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Utah State University

January 1981

Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage

Duane G. Chadwick Kim H. Sherwood

Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/water_rep

Utah State University <a href=DigitalCommons@USU Reports Utah Water Research Laboratory January 1981 Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage Duane G. Chadwick Kim H. Sherwood Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/water_rep Part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Commons , and the Water Resource Management Commons Recommended Citation Chadwick, Duane G. and Sherwood, Kim H., "Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage" (1981). Reports. Paper 566. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/water_rep/566 This Report is brought to you for free and open access by the Utah Water Research Laboratory at DigitalCommons@USU. It has been accepted for inclusion in Reports by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@USU. For more information, please contact becky.thoms@usu.edu . " id="pdf-obj-0-21" src="pdf-obj-0-21.jpg">

Recommended Citation

Chadwick, Duane G. and Sherwood, Kim H., "Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage" (1981). Reports. Paper 566.

This Report is brought to you for free and open access by the Utah Water Research Laboratory at DigitalCommons@USU. It has been accepted for inclusion in Reports by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@USU. For more information, please contact becky.thoms@usu.edu.

Utah State University <a href=DigitalCommons@USU Reports Utah Water Research Laboratory January 1981 Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage Duane G. Chadwick Kim H. Sherwood Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/water_rep Part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Commons , and the Water Resource Management Commons Recommended Citation Chadwick, Duane G. and Sherwood, Kim H., "Design Considerations in the Use of Glauber Salt for Energy Storage" (1981). Reports. Paper 566. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/water_rep/566 This Report is brought to you for free and open access by the Utah Water Research Laboratory at DigitalCommons@USU. It has been accepted for inclusion in Reports by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@USU. For more information, please contact becky.thoms@usu.edu . " id="pdf-obj-0-42" src="pdf-obj-0-42.jpg">

Design Considerations In The Use Of Glauber Salt For Energy Storage

Duane G. Chadwick Kim H. Sherwood

Utah Water Research Laboratory Conege of Engineering Utah State University Logan, Utah 84322

November 1981

WATER RESOURCES PLANNING SERIES

UWRL/p-81/0S

-.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF GLAUBER SALT

FOR ENERGY STORAGE

QY

 

Duane G.

Chadwick

 

Kim H.

Sherwood

The work on which

this

report

is

based was

supported

in part with

funds

provided by

the Department of Energy

WATER RESOURCES PLANNING SERtES

QWRL/P-81/05

Utqh Water Rese~rch Laboratory

College

of Engineering

Utah State University

Logan,

Utah

84322

Nove~ber 1981

 

ABSTRACT

 
 

Various

design

concepts

for

the

utilization

of

the

latent

heat

of

Glauber

salt

at

temperatures

between

25°C

and

SO·C

were

studied.

Consideration was given to system economics

and

what

particular

heat

storage system if perfected would be most cost effective.

 

The

problems

of

limiting

crystal

size

and

heat

transfer

into

and

out

of

salt

crystals

is

discussed.

Crystal

size

is

affected

by

the

degree

of

agitation

the

salt

solution

experiences

during

the

salt

cooling

process.

Consequently,

 

crystal

size

was

moderated

in a

favorable

way

by

introducing

air

bubbles

at

the

bottom

of

the

salt

container.

As

the

bubbles

rise

a

mixing

action

 

occurs

which

limits

crystal

size

and

helps

prohibit

the

accumulation

of

an

anhydrous

sludge

that settles

out

of

solution

in

the

freezing-thawing

process.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

Acknowledgment

is

given

to

the

Department

of

Energy

and

Utah

State

University

for

providing

funds

to

support

this

project

(UEE-

151-1).

 
 

Appreciation

is

expressed

to

 

Drs.

J.

Clair

Batty,

Dean

Adams,

Melvin

Cannon,

and

Joel

E.

Fletcher

for

their

assistance

and

sug-

gestions.

 

iii

--.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION: ENERGY STORAGE

1

LITERATURE REVIEW

3

Salt Hydrates

3

Energy Density.

••

••.• ...

3

Internal Heat Transfer and Incongruent Melting

3

Heat Generation

6

Conclusions from the Literature Review

7

MATERIALS AND HETHODS

9

Glauber Salt Preparations

9

Glauber Salt

9

Starch Gels

9

Thermal

Conductivity Measurements

9

Thermal

Conductivity Tubes

.

