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CHAPTER 1

FEASIBILITY STUDY

1.1 PROCESS BACKGROUND AND SELECTION


1.1.1.

INTRODUCTION
Table 1.1 Physical properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate
colourless liquid with a sharp and musty odour
Purity

99.5%

Melting point

-90C

Boiling point

213-218C

Density

0.887 g/ml at 20C

Vapor pressure
Flash point
(The institute of food safety and
toxicology)

0.14 mmHg (19 Pa) at 20C


82-92C at open cup
86C at close cup

Source:(http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/ExistingChemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/SUMMARY/2ehasum058.pdf)
In Malaysia, the BPC Acrylics Complex located in Gebeng, Pahang, was
developed under a joint venture between BASF AG and Petronas to produce 160,000
Tonne per annum Crude Acrylics Acid, 20,000 tonnes per annum Glacial Acrylic Acids,
100,000 tonnes per annum Butyl-Acrylate and 60,000 tonnes per annum 2-Ethyl Hexyl
Acrylate which has existed at 2000. (Rainhill.com).
2-Ethylhexyl acrylate is used as a monomer in the chemical industry for the
production of polymers and copolymers, which are mainly processed further to aqueous
polymer dispersions. The polymers and polymer dispersions are used in adhesives and

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as binders for paints. Other applications of 2-EHA include coatings raw materials and
uses in the plastics and textiles industries.
(http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/ExistingChemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/SUMMARY/2ehasum058.pdf)

Copolymers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate can be prepared with acrylic acid and its
salts, amides and esters, and with methacrylates, acrylonitrile, maleic acid esters, vinyl
acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, styrene, butadiene, unsaturated polyesters
and drying oils, etc. 2-ethylhexyl acrylate is also a very useful feedstock for chemical
syntheses, because it readily undergoes additition reactions with a wide variety of
organic and inorganic compounds. (BASF_ EHA Technical Data)

Figure 1.1 Paint & adhesive application of 2-EHA (Google images)

2-ethylhexyl acrylate is also used in pressure sensitive adhesives. When it is


used in latex paint formulations, acrylic polymers have good water resistance, low
temperature flexibility and excellent weathering and sunlight resistance (DOW_EHA
Technical Data).

Acryl acid (AA) and acrylates are core inputs into a vast array of lifestyle and
industrial products including super-absorbent polymers, fibers, paints, adhesives, and
IT electronics. By esterification reaction with Acrylic Acid and alcohols, acrylate
products such as methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and 2-ethyl hexyl
acrylate are produced. This project is to design 2-ethylhexyl acrylate plant with the
capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year in Gebeng Industrial Park 2, Pahang.

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1.1.2. PROCESS CHEMISTRY
2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is an organic compound of an ester group. The general structural
formula of an ester is given by

Figure 1.2 General structure formula of an ester

An ester is produced by esterification process from the reaction of a carboxylic


acid and an alcohol. Through this process, typically esters will be formed together with
water. Specifically, when 2-ethylhexyl acrylate is to be produced, sulfonic type of
catalyst is used with strong acid as a catalyst. The presence of the catalyst is to
promote satisfactory rate of production. The reaction is equilibrium and reversible,
where the reverse reaction is an acid hydrolysis of esters. Hydrogen ion from the
catalyst catalyzes the forward reaction, which is esterification. This hydrogen ion also
catalyzes the reverse reaction, which is hydrolysis. As a non-ideal equilibrium, the type
and ratio of reactants, temperature and water affect the equilibrium. The process is also
characterized by high yield of production, where the yield can be achieved up to 98%.

1.1.3. REACTION MECHANISM


Acrylic acid contains the carbonyl group, C=O. This group is retained in the product
while acrylic acid undergoes the esterification process and does not suffer any
permanent changes itself. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in the acid which is OH group undergoes nucleophilic substitution as the acid reacts with the alcohol.
Providing site for this nucleophilic attack is one of the functions of the carbonyl group in
this case. Since the acid-catalyzed esterification of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol is
reversible, the reverse reaction will then have the same mechanism in its respective
direction.

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Thus, any evidence about one reaction must apply to both. The acid-catalyst
speeds up both processes by protonating carbonyl oxygen and thus rendering carbonyl
carbon more susceptible to nucleophilic attack. In esterification, the nucleophilic is an
alcohol and the leaving group is water. In the process, there is almost certainly a
tetrahedral intermediate, or rather, several of them. The existence of more than one
intermediate is required by, among other things, the reversible nature of the reaction.
The intermediate in esterification almost certainly must be involved, since it is the
product of attack by alcohol on the protonated acid. The mechanism for acid catalyzed
Hydrolysis and esterification is shown in Figure 1.3.

CH3

+H-

H5C6

OH

-H

The
carboxylic
acid
accepts a proton from the
strong acid catalyst

+CH3 --- OH

H5C6

OH

O
OH

H O

O
H5 C6

+ H2 O

Loss of a molecule of
water gives a protonated
ester

-H+H

H 5C 6

OH

a proton is lost at one


oxygen atom and gained
at another

-H2O

O
H5C6

-CH3--OH

The alcohol attacks the


protonated carbonyl group
to
give
a
tetrahedral
intermediate

CH3
H

CH3

H5C6

CH3

Transfer of a proton to a
base leads to the ester

Figure 1.3 The reaction mechanism of acid catalyze hydrolysis & esterification

As mentioned earlier, 2-ethylhexyl Acrylate is produced by direct esterification


process. This process is the most common process for producing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate
on a commercial scale and the process can be either continuous or batch.

1.1.4. PROCESS BACKGROUND

Esters of acids are important from the industrial standpoint as a great variety of
commercial products are based on such esters. The two classical methods of preparing
the esters are by direct esterification and transesterification.

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1.1.4.1.Direct Esterification

2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is formed by direct esterification of Acrylic Acid with 2Ethylhexanol which occur in the liquid phase. In Ullmans Encyclopedia of Industrial
Chemistry, 1999, esterification describes processes for the preparation of higher and
lower alkyl acrylates by acid-catalyzed esterification of acrylic acid with the
corresponding alcohol in the presence of an acidic catalyst, in which distillation columns
in the working-up of the reaction mixture operated under reduced pressure in order to
be able to reduce the distillation temperature. In which, the polymerizable compounds
are exposed is desirable since the danger of polymerization generally increases with
increasing temperature. The liquid ring pumps in which are the vacuum pump is used
for generating a vacuum pressure in the system.
The reaction between these two components occurs at a rule 70-150 oC in which
preferably 80-130 oC. In the first reaction, it is preferably 100-160 oC and 110-130 oC for
the last region. (Nestler et.al., 2004) and using sulfonic acid type of catalyst. The
reaction temperature is preferably established so that it increases along the cascade.
The formation reaction of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is a reversible process, exothermic and
equilibrium process. The yield of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate, based on Acrylic Acid can be
achieved about 91-98% depending on the ester and reaction conditions (John J.
Mcketta, Volume 1, 1983). At molar 2-Ethylhexanol excess as low as 4.4%, the purity of
2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is practically 99.5% (John J. Mcketta, Volume 1, 1983). In this
process, there are by-products formation due to impurities of raw material used which is
acrylic acid.

