
146

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
and Adoption towards
Resistance
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

of such a technical change, which in fact represents a more comprehensive


social
one that animated it. Although, rhythmic patterns (usl-s) have been played more
this transformation: the melodic
slowly, a contradictory movement accompanied

became denser than its older forms, in order to fill this musical void,
instead of emphasizing
the repetitive
creating more virtuosic compositions,
character of the melody. (Feldman, 2002: 122-128) There again, we observe that,
through modernization, the simplification of some basic forms or tools of expres

expression

the emergence of individuality and originality as artistic and popu


Thus agility in musical performance, as well as in composition was
given precedence, particularly up to the end of 18th century. Similarly, the passage
to written music has been one of the most significant signs of modernity. Since
then, different systems of notation have been used to write music, and to record
musical heritage. While both the formal music education system and a majority of
sion enabled
lar qualities.

traditional

and performers still support written music and music


composers
debates
around
the idea of writing in makam music still perpetuate.
literacy,
makam
is
known
rather under the ambiguous (because ever chang
music,
Today,
and
title
Turkish
Art
Music, fulfilling a nostalgia-value (Stokes, 1997:
ing)
popular
in
the
historical
682)
imaginations of its performers as well as followers. In this
we
that
such a decontextualization of this traditional art is a tendency
article,
argue
to modernity, instead of a rupture with it, given that a modern worldview is not

a historically, culturally and conceptually fixed phenomenon.


This is the reason
as a cross-cultural and
why we preferred to follow the traces of modernization
cross-temporal sociological fact. We try, in this article, to point out that the passage
to written music in makam tradition is a sign of modernity, and interpret the
musicological
point

of view,

evidence
while

in a more multidisciplinary

trying

to place

it in a more

perspective

dialectical

to refute a clichd

axis.

The question of passage to written music in Ottoman context has already


been studied by some scholars. In an essential article of comprehensive
scope,
Ayangil presents historical initiatives of writing Ottoman makam music in the
Western system, together with an analysis of their musicological
functions
according to musicians of the time. (Ayangil, 2008) Although this study furnishes
a substantial framework for all further studies around the same topic, its method
and technical aspects of the passage to written
ology emphasizes
musicological
music, rather than the underlying sociological causalities. From a social scientist
perspective, Karakayah constructs a meaningful and useful comparison between

the historical trajectories of West European and Ottoman musical life, for indicat
and technology
ing the contextual character of each knowledge-engendering
milieu
as
a
sum
of
connected
actors acting
creating
('assemblage'
incessantly
rather as 'mediators', following Latour's thesis [Latour, 2010:189-191]).
Instead of
it
Western
notation
tradition
as
an
essential
a
he
as
an ideo
taking
priori,
presents
forces mobilized by centralizing political
operation of the standardizing
in
the
both
authority,
Carolingian
reign in 8th and 9th centuries, and by the

logical

147

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

1: 145-174

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music
Gradual Passage

reformist era of the Ottoman

Empire at the end of the 18th century. Although


in a comparative
the Ottoman experience
sociological
he rather emphasizes
the link between the political power and the

evaluates

Karakayali

perspective,
transformation of cultural assets. (Karakayali, 2010) Our study, while drawing on
these approaches, insists on the correlation between the modernization process as
a sociological fact and the motivations of musicians to adopt or to resist written
music. We thus show how the adoption of some techniques
the rising social demands as well as political will.

and values depend

on

As a methodological
choice, we preferred to write names of persons or
terms in contemporary
Turkish language
(e.g. makam instead of
believe
that
the
correct
form
of a personal name is its
most
maqam). Although we
technical

formulation

in the original language and alphabet, we are debating here some


facts, but rather their perception or conceptual
topics not as pure musicological
ization in the socio-political
sphere of Turkey, and in the cross perspective of
several disciplines. Nevertheless by following Turkish wording, we tried to respect
instead of its currently used
original language's pronunciation (e.g. Hampartzum
and if necessary to write with extra-Turkish word
that do not exist in Turkish alphabet (e.g. Christos
instead of Hristos). We also gathered all the technical terms and names of persons
in the Glossary presented at the end of the article, which gives both the Turkish
We preferred to use the word 'Hellenic'
spelling and its English pronunciation.

Turkish saying Hamparsum),


ing for the letters or sounds

instead

of 'Greek'

for

several

reasons.

The

identification

of contemporary

Greek

language with the ancient Greek culture is a doubtful and confusing expression,
which is more ideological
than technical and linguistic.4 We are aware that this
deviation
is
a
linguistic
gift of the 19th century modern and nationalist point of
view for both Western Europe and Turkey, together with a Euro-centric revivalist
tendency that adjusted its historical and ideological genealogy to reflect ancient
Greek civilization. Thus we preferred to use the word 'Hellenic', at least for the
language, and 'Rum' for Greek people of Turkey today as well as in Ottoman era.

Written Music

as Sign of Modernization

The concept of 'modern' has been identified, in social sciences as well as in


other domains of the everyday life, exclusively with the 'new', 'original', 'actual'
and 'progressive'.
While these words may be attributes of 'modern' they do not
completely

define the term. As a much profound

concept, modern, at least in the

4 The
in the Turkish context, where words 'Grek',
much more complicated
problem becomes
from English in pronunciation
as well as in
'Rum', 'Elen', (even 'Greek' directly borrowed
manner. Finally the inhabitants
of the actual Greece call
confused
writing) coexist in a desperately
'Yunan',

themselves

as 'Ellines'

(EM.r|V) people

and their country as 'Ellada'

(EXkSa).

148

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:

Gradual

to Notation in Turkish Makam

Passage

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Music

limits of sociology, corresponds to a world view based particularly on a secular


is
conception of life. Modern culture which ontologically promotes individualism
considered a release from the care of an order or of the Church. (Simmel, 2010:
702) With the progressive rise of capitalism in Western Europe, since the 13th
century, the logic of the feudal social organization was gradually replaced by a
commercial reasoning in every field of the social action. Feudal relations necessi
tate a strictly established set of social statuses and roles, organized around an
agricultural division of labor, which implies a general immobility of social classes
and means

of production. Capitalist activity, on the contrary, needs a dynamic


social action, in the search for ever-gliding and spatio-temporally
unfixed profit. In the world of agricultural societies, standards are assured by
and variable

imposing and coercive traditions, which progressively become less normative


cultural heritage, instead of being mechanisms
of social order. Commercial
an
while its
activity engenders
instrumentally
simplified life organization,
constituents

become

forces evolve

multiplied and diversified, through which different social


into conflicts and articulate opposite socio-economic
dynamics.

progress is the fundamental principle that animates such a moving


and historical
Although emerging in a variety of economical
the
need
to
into
what
was
once
circumstances,
put
writing
expressed as oral form
seems to be an ineluctable phase in the evolution of societies. (Escarpit, 1993:15)
In other words, when social life becomes too complex, and the elements of a
system are so diversified that it becomes impossible to assure their constant inter
Consequently,
social milieu.

connection, its material and immaterial means are systematically simplified, from
the industrial organization
to the cultural expressions.
1995: 24)
(Luhmann,
Modernity develops thus, after the formation of a secular life conception, a stand
ardization

process

that

functions

nature, and not the traditional,


such

circumstances,

record

according

to

the

rational

cyclic, unprogressive

becomes

an

important

need

measurement

of the

regime of knowledge.
to

organize

social

In
life

through a precise system of redistribution of resources. For example, particularly


from 15th century on, the utility of the (Latin) alphabet played a major role in the
proliferation of writing throughout Western Europe, in parallel to the rise of a
capitalistic conception of the world, giving it a status of virtue. (Christin, 2001:25)
Therefore numerical precision, calculated behavior and exactitude emerge as
characteristics

of the modern attitude. (Sombart, 1928: 19) Thus written culture


one of the most important pillars of modernity. Indeed the prolif
eration of printing was a precondition for the standardization
of information in
characterizes

15th century. According to Barthes, writing is the source of freedom, nevertheless,


since it serves to concretize memories of a certain period or context, it is always
historically anchored. More precisely, writing is situated between freedom and

remembering, thus between change and fixity. (Barthes, 1972:18-19) In Derrida's


terms, the rise of the writing can also be interpreted as a dissimulation of the natural
presence of the meaning, which in turn generates an intrinsic violence in the soul as
149

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
and Adoption towards
Resistance
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

unconsciousness. (Derrida, 1992:55) As virtue or as violence, writing accomplished,


at least in the history of Western Europe's modernity, a crucial role to fix, and
therefore standardize meanings, facilitating a maximum of capitalist profit.
which meant essentially a passage
As for the music, without standardization,
to written expressions, there would certainly be no integration of spatial and
temporal

units,

therefore

a commonly

convened

of musical

system

notation

as

well as the inventorying of the historical heritage. This process has long been
thought of as an exclusively West European experience of modernity. Yet several
recent analyses argue that modernity is not merely a historical fact, developed in

some specific economic and cultural circumstances, but is rather a set of categor
ies and a fundamental framework of perception of the world. Indeed, the rise of a
dynamic urban life was indicated by Georg Simmel, as both a source of and a

precondition for modern culture. In close relation with the rise of the individual
ism, the metropolitan life engenders a stimulating milieu for modern man, who
develops there a protection mechanism against the uprooting effect of his/her
intellectual ability. In urban conditions where life is essentially based on calculus
and exactitude, culture becomes a dynamic process through which new syntheses
are constantly made around a monetary economy. (Simmel, 1989: 234-237)