9

Temperature Recording

11

Thin Film Polyethylene Packaging

11

Packaging

. Calorimetric Testing

.

.

11

11

Cycling Testing

l3

Aeration of Glaubers Salt

13

Concept •

.

.

.

.

.

13

13

Fluorescent Light Tube Reactor

Modified Separatory Funnel.

Heat Transfer

. from the Modified

• Separatory Funnel

.

.

.

l3

14

14

Dye Concentration by Crystallization Air-stirred Crystal Furnace

 

14

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

19

Thermal Conductivity

19

Amoco

Parowax

.

19

Glauber

Salt

Solid

.

.

.

19

Cab-O-Sil Thickened Glauber

Salt

19

Astro

Gum

21

Starch Gel

19

Mathematical Modeling

22

Thin Film Polyethylene Packaging

23

Exponential

Cooling

23

Degradation

.

26

Crystallization Furnace

28

Recycling of Fluid

28

Enlarged Air Stirred Furnace

30

Summary

.

30

Conclusions

33

v

-.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

Page

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

 

35

LITERATURE CITED

37

APPENDIX A:

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF TWO PHASE MEDIA

39

APPENDIX B:

SYMBOLS,

ABBREVIATIONS,

DIMENSIONS,

AND UNITS

41

vi

'I

II

,.

I'

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

  • 1 temperature profile for

A theoretical

a

cylindrically

freezing

liquid

6

  • 2 sample thermal

Annular

conductivity apparatus

10

  • 3 channel

Two

recorder wiring for

thermal conductivity

measurements

12

  • 4 Stirred kinetic calorimetric apparatus

12

  • 5 testing apparatus

Cycle

14

  • 6 Stirred crystal furnace apparatus

(in modified separa-

tory funnel)

(without air)

15

  • 7 Stirred crystal furnace apparatus tory funnel)

(in modified separa-

16

  • 8 Aerated Glauber salt exchanger

furnace with water pipe heat

 

17

  • 9 thermal conductivity of Amoco Parowax

The

(determined

experimentally)

20

  • 10 conductivity of unmodified Glauber salt

The thermal

(experimental results)

20

  • 11 thermal

The

conductivity of Cab-O-Sil gelled

Na 2 S0 4 0 10H 2 0

21

  • 12 Thermal conductivity of a thin Astro

Gum 21

gel

21

  • 13 Decomposition heat uptake

by

two

1.2

ern diameter

pack-

ets

of solar salts

in

500

ml

of

tap H 2 0

24

  • 14 Crystallization heat release by two 1.2 cm diameter

packets of solar salts

in

500 ml

of

tap

H 2 0

.

24

  • 15 Crystallization heat release by two 1.2 cm diameter

packets of solar salts

in

750

ml

of tap

H 2 0

25

  • 16 cooling constants as

Exponential

a

function of initial

water

temperature

25

  • 17 Crystallization heat release by two 1.2 cm diameter packets of solar salts •

in

750 ml

of tap

H 2 0

27

  • 18 Decomposition heat uptake by

two

1.2

cm diameter

pack-

ets

of solar salts

in

500 ml

of

tap H 2 0

27

of three

sizes of

tubes of

thickened

  • 19 Average heat rates Glauber salt

  • 20 Calibration curve for methyl-thymol blue

solidification concentration of

28

29

  • 21 Regression of calibration upon crystallation

for methyl-blue concentration

29

vii

 

LIST OF FIGURES

(CONTINUED)

 

Figure

Page

22

Heat

release

as

a

function

of time

in air

stripped

 

crystal

furnace

 

32

23

Heat

release

to heat

pipes as

a

function

of

time

in

large air

stirred crystal

furnace

 

32

viii

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

  • 1 The

physical

properties

of

latent heat energy storage

 

materials

4

  • 2 The

economic

parameters

of

latent

heat

energy

storage

materials

4

  • 3 from

Heat

extracted

23

liters

of Glauber salt

starting

at an initial temperature of 34.4 o C, with a final tempera-

 

ture of 24.loC

31

  • 4 liters of Glauber salt

Heat

absorbed by 23

starting at an

initial 34.3 0 C

temperature

of 23.3 0 C with

a

final

temperature

of

31

ix

INTRODUCTION:

ENERGY

STORAGE

The utilization of solar radiation as an

is lost

if

for

standby

large

investments

have

to

be

made

energy source or space heating, requires two

heating systems.

technologies; the solar collector technology for harvesting radiation into the form of

therma 1 energy,

and

the

technology

of

cost-

effective energy storage over long periods of

time when no sunshine is available.