H2C

+
OH

C2 H5
H9 C4

H3C

CH
CH2OH

H2O

OCH 2CH C4H9


C2 H5

Figure 1.4 Reaction of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

The esterification takes place in a reaction zone in a homogeneous, liquid phase


at elevated temperature by reaction of acrylic acid with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol in a molar
ratio of 1:0.75 to 1:2, preferably from 1:0.9 to 1:11, to be particularly 1:1. (Nestler et.al.,

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2004), The acrylic acid, alcohol and acid catalyst are fed to the reaction zone and the
water formed is separated off by rectification during residence time as part of mixture
comprising starting alcohol via top column attach to the reaction zone.
1.1.4.2.Transesterification
Ethyl Acrylate reacted with 2-ethylhexanol to form 2-ethylhexyl Acrylate and Ethanol by
transesterification which exchange of alcohol groups known as alcoholysis. In order to
promote the reaction, transesterification can be conducted with both heterogenous acid
and base catalyst. Potassium cyanide which is base catalyst was recommended to
accelerate the reaction but the yields are correspondingly lowered.

For acid catalyst, titanium acid ester was choosed because it is pre-dominantly
used on an industrial scale. Titanium esters must be hydrolyzed into insoluble
substances before they can be separated from the reaction mixture. This can be
accomplished by the treatment with caustic soda. Yield of 2-Ethylhexyl acrylates are
higher than using base catalyst. The reactants and catalyst will both react in reactor
vessel with temperatures near 100 oC. Transesterification of Ethyl Acrylate with alcohols
in the presence of acidic or basic catalysts gave the corresponding higher esters in
good yield (Kirk othmer, 2007).

1.1.5. PROCESS SELECTION


In this design project, direct esterification was choose as routes for the production of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate by using Acrylic acid and 2-ethylhexanol as the raw material while
the sulfonic acid type catalyst is para-toluene sulfonic acid.

The selected process is chosen base on a few factors. The most important
factor is to limit the production and operation cost. When compared the price of the raw
materials of processes the most expensive raw materials is acrylic acid but the price of
2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is relatively high, therefore, short years is needed to achieve the
breakeven market (ICIS.com). However, from the overall expenses in material such as
raw material and catalyst, transesterification process is far more expensive than direct

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esterification because of titanium catalyst price. Even though the expensive raw
material is chosen, the percentage conversion is still higher.

Furthermore, the availability of Acrylic Acid is more variety and closes to the site
compare to Ethyl Acrylate which is only in Kerteh, Terengganu. In other way, it will cut
off some of the expenses for raw materials transportation since the raw material is
expensive enough, the supplier location needs to be closer to prevent any unnecessary
flow of funds in transportation. In addition, the time consumes to send the supply is
shorter because time consuming means loss of money.

Through this decade, most company uses processing of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate


by direct esterification routes of Acrylic Acid. This does mean that it is the most
commercial process used in industries these days and it has been established. Where
else, transesterification process of esters is still theoretical proven. Many researches
are still doing in improvising transesterification process.

Last of all, by using this process the energy use and release are lesser than
transesterification. The process to break up and forming of the bonds are easy for
Acrylic Acid and 2-Ethylhexanol than Ethyl Acrylate because the breakage occurred at
oxygen bonding with hydrogen molecules compare to oxygen bond with CC
compound. This advantage will give the plant less energy release as well as the cost for
operating the utilities systems to cool down or heat up the process.

Table 1.2 below shows the summary of the factors that included in the process
of selection and the according marks for each.

Table 1.2 Summary of process selection


Factors
Raw material supply
Cost of raw material
Availability of material
Energy release
Commercialize
Total

Weightage
8
10
8
6
4
36

Direct
Esterification
8
5
8
5
4
30

Transesterification
2
8
2
3
2
17

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Therefore, from the previous Table 1.1, the direct esterification method was
chosen due to its attractive advantages compare to transesterification process. For a
route to be commercially attractive, the raw material costs and utilization must be low,
plant investment and operating cost not excessive, and waste disposal charges minimal
(Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design, Volume 10). The justification on
each weightage has been explained in this early chapter.
1.1.5.1.Process Details Descriptions
The esterification reaction for reacting 2-ethylhexanol and acrylic acid in a molar ratio of
1.1:1 (Patterson et. al., 1999) was carried out in an esterification reactor 1 at 110C with
the pressure of 0.29 bar (Patterson et. al., 2009). The conversion for the process is
80% (BASF & Patterson et. al., 2009). Two esterification reactors were used in this
process. The esterification reactor 1 is set with 59 % conversion, whereby the
esterification reactor 2 is set with 21% conversion. The two esterification reactors in a
cascade arrangement are use with each having utilizable capacity of 2:1 (Iffland et. al.,
1999). The liquid output stream of one reaction region here forms the feed to the
downstream reaction region which occur by means of overflow. The product in the
vapor phase form is transferred to the water removal column where the water of
esterification produce from the reaction is being removed. The water removal column is
needed in order to bring the main reaction forward which is according to the Le
Chatelier principles whereby, 1 mol of reacted equals to 1 mol of product is produce.
The bottom product discharged from the first reactor was fed into the second reactor
which also operated at 0.29 bar at 120C.

The liquid discharge from the second reactor is fed into the lower part of heavy
product recovery column which was configured as an enrichment column and, being
fitted with ten dual flow trays (Iffland et. al., 1999 & Nester et al, 2004). The head and
bottom pressure operated at 0.04 bar and 0.11 bar, where as the base temperature
operated at 130C. A liquid stream recovered from the base column was fed to the
cracking unit, whereby high boiler is remove and sent to the central boilers. The
cracking recovery which consists of product is use as a bottom feed for the EHA
recovery column.

