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Exam 4 Concepts

Chapter 37: Plant Form and Function

What is the main, fundamental difference between plants and animals is
MOBILITY. Plants must make greater, more diverse adaptations to their
Know the general features of figure 37.1
Know figure 37.2 not the exact numbers but the general concept the author
is trying to portray
Why do plants have modified leaves, roots, and stems? (relates to the first
bullet point)
Primary growth
Apical meristem
Know everything in table 37.4 (make your own table)
Secondary growth
Know everything in table 37.5
Know and be able to draw a basic diagram of figure 37.22 (secondary xylem,
secondary phloem, vascular cambium, cork cambium)
Cambium what is it?
What is one good word to describe the function of parenchymal cells?
Heartwood and sapwood; annual growth rings in trees
Stomata opening and closing. How does this happen?
Chapter 38: Water and Sugar Transport in Plants
Understand the water potential formula (slide 3 and 4 covers all of it)
Figure 38.5 what is the concept behind this figure?
Figure 38.7 and the significance of the Casparian strip (think of a Brita filter)
What allows the xylem to rise? (figure 37.9)
Figure 38.10 and transpiration. How does transpiration explain the movement
of water through xylem?
Limits to xylem flow slide 9. Understand this concept.
Sources and sinks whats the difference?
Figure 38.14 and figure 38.15 understand how sources work
The anatomy of phloem figure 38.16. Understand how phloem sap moves
between adjacent cells of the phloem. What are the different cells that make
up the phloem (back to c. 36).
Phloem loading and secondary active transport what molecule acts as the
helper and what molecule is transported with the helper? How does this
compare to the SGLT protein from last unit? Figure 38.17 and 37.21 should
Figure 38.22 understand how this experiment works (recitation worksheet)
Phloem unloading (Figure 38.23) how is different from phloem loading?

Chapter 42: Animal Form and Function

Define fitness.
How does fitness have a trade-off with survival? What is an example?
Know the four main tissue types.
Neuronal structure.
Function of glia.
One word to describe the function of all muscular tissue?
Three types of muscular tissue. Know how to identify one from the other.
Significant structures of each?
Connective tissue. Just general concepts. Do not memorize the
characteristics of specific types of connective tissues.
Epithelial tissue. Necessary for? Is has a specific directionality what does
this mean?
Replacement rates of different tissues. Do not know the specific rates, just the
Know how a cell connects to an organ system.
Know how mass-specific metabolic rate varies with size of animal. Elephant
vs. mouse (Surface area-to-volume ratio!!)
3 surface area adaptations.
Components of homeostasis. In humans, what is the integrator of
homeostatic function? What is negative feedback? What is positive feedback?
4 processes for heat gain/loss
Concurrent exchange vs. countercurrent exchange. What is the purpose of
countercurrent exchange?
Chapter 45: Circulation and Gas Exchange
The 4 levels of gas exchange
Understand how different parameters effect the rate of diffusion (do not
memorize the equation)
Countercurrent exchange gills
Mammalian lungs vs. bird lungs
Negative pressure breathing
HOW is oxygen transported? What does cooperative binding mean? Can a
oxygen carrying molecule that only binds one oxygen molecule exhibit binding
Bohr effect
Maternal vs. fetal Hb
Slide 13 this is complicated. Go through the vessel at the top of slide from
left to right. Notice how the different pressures change! A few things to think
o Why does blood pressure decrease from 30mmHg to 15mmHg
throughout the length of vessel?
o Why does the osmotic pressure remain unchanged?
o Why do we need to lymphatic duct?
How is CO2 transported?

How does O2 get delivered to the tissues and CO2 get picked up from the
tissues? (slide 14, diagram on the right). Put your answer in terms of oxygen
and carbon dioxide partial pressures!
Shallow water blackout
Different circulatory systems
Electrical conduction in the heart
Pressure changes during the cardiac cycle
o Very basic understanding
o Difference between systole and diastole?

Chapter 49: Animal Signals

Know how to define and identify differences between: endocrine pathway,
neuroendocrine pathway, neuroendocrine-to-endocrine pathway. What are
examples of each?
Chemical messengers = ________________________________
Three general categories of hormones. Where are their receptors? Why?
How they bring about a response in the cell?
Estradiol has two types of receptors. What is different about them? What
receptor might be responsible for a hormone-induced tumor?
Triiodothyronine refers to? What is its function in humans? Frogs?
Parabiosis. db/db, ob/ob, lean mice experiment. What do the results suggest?
Energy storage homestasis LEPTIN and GHRELIN. Know everything about
these hormones.
Blood glucose homeostasis INSULIN and GLUCAGON. Know everything
about these hormones, too. During a fed state your insulin levels are
___________________. During a fasted state your insulin levels are
Feedback inhibition.
Define a tropic hormone.
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Know the necessary anatomy and physiology
here. What are key differences between the anterior pituitary and posterior
pituitary? It wouldnt be a bad idea to memorize the hormones that are
released from the anterior vs. posterior pituitary.
Environmental stress homeostasis. How does the adrenal gland play a roll?
Know adrenal medulla vs. cortex.
Know the effects of epinephrine.
The fight or flight response is also known as the sympathoadrenal response.
Water balance homeostasis. Know the effect of ADH. (Where is ADH
released from? Why is it also commonly known as vasopressin?)
Control of cortisol of release. Know how it is released start at the
hypothalamus and work all the way down to the effector gland.
Bipotential structures.
Given that hermaphroditism results from a problem in an individuals sex
chromosomes, be able to explain why a mutation in 5-alpha reductase results

in pseudohermaphroditism. What causes pseudohermaphroditism in

Significance of silphium.
Diurnal cycles.