Residential

space

heating

represents

a

large

part

of

the

total

Roof

energy

usage

in

can capture sufficient energy to meet the

the United States.

solar collectors

heating

needs

for

most

homes,

but

suitable

low

cost

thermal

energy

storage

units

are

needed.

Thermal

energy

can

be

stored

in

the

Economical energy storage is imperative

specific

heat

of

warm

substances

or

in

because space heating needs often are

greatest

radiation

during

and

pe-iods

extended

of

low

durations

incoming

of

fog,

and overcast conditions or at night.

Much

of

the economic advantage of solar heating

the

latent

heat

of

energy

during

phase

substances

changes.

that

release

A promising

possibility for heat storage in the tempera-

ture range used in space heating is discussed

in this report.

1

 

LITERATURE

 

Water

has

a

relatively

high

specific

heat

and

density

compared

with

other

com-

pounds

or

elements.

These

physical

properties

coupled

with

its

low

cost

and

high

avail-

ability,

have

generated

much

interest

in

water as

a

sensible

heat

storage media

(Sharp

and

Loehrke

1979,

and

Hottel

and

Howard

1971).

Hottel

and

Howard

(1971)

calculated

that 4.5

m 3

of

water

raised

from

38°c

to

93°C

will supply

the

equivalent

of

10

gal

of

heating

oil

burned

at

70

percent

efficiency,

which

is

a

day's

heat

for

a

moderately

sized

dwelling on a

cold winter

day.

 

Heat

storage

in

water

and

other

liquids

requires

sealed

tanks

and

expensive

sealed

heat exchangers.

A solid

substances,

such as

rock,

on

the

other

hand,

supplies

its

own

heat

exchange

surface.

The

specific heat

of

stone

is

not

very

high.

A volume

of

11.3

m 3

of

crushed

rock

is

required

to

store

the

same

heat

as

in

4.5

m 3

of

water

with

the

same

temperature

rise

(Hottel

and

Howard

1971).

 
 

Scrap

iron has

a

specific heat only half

that

of

stone,

but

its

density is nearly

three times as large.

One

m 3

of iron ore

or

scrap

iron with

30

percent void space must

be

heated

to

371°C

to

store

the same energy

as

the

4.5

m 3

of

water

raised

from

38°c

to

93°C

(Hottel

and

Howard

1971).

Because

of

these

factors

the

cost

of

heat

storage

in

iron

was

about

16

fold

that

of

storage

in

rock (Altman 1971).

 
 

In heating, physical or chemical changes

may

occur,

which

absorb heat

without

changing

the

temperature

of

the

material.

When

the

temperature

is

reduced,

heat

is

liberated

without

temperature

reduction.

The

amount

of

latent heat of

these

physiochemical

reactions

for

heat

energy

storage

has

been

extensively

studied

(Bauerle

et

a1.

1975,

Schmidt and

Lowe 1976,

and Prengle

and

Sun 1976).

In

the

high

temperature

range

of

200°

to over

1000°C

a

large

number

of

reactions have been

identified

(Schmidt

and

Lowe

1976).

An

interesting

scheme

 

has

been

proposed

that

reversibly reacts

ammonia,

water,

and

sulfur

trioxide

to

form

ammonium

bisulfate

at

about

500°C

(Prengle

and

Sun

1976).

Ca(OH)2

and

can

be

revers i bly

dehydra ted

at

Mg (OH) 2 about

400°C

to

CaO

and

respectively

(Bauerle

et

al.

1975).

 
 

An

interesting

 

class

of

physical

reac-

tions,

which

isothermally

store

heat,

is

the

melting

or

fusion

reaction.

Salt

fusion

energy

storage

has

been

explored

over

the

temperature

range

250°C

to

35UoC

(Lefrois

et

a1.

1979).

unfortunately,

to obtain

these

3

REVIEW

 

temperatures

is quite

costly

in

collector

de-

sign.

The

large

demand

for

comfort

control

heating

in

the

20°C

to

30°C

range

has

spurred

particular

interest

in

moderate

to

low

tem-

perature

melting

materials

with

commensurate

savings possible in collector construction

costs

(Altman

1971,

Telkes

1974,

and Lane

et

a1.

1975a,

b,

c,

1976).

Various

salt

hydrates

have

attractive

heat

of

fusion

char-

acteristics

in

the

30

to

50°C melting

range.