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The EHA recovery column was operated at a bottom pressure of 0.07 bar and
top pressure of 0.02 bar. The column is fitted with 25 dual flow trays (Nestler et al,
2004). The temperature of the base column was 122C. The product is recovered at the
bottom stream at 90 % purity (Patterson et. al., 2009. The distillate is recycling to the
water removal column. Pure product of 2-EHA was taken off in liquid form and cooled to
20C in order to avoid color number problems and to make possible the change in
stabilization of the product from phenothiazine as process inhibitor to hydroquinone
monomethyl ether as storage stabilizer. The phenothiazine used as process inhibitor
was fed to the tops of the heavy product and product recovery stream
1.1.5.2.Block Flow Diagram

Figure 1.5 Block flow diagram of production of 2-EHA

Raw material such as acrylic acid & catalyst are fed to the first reaction region
where else, 2-ethylhexanol was fed to the absorber. The current invention is that the
absorber was connected with the reactor 1 in order to remove water as it has form in
the reactor 1. However, the removal of water can be carried out by addition of an
organic solvent as azeotropic entrainer. The use of 2-ethylhexanol at excess can also
serve as azeotropic entrainer. In another variant, the water is distillatively remove as

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constituent of an azeotrope comprising product/2-ethylhexanol/water and containing
more than 95% by weight of water. The liquid from reactor 1 is overflow to the reactor 2
in order to extend the residence time of reaction in order to form more product. The
liquid outlet from reactor 2 is fed to the heavy removal column in order to remove heavy
compound which has higher boiling point than the product. The heavy stream which
contains trace of reactant & product is recovered in the cracking unit before discharge
to the incinerator. The recovered reactant & product with the distillate of the heavy
column is fed to the product refining column to purify the product whereby the
separation of the product from the reactant.
1.1.5.3.Process Equipment

Table 1.3 belows describe the function of the equipment used in the production of 2EHA.
Table 1.3 The equipment used in the production of 2-EHA
Equipments

Functions
To hold the reaction process &

Esterification reactor 1

provide a fairly large reservoir of


reactants, product & water for water
removal column

Esterification reactor 2

To extend the residence time of


main reaction process
To remove the water which

Water removal column

generated from esterification


reaction

Heavy components

To remove the heavy component

removal

from the stream

Product refining column

To separate the reactant from the


product

Process heaters,

To provide the heating and cooling

condensers, and coolers

required by the process

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1.1.5.4.Reaction Kinetics

Synthesis of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate from Acrylic acid and 2-ethylhexanol and catalyzed
by para-toluene Sulfonic acid is a reversible esterification. Therefore, by removing water
of esterification, the reaction can be moves forwards. According to the Le Chatelier
principles, 1 mole of reactant converted, 1 mol of product produce.
C3H4O2 + C8H18O C11H20O2 + H2O
The side reactions that are considered in 2-ethylhexyl acrylate production process is
given as follows.
A)

Dimerization of the Acrylic Acid

From the article from BASF, September 2010, the diacrylic acid formation begins
spontaneously upon acrylic acid production. The reaction cannot be chemically inhibited
or reversed. Since both water concentration and temperature impact the rate of DAA
formation, the rate can be minimized by controlling the temperature of the acrylic acid
and excluding moisture. The presence of DAA in acrylic acid that is processed to
produce higher value added materials can adversely affect the final product.

The possibilities include yield reduction, molecular weight variation, residual


impurity concentration, processing problems and product performance variations.
Based on experimental kinetic studies, diacrylic acid is formed by a second order
reaction involving the conjugate addition of a nucleophilic species to the electrophilic
double bond (Michael Addition Reaction).

The mechanism of dimerization process is as follows:

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Figure 1.6 The mechanism of dimerization process

Therefore, as a result of acetic acid that exists as the impurity in the acrylic acid
reacted with 2-ethylhexanol producing Diacrylic acid, Octenes and water. Octyl
propionate is considered as the heavy product since it has high boiling point than 2EHA product.
2C2H4O2 + C8H18O C6H8O4 + C8H16 + H2O
B)

Formation Of Ethylhexyl Acetate


C2H4O2 + C8H18O C10H20O2 + H20

Ethyl hexyl acetate formed when acetic acid and 2-ethylhexanol react. The raw
material, Acrylic Acid consist the impurity of 0.5% of acetic acid. Ethyl hexyl acetate is
considered as the light end for the process since its low boiling point compare to the
product.

C)

Formation Of Octyl Propionate


C3H6O2 + C8H18O C11H22O2 + H2O

Octyl propionate and water is also formed when propionic acid that existed in the
acrylic acid as the impurity reacted with 2-ethylhexanol. It is considered as the heavy
key due to its high boiling boiling point higher than EHA.

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The formation of by-product can be minimize or eliminated if the reactants
impurity are controlled to contain low concentrations of formic acid, propionic acid and
isobutanol. If the feeds have low enough contaminants, the by-products reactions will
be eliminated. Finally, the reverse reaction of the esterification reaction can be avoided
if the products formed in the reactor are removed continuously from the mixture. Once
they are removed, the chance for the hydrolysis reaction to occur is very limited.

1.1.6. CATALYST

It has long been known that mineral acids greatly increase the rate of esterification. The
most commonly used mineral acid is probably sulfuric acid. The catalyst used in Direct
Esterification process is sulfuric acid. It is effective and not as corrosive to metals as
hydrogen chloride. Close control is required since even modest increase in
concentration or temperature can cause dehydration of alcohols to ether or olefins.
Problems with formation of color bodies may also be a concern. Concentrations of from
a few tenths to 1 or 2 % by weight are generally employed. (Kirk Othmer, 2007)
In this process, para-toluene sulfonic acid is use since it has good catalytic
activity and generally causes fewer side reactions than sulfuric acid. A little higher
concentration of the sulfonic acid may require in order achieving the same reaction rate
that can be obtained with a given quantity of sulfuric acid. (Kirk Othmer, 2007).

1.1.7. CHARACTERISTIC USE FOR PROCESS ROUTE SELECTION

1.1.7.1.Safety Of The Plant

The reaction of Direct Esterification proceeds are the temperature equivalent to the
boiling point of the liquid mixture in the column. So, the temperature control is simple
and reliable towards the process. The primary reactor design is maximized the degree
of reaction in the simplest equipment. Hence, this plant is safe due to its physical
conditions such as low temperature, low pressure and simplest equipment used.

(www.arkema-inc.com/literature/pdf/405.pdf)

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1.1.7.2.Economical
These plant is reduce in capital cost because do not required many equipment. Its
products yield can achieved high purity of 2-EHA which is up to 96%. The reactant
recovery distillation column act as the reactant recovery which is will be recycle to the
reactor. This is one of the economical strategy by maximize the usage of the reactants.
In fact, it will minimize the waste stream produce from the process, therefore, it will
minimize the cost for waste treatment.

