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Rationale:

Drainage systems are being used as prevention for the accumulation of


water that can lead to flooding. It is designed to drain excess rain water and
ground water from impermeable surfaces such as paved streets, car
parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs. Solid wastes carried of
by the rain water are one of the major problems that causes clogging of the
drainage.
Drainage of surface water is all the more important in hill roads. Apart
from the drainage of water from the road formation, the efficient diversion
and disposal of water flowing down the hill slope across the road and from
numerous cross streams is an important part of hill road construction. If
drainage system in hill road is not adequate and efficient, it will result in
complex maintenance problems (Chauhan, 2013).
As water floods the catch basin, small particles that slip through the
grate settle to the bottom. Drainage pipes are located above the bottom of
this vertical pipe, ensuring that the water that flows into the drains is clear of
sediment but it doesnt help from removing other particles like micro
particles. Filters are one of the solution to resolve the problem to keep the
large sediments and micro particles from going into the main or the city
drainage system and to improve water quality. Many filters are out in the
market that can be used in the drainage. We want to use a filter where it will
not only block wastes carried of by the rain water but also needs to be
recycled, can treat water, and will reduce environmental wastes.
Rubber tires have the potential of hazardous fires and causes other
health implications. Recycling tires may help the environment and reduce the
accumulation of waste caused by the rubber tires. These rubber tires has
high potential of being used as filter by transforming it into crumbs.
Consequently crumb rubber tires as filters could be run for a longer
time or allow a higher filtration rate. The results also indicate that the crumb
rubber filtration alone did not achieve the target removal of invasive species.
However, crumb rubber filtration could potentially be used as a primary
treatment technology to enhance the efficiency of a secondary treatment
process such as, disinfection (Tang, 2005).
Crumb rubber tire is the material that is going to be used as a
replacement for other filter materials such as manufactured filter, sand, and

aggregates. Crumb rubber tires are derived materials from scrap tires to be
used as an innovative filter medium. Compared to sand or anthracite filter,
there is a significance in the filtration efficiency.
As a compressible material, crumb rubber forms an ideal porosity
gradient in filters because the top layer of the media is least compressed
while the bottom layer is most compressed. Crumb rubber filters favors indepth filtration and allows longer filtration time and higher filtration rate,
which substantially increases the filtration efficiency (Graf and Xie, 2000).
As a filter medium, crumb rubber allows the porosity of the filter bed to
decrease through the filter, resulting in the smallest pore size at the bottom
and largest pore size on the top, which is ideal for down-flow filtration. In
comparison to both the sand/anthracite and crumb rubber filters were
effective in removing large particles (>10 m and >15 m). For the
sand/anthracite filter, the removal efficiencies for particles larger than 10 m
and 15 m were 89.4% and 94.5%, respectively. For the crumb rubber filter,
the removal efficiencies for particles larger than 10 m and 15 m were
86.8% and 93.6%, respectively. (Chen, 2004)
At Carmel Street, Saint Michael Village, Ma-a, Davao City, is the
location where drainage system requires a newly designed drainage system
because most of the channels are already condemned. Waste are already
clogging in some parts of the drainage system. The catch basin is already
inefective to contain water even for a normal volume of rainwater. The
elevation of the possible concrete pavement is much higher than the ground
floor of the houses. Because of this, it may cause flooding within the
compound of each houses along the street.
This research will resolve the current drainage system problems. In
addition, the installation of the filter will help treat volumes of water.
Recycling and reusing scrap tires will help the environment reduce waste.