Some

of

their

specific

characteristics

are

presented below.

Salt Hydrates

Energy

Density

 

One

of

the

highest

latent

heats

of

fusion

for

commonly

available

material

is

that

of

water.

Water

releases

335

kJ/kg

as

it

melts

from

ice.

Table

1

gives

the

latent

heat values

and

densities

for

several salt

hydrates

which

solidify

at

temperatures

between 20°C

and 38°C.

The

large

latent heats

of

these

phase

changes

are

a

result

of

the

large

quantities

of

water

incorporated

in

these

salt

hydrate

crystals.

In

Glaubers

salt,

for

example,

there

are

10

water

mole-

cules

for

each

Na2S04

molecules.

 

The

density

information

of

Table

1

can

be

used

to

convert

the

latent

heats

into

energy

densities.

Glaubers

x

salt

10 4

has

a

theoretical

value

of

36.7

kJ/m 3 .

While

some

of

the

other

salts

may

be

slightly

higher

in energy

density,

the

availability

of

Glaubers

salt makes

it

a

likely

candidate

for

study.

 
 

Comparison

of

various

economic

parame-

ters

between

various

salt

compounds

is

also

an

important

consideration.

The

best

com-

pound,

from

its

physical

characteristic

standpoint,

may

be

totally

impractical

if

its

cost

is

exorbitant.

Table

2

compares

the

materials

possible

kwatt-hr/$

cost

for

eight

for

use

as

storage

media.

Glauber

salt

is

shown

to

be

most

cost

effective

of

all

that

were

reported

in

the

table.

Internal Heat Transfer

and

 

Incongruent

Melting

A

transfer

problem

arises

of

obtaining

in

using

adequate

salt

heat

hydrates.

Since

the

heat

of

fusion

is

only

about

12°C

above

the

desired

ambient

room

tempera-

ture,

there

is

little

temperature gradient

available.

Pumping

large

volumes

of

air

over

finned

surfaces

is

possible

although

quite

energy

intensive.

 

Table 1.

The physical

properties

of latent heat energy storage materials.

Material

Formula

Melting

Point

°c

Latent

Heat

kJ/kg

Latent Heat

Density

kJ/m

3

Thermal

Conductivity

watts/moC

References

Glauber Salt Na2S04 '10H 2 O

Thickened Glauber Salt Na2S04'10H20 + Si0 2

Washing Soda Na 2 C0 3 '10H 2 O

32.2

31.7

32.2-33.9

251

36.7x10 4

126

(May be

improved)

247-251

18.4x10 4

35.6x10 4

to 4

36.lx10

0.51

Telkes

(1974), Altman

(1971)

Jurinak and Abde1-Khalik (1978)

Washburn

(1929)

Te1kes

Lane et

(1974)

al.

(1975a)

Telkes

Altman

Lane et

(1974)

(1971)

a1.

(1975a)

Calcium Chloride CaCI 2 '6H 2 O

Sodium Phosphate Na 2 HP0 4 '12H 2 O

Sodium

Thiosulfate

Na 2 S 2 0 3 '5H 2 O

Barium

Hydroxide

Ba(OH)2' 8H ZO

Sunoco P116 Paraffin (CH 2 ) n

28.9-29.4

170-183

36.1

47.8-48.9

265

209

77 .8

46,7

279-305

209

29.1x10

31.3xlO

  • 4 Solid 1.09

  • 4 Liquid 0.54

40.3x10 4

32.1x10 4

0.S7

60.8x10 4

66,5x10 4

19.3x10 4

Solid 1,26

Liquid 0.65

Solid 0.14

Liquid 0.15

Telkes (1974)

Altman (1971)

Lane et

al.

(l975a)

Te1kes

Altman

Lane et

(1974)

(1971)

al.

(l975a)

Telkes

Lane et

Lorsch

(1974),

Altman

al.

(1975a)

(1974)

Telkes

Lane et

(1974),

Altman

aI,

(1975a)

(1971)

(1971 )

Jurinak and Abdel-Khalik (1978) Lorsch (1974)

Table 2,

The

economic parameters

of latent heat energy storage materials.