Developments
In accordance

in the Adoption
with

this

theoretical

of Notation
perspective,

for Makam
the

case

Music
of the

transformation

of Turkish music presents an excellent example, through which the social forces
that boosted modern culture in Turkey can be detected. Indeed, particularly the
last quarter of the 18th century in Ottoman Empire has been the scene of signifi
cant social transformations in concert with institutional reformations. Although
Ottoman

political elite estimated a revival and strengthening of the traditions,


the
reforms, time was revolved and the once triggered off transformation
during
has been calibrated itself on terms of modernization.
(Karpat, 2006: 33) The most

enriching aspect of the reformist movements, especially the Tanzimat (regula


in 1839, was that elites of the period have had the
tions) decree promulgated
sufficient consciousness
to consider that in modern world peoples were not only
the Ottoman elites
living history but rather they were making it. Consequently,
realized

the importance of critical thinking in progress. (Ortayli: 1999: 264) The


categorical absence of such an intellectual life and education system has kept the
Ottoman society out of the industrial revolution. One of the principal causes of
such a retardation was not, as it is often thought, the absence of a bourgeoisie
which could accelerate

the commercial dynamism able to synchronize Ottoman


and
the
West
society
European countries. Although such a mercantile class existed
in Ottoman Empire, it was constituted by majorly non-Muslim capitalists, who

150

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
and Adoption towards
Resistance
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:

Gradual

Passage

were not allowed


Consequently,
panic-driven

to Notation in Turkish Makam

IRASM

46 (2015)

1: 145-174

Music

to be articulated

into the State apparatus.


(Timur, 1989: 62)
reforms came with considerable
delays and with an unplanned,

palliative characteristic, in the most symptomatic field, the military


First initiatives to rehabilitate the army which was degraded along

capabilities.
centuries towards Western Europe's industrial growth, were realized in the 1770s.
First temporary ambassadors
have been sent, at the beginning of the century, to
main European
take
contact with the rising forces and to explore
to
capitals

different appearances
of the modern culture, as for example the art of opera.
2006:
(Rado,
52-58) European
style military schools have been inaugurated,
with
the
of
a new army organization
(Nizm-i Cedid, New
together
founding
1978:
But
the
transformation
had
not been limited
Order). (Berkes,
87-92)
process
life
and
to military domain; social
cultural practices have been gradually affected

from this changing social milieu, which can also be characterized with a rising
needs and possibilities of social communication. (Mardin, 2004:145)
Economic growth, as it was the case in the European context, also triggered
off popular needs, particularly with the emergence of middle-classes,
for musical
in
written
music
as
well
as
in
commercialized
production
performance. (Martin,

1995:226-227) Music was one of the most directly affected fields of modernization
in Turkey. Indeed a series of indicators about the change in traditional music
(Turkish makam music) help to describe the social orientation to modernity from
18th century on. Such indicators include significant and relatively rapid changes
in the sound system (reduction of makams as a hidden temperament), attempts to

establish

with modes5, rhythm patterns (simplification


parallelisms
adoption of Western tempered instruments, and commercialization
together with the rise of capitalistic popular culture.
One

of

the

most

salient

aspects

of

such

transformations

is

of usl-s),
of music

observed

in

the

passage to written music. Although Turkish makam music was basically organized
on the oral transmission, script has been longtime excluded from its practice.
Nevertheless,

several

theoretical

treatises

written

throughout

centuries

explored

systems of symbolic representation for musical expression. (See figure 1) As far as


is known, any kind of musical notation system did not exist during the 15th and
16th centuries. Considered as the classical age of the Ottoman state, this period set
up both a bureaucratic state apparatus and a social order. In contradiction with
what one should

expect from this political apogee, the intellectual life presents a


relatively stagnating scope. As Karakayah shows, when a political power is on the
way to set out its foundations, it needs standardization in culture, as it is the case of
orders on the adoption of a notation system across his territory. We
Charlemagne's
5

E.g.

according
accepted
(Signell,

identification
to a basic

the argh
1986: 24)

of Rast makam with G Major or the calibration


of the makam
scaling
of the 20th century, who
tone by the theoreticians
at the beginning
Ezgi-Arel,
makam, which is structurally the most similar one to European
major scale.

151

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46

and Adoption towards


Resistance
A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music
Gradual Passage

1: 145-174

(2015)

-IJ

> <,< < .

V ///

7 c. ~

A-

if fTtwfci

I '".
)t V

~".-T"* '<l'?'
.<x

/:,f

? j.ffi;*?
><?

* A/

!-?"''f'
V-.- X "

"

b"-rW*
{f i^
^ -
V*
>1 i ^
W
4^X*
i. O
yj !>^ ~
*
*
>
t

Urmevi
Figure 1: Safiyyddin
Notation (Sezgin, 1984:92)

\f x\

the status of the notation in


agree on that point with Karakayali who conceptualizes
music as a political technology. (Karakayali, 2010: 355) Some Anatolian theoret
icians as irvan and Ladiki of the 15th and 16th century showed tablature notation
and definitions of makam. Other Anatolian theoreticians as Kirehr, Hizir or Tirev
were

not

interested

in any

notation

in their

works.

of the 17th century court, of Polish origin, Ali Ufk (Wojciech


was the first to use the staff notation system for makam music by
Bobowski)
reversing the line (from right to left), in conformity with the Ottoman Turkish
(written with Arabic letters). Ali Ufk also compiled a collection of
language
Turkish musical works of his time, as a mixture of vocal and instrumental pieces,
including all genres he listened to in the imperial palace. (See figure 2) These 505
pieces that make up Mecmua-i Saz Sz (Collection of Music and Lyrics)(...) Ali Ufki
amount of music training in the West before he was
had had a considerable
A musician

captured

and

brought

to

the

Ottoman

court,

that

could

be

perceived

from

his

mastery in dictation (notating the music heard with correct rhythms and inter
vals) and decipheration
(performing by reading from notation without memori
This first attempt of notation was appreciated only
2008:
403).
zation) (Ayangil,
in a limited circle. In the following century, Ny Osman Dede and Dimitrie
Cantemir (1673-1723) also created their own notation systems, with a similar
152

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

IRASM

rt
$ ii
\\{;lft
ilftfii
;!!fa
t';i8(i
II;'!
y

46

1: 145-174

(2015)

C$1" *#\i

Li j^jijji
Figure 2: Ali Ufki Notation
result,

though

(Elin, 1976:243)

remained

they

less

theoretical

and

more

relatively

used

frequently

by musicians. Osman Dede (d. 1730), who was sheikh of Galata Mevlevi Lodge,
used a kind of alphabetical
notation system in his book. (See figure 3) Dimitrie
Prince
of
Cantemir,
Bogdan, wrote his theory book called Kitab-u ilmil Musiki
'ala vechil-Hurufat,
and he used an alphabetical
system as well. (See figure 4)
The alphabetical
the

are

pitches

notation system is different from the ebced

shown

pitch. Osman

Dede's

the

some

but

same,

also

some

musical

the

by

letters

that

and Cantemir's
letter

combinations

are

using

the

pitch.

has

different

dgh

pitch

Cantemir

the

performer

general principles

combinations
same

notation, the letters o^jj

for gevet

remind

different.

symbols,

system, in which

of the

of notational

On

the

other

for example,

name

systems are

hand

in Osman

used for nikriz pitch, the letters


names

of pitches

for example,

of the

there

are

Dede's

used
uzzal

instead

of nikriz pitch and rehavi pitch instead of gevet. Therefore these pitch symbols are
Both notational system used some of the same letters used for the
changeable.
etc.

Such

include

sequences

examples

of two

instrumental

in

genres

the collection of Cantemir, perev and semai, and specific pieces in both would also
have been included in two other and quite distinct repertories. (Wright, 2000: 7)
At
music

the
and

end
the

of the
social

18th
tastes

century,
that

the

technical

surrounded

and

features
shaped

of the
it were

Turkish
changing

makam
more

rapidly. The most prominent names of that period in musical notation were
Neyzen Mustafa Kevseri (d. 1770) and Abdlbaki Nasir Dede (1765-1821). Kevseri
used a notation system by combining Osman Dede's and Kantemir's systems.
in total.
(See figure 5) The collection comprises 539 instrumental compositions
Nasir Dede, created a
(Ekinci: 2012: 18) Osman Dede's
grandchild, Abdlbaki
system based on ebced notation by the order of Sultan Selim III, and wrote his
153

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

Resistance
and Adoption towards
A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music
Gradual Passage

1: 145-174

Figure 3: Ny Osman
2006:59)
(Dograsz,

Dede

Notation
,6 a O
o X o ^
o
^ ^.
j S- ^0
yC 0 5 ^
'
2~ a -a. 7o >', . j:
Xi< J- a -*Wx^\
-"/ZV
j( <r i
r
fi - a^"
i _.
' A a -a.
a .- . X
_
~
^
*
r*
*'
X'o
X<
> ^
.s
fcf
X X"'

- a
"V*
"^*
'/*
o
\ I _J,\ - A 4 (V#
>>rC^^ol^>
'- " >*
/r _, - - u -M

^
o
>" ".-A
-/T
<,'V ? >
^/.
/ -.{^
, S^jllf.
, ^ /o
i J
3 a-^ m3> J^yyy y"
/*Ty>o > ^ ! 1 -- j ^
*
>"
*
ivf
i_
*-i-.ija
J* ^* y X"* - a _ t > o
i 5 .,
-X"
>-/-_
X"~
i>
-Ol I >*
.
j

3 ~ A a -*- Jr a
\ J jt J .' "i=','"^<>"
ay
-V,/
*/ (J * -a I y* J t - a
Ji
* J jt Vj jt i- *,)
j. i I |*|^u-^ai a -~*t a -* i*4 *
& '**& %
a I
X* a a- "X a -a

t V\"SA
-xV
-^-.O
"^U
1 -l*

**

k-? -r ?< > < f *fi ?i tw


?s J -*> s J s j; j >

*",*

'I

X* %
'
v-V-;i
.5*

'

* 5v
^'
V.
Xj
'_
C
c

Q.

