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of large marine diesel engines

D. Watzenig, M. S. Sommer, G. Steiner

The reliable detection of engine malfunctions in order to predict and to plan maintenance intervals is of major importance in

various fields of industry. For instance, occurring faults of marine diesel engines which are on the high seas for months may lead to expensive

holding times. In this context, condition monitoring systems (CMS) should be able to assess engine health, to predict developing failures,

i.e. engine state degradation, and to diagnose failure modes at a low price. In this article, two different thermodynamical model-based

approaches to detect two common failure modes increased blow-by and compression ratio failures of large diesel engines given cylinder

pressure traces with low sampling rate are discussed and compared. Special focus is put on estimation robustness and reliability by excluding

the combustion phase and signal parts with high noise level. The proposed algorithms are validated with experimental data.

Keywords: parameter identification; blow-by; compression failure; elimination of offset terms

Zustandsu

In vielen Industriezweigen ist die zuverlassige Erkennung von Fehlfunktionen im Motor fur die Vorhersage und Planung von

Wartungsintervallen unabkommlich. Auf Hochseeschiffen, die sich oft mehrere Monate auf offener See befinden, kann ein Ausfall des

Motors zu teuren Standzeiten fuhren. Zustandsdiagnosesysteme (ZDS) sollten daher in der Lage sein, kostengunstig sowohl den

Gesundheitszustand des Motors abzuschatzen als auch Abnutzungserscheinungen rechtzeitig erkennen und identifizieren zu konnen.

In diesem Artikel werden zwei verschiedene auf thermodynamischen Modellen basierende Ansatze fur die Erkennung von zwei

haufig in Gromotoren auftretenden Fehlerursachen erhohtes blow-by und Kompressionsverluste unter Verwendung der

Zylinderinnendruckverlaufe mit geringer Abtastrate diskutiert. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf der Robustheit und Zuverlassigkeit

der Parameterschatzung durch Ausblenden der Verbrennungsphase und von Signalteilen mit hohem Rauschpegel. Die vorgestellten

Algorithmen werden anhand von realen Messdaten validiert.

Schlusselworter: Parameteridentifikation; blow-by; Kompressionsfehler; Eliminierung von Offsetgroen

Springer-Verlag 2009

1. Introduction

Although the history of diesel engines extends back to the end of

the nineteenth century and in spite of the predominant position

such engines now hold in various applications, they are still subject

of intensive research and development. Economic pressure, safety

critical aspects, compulsory onboard diagnosis as well as the reduction of emission limits lead to continuous advances in the development of combustion engines.

Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is a valuable set of

methods designed to ensure that the engine stays in good condition

during its lifecycle. Diagnosis in the context of diesel engines is not

new and various approaches have been proposed in the past years,

however, recent technical and computational advances and environmental legislation have stimulated the development of more efficient and robust techniques. In addition, the number of electronic

components like sensors or actuators and the complexity of engine

control units (ECUs) are steadily increasing. Meanwhile most of the

software running on the main ECU is responsible for condition

monitoring of sensor signals, monitoring parameter ranges, detection of short/open circuits and verifying control deviations. However,

these kinds of CMS are not designed to detect and to identify

different engine failures, sensor drifts and to predict developing

failures, i.e. to asses degradation of certain components right in

time. Especially the reliable detection and separation of engine malfunctions is of major importance in various fields of industry in order

to predict and to plan maintenance intervals.

rings, liners, an inlet and exhaust system, heat exchangers, a lubrication system, bearings and an ECU. For the design of an efficient

CMS it is essential to know as much as possible about the underlying

thermodynamical processes and about possible faults and malfunctions. This information can be seen as a-priori knowledge and can be

used to increase the robustness of fault detection algorithms.