Value

of Material for

Material

Formula

Melting

Latent

Heat

Density

kJ/m

3

Material

Cost, Ka

$/100 kg

Table 1. The physical properties of latent heat energy storage materials. Formula Point Heat kJ/kg Latent

$200/m 3

kWatt

kWatt

kWatt

References

Table 1. The physical properties of latent heat energy storage materials. Formula Point Heat kJ/kg Latent

Glauber Salt Na 2 SO 4' lOH 2 0

32.2

Table 1. The physical properties of latent heat energy storage materials. Formula Point Heat kJ/kg Latent

5.04

1.38

0.500

0.306

Telkes

(1974),

Altman

(1971)

Jurinak and Abdel-Khalik Washburn (1929)

(1978)

Thickened Glauber

Salt

31.7

Na2S04'10H20 + Si0 2

Washing Soda Na 2 C0 3 ·10H 2 0

32.2-33.9

1.84x10 5

3.56x10 5

5.27

10.08

0.664

0.692

0.247

0.362

0.152

0.24S

Telkes

Lane et

(1974)

al.

(1975a)

Telkes

Lane et

(1974),

Altman

al.

(197Sa)

(1971)

Calcium Chloride CaC1 2 '6H 2 0

Sodium Phosphate

Na 2 HP0 4

'12H 2 0

Sodium Thiosulfate Na Z S 2 0 3 '5H 2 0

Barium Hydroxide Ba(OH)2· 8H 20

Sunoco Pl16 Paraffin (CH 2 ) n

28.9-29.4

36.1

47.8-48.9

3.6~~lOS

2.91x10 S

to

3.13x10 5

4.03x10 5

Table 1. The physical properties of latent heat energy storage materials. Formula Point Heat kJ/kg Latent

7.56

22.67

36.41

77 .8

46.7

6.08x10 S

to

5

6.65xlO

1.93x10 5

63.20

43.S1

0.672

0.325

0.159

0.134

0.133

0.335

0.236

0.129

0.122

0.101

0.223

Telkes

Lane et

(1974),

Altman

al.

(1975a)

(1971)

0.185

0.109

0.113

Telkes

Lane et

(1974),

Altman

al.

(1975a)

Telkes

Lane et

Lorsch

(1974),

Altman

al.

(1975a)

(1974)

(1971)

(1971)

Telkes (1974), Altman (1971) Lane et al. (1975a)

0.081

Jurinak and Abdel-Khalik Lorsch (1974)

(1978)

a 1971 prices

from Altman

(March 1972 to February

1980)

(1971)

updated to February

1980 by

(Chemical and Allied

Products Cost

129

percent

increase from Monthly Labor Review

Index)

(U.S, Dept.

of Labor 1980).

4

In

contras t

to

the

economi cs

of

forced

a it: convect ion, pumped wa ter convect ion is

much more economical.

Pumping a semi-frozen

material (while absorbing or releasing latent heat through a phase change), however,

presents several mechanical problems.

An

additional

problem

exists

in

that

most

hydrated

salts

do

not

melt

congruently,

but

rather "decompose"

into

a

saturated solution

and

a

less

hydrated

insoluble

fraction

(Telkes

1974,

Mills

et

a1.

1979,

and Lane

et a1. 1975a).

 
 

Findlay (1945) presents an exten-

sive

discussion

of

the

thermodynamics

of

the

incongruent

melting

of

Glauber

salt

(Na2S04·10H20).

At

32.6°c

a

quadruple

point

of

stability

is

reached

for

anhydrous

sodium

sulfate,

sodium

sulfate

decahydrate,

a both of these salts.

and

solution

saturated

with

respect

to

Either stirring or

thickening allows for fairly complete revers- . ibility of these types of melting phenomena

(Hottel

and

Howard

1971,

Telkes

1974,

Lane

et

a1.

1975a,

b,

c,

and

Mills

et

a1.

 

1979).

Three basic mechanical stirring tech-

niques

have

been studied:

blade

type

 

stirring

(L e fro i set aLl 979), rot a t ion 0 f drum s

(Herrick and Thornton 1979), and oil recircu-

lation

(Mills

et

al.

1979).

A

one-quarter

horsepower

motor

can

mix

a

55

gallon

drum

of

Glauber

salt

(Na2S04·l0H20)

by

rolling

it

along

its

longitudinal

axis.

By

the

 

convec-

tion heat transfer process

it

has

a

heat

transfer

coefficient

of

between

568

and

57

watts/m 2 °c depending

on

 

the

degree

of

solidification of

the

material

 

in

the

drum

(Henick and Thornton 1979).