1.1.7.3.

Minimum Waste Or By Product

From the process used, there are minimum by-product will be converted. As a result by
using para-toluene sulfonic acid, it causes fewer side reactions since it has good
catalytic activity (Kirk Othmer, 2007). The unreacted reactant material such 2ethylhexanol and acrylic acid will be recycle to the reactor back as a recovery stream.
The light impurities, heavy impurities and aqueous solution was sent to waste
treatment. Amount of wastes produces is also in small percentage and which require to
sent to waste treatment. The volatile and heavy component was sent to the central
boiler for treatment. (www.arkema-inc.com/literature/pdf/405.pdf)

1.1.8. PROCESS ROUTE SELECTIONS

2-ethylhexyl acrylate is the most widely produced by esterification of alcohol and


carboxylic acid. In the improved of esterification process of the present invention, the
alcohol is employed in an excess over that stoichiometrically required to react with the
acid. Accordingly, the molar ratio of alcohol to carboxylic acid will be greater than 1:1,
and amounts up to about 4:1 may be employed. More desirably, the amount of alcohol
employed will lie in the range of about 1.2 to 3 moles of alcohol per mole of acid with
about 1. 5 to 2.0 moles of alcohol to mole of acid being most preferred.

The raw materials that used to produce 2-etylhexyl acrylate are acrylic acid and
2-ethylhexanol. Acrylic acid is used as a precursor for a wide variety of chemicals in the

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polymers and textile industries. There are several choices for the production of the raw
materials which are:

Production of 2-EHA by producing Acrylic acid from Propylene

Production of 2-EHA by producing 2-Ethylhexanol from Propylene

Production of 2-EHA by using Crude Acrylic Acid & 2-ethylhexanol buy from other
manufacturer

1.1.8.1.Production Of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate By Producing Acrylic Acid From


Propylene

This

recently

developed

process

involves

the

oxidation

of

propylene

to

hydroxypropionic acid. Nitric acid acts as a catalyst for the reaction. Subsequent
dehydration of this process will yields acrylic acid. The stepwise representation can be
shown as follows:

H3CHC

CH2

propylene

O2

oxygen

H3C

CHOHCOOH

Hydroxypropionic acid

H2C

CHCOOH

H2O

acrylic acid

An alternative route is the catalytic oxidation to acrolein, CH2CHCHO, and then to


acrylic acid with presence of oxygen and certain metallic catalyst.
1.1.8.2.Production Of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate By Producing 2-Ethylhexanol From
Propylene

This recently developed process involves the oxidation of propylene to n-butyraldehyde


and iso-butyraldehyde. The catalyst used is rhodium catalyst. 2-Ethylhexanol produced
via this sequence reaction of aldolization, dehydration and hydrogenation from nbutyraldehyde. The reaction stoichiometry is given below:

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2CH3CH2CH2CHO

H3CH2CH2C

CHCHCHO

H3C

CH2

H2O
H3CH2CH2CHC
H3C

CCHO
CH2

H2

CH3CH2CH2CH2CHCH 2OH
H3C

CH2

Figure 1.7 Mechanism of producing 2-ethylhexanol by propylene

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Table 1.4 Comparison Of Process Route Selection


Starting Route

i.
ii.
Propylene
(to produce Acrylic
Acid)

iii.

i.
ii.
iii.

Propylene
(to produce 2Ethylhexanol)

iv.

Advantages
Relatively low cost of propylene
Availability of highly active and selective
catalyst
Produce high quality of 2-ethylhexyl
acrylate

Low cost of propylene


Low feedstock and energy requirements
Low maintenance requirements and low
environmental impact.
Low by-product formation

i.
ii.
iii.

i.

ii.
iii.

iv.
v.
i.
Local market
(bought acrylic acid
and 2-ethylhexanol)

ii.
iii.

There is no need for another process to


produce the raw material
There are nearer supplier to provide the
material
The cost of equipment is cheaper
compare to produce the raw material

i.
ii.

Disadvantages
Cost of equipment is expensive and it
involves of two stage reactor.
Formation of intermediate and byproduct
Cost of catalyst used for eliminates
acrolein (intermediate) is around
$2.25/kg
Cost of equipment is expensive and it
used 2 reaction reactor and 3
separation equipment.
Formation of intermediate and byproduct
It needs really carefully when handle
this material because irritates skin, eyes
and respiratory tract.
Estimation of raw material cost is RM
1,408.92/tonne
Some of the raw material is hard to find
in Malaysia.
The supplier also produces the product
2-Ethylhexyl acrylate.
The raw material cost is slightly higher
from raw material producing 2ethylhexanol and acrylic acid

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Table 1.5 Summary of comparison


Factors
Supplier of raw
material
Safety
consideration
Using high
technology
Initial set up cost
Widely used in
industry
Environmental
effect
Total

Percentage

Propylene
(Acrylic Acid)

Propylene
(2-Ethylhexanol)

Local Market
Crude Acrylic
Acid

30

23

20

28

Various methods for the manufacturer of 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate are mentioned


above. Table 1.4 shown the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and Table
1.5 is the summary of table 1.4 to show it more clearly about the factors were
considered in order to choose the best method to produce 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate. From
the table 2 above, it shows that each of the factors will be given 5 marks. Local market
for Acrylic acid and 2-Ethylhexanol is the best choice to produce 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate
because it has more advantages.

For a route to be commercially attractive the raw material costs and utilization
must be low, plant investment and operating cost not excessive, and waste disposal
charges minimal.

1.1.9. PROCESSING FLOW SELECTION BASED ON PATENT INVENTION

1.1.9.1.Esterification of Acrylic Acid and 2-Ethylhexanol by Using Solvent (US


PATENT: 0192957 A1, Wickens et. al.,2004)

Acrylic Acid rich feedstock and fresh 2-Ethylhexanol from storage is combined
with recycle 2-Ethylhexanol from the distillation column of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate unit and

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fed to the reactor with catalyst Sulphuric Acid. Acrylic Acid and 2-Ethylhexanol (molar
ratio acrylic acid:2-Ethylhexanol = 1:1) is fed to the reactor. The reaction condition is
exothermic and occurred at 90 oC. Normally, the pressure is above atmospheric
pressure to remain in liquid phase. After reaction, the product is pumped to the
extraction column and washed with water to remove organic phase at the top while at
the bottom, to remove is aqueous phase.