Common diesel engine faults and fault mechanisms, and their

causes are

"

"

"

"

emission change caused by e.g. loss of compression, turbocharger malfunction, fuel filter blocked, incorrect injector timing,

poor diesel fuel, over-fuelling, air intake filter blocked, incorrect

piston topping, or ECU malfunction,

lubricating system fault due to incorrect oil pressure and oil

deterioration.

thermal overload as a result of one or a combination of leaking

injection valves, piston ring-cylinder wear or failure, eroded injec-

and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/4,

8010 Graz, Austria, and, The Virtual Vehicle Competence Center (ViF), Inffeldgasse 21 A,

8010 Graz, Austria; Sommer, Martin S., Dipl.-lng., Steiner, Gerald, Dipl.-lng. Dr.,

Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University

of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/4, 8010 Graz, Austria

(E-mail: daniel.watzenig.at)

heft 5.2009

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D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

"

"

"

tor holes, too low injection pressure, high engine friction, misfire,

incorrect timing, leaking intake or exhaust manifold/valves, high

coolant or lubricant temperature, . . .

leaks in the fuel injection system, lubrication system, or air valves.

wear caused by either corrosion or abrasion, or both.

noise and vibration caused by the impact of one engine part

against another (mechanical noise), vibrations resulting from

combustion, intake and exhaust noise.

From the list above the main challenge in engine fault detection

can be derived the ambiguity between faults and causes. Certain

engine faults may be caused by a combination of causes (with

different weights) and certain causes may end up in different engine

faults. The assessment of engine states from sparse measurement

data and a reliable assignment of failure effects and causes are an

active research field.

The problems relating to marine diesel engines, especially medium- and high-speed engines, are due mainly to their large size and

there high operating speed. Occurring faults of marine diesel

engines which are on the high seas for several months may lead

to expensive holding times. On the other hand, additional sensors

and measurement equipment for condition monitoring are undesirable since engines have to be modified to place those additional

sensors.

A topical review on different fault diagnosis methods for condition monitoring can be found in (Jones, Li, 2000). Both standard

methods (Fourier analysis of pressure, torque, power, crankshaft

speed and vibration signals) and advanced methods (neural networks, fuzzy techniques) are encountered and briefly described.

Pontoppidan et al. discuss the detection of a single fault in a statistical framework (hypotheses testing) by measuring acoustic emission

energy signals and applying independent component analysis

(Pontoppidan, Sigurdsson, Larsen, 2005). However, most methods

usually rely on heuristic knowledge and on data training phase as

well as on the specification of threshold levels in order to assign

states as faulty or non-faulty. In the last decade, a paradigm shift

from classical signal processing and feature extraction to computational expensive model-based CMS can be observed. In contrast to

classical condition monitoring, model-based methods can manage

distributed and multiple correlated parameters (Woud, Boot, 1993).

They cover a wide variety of states since the engine behavior is

described in terms of physical relationships and hence, parameters

that influence certain parts of the first principles equations can be

isolated or at least correlations can be determined. Three different

methods to estimate the compression ratio from simulated cylinder

pressure traces are presented in (Klein, Eriksson, 2006) and compared in terms of estimation accuracy and computation time. By

reconstruction of only one single failure based on polytropic compression and expansion of the cylinder pressure remarkable results

have been reported. However, the detection of multiple failures

from in-cylinder pressure measurements is still an open issue.

In this work main focus is on a robust model-based identification

and separation of two common failure modes of large marine diesel

engines that cause very similar changes in the cylinder pressure by

accurately modeling the underlying thermodynamic process,

"

"

changes

increased blow-by mainly resulting in a loss of power

mentioned failures and to clearly separate them given uncertain

measurement data with low sampling rate (1 of crank angle). By

only measuring cylinder pressure traces of every cylinder, the symptoms due to faults are determined.

174

heft 5.2009

estimation are investigated, validated with measured data and

compared to each other in terms of performance, accuracy, and

robustness given sensor drift and uncertain measurements.

2. Modeling of the thermodynamic process

Various approaches to model diesel engines have been proposed in

the literature, however, the main focus is on small-size engines that

are commonly used in the automotive industry. The typical differential equations that represent the thermodynamic processes, i.e. the

interrelations between system pressure, temperature and mass can

be found e.g. in (Heywood, 1988; Liu, Chalhoub, Henein, 2001;

Kouremenos, Hountalas, 1997).