Jf

*r ^.w?-f?

i <-<ri

iT.'f? ^r? K-r ? ****":<!


;
-!?> .*
> -y* . y
i' ' '

'

/ ^
' '

* U.^
* ' '

fc-fi-r-fi-r?if
/j
i t i
/ j jy,rj
i | iT
ii

'

w:^\

is > > j; +

f urr'.'<X*

X'ia
'Vu
v ^ *r??
*r*jr-r
?
1- }-ft Jfj f; f j >f*
V-V

J*

' I

jsr

?*<

_> 1

4
' '
j

*;

?-rffi

J''^1'
I #
I
o Oj-vjOi

w ii

Figure 4: Kantemiroglu
Notation (Tura, 2001:196)

154

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

j_.
V 1

IRASM

^ vtK^-c

t-r; ^
*~\\rt-tffrCVf
-r-wt-r
"WTT-f

>--?<-f-fr?t'iT
>:jyi

i ^f>
*4*i*
jrJ*4^
*T
J/9-01
iir^t

* ?. ^"V4S4JT*V"air-
* * J4a-rj
i m
*i
<
*
^ * 4 t
\
vc
%*
r ' *4^v><-*><
vx * -r"*
\
%%
t % \
%"
^ \
. >-rt-
f -r*
%.
.,
m
-r;
vr
.,
<y
,,-*>*ATt
mvi-rtr n
rt-r^-c
rrji

tSjf**^rriii

/
Aji
*
y.,,t
- ti , da.
u
x'.;'
rix- " r r Hi jr. p
yf:

CGL^<J *3*(Eg*

1*

\**-i t f *?*

*-4
v,
, Aj,
^t
iii
if<

?<W

t-? -v-v-^

t< ? f(rttf*r
r ^ r".-r-f
w
f-i ^ t *<*r-f
iH'itifrK'WttW'f
\<w,<\-fn< *-r^-rv<av s*.-aw
\sw*n<wwtf<tn
a* .**vs < I
! nfffft-flVf
4. v^^-rvr
4>v.-r-r;-r\ri<^\r
*,.<*vr
*

cJ-^f

Figure 5: Kevseri Notation


Uslu, 2009:14)

i/J.4 L
*
4^"t
Ki ' v

t
<

f "!' *.<r < '<',,r


j> ' /1 6 T
V
" *
i
Y!-fy
'",?!
ii j'
an\
S
*
^si * M 1/

4.H-? t

y
r

f
<Xj

Jf
If

Ii

J>
. l~\{ t;i4
If
f
/
f
if
i{ffit'tt

1r I
I'l

<t

ri

**'
.f,
\

%Lr -* ^ a- 7w * - jw
#w J 2 w j
* a\ j kT **+-*%***>ur**
j**ur
UT *>
4.4 Vffrtt
\ X 4>
\v, I \ V 1 4 1
y\\\*S

(, /J/\^_4t.

t
;
r
r
r
,

V ,-n f

^ i f t ht-t *f< f ? f ^-r ^ ^-r *{i-r \


<*r<"c*f*t<*oft-r*-r<v**,t"
f*
t-f-*-r?
Cft--fWr?
ft'-i<-f
-IVt-c

'1. tj-y
'

/t
O*
' t i
2 J (V
i
f.<
r
f i

<-* + *r
#
>
i
J >r >
^ \ W\ * *jr
* tJ
i ^ -<
s %_r- cTrfs wT
T
> * ^ fcX"
* \ % * \ %
^ ^r- J #- * *V*T* * "r/# ^ 3 C * /
fcT
J
^
*
%
t
V**
*
L O
V%
^ 1
. x- . -.fi
* -r j
*
l - "~U
\
S jr \
\\\\*\%%%X\

t-f#t*w*pr\x*-w

. ^*
z '</*
7a.
./i/
. yt, t>f
V^K^/l-L/f
/
*y>
2
4> It , (-4*
^4*
<
1
i
*ri
i
*'
'T'
r r
rf

(/i C^s ^
i
' irrdf
,r-ir**iVr
if

T^CVfl^-flYf-VlW'r'.-ry'V^f;^

4/tv l"i/i **sL j


t 4<*-*.,<. it4 44
i n i "ir t'* r
It triif.-iriitr

> rrc
iIl<<rr

_Wv^_rt
4 * * \ \ X > V
* 3TI V! -<?rf-,,-'f^-'*-/'--?
% 4 * % . *"*
-fr-r
-r-r^'7*V?
'7-rWi'-;v11^
* * T T
* v * ' * I > ,
v
it
%
%%<
^WV-^itirti/rf^-rrvfr-yj

1:145-174

T ?t*' "V
I
'\f TtW'ft'f
xv ;
*->
-? *W-o>vV1X t-<
MrVH?
tl\ *:*
j>
* 1 f-r
1 I * VI
1 k Vxru^ijr^/j:
* * > X * v M -<?
1
-^r,J\-^-fT<e^'Y<T\

V,r-rr*Jt,-f*f>v

46 (2015)

j Ajr 9 -x> 1
*jr* xr *+ ,
+r
1 ^ t t 1 i

'1 <v
I^V
V. V
iV

Nsir
Figure 6: Abdiilbk
Dede Notation (Dogrusz
Uslu, 2009:149)

(Dogrusz,

book Tahririye. (See figure 6) This enterprise was in full conformity with the
reformist attitude of the Sultan Selim III, who, during his reign, tried to institute a
series

of structural

in mind

that

Mevlevi

musician

changes

Kevseri

was
and

in cultural
attached

scholar,

life

to the
Osman

as

well

Mevlevi

Dede,

had

as

in state

order,
recently

Bearing

organization.

and

that

a highly

developed

revered

a notational

system, it is puzzling to see him employ the Cantemir notation. According to


he must have
consideration,
Wright, in a quite speculative
psychoanalytical
consciously

selected

the

superior

authority,

for

Cantemir's

theoretical

treatise

is

and comprehensive
than that of Osman Dede, his
definitely more advanced
master. (Wright, 2007: 12) Yet, although this observation is correct, one cannot

155

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

(2015)

/rhiftC

z'""5" *""*

51}

\t$Tl//jL jf, 7i
JSi'J

\l5'J57'JpA\^

"'y^j

;jzj,
,, .C/~
,,,v~

-<A%Aj
j5s?

PPjXX~

~Xy,
-^V

;^v

J
3

Pi/.c-'
rjr' cr-~

... /t/J> X/X

fUJ-Z-lr

~yyju~>

/~

.^

/.i^jx.

.^A-V^Z
Z-SjJ>

!/,/
%--/'"ityi/,
Z'\'y-y
C-".-?^

'.J~~/

Jf'.lz

JUX*
&i X-5<5~
:AP 1.p;^ o~P
Aa XP
XX
..AP >PP
a:; .j&,
"*

">9
* t "*"7^
^

V*/***
/ -9 //
' **

V/
"s^sy*

pixx

..U//
^
c->"
c->"
^-V

" " /t
* a*
w/U/.
"zX"

"/

~//^y

! "
tr*.-w

>5

-* !

JU

.APs
x&
xx " ~P.x

*7* A*

''-y ^

P",

* .
--9

xxp L,v^

-v
;. J

>yp/~pyppjy Py kitPU- Up-P


jXX iXX-X XX -XX-' ,.XP
A#-j
AP ;^4z~-X&At/
-v--/
-y~y
:p~p
X/A
~}y~s

-Aw
---XX'
AP--*
~ax
AjXJ %>;
aa&
.,r-^~/
pP'J #u>
PAP
;$-/
xx
y.y ;.px
aj
zs.-J
,yy
xy
;jx'
zpxu^
zpPi/^
aap*
pxx
pp-z
09
z/.-J
P^:~s
^:~s

A:
itx:

tyy
AP/

Figure 7: Hampartzum
make

of the

comparisons

Pj
>j

,:

<4

f^.rv^/;

Notation
same

9
yy
U'y 9

(TRT Archive Leon Hanciyan

order

between

the

two

notational

Collection)
systems,

which

are in fact so similar to each other that one may suspect interaction or imitation in
their creation.6 (Ekinci, 2012:17)
By

the

Turkish
zum

19th

music.
was

system

century,
These

were

named

two

main

notation
and

Hampartzum
after

its

developer,

systems

had

Western

staff

Hampartzum

come

to

notation.

be

used

in

Hampart

Limoncuyan

(1768

around 1820. (See figure 7) The Rum Chrisantos of Madytos


1839), developed
reformed the Byzantine ecclesiastical
notation and simplified the
(1770-1846)
Medieval

neumatic

system.