 

Oil

recircula-

tion

through

Glaubers

salt

is

characterized

by

salt

carry-over

problems

(Mills

 

et

al.

19]9).

A

less

attractive

alternative

is

proposed involving

dilution

of

eutectic

mix-

tures

to

allow

continuous

stirring.

 

A

rather

expensive

eutectic

mixture

consisting

of

po-

tassium

fluoride,

ethylene

glycol,

and

water

142

kJ/kg

has

been

proposed

which stores (Keller 1978).

By

roughly

doubling

the

volume of Glauber salt

with

water,

 

complete

melting can be achieved (Biswas 1977).

 
 

While thickening hydrated salts to

prevent separation eliminates

the

requirement

for internal mixing, it also eliminates internal convective heat transfer. Thjs leaves only conductive heat transfer to move

heat

to the surface

for

distribution

 

and

use.

The thermal conductivity of unmodified

Glauber

salt

(Na2S04·10HZO)

has

been

deter-

mined

to

be

C.Sl

watts/m Z

°c

(Jurinak

and

Abdel-Khalik

1978).

Tables

1

and

2

include

this

information

as

well

as

other

thermal

conductivity data. Table 2 shows the

extremely

poor

thermal

conductivity

 

and

high

cost

of

Sunoco

Pl16

paraffin

wax

(Keller

1978, Jurinak and Abdel-Khalik 1978, and

Lorsch

1974).

With

thickened

material

the

thermal

conductivity

is

very

likely

to

be

most

influenced by the

continuous

part of

the

mixture.

For

this

reason,

adding

 

highly

conductive

material

like

metal

chips

is

not

effective

in

increasing

the

thermal

con-

ductivity

of

latent

heat

storage materials.

 
 

Lane

et

a1.

 

(1975a)

have

experimented

with

encapsulating

CaC12·6H20

in

aluminum

foam.

Under

these

conditions,

a

continuously

connected

aluminum

matrix,

similar

to

the

continuous

foils

used

by

Colloidal

Materials

(1979)

allows

a

low

temperature

to

be

main-

tained

in

the heart

of

a

rather

large

package

of

latent

 

heat

storage

material.

 

Since

the

thickening

agent

is

relatively

fluid,

this

part

of

a

thickened

media

is

most

likely

continuous

around

 

the

solid

crystals.

A

nomograph

for

estimating

thermal

conduc-

t ivi ty

of

two

phase

systems

is

presented

by

Ratcliffe (1968) (see Appendix A).

 
 

When

confined

to

conductive

internal

heat

transfer,

the

 

thickness

of

the

con-

ducting material

becomes

a

primary

considera-

tion.

If

the

thermal

resistance

in

a

body

is

small

compared

to

the

heat

transfer

at

the

surface

of

the

body,

 

heat

transport

will

be

controlled

by

externa 1

convect ion

only.

This

type

of

heat

transfer

is

referred

to

as

"lumped heat."

This

type

of

analysis

is

good

when

the

Biot

modulus

 

(the

ratio

of

the

external

heat

transfer

coefficient

times

a

characteristic

length

to

the

thermal

conduc-

tivity

of

the

body)

is

less

than

0.1

(Holman

1972,

Obert

and Young

1962).

For

cylindrical

symmetry

the

characteristic

length

is

the

ratio

of

the

volume

 

to

the

area:

 

h~/ks ~ 0.1

with

~ = r/2

hr/2k

 

0.1

(2)

 

s

where

 

h

external heat

transfer coefficient

 

(E/L2Tt)

 
 

R,

characteristic

length,

 

the

radius

 

of

the

cylinder

divided

by

2

(L)

 

ks

=

thermal

conductivity

of

the

body

 

(E/LTt)

 

A critical container radius als.o exists

for

any particular thermal conductivity and convective environment, which will produce a maximum heat exchange per unit length (Obert and Young 1962). This critical radius

(rcrit)

is

given

by:

 

r crit

ks/h

(3)

where

ks

and

h

are

as

defined

before,

the

thermal

conductivty

and

the

heat

transfer

coefficient, respectively.

 

While

this

critical radius

 

is

derived

from

a

steady

state assumption,

materials

with

large

latent

heats of crystallization lead to nearly

steady

state

temperature

profiles

in

the

solidified material.

The

compleXity

of

heat

conduction

with

a

phase

change

has

lead

to

chemical

diffusion

analog

procedures for

modeling purposes

(Hashemi

and

Sliepcevich