Since in this work, identification of blow-by and compression ratio

is of primary interest a simplified thermodynamical model capable of

running in real-time is developed. The main reason for compression

losses are referred to damages of the piston crown during the

combustion phase leading to an increase in volume V0 in the top

dead center (TDC) of the piston. In the equation for the volume V in

the cylinder the constant volume V0 is considered by the term h0 A

with h0 representing the compression parameter and A the crosssectional area of the cylinder. In the time-varying fraction of the

volume equation ! denotes the instantaneous angular velocity of

the crankshaft. By also taking into account the ratio of the crank

radius to the length of the connecting rod regarding to the equation

of a standard crank mechanism the equation for the volume and its

time derivative can be summarized in the form:

V

1 cos !t

V h0 A

2

q

1 1 2 sin2 !t

!

dV V

3 cos !t

! sin !t 1 p

dt

2

1 2 sin2 !t

described by:

dm ~ 1

k p p

dt

T

assumed that for the healthy state of the cylinder the effect of

blow-by can be neglected. Because of the fact that blow-by is

rapidly increasing when it comes to a tear-off of the oil film between

piston and liner due to the loss of the sealing function of the oil the

simple model of k~ as a constant is not sufficient. To model this

nonlinear behavior a sigmoid function described by:

k~p

k~max

1 eapb

blow-by is reached and a denotes the ascending slope of the sigmoid

function (Watzenig, Steiner, Sommer, 2008). For the complete thermodynamical description also the equations for the temperature T

dT

p dV kV 1 T 2 p3

Tin

dt

mcv dT

mcv

and the pressure in the cylinder p

dp

dm

dT

dV 1

RT

R mp

dt

dt

dt

dt V

originalarbeiten

D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

containing the isochore heat capacitance cv and the ideal gas constant R respectively are needed. Tin in Eq. (5) denotes the rapid

increase of the temperature in the cylinder during the combustion

phase and can therefore be neglected for the investigation of the

failure parameters during compression. For the healthy state of the

diesel engine the pair h0 k~ 0:150 for compression and blow-by

was identified.

3. Measurement noise

To achieve the goals of reliability and estimation robustness common perturbations of the pressure signal like detection uncertainties

of the TDC, pressure offset p0 and measurement noise nk have to be

analyzed. While the TDC-offset is corrected by the manufacturer

and the pressure offset can be included in the nonlinear parameter

estimation approach the task lies in finding the probability density

function (PDF) of the measurement noise. In the following the

assumption of a Gaussian PDF represented by:

"

#

1

x 2

; 1 < x < 1

7

px p exp

22

22

where is the mean and 2 the variance of the random variable x is

verified. As can be seen in Fig. 1 the noise data extracted from

several measurements of the cylinder pressure signal is distributed

according to N 0; 2 . Therefore there exists no additional offset in

the pressure signal due to measurement noise. The range of the

analysis window of 90; 40 degrees to the TDC for the determination of the noise PDF was selected according to the reasonable

signal to noise ratio (SNR) in this area.

1.2

Increased

compression

Pmax_ref

Pmax

P2

P1

Pmin

100 .()

e1

e2

TDC

state (dashed) and a cylinder with increased compression ratio

(solid). The analysis window d(c) is applied within the well-defined

compression phase in order to avoid the influence of combustion

effects as well as measurement noise at low signal levels

state whereas the solid curve reflects a cylinder state with increased

compression ratio. The ratiometric parameter q allows to find

dependencies between the error parameters h0 and k~ and the position of the analysis window "1 ; "2 within the compression phase.

Due to the fact that blow-by has a strong nonlinear behavior causing

its main influence only at high pressures near the TDC, two analysis

windows are used with the lower window being placed before and

the upper window after the point of inflection of the cylinder pressure trace. To gain additional information the pressure trace within

the two windows is approximated by polynomials of the form

Noise data

Gaussian distribution

P P1 a1 a2 2 a3 3 :

1.0

Relative occurence

Healthy state

The healthy state (0% error) of the engine is described by the pair

0:150 whereas the maximum error (100% error) is represented by

0:16 2 105 . The procedure is described by a case study with

simulated data with 70% compression and 10% blow-by error in

the Figs. 35.

0.8

0.6

0.4

3.35

Increased compression

Increased blowby

0

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Noise amplitude

to a Gaussian PDF (both curves are normalized

by 1== 2pr2 )

Pmax Pmin

P2 P1

are displayed together with two typical traces of the cylinder pressure of the diesel engine. The dashed curve represents a healthy

3.30

3.25

3.20

3.15

3.10

0

The main advantages of using a ratiometric approach lie in the

independency of a pressure offset in the measurement data, the

ease of implementation of the method, and the calculation speed. In

Fig. 2 the entire set of parameters for the determination of the

ratiometric variable q

q

Ratiometric parameter q

0.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Error in %

[2608, 2308] to TDC (q 5 3.1857). The lines for compression and

blow-by error are too close to each other for a failure separation

The first parameter to be evaluated is the ratiometric parameter q.