(See

figure

8) The

Western

staff notation

was

introduc

ed in Turkey by Giuseppe
Donizetti (1788-1856), who was assigned to create a
new and European kind of military band in Ottoman Empire. The first students
6 Selim III is a
of cultural synthesis manner against the traditional purist
typical representative
one, since he tended on the one hand to keep some fundamental
aspects of the Ottoman culture, while,
on the other, he didn't hesitate to start an ambitious
transformation
and ney
project. As a composer
of makam

musicians
to adapt the existing heritage to a modern
music, Selim III encouraged
In contrast with his pacific character of artist, he presented
a vigorous posture of a force
who took severe measures
on the way to transform the existing state apparatus,
particu
of the Selim period, Nasir Dede notated the Mevlevi Ayin in makam
larly the army. As a composer
Szidilar
(which is also created by Selim III) composed
by Sultan Selim III. This is the first Mevlevi
This is again an indication to the musical reformism
Ayin written in the period it has been composed.
player

perspective.
ful monarch

of Sultan

Selim

III.

156

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

IRASM

46 (2015)

1: 145-174

MAKAM TAIT.
TAT.
t
Z

Nu. Ei{ ypiivoo;


\ i\ i/. toS Nl'Ilyo r.
T"Z0?
f fiwi- i.
,

VV?
V-"f?T
M ou
ou ou ou net
oa

^ - v-v-;
a
r*~
'

A
o ^
tpo ico o?

I1

V-
et

et

lew to
w

to <o

et

. r1"

a pa
p* a a
.r1"
r1-

A.r^
/.rr~

vai Pa a
vat

<rrt

ye

it

7
e

.r1"

v-t

ti

va

'

oe
Jt

_.-r"
rr"
r

il
#i

r1-

nyo

v^
Xet

-r*~ r

rr^ v V ^^ ^ A
ov cou
va a a
Ooi
9o>

ko
xo

ooo 11
77

pe
Pfs

ov

et

r*"

no> <o{
io
u

.J-*"

Vr^rA^Vv

aayaairwwww
a Y

aa

r1-

\~^p7
V~^pr
ooo
TO
to
t

<jto
oto

<><>

<S\

Figure 8: Karamanli Music


Notation (Bardaki,1993:
74)

of Donizetti were the Turkish members of the band, Muzika-yi Hiimayun, and
these members learned, adopted and disseminated
the staff notation. Unlike the
earlier

notation

both

systems,

and

Hampartzum

Western

But by the 20th century, the Hampartzum

widely.
modified

version

of Western

staff

notation

became

were

systems

system disappeared
dominant.

Therefore

used

and a
we

can

argue, from the evolution of notation systems in Turkish makam music, that
technical innovations become only socially legitimate when they acquire concep
tually

functional

status

and

needs

in accordance

with

the

necessities

of everyday

life practices. Notation initiates into the existing musical system, including the
need to link memory and foresight, when social sphere in which it dwells supports
When traditional systems of protection and
objectification. (Adorno, 2006:159-160)
dissolve
under
the
have to obey
solidarity
pressure of capitalism, musicians
demands configured in the market relations (Adorno, 1994: 212), which imply
methods, tools and code systems.
structurally the proliferation of standardized
Modern life experience implies thus the emergence of standardized
categories
and

which

criteria,

paradigm

meant,

of perception

Forms of Resistance
Although

the

first

in the

context

of Ottoman

musicians,

a shift

onto

a new

as well as of practice.

and Practices
steps

in

written

of Adoption
music

were

welcomed

among

some

musical authorities, the general tendency of musicians was quite cautious towards
the possibility of abandoning
of the oral tradition. Yet the gradual spread of the
157

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

did not cease, at least in urban musical practices, and the three
from 1790s to 1820s is considered by several historians to be a transfor
mation phase of the Ottoman social and cultural spheres. Indeed, during this era,
musical life underwent several changes, including the general adoption of the
written music
decades

notation system, even though oral transmission also continued


Hampartzum
instrumental
among
performers and singers. During the modernization
process
across the 18th and 19th centuries, the vast variety of makam-s used in Ottoman

music were reduced into a limited number, and complicated rhythmic structures
(large usl-s) were simplified. As musical performance evolved from the rather
private sphere of the court and its circles to a commercial activity, instruments
with louder timber replaced those with weak ones, shorter and simpler forms as
arki (song) were more appreciated, and new theorization of the makam music
was

constructed

onto

a Western

twelve-tone

staff

music

schema.

(Ergur&Aydm,

2006: 95-97) The progressive adoption of the notation in Ottoman music is one of
the most significant signs of such a modernizing process.
Besides the progressive expansion of the need to write music, there had always
been diverse foci of resistance to adopt written music. Makam music was consid
ered to be a genuinely oral culture that could not be fixed, and also had strong
roots as a musical practice. In this context, memory was conceived as the very basis
and founding quality that made makam music valuable. Great masters and virtuosi

in makam music were appreciated for their capacity to memorize musical works.
For example, Haci Arif Bey (1831-1885), one of the most talented composers of the
19th century, has been renowned by his ability to recall a musical work, only
having listened to it once. This valorizing of the memory as musician's best quality
was not only a matter of tradition nor a pragmatic technical preference, but also a
part of a culture surrounding the imagination, creation, education, performance
and sharing of the music from master to pupil as rings of a chain. Besides its
cultural, even ideological meaning, memory has also an economic value. Learning
of the music through oral tradition (mek) usually necessitated a long period of
education, which in turn guaranteed regular revenue to the teacher. The passage

to the written music was naturally threatening such an economic cycle. As it was
the case in 19th century in Europe, the learning as well as the practice of music
became a matter of capitalistic activity in the world of makam music in the Ottoman

social sphere, though it does not fully constitute an ordinary good that acquires
exchange value in market relations, because of its immaterial characteristic. (Attali,

Traditional masters who exclusively built their ability on oral prac


2001:118-122)
tice fervently defended the necessity to keep music as unwritten. Therefore the rise
of an idea of written music provoked, among traditional musicians, a generalized
resistance towards all attempts to write music.
Notaci Emin Bey, who was the firstmusic publisher, translated a story between
an unknown master and his pupil. The pupil asked him if it wouldn't be more
accurate

to use

written

expressions

for learning

music.

The

master

answered

158

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

that

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:

Gradual

to Notation in Turkish Makam

Passage

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Music

learning by written material would result with more difficulty in learning and
'colder' style in performance. (Notaci Emin Bey, 1885/1305: 13) Musical notation
has gained ground particularly in the imperial palace, with the encouragement
of
the reformist sultans, like Selim III and Mahmud II. The founding of the first
court band
which evolved
into a
(Muzika-yi
Hmayn),
European-type
symphonic orchestra accelerated also the need for written music that engendered
the birth of a second tendency in written music, by an adoption of the European
staff notation. Thus Hampartzum
and staff notation system coexisted through
decades, which means that it doesn't correspond, as some would think, to a
division

between European-type
musicians and traditional musicians. During
this period of transformation in music as well as in every part of the social life,
practices of performance constituted an important divide as old and new Fasil
- Fasl-i
Cedd). Although this separation seems to be a
conceptions (Fasl-i Atik
in
both
sharp polarization,
practice,
styles were often combined. Same musicians
took place in old and new performance styles, though western instruments and
lighter genres were introduced into Fasl-i Cedid formations. Indeed the Hampartzum
was

notation

adopted

served

court

among

also

makam

as an articulation

musicians.

Moreover,

the

mean

Hampartzum

to facilitate the passage to staff


notation. When Giuseppe Donizetti, brother of Gaetano Donizetti, was nominat
ed as the master chief of the imperial court's band, he taught European dance
notation

forms such as marches,

polkas, foxtrots, waltzes, and had to learn the already


notation.
This was not only a practical way to instruct
practiced Hampartzum
the
Ottoman
Western system to
musicians, but also a more productive method for
Donizetti to understand the makam music. (Araci, 2006: 64)
We can illustrate the tension between the defenders of the superiority of the
in makam

memory
an

anecdote

from

music
the

and

early

those

nineteenth

who

tried

century.

to expand
The

the

inventor

written
of the

music,

with

Hampartzum

system, Hampartzum
Limoncuyan wanted to notate the Beyati Perev of ishak
a
Ottoman
Jewish
(1745-1814),
composer. Ishak refused this proposition, because,
to
makam
music
cannot and should not be written. His pretext
him,
according
was

that

such

a notation

would

need

too

much

time,

because

it is too

complicated.