The organic phase then being sends to the distillation column. Top products
obtained from separation are Acrylic Acid and 2-ethylhexanol which recycle to the
reactor. The bottom product, 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate being send to distillation column and
emerges at the top, purified from heavy products. Aqueous phase result from extraction
column undergoes hydrolysis. Adding of NaOH required in order neutralizing the
Sulfuric Acid. 2-EthylHexanol obtained from hydrolysis process being distillated at
distillation column and recycle to reactor. Waste water in the form of aqueous phase is
send for further treatment.
Table 1.6 The advantages & disadvantages of producing 2-EHA by addition of solvent
Advantages

High purity of product yields

All reactant left over is recover


during the process

Disadvantages

Too many main equipment used


will cause highly fixed capital cost

Too many waste water stream will


cause large volume of reactant is
converted into waste.

High COD and BOD level of


wastewater due to the use of
NaOH to neutralize the sulphuric
acid

Highly corrosive catalyst is used,


there is a need to spend on highly
cost sheeting inside the reactors

Low yield of product due to sulfuric


acid catalyst used.

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By referring to this process, there will be more waste stream produce, too many
equipment used which refer to not economical & highly corrosive catalyst are used.
Therefore, this processing flow is not chosen.
1.1.9.2.Esterification of Acrylic Acid and 2-Ethylhexanol Without Using Solvent
(US PATENT: 5883288, Iffland et al, 1999)
By referring to the PFD, the advantages and disadvantages of the process as describe
in Table 1.7 follows.
Table 1.7 Advantages & disadvantages of the production of 2-EHA without addition of
external solvent.
Advantages

Less major equipment will decrease the fixed

Disadvantages

High purchasing cost

capital cost invested

of individual

Less corrosive para-toluene sulfonic acid catalyst

equipment such as

is use which can be regenerated

reactors.

Catalyst use will produce high yield of the product

Less waste stream generated

Operating pressure under vacuum, decrease the

Expensive catalyst
use

operating temperature since polymeriazation


occur at high temperature.

Basf company current process use


(commercialization)

Therefore, this process is comparatively reliable compare to the previous process. In


that case, this processing flow from this patent was chosen for the production of 2-EHA.

1-21
1.1.10. CONCLUSIONS

This chapter is mainly use to determine & verify the most suitable process that is
compatible with the safety, economical & environment. The criteria involves are well
described such as the process background, reaction kinetics, process description,
process selection, catalyst used and etc in order to help gain more understanding of the
process. The commercial direct esterification process was chosen as the process
selection. The raw material use in the process will be brought from the potential supplier
in order to limit the cost of production. Less waste stream is to be generated with the
current process route selection and less side product is produce with the use of paratoluene sulfonic acid liquid catalyst which is also can be regenerated. Major equipments
function use in this processing plant also has been identified. The side reaction due to
the impurity of reactant to be considered in this plant also has been highlighted here.

1.2. MARKET ANALYSIS AND DEMAND

1.2.1. GLOBAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY

This market analysis consists of demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate (2-EHA) to


ensure whether there are demands for it and shortage of the production. This will
ensure 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate produce from this plant have buyers.

According to ICIS, the demand for 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate for previous years is not
stable due the shortage of raw material supply which is Acrylic acid importantly and 2Ethylhexanol. Even though the demand is not stable but the usage of 2-Ethylhexyl
Acrylate is wide. The industries used 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate are coatings, adhesives and
in textiles and fibers. Globally, coatings were the largest application of 2-Ethylhexyl
Acrylate accounting for about 50% of demand in 2007 reported Sahara Petrochemical
Company.

Correspond to Sahara Petrochemical Company, the next largest applications


were adhesives (22%) and textiles and fibers, which accounted for about 22% and 15%
of demand respectively. In early 2010, the forecast of the demand for commodity

1-22
Acrylates which is 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate will grow at 3.7%/year from 2009, the year of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylates recession. The demand is higher but the supply is limited globally,
hence the price can be rise up by month to month. The major world demand in 2007 of
2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate are Western Europe, USA, Japan, China, rest of Asia and Middle
East/ Africa as shown in figure 2.1. Both China and rest of Asia together accounted for
38.8% of the global demand.

Global Demand for 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate in


2007
US

3%
21%
25%

Western Europe
Eastern Europe
Japan
China

14%

28%
8%
1%

Rest of Asia
Middle East/Africa

Figure 1.8 Global demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

Table 1.9 below is the trend data for global demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate
According to the Table 1.9, Asia demand keep increasing and demand in Europe keep
decreasing. In global demand forecast, Asia region will lead the demand of 2-Ethylhexyl
Acrylate because increasing usage of paint and textiles.

1-23
Table 1.8 Trend of World demand by Region
Region

2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate (MT)


2005

2006

2007

US

115 000

118 000

122 000

Western Europe

154 000

157 000

160 000

Eastern Europe

3 000

3 000

4 000

Japan

48 000

48 000

49 000

China

71 000

75 000

79 000

Rest of Asia

132 000

138 000

144 000

Middle East/Africa

16 000

17 000

17 000

Sources: Sahara Petrochemical, 2009

1.2.2. OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL SUPPLY

During the past few years, global capacity of commodity Acrylates including 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate is grew rapidly. According to the following Table 1.10, China
reported the largest increase in production capacity of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate, United
States continues to be the dominant producer of Acrylate but Market forecast has made
and it shows Asia will overtaken United State in 2012 or earlier than predicted.
Table 1.9 Global Capacity by regions in 2009 and forecast 2012
Capacity (MT)

Region

2009

2012

US

155 000

155 000

Western Europe

95 000

95 000

Eastern Europe

950

950

Japan

108 000

108 000

China

140 000

200 000

Rest of Asia

85 000

115 000

Sources: Market analysis Orbichem , 2007

1-24

1.2.3. ASIA MARKET AND DEMAND

According to SunVic Chemical Holdings Limited Annual Report 2006, Figure 2.2 below
shows the Acrylic Acid (AA) and Acrylate Esters (AE) Capacity growth. Focusing only
on the AE capacity growth, it can be said the growth increase continuously with time. By
looking for the increasing of demand by the global market that discuss before, it can be
concluded that the growth and demand for AE will increase throughout this year. By
referring to the figure 2.3, it shows that the demand for end users of Acrylic Acid (AA)
and Acrylate Ester (AE) which based on 2002 sales in Asia.