Figure 3 illustrates that only monitoring q is not sufficient to distinguish between the two failure modes. Therefore the additional

parameters slope a1 and curvature a2 have to be evaluated for

confident failure separation. Figure 4 depicts that the compression

failure is overestimated by 10% and a separation of the two failure

heft 5.2009

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D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

measurement noise with 0:047354 bar becomes visible. This

sensitivity to measurement noise is the main drawback of this

method.

Consequently, in order to apply the ratiometric principle to measured data, Eq. (8) for the calculation of the ratiometric parameter

has to be modified in terms of:

0.0328

Increased compression

Increased blowby

0.0326

Slope a1

0.0324

0.0322

0.0320

0.0318

qmod

0.0316

0.0314

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Error in %

2308] to TDC (a15 3.180 1022). The lines for compression and

blow-by error are still too close together for a separation of the

failure modes

2.55

10

Increased compression

Increased blowby

Curvature a2

2.50

2.45

Pdefect

Phealthy

10

with Pdefect representing a cylinder with either blow-by or compression failure. In Fig. 6 the different sign of curvature of qmod can be

determined very easily. As can be seen the greatest differences occur

at crank angles close to the TDC which are partly outside of the

observation window limited by the upper bound of 8 to the TDC.

In Table 1 the coefficients according to Eq. (9) are summarized for

three cylinders with known failure sources of two different engines

excluding the pressure offset. The different signs of the coefficients

a1 and a3 for blow-by and compression failure reflect the different

curvatures. However, along with an increasing measurement noise

variance this method becomes unusable in terms of reliability.

Due to the limitations mentioned above and the fact that the

ratiometric approach only allows for a qualitative statement, a more

robust and reliable method has to be developed the nonlinear

parameter estimation approach.

2.40

2.35

2.30

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Error in %

[2608, 2308] to TDC (a2 5 2.447 1025). Because there is only

one failure mode in the allowed range a2 allows the separation

between blow-by and compression error

modes is not possible. The evaluation of the curvature information

a2 shown in Fig. 5 allows the distinction between compression and

blow-by error but the compression error is still overestimated.

1.05

The proposed approach aims at finding a parameter vector

h0 k~ p0 T which is comprised of the compression ratio h0 , the

blow-by parameter k~ and the pressure offset p0 by minimizing the

L2 -norm of the error kek22 ! min between measured data and computed cylinder pressure in a nonlinear least squares sense for each

cycle. The block diagram is shown in Fig. 7. The disturbance of the

data y~k due to measurement noise nk is considered by an additional

summation node with the output y k representing the corrupted

data. The thermodynamic model is calibrated for a measured healthy

state prior to the parameter identification by adapting the parameter

vector u 1 2 3 Rcv kT . The parameter identification problem

consists of finding the set of parameters 2 Rn that minimize the

target function f() at a single point. The inequality constraints

Blowby error fit

Compression error measured

Compression error fit

1.04

1.03

Pdefect/Phealthy

1.02

1.01

1.00

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.96

0.95

60

50

40

30

20

10

Fig. 6. Comparison of the ratio Pdefect= Phealthy for an engine showing blow-by error and compression error, respectively, showing different

curvature in their slopes especially in the interval [2408, 08]

176

heft 5.2009

D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

a2

a3

Occurred failures

a1

Increased blow-by

Changed compression

ratio

5:38103 4:99104

3:32103 3:98104

Real

system

nk

yk

yk

uk

Model

1:62105

1:29105

^

yk

ek

|| . ||22

engines. The index k indicates the iterative nature of the opitimization procedure. By minimizing the residual error between measured

and calculated cylinder pressure, the optimal parameter configuration for blow-by and compression ratio is found. Based on the a

priori known limits of the parameters, the engine state can be

assessed and monitored

simultaneously have to be satisfied at this single point where both

the target and constraint functions depend on the parameter vector.