After this refusal, Hampartzum


addressed to a close friend, in whose house music
performances were taken including ishak himself. They made a plan according to
which ishak would again be invited in one of those performances, and Hampar
tzum, after having hidden in a secret place of the house, would write down the
lively played work. Indeed the plan worked and Hampartzum succeeded in making
a written copy of the Perev, in a short time. The landlord asked to ishak if he had

already played this work to anyone, ishak said no. The friend said to him that
there was nevertheless someone who could play this music. At this moment Ham
and played the piece correctly. This made ishak extremely
partzum appeared
angry

and

incited

(Kerovpyan&Yilmaz,

him

to leave the house, shouting, you stole my art!


2010: 95) Other examples like this illustrate that the tension
159

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

46 (2015)

between defenders of the memory and those who try to spread out the written
music was still continuing.
In sum, in contrast to the generalized opinion on the adoption of European
system in Turkey, we argue that this was neither an absolutely imposed
top-down cultural transformation nor a matter of strict opposition between East
and West. Instead it is possible to analyze such a change as a dialectical process
including both the rising needs of accelerating urban life and reformist political
interventions in culture. Written music as a distinct sign of modern culture
musical

in these circumstances,
of different
evolved
throughout an interpntration
attitudes among musicians. It is thus possible to assemble them in a typology with
three principal attitudes: Traditional conservatism in defense of the oral musical
learning and performance as a force of resistance; inner reformism of the makam
music which becomes visible with the adoption of the letter-based notations,
system; and finally outer reformism which consists of
especially the Hampartzum
of the tempered twelve-tone system and its technical expressions,
particularly writing on the staff. Traditional conservatism was not only an ideologi
cally conditioned reactionary positioning towards a relatively quickly transform
ing Ottoman musical sphere, but also rather a state of mind mostly animated by
the adoption

the sorrow of losing the lifeivorld commanded


by the tradition, including the val
and
ues, relations, morals, hierarchy
economy of doing music on a well-defined
traditional
conservatism
seems to be in full antagonism with
ground. Although
would
be
erroneous
to argue that musicians in this
other types of attitude, it
lineage

were

composers
Western
the

new

completely
tried

based
music's

to

isolated

from

understand

the

practices.

More

music
sensual

as

well

as

the

sense
or less

technical

cultural

changing
of

the

environment.
to

transformation

unconsciously,
properties.

they
Some

were

tried

Some

written
affected

to compose

and
by
in

emerging popular forms and styles, though they were valorizing older ones as
essential. The debate around and then the ideological split throughout the adop
tion of the written music was seemingly the most rigid faade of reactions towards
new musical

tastes, styles and practices. Given that the musical sphere was not a
small field, most of the musicians had close relationships and exchanges, there
fore these attitudes were connected. Especially inner reformism can be considered

as a motivated strategy of adaptation among traditional music circles. Although


of the
changes in style and techniques were relatively invisible components

modernization,
notation, on the contrary, constituted the most visible side and
the most sensitive point on which conflicts were crystallized. While discussing the
uncertainties about the period of transformation, Ekinci underlines that until the
mid-eighteenth century no meaningful changes were noted in style or the techni
cal specificities of Ottoman music. He stresses that, though some scholars pretend

evidence that a real transfor


quite the contrary, there is no strong musicological
mation in style, including the definition of makam-s and sul-s preferred by the
lived between Ali Ufk's time (mid-17th century) and at least the
composers
160

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. ErgurGradual

and Adoption towards


N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Passage

to Notation in Turkish Makam

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Music

second quarter of the 18th century. The famous controversial and somehow mys
terious treatise, Kevser Mecmuasi,
presents a series of contradictions of that
special period. By adopting the principals of Ali Ufk's and then Cantemir's times,
Kevser7, represents, in the eyes of Ekinci, either an indication to a gradual and
slow passage to notation, even the coexistence of different systems, or an example
of a traditionalist attitude which can be translated as resistance towards new tech

niques and styles. (Ekinci, 2012: 224-225) However, the emergence of a more or
less generally adopted system of notation can be conceived as a turbulent process,
albeit seemingly evolutionary, implying conflicts and exchanges between the
actors of the musical milieu. Even outer reformism ought to develop modalities of
articulation with the existing musical practices and actors, instead of trying to
promote a tabula rasa through a radical rejection of older forms and styles as out
fashioned
ones. In spite of constituting absolute
forces, these
antagonistic
tendencies were articulated through mixed forms, for example, the usage of
notation by Donizetti in his first years of teaching, and transposi
Hampartzum
tion of the makam

music into staff notation directly from oral tradition or


notation. The evolution of written music in the Ottoman-Turkish
Hampartzum
cultural sphere engendered
several technical forms that assured refinement in
expression.

of New Forms of Written Music


Reconfiguration
Cultural Pluralism
As has been already
sudden

passage

in Turkey.

discussed,

the adoption
it gathered

Instead,

through

of writing in music was not a

a functional

of letter

intersection

based

systems and Western staff notation. Nevertheless, this process was neither
linear and tranquil nor enforced and imposed.
Besides, contributions from
different cultural and ethnic sources to the process of passage in music were
important for diversifying forms of exchange between musicians. The first half of
the

nineteenth

century

was

particularly

a period

of cultural

encounters

in musical

circles, due to the transitory nature of the era, during which old and new tenden
cies melted into the same cultural sphere. Representatives of the traditional artis
tic or aesthetical codes were confronted with newly emerging ones. Especially with

the founding of the Imperial Music Institution (Muzika-yi Hiimayn) in 1826, the
Western music system was spreading out among some musical circles, though a
series of reactionary attitudes persisted in several others. Musicians of the tradi

tional mek system were reacting not only to the promotion of the Western music
by the court, but also to the progressive adoption of the techniques of writing
7 We know
(probably

nearly
died c. 1750).

nothing

about

Kevseri,

unless

the approximate

period

in which

he lived

161

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1:145-174

music. In addition, this highly agitated period was also the beginning of contacts
with European cultural products and values, which consequently were engender
ing a multi-cultural and dynamic intellectual milieu. Finally, this was a period of
change in the Ottoman social order as well as in the political system. Therefore
conflicts and contradictions projected onto an artistic domain were giving rise to
fruitful artistic inventions, particularly in music. Attempts to write music were
notation
progressing at that time, by two principal lines: (1) Hampartzum's

system on the Armenian


Greek alphabet.
he

Although

is known

his name, Hampartzum


known

and

unknown

(2) Chrisantos's

alphabet;
as the

sole

creator

notation

system

renowned

by

was not its sole designer. Instead, a series of

Limoncuyan
actors

of the

on the

notation system based

to create

collaborated

a notation

with

system

Arme

nian letters. More precisely, the house of the Family Dzyan at Kurueme was a
privileged cultural milieu where a group of musicians regularly assembled not

just for playing and singing, but also, more importantly, for discussing theoretical
problems of makam music, and to shape a specific letter-based code of notation.
Limon
As the latter was finally systematized and disseminated by Hampartzum

system'. There again, we


cuyan himself, it became known as the 'Hampartzum
see that a work of art is a result of a collective action as Becker underlined, even if
it seems, at first sight, associated to the personal talent of an 'exceptional artist'.
(Becker, 1984:14)

Works of art are rather joint products of actors cooperating

art world,

in accordance

would

erroneous

be

with
to attribute

some
the

socially

approved
to written

passage

conventions.

This

in Ottoman

forms

in an

is why

it

makam

music to the special gift of one artist, who is thus considered more privileged in
with other members of the society. (Becker, 1984: 50) Indeed, the
comparison
name

of Hampartzum

remained

associated

Father Minas

with

this

system

of notation,

although

Andon

Amira Dzyan (1765-1814), Hagop


Pijikyan (1777-1851),
elebi Dzyan (1793-1847) who equally contributed to the shaping of the system
are forgotten. (Kerovpyan & Yilmaz, 2010:91-92) In the year 1808, Father Pijikyan,
who had already worked on the new notation system, and Hagop elebi Dzyan,
who had studied European staff notation in Paris, collaborated with other musi
cians to create an advanced

version of the Armenian alphabet. Discussions around


the formation of the system of notation were finalized in 1812. (Kerovpyan
&
notation system was fixed as a more
Yilmaz, 2010: 89) Although the Hampartzum
or less standardized system among musicians, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud

II, discussion continued in the period of Sultan Selim III, who had close relation
the real adoption of the
ships with the influent Dzyan family. Nevertheless
notation
in
musical
circles
was
realized
between 1830-1833,
Hampartzum
system
after Limoncuyan
was
Patriarchate. (Kerovpyan

nominated

as

the chief-instructor

of the Armenian

& Yilmaz, 2010: 92) We should also note that this cultural
synthesis was also sparked by the reformist ambiance of the reign of Mahmud II
162

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

a leading figure in Turkish modernization.