Figure 1.9 Acrylic Acid and Acrylic Esters Capacity Growth

Figure 1.10 AA and AE end uses in Asia


(SunVic Chemical Holdings Limited Annual Report 2006)

1-25
1.2.4. MALAYSIA DEMAND OF 2-ETHYLHEXYL ACRYLATE

As previously explained, the world demand for 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is increasing for
this second trimester of this year. This is due to the limiting feedstock whereby the
major of the plant in Europe is trying to find sources from the Asia region although it
also curtailing in China which is the major producer of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate. This
phenomenon wills also increased the demand in Malaysia. Since larger company will fill
up the world demand, therefore, processing the 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate by this plant will
meet up the demand in Malaysia and global.

In Malaysia, 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate was used in consumer needs products and


industrial needs such as paint, textiles, and adhesives. Corresponds with Malaysia as
developing country, a Malaysian lifestyle is also developed towards better life. Hence,
they need more textiles for fashion, paint for decoration part and coating for industries,
with this it will increase the demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate in this developing country.
1.2.4.1.Selling Price in Asia and Malaysia

The selling price is important for the product in which mean to identify the pattern of
product price to be sold to the customer. This plant need to sell at the lower price ones
can offer or same as current market price. The selling price needs to make profit at
least in 5 to 7 years. In Malaysia, the selling price of 2-EHA according to BASFPetronas company is RM 3,879.51/tonne.

1-26

Selling Price Trend of 2-EHA

Price RM/kg)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

2009
2010

china

singapore

indonesia

india

taiwan

japan

Country

Figure 1.11 Trend selling price in Asia January-May, 2009 and 2010
Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2010

According to figure 1.11, it shown that the selling price is increasing sharply from
2009 to 2010. It means that, demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is growing and produce
this material will make a profit because the market price of the world also increase.
According to forecast, this selling price will increased.
1.2.4.2. Potential Buyers in Malaysia

Nippon Paints (Paint application)

KCC Paints

Vital Technical Sdn. Bhd.

Seamaster

Federal Paints Manufacturing (M) Sdn Bhd

National Lacquer & Paint Products Co (M) Sdn Bhd

Jotun (M) Sdn Bhd

Rivertex (Adhesives)

These potential buyers are stable company in Malaysia. With this plant strategy, more
company will buy the product.

1-27
1.2.5. CONCLUSION
From literature review, market prospect for 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is very broad because
the usage of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate is the need of consumer. Hence, 2-Ethylhexyl
Acrylate will always be in the market. In addition, the properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate
which is less hazardous than other monomer is the attraction to the manufacturer
change direction to it. Even though, every month the selling price is increasing because
of the recession of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate on 2009, the demand is still increasing. The
demand is increasing in global and in Malaysia itself as well. In Malaysia, there are
buyers that will buy the product because in global and Malaysia, they are short of this
material. The budget given which is RM 200 Million is enough for the construction of the
plant not including the operational cost. With the cost, the plant should be build and it is
feasible enough.

1.3. SITE SELECTION AND PLANT LOCATION

1.3.1. INTRODUCTION

Location decision is essential since they are long term choice and require large
capital investments. If location decision is wrongly made, the companys performance
and profitability will be adversely affected. The objective of selecting the best location
for the plant is for maximum operating efficiency and effectiveness by minimizing
operating cost and achieving maximum revenues. Generally for plant selection,
following factors are considered:

Costs such as labor wages, utilities and transportation charges.

Government incentive offered to local entrepreneurs and foreign investors such


as tax concession and cheaper labor and land.

Safety of plant, personal, environment and community.

After the location of the site has been identify, we must come out with a proper
plant location to give the most economical flow of material and personnel around the
site. Several sites in Peninsular Malaysia have been taken into consideration. The site

1-28
that was considered is Gebeng (Pahang), Pasir Gudang (Johor), and Teluk Kalong
(Terengganu). Government assistance during the construction phase and possibility
also in the form of tariffs is possible depend upon which site will be located. The raw
material supply location should be nearer in order to save the transportation cost.
1.3.1.1.Marketing Area

For materials that are produced in bulk quantities, such as cement, mineral acids, and
fertilizers where the cost of the product per metric ton is relatively low and the cost of
transport is a significant fraction of the sales price, therefore, the plant should be
located to the primary market.
1.3.1.2.Raw Materials

The availability and price of suitable raw materials will often determine the site location.
Plants that produce bulk chemicals are best located close the source of major raw
material, as long as the costs of shipping product are not greater than the cost of
shipping feed.
1.3.1.3.Transportation

A site should be selected which is closed to at least two major forms of transport such
as road, rail, waterway or a sea port. Road transport is increasingly used and is suitable
for local distribution from a central warehouse. Rail transport is usually cheaper for
long-distance transport of bulk-chemicals.

1.3.1.4.Availability of Labor

Labor will be need for construction of the plant and its operation. Skilled craft workers
such as electricians, welders, and pipe fitters will be needed for plant maintenance.
Manpower is needed in order to control the process where the manual process and
required full attention to it.

1-29
1.3.1.5.Utilities

At some sites, the cooling water required can be taken from a river or lake, or from the
sea. At other locations cooling tower will be needed. Electrical power is needed at all
sites. A competitively priced fuel also must be available on site for stream and power
generation.
1.3.1.6.Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal

All industrial processes produce waste products, and full consideration must be given to
the difficulties and cost for their disposal. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will
be covered by local regulations, and the appropriate authorities must be consulted
during the initial site survey to determine the standards that must be met.
1.3.1.7.Local Community Considerations

The proposed plant must fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. Full
consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a
significant additional risk to the local population. On a new site, the local community
must be able to provide adequate facilities for the plant personnel like schools, banks,
housing, and recreational and culture facilities.
1.3.1.8.Availability of Land

Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant and for future
expansions. The plant should ideally be flat, well drained, and have suitable loadbearing characteristics.
1.3.1.9.Climate

Adverse climate conditions at a site will increase costs. Abnormally low temperatures
require the provision of additional insulation and special heating for equipment and pipe
runs. Stronger structures are needed at locations subject to high winds or earthquakes.

1-30
After the location of the site, we must come out with a proper plant location to
give the most economical flow of material and personnel around the site. Several sites
in Peninsular Malaysia have been taken into considerations. The site that was
considered is Gebeng (Pahang), Pasir Gudang (Johor), and Teluk Kalong
(Terengganu). Government assistance during the construction phase and possibility
also in the form of tariffs is possible depend upon which site will be located. The raw
material supply is near and save the transportation cost.