These more or less
disparate changes were mostly systematized
particularly during the reign of
Sultan Abdlmecid
(1839-1861).
Around the 1820s, Nikos Chrisantos, a Rum musician, developed
another
letter-based system of notation by developing the Hellenic alphabet. As the case
of Hampartzum,
Chrisantos was not the unique creator of the system; he had
(1808-1839),

close relationships with Hurmuzios


Chartofilakis and Gregorios Protopsalsis,
who helped to shape this system. Those who developed this system were mostly
from the Karamanh community whose tradition played a major role in the amal
gamation of makam music from diverse cultural backgrounds. As an apparently

confused domain, the Karamanh culture was, per se, a bilingual form of expression.
is none other than a Central Anatolian Turkish
Indeed, Karamanh
language
dialect written in the Greek alphabet. As a non-Muslim Turkish community, the

Karamanh

people were also known for their ability to use Arabic letters. As for
the documented musical literature of the 19th century the secular songs recorded
in Armenian new notation had the Turkish lyrics written with Armenian charac

ters. A similar method was applied by the Karamanh Greeks, a Turkish speaking
population of Anatolia, who used to print materials written in Karamanh Turkish
with Greek letters. The Karamanh publications of musical scores and lyrics con
tinued to be available

throughout the first part of the twentieth century. (Popes


cu-Judetz, 2002: 10) An important contribution to the trend of musical accultura
tion through notation is due to the Karamanh Greeks of Anatolia. From 1830 to

about 1914 the Karamanh publications printed Greek and Turkish melodies with
Greek script. In principal the publications were bilingual and bi-musical. The
bulk of the Turkish songs were arki-s, then beste-s and few yiiriiksemai-s authored
by composers mostly from the second half of the eighteenth century and the nine
teenth century. (Popescu-Judetz,
1996: 44) (Bardaki, 1993: 29-61)

Replacement
Although

of the Letter-Based

it served

of the makam

as

an

System by the Western Notation

important

component

during

the

transformation

music in Ottoman

process
Empire, around the end of the eight
eenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the alphabetical notations,
particularly the Hampartzum
system, gradually lost ground and were nearly

totally replaced by the staff notation in the 1830s, even if a minor tradition
survived until recent times. In the first years of his residence, Giuseppe Donizetti
used Hampartzum
notation for facilitating the passage to the tempered twelve

tone system. (See figure 9)


Nevertheless, after a short period of adaptation, he began to include staff
notation in his teachings. Donizetti's attempts to rehabilitate the musical environ
ment gave birth to both a systematic adoption of Western music, especially at
163

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46

-o

J
rc

VA,

j/

f t

>5

y/

z/

,/t -/

\
i

. ,.

4m

V.lf"

S .A,
i/

>

fy. Jjl

Donizetti

\^

-A---ft'fir--<*

f.i

&
J-

a-iaA

L(.

*'

-=-

vHitn

"
'J, 'Si / It.*-"""

t
-

-r
.

a*

-r>*
Sr

-?
* tct| *4

j>-

=/

jjJttfL

'*

S"

mka\n>4*d~
S^IU'P

'1

ujJcmi

z.4?itt~

3^

..

a^

-WMiA^Wi

tablosu.

''

iXaZt

fieJiwJ

Hamparsum

Notation

-r

^iyhtuU- 'ftytu*.

as,

yi/.lvW-

a/,

(Topkapt Sarayi M witsi Arpvij

(Gazimihal,

1939:103-Araci,

2006: 61)

'
Quit**1

&OtZ~fsLrjsr^.-

HHl11 i

<2tfi
111

/, j)

fjlll

. Q
r V

fa

fj

*nin hazirladigi

'~^c

J?

*jn

Figure 9: Donizetti

'2 ll

i / lia'Atl*

Guiseppe

/?

-J+

KgfuC.

-<-?

5^

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

(2015)

J? ei^i'^vd-t'nS*.

^
'a*
- d ya" ./i >iZ$*Ez

l) 1'-'^ 0 :^>L:11g5

r^>

VT

fe--?*i^/ v-l

iHS

'

Fig 10: European


Notation, TRT
Repertory, ismail
Hakki Bey
Collection

164

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

institutional level, and an acceleration


Musical

works

system.

Yet

notated

already

by

notation

Hampartzum

IRASM

of the inner evolution

Hampartzum

in some

remained

1: 145-174

(2015)

of the makam music.

were

system

46

translated

limited

circles

into

staff

of musicians.

staff notation was accepted as the dominant system, some technical


in compositions as well as in translations of alphabetically written
arose
problems
works. First of all, given that the Ottoman Turkish was written from right to left,
Although

the

Western

staff

the

engendered

system

of a reverse

emergence

in notation

logic

on staff in makam music. This contradiction necessitated (1) a constant opposition


in writing music on staff with Arabic letters; (2) an artificial division of syllables
in contradiction with the logic of morphology of Arabic letters. (See figure 10)
Another

of the

discrepancy

to the

passage

staff

system

in makam

music

was

its insufficiency to represent micro-tones. A whole tone in the European tempered


twelve-tone system is divided into two half-steps, while makam music uses
smaller intervals within the same distance. This meant that existing accidentals
(sharp and flat) were not sufficient for expressing makam pitches. The staff nota
tion was designed for twelve tempered tones of whole and half-step distances.
different theoreticians of Turkish music proposed different addi
Consequently
tional signs together with different pitches, for adapting makam music into staff
notation. (See figure 11)

90

O
2
JT031 :ama
fcoaia

XlX.yitzyil
XlX.yiizyil
malar in da
yaz
yazmalarinda

jj

Rauf

Or. Suphi

Ekrem

Zekl

Gltekin
Gultekin

Ii

EZGI
EZGi

i
J

i*

UN

ORANSAY

Muzafter
Muz after SARISOZEt
SARI50ZEf>
Kemal
ILERlCi
ILERiCi

kacaa

kooa

I%

it

T>
*
r
4?

i
bb

j:
L

YEKTA

7
kotoa

kOE
k33

Ali Rlfat
Rifat AATAY
QAfiATAY

5
5

ko?.,9 V:ooa

rT'J-2

I
t

1.
b

if

$
%
%
*

W
w

t
if

+b
L
if

H#

I
s
>*

n
s

*
if

h,

Figure 11: Atalay, 1984: 934


165

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1:145-174

The pretended superiority of the memory as a virtue in the practice of makam


music was perceived as outdated by the representatives of reformist tendencies.
Instead

they

were

trying

to reconstruct

a new

conception

of memory

based

on

the

recordable character of musical heritage, namely a modern attitude. Consequently


all written and published materials have been considered necessary tools of such
a modern

conception

of the

memory.

Most

of the

composers

of nineteenth

century

favored the use of written material in music. Among other documents, lyrics col
lections (gfte mecmualan) occupied a privileged place during the expansion of
written music in different social spheres. The number of lyrics collections pub
lished

during the nineteenth century was around 500. (Uslu, 2001: 167) These
popular publications helped also to transform genres of traditional makam com
position. Kr and beste which were the most long-lived genres across centuries,
were replaced by arki (literally 'song') as a highly popular form in the nineteenth
century. This tendency has evoked, until today, a arki-centered perception of the
makam music, rather than the older divisions into vocal and instrumental types.
Actually persons who identify themselves as lovers of makam music (popularly
known as Trk Sanat Mzigi/Turkish Art Music) are categorical listeners of arki
genre.

Beside

such

inner

transformations

of

the

makam

music,

new

genres

emerged
society received other cultural influences.
The rise of published musical material as a response to a public demand in
cited the formation of a score and lyrics market. A culturally dynamic urban life,
the emergence of new Western-oriented life-styles among elite classes, the relative
rise of the literacy rate in cities due to the adoption of modern policies of educa
tion, the growing of the contacts established with the world played major roles on
the proliferation of the interest in learning and playing music, through written
as the Ottoman

material. More the urban life entered into a commercial logic, more the demand
for cultural market rose. Some composers began to fully or partially think of their
which could acquire exchange value in this
own compositions
as commodities
I
is
one
of the best examples of this market-based
market.
laim Bey
emerging
In
his
collection
entitled 'Haim Bey Collection' he
of
music.
conception
lyrics

estimates that the lyrics of several arki-s that he gathered had a high potential to
be published and sold as European ('Alafranga') scores, with low prices. (Him
Bey, 1864: 87) Although his prediction never came true, music became in nine
teenth century a matter of marketing, implying technical simplification of music,
as popular tendencies spread. The adoption and use of European staff notation
played a major role in the expansion of popular music, through the high demand
for lyrics collections. The European
staff notation began progressively
to be
in
and
institutionalized
makam
music
as
a
of
adopted
practice
consumption as

well as a process of learning, particularly during the last quarter of the nineteenth
century, given that scores were systematically published after 1875. At the turn of
the 20th century, notation was extensively adopted by musicians as an important
method of learning music. Ismail
performing tool, as well as an indispensable
166

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
of Modernity:
Written Music at the Crossroads
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

IRASM

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Hakki

Bey, a composer and member of the classification board at Drlelhan,


underlined, in his book entitled Msiki Tekml Dersleri - Courses of Progress in
Music published in 1926, the crucial place of music literacy in music education. He
established a parallel between language learning and music learning, emphasiz

ing that reading and writing are vital tools for both of them. He stressed that one
who is perfectly competent in a language but lacking the ability to read and write
should be considered ignorant. As in the case of the language, music, in the eyes of
Ismail Hakki Bey, has the same status, since it is a language and science (au
thors' emphasis).

(Ismail Hakki Bey, 1926)

Conclusion
In today's modern world conception, music is usually thought of as insepa
rable from its written expressions. Yet writing music was not a widely admitted
prerequisite for its reception and performance. Much of the world's music has

been performed and transmitted exclusively through oral forms. Even in today's
there are several musical practices based on oral
global cultural exchanges,
performances. Nevertheless, the development of systems of notation in different
musical traditions was largely developed
as part of a socio-historical process of
articulation

towards modernity. Indeed, Ottoman/Turkish makam music evolved


to
such a modernization
according
process, as part of an overall social transfor
mation rather than as an isolated technical issue. Starting from the end of the
eighteenth century, notation began to become an internal need of music circles.
An accelerating
of modernity,

of expressions.
the

and complicated

the

of standardization
century.

The

of more

This passage
several

contrary,

rise

most

of makam

forms,

urban life necessitated,

productive

as in other experiences
and

motifs

and

actors

of resistance

for this

resistance

appeared
was

process. On
in the

of written music throughout

argument

forms

simplified

was certainly not a linear and consensual

and the adoption


emphasized

therefore

rational,

the

process

the nineteenth
oral

character

music, which cannot and therefore should not be expressed in written


forms. This argument is still hold by some makam musicians. But there were also
invisible

economic

the education

and ideological reasons of such a resistance, as, for example,


period was naturally shortening by written material. In spite of

several forms of resistance, written music spread out along the modernization
process in Turkey. The dialectics of social need and institutional resistance can
best be observed in the period of transition between 1790s and 1820s, which
consisted on contradictions between musicians of different artistic vocations, and

interpntrations between alphabetical notations and the European staff system.


and critical perspective, we evaluated
the process of
By an interdisciplinary
to
written
music
in
makam
as
a
tradition,
dialectically paved way with
passage
contradictions as well as integrations, instead of artificially dividing concepts,
167

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1:145-174

facts and actors of the modernization

This old
process as binary oppositions.
debate on writing music in makam tradition is still continuing. Even though it has
been marginalized, defenders of an exclusively oral tradition represent the inner

variety of a music practice, but certainly not a socially supported mainstream


of Turkish
cultural preference. The basic characteristics of over-all modernization
life.
are
thus
reflected
cultural
forms
diffused
into
Music
society
upon
everyday
and
due
to its
a
between
these
cultural
forms
practices
occupies
privileged place

high penetrating capability. Its technical transformation to more simplified and


rational forms is no other thought than an explicit indication of modern concep
tion of life, with its practices as well as its concepts.

BIBLIOGRAHY

Theodor

ADORNO,

W. (1994).

Introduction

W. (2002).

Essays

la sociologie

de la musique,

Contrechamps

di

Composition]

(ed.

Geneva.

tions,

Theodor

ADORNO,
Richard

W. (2006).

Theodor

ADORNO,
Polity

University

Leppert),

Press,

ALMDAR,

[Music,
Press,

a Theory

Towards

and

Language
Berkeley,

of Musical

Los

London.

Angeles,

(ed.

Reproduction

Henri

On

(2011).

Benimsenmesi

dokuzuncu

itibaren

Yzyildan

ve Toplumsal

Sonulari

Osmanli

Devleti'nde

The

Emre

Donizetti

(2006).

Italian

Maestro

Paa,

Osmanli

of the Ottoman

Italyan

Saraytmn

Court],

Yapi

Bati

of the Western

[The

Miizigi'nin
Adoption
and Its Social
in Ottoman
State], Istanbul
up to 19th Century
Consequences
PhD dissertation.
Institute
of Social
Sciences,
University,
unpublished

ARACI,

Lonitz),

Maiden.

Cambridge,

Seluk

on Music

of California

Kredi

Maestrosu

Yayincihk,

Music

Technical

Pasha,

[Donizetti
Istanbul.

ATALAY, Adnan (1984). Mzik Yazisi [Musical Writing], Miizik Ansiklopedisi,Ed. Ahmet
Say,

ATTALI,

vol.

3, Ankara

Jacques

the political

AYANGL,

Ruhi

(2001).

Bruits,

(2008).

Essai

of music],

economy

Western

sur l'conomie

politique

Fayard-PUF,

Paris.

Notation

in Turkish

de la musique,

Music,

Journal

ety,18(4), pp. 401-447.


Murat

BARDAKI,
Yayincihk,

(1993).

Fener

Beyleri'ne

Trk arkilari

[Songs

[Noises,

of the Royal

for the Phanar

Istanbul.

168

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Essays

Asiatic

Lords],

on

Soci

Pan

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

BECKER

Howard

S. (1984).

Artworlds,

IRASM

of California

University

Press,

46 (2015)

1:145-174

Berkeley.

BERKES Niyazi (1978). Trkiye'deagdalama [Secularism in Turkey], Dogu-Bati Yayinlan,


Istanbul.

DOGRUSZ,

& Recep

Nilgn

[Tahririye,
tesi Trk

DOGRUSZ,

Musikisi

Mehmet

The

(2012).

Ugur

Collection

Century

Abdlbaki

(2009).

of Abdlbki

Konservatuari

(2006).
Nayi
on the Musical

Documents

EKiNCi,

Writing

Devlet

Nilgn

Few

USLU

the Musical

of Ottoman

Nasir

Nasir

Dede'nin

Mzik

of Nayi

Writing
Kevser

Mzik

stanbul

Yazisi

Teknik

Tahririye
niversi

Istanbul.

Yayinlari,

Osman

Dede'nin

Dede],

Yazisma

Osman

Dede],

Dair

Birka

[A

Belge

8, pp. 47-66.

Musikiinas,

Mecmuasi

Music,

Journal

225.

Unveiled:
an Eighteenth
Exploring
of the Royal Asiatic Society, 22(2), pp. 199

ELN, kr (1976). Ali Ufki,Mecmua-i Saz Sz [Ali Ufk, The Review of Instruments and
Lyrics] Milli Egitim Basimevi, Istanbul.
ERGUR, Ali & Yigit AYDIN (2006). Patterns of Modernization in Turkish Music as Indica
tors of a Changing

GAZiMIHAL,

Ragip GAZIMIHAL
Music

Europe

Musicae

Society,

The

Anne-Marie

(2006).

De la musique

BEY

Haim

Anthony

Issue

Special

2005-2006,

pp.

89-108.

(1939). Tiirkiye-AvrupaMusiki Mnasebetleri [Turkey


1, Numune

Relationships],

(1992).

GIDDENS,

Scientiae,

Consequences

Istanbul.

Matbaasi,

of Modernity,

Press,

Polity

Ox

Cambridge,

ford.

GREEN,

en sociologie

[Music

in sociology],

L'Harmattan,

Paris.

HAIM

Hariri

(1864).

Bey Mecmuasi

[The

Haim

Bey

Review],

Koyuluzde

Yahya

Istanbul.

Matbaasi,

iSMAIL HAKKI BEY (1926). Msiki TekmiilDersleri [Courses of Musical Progress], Feniks
Matbaasi,

Istanbul.

Nedim

KARAKAYALI,
litical

Actors

(2010).

and

Two

Educational

Assemblages
Techniques

of Cultural
in Ottoman

JournalofHistorical Sociology,23(3), pp.343-371.


KARPAT,

Kemal

Modernization

H.

(2006).

and

Osmanh'da

Nationalism

Transmission:
and

Empire

Modernleme
Degiim,
in Ottoman
Empire],
imge

ve

Musicians,
Western

Uluslama

Kitabevi,

Po

Europe,

[Change,

Ankara.

169

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

Aram

KEROVPYAN,
Classical

&

Ottoman

Kltr

and

Klasik

(2010).

the Armenians],

Osmanh

Surp

Miizigi

ve Ermeniler

[The

Hastanesi

Vakfi

Ermeni

Pirgi

Istanbul.

Trk

(2004).

erif

YILMAZ

Altug
Music

Yayinlan,

MARDN

A. Ergur- N. Dogrusz:
and Adoption towards
Resistance
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1:145-174

Modernlemesi

[Turkish

Modernization],

Themes

in the Sociology

iletiim

Yayinlari,

Istanbul.

Peter

MARTIN,

University
EMIN

NOTACI

Sounds

J. (1995).

and

Society,

Manchester

of Music,

Press.

BEY

Muallimi

Nota

(1885/1305).

[The

Note

Teacher],

Matbaasi,

Zartaryan

Istanbul.

POPESCU-JUDETZ,

(1996).

Eugenia

in Turkish

Meanings

Musical

Pan

Culture,

Yayincilik,

Istanbul.

Eugenia (2002). Tanburi KgkArtin:A musical TreatiseoftheEighteenth

POPESCU-JUDETZ,
Pan

Century,

RADO,

evket
namesi

Paris'te

(2006).

Ottoman

[An

Mehmet

Istanbul.

Yayincilik,

Bir Osmanh

Ambassador

i Bankasi

elebi],

Fransa Seyahat
Sefiri, Yirmisekiz Mehmet elebi'nin
in Paris, the Voyage
in France
of Yirmisekiz
Journal
Istanbul.

Yayinlan,

SEZGIN, Fuat (1984). SafiyyddinUrmevi,Kitabul-Edvar: Book on the Cyclic ofMusical Modes


and Treatise
the

to Sharaf al-Din

Dedicated

of Arabic-Islamic

History

on Proportions

in Musical

at the Johann

Sciences

Institute

Composition,
Goethe,

Wolfgang

for

University

F rankfurt-am-Main.

Karl

SIGNELL,

L. (1986).

Makam,

Modal

Practice

in Turkish Music,

Da

Capo

Press,

New

York.