1-31

Table 1.10 Comparison of Site selection with Characteristics


Location

Factors being
Considered

1. Location, with respect


to the marketing area

Tanjung Langsat, Pasir


Gudang - Johor

Telok Kelong - Terengganu

An established industrial
area
Tanjung Langsat site has
beed developed to
enhance manufacturing
capacity.
A co-generation plant

Terengganu is expected to
become a hub for the oil and
gas and petrochemicals
industries. Available
indusries are
Heavy industries
Chemicals
Petrochemicals

2. Raw material
supply:
i. 2-Ethylhexanol

Titan Petrochemical (M)


Sdn. Bhd.Plot 131 Lorong
Sawit 2, Kawasan
Perindustrian Lpj 81700

Pasir Gudang, Johor

Transportation: Lorries

ii.

Acrylic acid

Titan Petrochemical (M)

Sdn. Bhd. Plot 131 Lorong


Sawit 2, Kawasan

Gebeng - Pahang

442 km to Titan
Petrochemical, Pasir
Gudang through
Lebuhraya Pantai Timur
and Lebuh raya Pasir

Gudang
60 km to MTBE Sdn. Bhd.
Gebeng, Kuantan through
T8 and Jalan Jabor-Al
Muktafi Billah Shah
28.3 km to Optimal
Olefins Sdn. Bhd.
Terengganu
442 km to Titan
Petrochemical, Pasir
Gudang through

Peninsular Gas Utilisation


(PGU) project
Gebeng is another
petrochemical hub for
multinational players like
BASF, Amoco, Kaneka,
Eastman and Polyplastics.
MTBE (M) Sdn. Bhd. Lot
111 Kawasan
Perindustrian Gebeng,
26080 Kuantan, Pahang
Optimal Olefins (M) Sdn.
Bhd. PETRONAS
Petroleum Industry
Complex, Km 106, Jln
K.Terengganu-Kuantan,
Kerteh, 24300 Kemaman,
Terengganu
(Production of Propylene :
95000 MT per year )
BASF PETRONAS
Chemicals Sdn.Bhd Jalan
Gebeng 2/1, Kawasan

1-32
Perindustrian Lpj 81700
Pasir Gudang, Johor

iii.

iv.

691 km to KZH Chemicals


Sdn. Bhd., Bukit Mertajam
Penang through
Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan

CCM Chemicals Sdn Bhd


Plo 411, Jalan Perak
Satu, Kawasan 4,
Kawasan Perindustrian
Pasir Gudang, 81700
Johor Baru, Johor.

Para-toluene
sulphuric acid

NaOH

3. Transport facilities

370 km to Mey Chern


Chemicals Sdn. Bhd.No.
25, Jalan Selat Selatan
23, Sobenajaya Light
Industrial Estate
Pandamaran 42000 Port
Klang, Selangor
Next to Johor Port (with
a 1000 metre berth of
cargo jetty, 3 hazardous

Lebuhraya Pantai Timur


and Lebuh raya Pasir
Gudang

Perindustrian Gebeng ,
26080, Kuantan Pahang

60 km to BASF
PETRONAS, Kuantan
through T8 and Jalan
Jabor-Al Muktafi Billah
Shah

628 km to KZH Chemicals


Sdn. Bhd. through
Lebuhraya Pantai timur
and Lebuhraya UtaraSelatan

594 km to KZH Chemicals


Sdn. Bhd. Through
Lebuhraya Pantai Timur
and Lebuh raya UtaraSelatan

345 km to Mey Chern

Chemicals Sdn. Bhd. Port


Klang, Selangor through
Lebuhraya Pantai Timur

296 km to Mey Chern


Chemicals Sdn. Bhd. Port
Klang, Selangor through
Lebuhraya Pantai Timur

440 km to CCM

Chemicals Sdn Bhd, Pasir


Gudang, Johor

406 km to CCM
Chemicals Sdn Bhd, Pasir
Gudang, Johor

Kemaman Port(It is the


deepest port
in Malaysia and is an
important LNG shipment

Kuantan Port
(Centralized tankage
facilities, container and
bulk liquid port, pipeline

1-33
liquid bulk terminals)

Tanjong Pelepas Port, a


world class container port

Tanjung Langsat Port


(located adjacent to the
4000 acres of a industrial
land in Tanjung Langsat,
equipped with a twin-berth
jetty consisting of outer
(30 000 DWT) and inner (
7000 DWT) berth
Road:

4. Availability of labor

Pasir Gudang
Highway

Trunk road

Railway line

Airport:
Senai International
Airport(40km)
Available

(rate of unemployment, %)

5. Availability of utilities

port.)

Water: Syarikat Air Johor

Electricity: Tenaga
Nasional Berhad

Kuantan Port in
Pahang(Centralized
tankage facilities,
container and bulk liquid
port, pipeline and piperack
system connecting
Gebeng to Kuantan Port,
railway linking Kertih,
Gebeng and Kuantan
Port)
Industrial Area is serviced
by Kuantan-Kerteh Rail
Link
Airport
- Kuantan Airport
-

Kemaman Port
Airport

Kuala Terengganu
Airport

Available

and piperack system


connecting Gebeng to
Kuantan Port, railway
linking Kertih, Gebeng
and Kuantan Port)
Kuantan-Kerteh Rail Link
East Coast Highway
Kuantan-Kemaman
Coastal Road
Kuantan Bypass
Airport:
-

Kuantan Airport

Kemaman Port Airport

Available

Water: SATU(Syarikat Air

Water: Jabatan Bekalan

Terengganu)

Air Pahang

Electricity: Tenaga
Nasional Berhad

Electricity: Tenaga
National Berhad

1-34
Electricity Rates
Effective 1st March 2009, the electricity rate for Peninsular Malaysia has been revised as
Price rate for electricity

follow: Industrial Tariffs - for factories


Tariff E3
High Voltage Peak/On-Peak Industrial Tariff

Price rate of water


6. Availability of suitable
land

0.2810

0-20m3 : RM2.22

0-35m3 : RM2.07

0-227m3 : RM0.92

More than 20m3 : RM2.96

More than 35m3 : RM2.28

More than 227m3 : RM0.84

Available

Available

Available

Land: 58.8 acres

Land: 125.1Hectares

Land: 50 acres

7. Environmental impact
and effluent disposal

RM/kW

Environment
Technology Park
(incorporating a training
centre, a waste collection
and processing centre as
well as raw material
management and storage
facilities, maintenance
and servicing facilities)

Environment
Technology Park
(incorporating a training
centre, a waste collection
and processing centre as
well as raw material
management and storage
facilities, maintenance
and servicing facilities)

Environment
Technology Park
(incorporating a training
centre, a waste collection
and processing centre as
well as raw material
management and storage
facilities, maintenance
and servicing facilities)

Urban Environmental
Industries Sdn Bhd and
NFP Industries Sdn Bhd
which handle scheduled
wastes. TCL Industries
(M) Sdn Bhd that located
in Teluk Kalung Industrial
Estate-60km.