SIMMEL, Georg (1989). Philosophie de la modernit,La femme,la ville, l'individualisme [Phi


of Modernity,

losophy

SIMMEL,

de France,

(2010).

Georg

on Forms

Individualism],

Payot,

Paris.

l'homme

Paris.

Sociologie,

of Socialization],

Werner

SOMBART,
tual

City,

Georg (1999). Philosophie de l'argent [Philosophy of Money], Quadrige/Presses

Universitaires

SIMMEL,

Woman,

(1928).

conomique

History

[The

Economie

sur les formes


Universitaires

Le Bourgeois,

moderne

of Modem

tudes
Presses

Contribution

Bourgeois,
Man]

Payot,

de la socialisation
de France,

l'histoire

Contribution

[Sociology,

Studies

Paris.

morale

et intellectuelle

to the Moral

and

Paris.

170

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Intellec

de

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music
Gradual Passage
Taner

TIMUR,

toman

Osmanh

(1989).

Studies,

From

ilkel Feodalizmden

alimaltm,

to Semi-Colonial

Feudalism

46 (2015)

IRASM

Yan

Ekonomisine

Smrge

[Ot

Ankara.

Verso,

Economy],

1:145-174

TURA, Yalm (2001). Kantemiroglu, Kitabu ilmiil Msk al vechi1-Huruft,Yapi Kredi


istanbul.

Yayinlan,

USLU,

(2001).

Recep
zerine
Some

Tarihinde

Egitim

Mzigi

Gfte

in the History
[Lyrics
Tespitler
of Study],
Considerations
on the Principles
Ankara,

Yayinlan,

Max

(1998).

Sociologie
The

of Music,

[Sociology

pp.

ve Inceleme

Mecmualari
of Education

Collections

Bakanhgi

WEBER,

Trk

Miizikte

of Turkish

2000

Esaslan
Music

Sempozyumu,

and

Kltr

158-168.

de la musique,

Les fondements

Rational

Sociological

and

rationnels

et sociaux

de la musique

of Music],

Foundations

Mtailli,

Paris.

Owen

WRIGHT,
nia

State

WRIGHT,

Demetrius

(2000).

Press,

University

Owen

[But Who

(2007).
Was

Mais

qui tait 'Le

'the Composer

Art., Teatru, Muzic,

Cantemir:

The Collections

of Notations,

Vol.

2, Pennsylva

Ashgate.

compositeur

of the Peshrev

Cinematografie,

du Pchrev

in Makam

serie nou,

1 (45),

dans

Nihavend
Bucarest,

le makam
?'], Studii

Nihavend?'
i Cercet.

1st.

pp. 3-45.

GLOSSARY
Turkish letters and their pronunciations:
C: j or dj
: ch
G: ygh as the letter gamma

(y) in Greek

o, as it is used in German

: rounded
: sh

u as it is used in German

: rounded

A: Sign for extending


Technical

the sound of the letter on which it is placed.

terms used in the text:

Makam:

Scale of microtonal

Nizm-i

Cedid:

quences

steps and its logic of melodic

construction.

Nizmi Jedid (New Order) (1) The generic name for the conse
of a reformist era at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th
171

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

46 (2015)

IRASM

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1: 145-174

centuries. (2) The specific name of the newly founded army during this peri
od, in accordance with modern military organization principles.
Usl: Preconceived

rhythmic pattern in makam music.

Ebced: Ebjed. Litterally alphabet. A technique


arts with a letter-based system.

of ciphering written expressions

in

Ney: Ney or nay. A wind instrument of seven holes, made of reed by emptying
the interior with hot iron. Ney is a typically mystic-timbered instrument in
makam music. It is also the most persisted instrument across periods. Indeed
all instruments were replaced by others during centuries with the sole excep
tion of ney.

Nyi or Neyzen:

Ney player.

Ayin: An equivalent of suite form in makam music. It consists of a suc


in the same makam, for accompanying
cession of music pieces composed
whirling dervishes in the Mevlevi order (followers of Rumi).

Mevlevi

Hiimayn:
Imperial Orchestra or Court Band. Founded circa 1828,
the
date
exact
is unknown, by Giuseppe Donizetti, as part of modern
though
ist reforms for teaching and performing the European
music. Today, the
Presidential Symphonic Orchestra in Ankara, and some military bands can

Muzik-yi

be considered

as its continuation.

arki: Sharqi. Song. A Turkish makam music form with lyrics and relatively short
duration, often destined to a larger audience, with popular themes and musi
cal language.
Mek:

Meshq.

from

The fundamental

a master.

It consists

on

method

of learning music with oral repetition

a transmission

of musical

and

cultural

heritage,

and not only a technical learning.

Fasil: Fasl. A package of makam music forms composed in the same makam per
formed in pre-reformist era mostly in friend circles.
Fasl-i Atik: Fasliatiq. (old fasil) The musical ensemble of Turkish makam music in the
Ottoman court. Pieces in fasil are given in a specific order (taksim, kar, beste etc)
in different forms using traditional instruments (tanbur, ud, kanun, etc)
Fasl-i Cedd:

Faslijedid. (new fasil) The musical ensemble of Turkish makam music


in the Ottoman court with the endorsement of Sultan Mahmud II. The ensem

ble

consists

Perev: Peshrev.

of both

instruments

European

Instrumental

and

Turkish

traditional

ones.

prelude.

Beste: A vocal form in the fasil.

172

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

A. Ergur-

N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:

Gradual

Yrksemai:

Passage

to Notation in Turkish Makam

IRASM

46 (2015)

1: 145-174

Music

the last piece of the fasil having a rhythmic pattern in 6/4.

Gfte Mecmualan:
are collected.

Gufte mejmualari.

Books in which lyrics of Ottoman

music

Driilelhan:

Litterally the gate of melodies. The musical school founded on mod


ern education principles, established in 1914 in Istanbul, where teaching of
the makam music was made with contemporary methods. It gathered best
makam musicians

Alafranga:
Dede:

of the time.

The Turkish saying for 'Alia Turca'.

Sufi master.
ilmiT Musik 'al vechiT-Huruft:
cording to the Alphabetic Notation).

Kitbu

The Book of the Science of Music Ac


Moldovian
Prince of Demetrius Can

temir, known as Kantemiroglu in Turkish. The book contains music theory


(makam-s, usul-s, genres, explanations of his notational systems) and collec
tion of notations. The book preserves 352 works (315 perev-s and 37 instru
mental semai-s) known in his period, the 18th century.
Tahririye: In relation with writing. The book is about the rules and regulations of
Abdiilbaki Nasir Dede's ebced notation. Nasir Dede notated the Mevlevi
(which is created by Selim III) composed by Sul
ayin in makam suzidilara
tan Selim III using ebced
this ayin.

notation as well as instrumental compositions

Bey: Mister. As the family name did not exist in Ottoman

for

period.

173

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IRASM

46 (2015)

A. Ergur - N. Dogrusz:
Resistance
and Adoption towards
Written Music at the Crossroads
of Modernity:
Gradual Passage
to Notation in Turkish Makam Music

1:145-174

Sazetak
i prihvacanje

Otpor

postupni
ini se
ja prema

da glazba

koncepciji

na raskrizjima
moderniteta:
u turskoj maqam
glazbi

pisane
glazbe
na notaciju
prijelaz

nudi

razne

modernoga

znakove

i vrijednosti

mentaliteta

promjene

To je bio slucaj

svijeta.

turske

maqam

na putu

razvo

koji se

dogo

glazbe

dio u zapadnoj Europi tijekom uspona kapitalizma i moderniteta. Iako su rijetkiprvi pokusa
ji primijeceni u sedamnaestom stoljecu, glazbena notacija nije bila dominantna karakteristi
ka maqam
Tijekom

glazbe
procesa

koja

se

bitno

modernizacije

temelji

na

usmenoj

Turske

od

osamnaestog

i njezinu

melodije

predaji

stoljeca

nadalje

poznavanju.
su

glazbenici

ra

zvijali razlicite sustave glazbene notacije. Unatoc tomu sto se radilo o teorijskim pokusaji
ma

s ogranicenom

bastine
interes
jentiran

njome
glazbenih
na

uporabom,

bila

znak

modemog

krugova,

trgovinu,

vec

dakle

je

sama

pojava

svjetonazora.

i to upravo
moderan

onda

kada

ideje

Ustvari,

zapisane
tek su

je drustveni

u socioloskom

smislu.

noviji

zivot

i registriranja

glazbe
postajao

U ovom

privukli

pokusaji
radu

ubrzaniji,
autori

siri
ori

nastoje

izloziti oblike otpora i usvajanje sustava glazbene notacije kao pokazatelja promjena u zi
votu osmanskog/turskog drustva na osi modernizacije, od zapadne notacije Alija Ufkija do
sadasnjih
Dedea

praksi

notiranja,

i Hampartzuma

s posebnim

Limonciyana,

naglaskom
kao

i vaznost

na

povijesne

drugog

uloge

rukopisnog

rijala, kao sto su primjerice recenzije stihova (gfte mecmualari).

Abdlbakija
i objavljenog

174

This content downloaded from 160.75.2.183 on Wed, 24 Feb 2016 12:01:29 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Nsira
mate