1-35

8. Local community
consideration

9. Climate

Basic needs for labors


near to town
schools for
youngsters
banks
shop lots
Johore's climate is tropical

Basic needs for labors


near to town
schools for
youngsters
banks
shop lots
Selangors climate is a

Basic needs for labors


near to town
schools for
youngsters
banks
shop lots
Pahang's climate is tropical

monsoon. The temperature is tropical monsoon climate.

monsoon. The temperature is

relatively uniform within the

Selangor's climate is typified

relatively uniform within the

range of 26C to 27C

by warm (sometimes hot)

range of 21C to 32C

throughout the year. During

and sunny days, and cool

throughout the year. During

the months of January to

evenings. Temperatures

the months of January to

April, the weather is

typically range from 23C to

April, the weather is

generally dry and warm.

33C.

generally dry and warm.

Humidity is consistently high

Humidity levels are generally

Humidity is in the range of

on the lowlands ranging

80 per cent or higher and

80%. The average rainfall

between 82% to 86% per

annual rainfall often exceeds

per year is 2,000 mm to

annum. The average rainfall

2,600mm. Although some

2,500 mm and the wettest

per year is 2,030 mm to

rainfall can be expected

months are from May to

3,050 mm and the wettest

throughout the year, the

December.

months are from May to

period from December to

December.

February is considered the


rainy season.
When the rainy season ends,
days are normally warm to

1-36
hot, and dry (humidity levels
remain high). This period
runs from late January
through April. From March to
October, both rainfall and
humidity are at their lowest
levels and temperatures are
pleasant.
10. Political and strategic
considerations

Stable

Stable

Stable

1-37
Marks were given for evaluating the most suitable location. Marks in range 1-10 which
mean 10 is the best indication for the factors that will being considered where else 1
represent bad.
Table 1.11 Factors being considered according to the location
Factors being
considered
Proposed
Location
1. Location, with
respect to the
marketing area
2. Raw material supply
3. Transport facilities
4. Availability of labor
5. Availability of utilities;
water, fuel, power
6. Availability of
suitable land
7. Environmental
impact and effluent
disposal
8. Local community
consideration
9. Climate
10. Political and strategic
consideration
Total

Gebeng , Pahang

Teluk Kalong,
Terengganu

Tanjung
langsat, Pasir
Gudang Johor

8
10
9

6
9
9

7
8
9

10

87

77

82

From the available info and the weight comparison, it seems that Gebeng
Industrial Park is the best choice. For a budget of RM200 millions and minimum
production of 100,000 metric tonnes per year, we decided Gebeng Industrial Park in
Pahang is our site location for production of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate plant. This is because
Gebeng is fully the requirements of site selection considerations and most strategic
location based on the all criterias of site selection. The availability of labor also plays an
important role in choosing a plant location.

1-38
1.3.2. FACILITIES PROVIDED AT GEBENG INDUSTRIAL PARK

1.3.2.1. Training

In increasing demand for skilled workers, training facilities such as Industrial Training
Institute of Kuantan (ILP) has located a training centre within Gebeng to facilitate the
provision of highly skilled workforce to the requirement of industries. The training
schemes of ILP is recognised by the National Vocational Training Council and the
courses offered relates to the industries set up within Gebeng such as general
machining, welding, metal structural preparations and erection, sheet metal fabrication,
electrical wiring, industrial and consumer electronics as well as architectural
draughtsmanship. This ensures necessary labour skills are readily available for
operations at Gebeng whenever required.
1.3.2.2. Waste Management

The ETP(Environment Technology Park) Eco-complex is created as a concerted effort


to provide an efficient and effective waste management alternative for the handling and
disposal of industrial waste and byproducts generated by the different industries in
Kuantan and the Eastern Corridor. The ETP Eco-complex will provide land area and
facilities for the handling, storage, warehousing, pretreatment, disposal and recycling of
waste materials generated by the existing chemical and petrochemical industries in the
Gebeng Industrial District and surrounding vicinities.
1.3.2.3. Government Agencies

The Pahang State Development Corporation (PSDC), a government agency entrusted


by the state government to develop Gebeng Industrial Area had established a site office
at the Gebeng Commercial Centre which is located within the Gebeng Industrial Area.
The office's function is to enable delivery of continuing efforts in building Gebeng as a
leading chemical and petrochemical centre.

It also serves as point of reference to adress investors' needs arising from dayto-day operations. Another government agency, SIRIM, the accreditation body in

1-39
Malaysia for certification of manufactured products for their quality in meeting
benchmarks and standards will be operating a centre within 5 kilometres from Gebeng
Industrial Area.
1.3.2.4. Safety of the Plant

In promoting for an incident and disaster-free environment for chemical and


petrochemical employees at all levels, the Kuantan Fire Department had established a
fire station within the Gebeng Industrial Area. In addition, a volunteer crisis
management organisation has been set up under the Gebeng Emergency Mutual Aid
('GEMA') offering expertise to counter emergencies in the vicinity of Gebeng and
Kuantan Port. GEMA is a joint effort between government agencies, Kuantan Port and
chemical and petrochemical manufacturers located at Gebeng Industrial Area and
Kuantan Port Industrial Area such as Amoco, BASF, Kaneka, Eastman Chemical,
Malaysian Oxygen, Exxon Oil, MTBE/Polypropylene Malaysia, Polyplastic Asia Pacific,
Shell, W.R. Grace Specialty Chemicals, Gas Malaysia and Flexsys Chemicals.

The following figures shows the availability of land in the Gebeng Industrial Park 2.

Figure 1.12 Gebeng Industrial Area


Source: PERBADANAN KEMAJUAN NEGERI Pahang (2010)

1-40
Therefore, from the information gained from MIDA, the vacant land is available at
Gebeng Industrial Park 2 with the price of RM 8/sq.ft.

Figure 1.13 Gebeng Industrial Park Area


Source: PERBADANAN KEMAJUAN NEGERI Pahang (AUG, 2010)

Figure 1.14 Available land at Gebeng Industrial Park 2 (starproperty.com)

1-41

Figure 1.15 The proposed land for industrial at Gebeng 2 (starproperty.com)

Figure 1.16 The proposed land for industrial at Gebeng 2 (starproperty.com)