The objective is to find a parameter configuration that satisfies

In the following, results for two measured data sets of different engines

containing single blow-by and single compression ratio failure are presented. For the evaluation of the source of defect the engines were

disassembled by the manufacturer. The reason for lower compression

ratios was identified as burn-of of the piston crown whereas increased

blow-by occurred due to defects of the crankcase cover gasket. Figure 8

shows of the pressure traces of a five cylinder (top) and a seven cylinder

(bottom) diesel engine respectively. In both cases the sources of defect

were known. Because blow-by errors often lead to severe damages of

the engine most of the time the crankcase cover gaskets are replaced

before the error occurs and therefore there exist only a few data sets

where blow-by is documented. Figure 8 bottom shows such a case for

one cylinder of a seven cylinder diesel engine. As can be seen the single

pressure traces are close together up to the TDC. As the observation

window is limited by 8 to the TDC, the area with the greatest change

in the cylinder pressure cant be used which makes the detection and

separation of the interesting failures a challenging task. For quantification the model limits for the parameters to be estimated are again

h0 0:15 0:16 for compression and k~ 0; 2105 for blowby corresponding to 0%100% of failure.

120

s:t:

Healthy state

Increased compression

Errorfree state

Increased compression

Increased compression

100

80

60

40

20

bl bu

0

zk y k

150

200

250

300

350

400

Increased blow by

Healthy state

100

80

60

40

20

12

13

where 2 0 360 denotes the crank angle in degrees. The modelbased estimation of is based on the windowed signal zk by solving

the constrained nonlinear optimization problem (11). Signal parts

with low signal magnitude as well as the signal part that corresponds to the combustion phase depicted in Fig. 2 are cut off for

the estimation procedure. The dashed curve representing the

healthy state is used to calibrate the thermodynamical model by

adapting the model parameter vector u.

100

120

l if "1 "2

0 else

50

Crank angle in

where y~k denotes the measured cylinder pressure and y^k represents the estimated measurements based on the thermodynamic

model. The bounds bl and bu are the lower and the upper bound

for the unknown parameter vector, i.e. the imposed constraints on

the parameters to be reconstructed from measured data.

In order to mask out undesired effects of the starting combustion

close to the TDC and the low SNR at small cylinder pressures, an

analysis window 2 "1 ; "2 is applied to the measured cylinder

pressure y k . The proposed rectangular window is mainly restricted to

the compression phase. If the entire signal y k is provided to the

parameter identification problem, a robust detection and identification of blow-by and compression ratio failures is impossible

since various other effects influence the cylinder pressure during

combustion.

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Crank angle in

healthy state and cylinders with increased compression of one

specific engine; bottom: Measured cylinder pressure representing a

healthy state and one cylinder with increased blow-by of a different engine. The sources of defect were in both cases documented by

the manufacturer after disassembly of the machine

Table 2 summarizes the results of the estimated parameter vector

with varying upper bound "2 of the analysis window. The first

heft 5.2009

177

D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

Occurred failures

-TDC

h0

k~

Acknowledgements

This research was founded as part of the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Automotive Measurement Research.

Increased blow-by

8

9

10

0.150

0.150

0.150

1:84105

1:67105

1:99105

Appendix

Changed compression

ratio

8

9

10

0.154

0.154

0.154

3:011015

2:721015

1:721015

ratio while in the second block a changed compression ratio is clearly

identified. The blow-by remains very small denoting that blow-by

has not increased.

6. Conclusions

This paper addresses two different methods for robust detection of

increased blow-by and compression faults from measured cylinder

pressure traces of large marine diesel engines. By accurately modeling the underlying thermodynamic process, including prior knowledge about the system, and characterizing the measurement noise,

faults can be detected and isolated from each other even in the

presence of sensor drift. The ratiometric approach allows only for

qualitative statements and is not capable of clearly distinguishing

between the two failure modes. Main drawbacks are the sensitivity

to measurement noise and the fact that crank angles close to the

TDC are required where one has typically to deal with effects of

starting combustion. On the other hand the method is very fast due

to its simplicity and independency to a global pressure offset in the

measurement signal.

The nonlinear parameter estimation approach overcomes the

drawbacks of the ratiometric method. The robustness is investigated by examining the influence of the upper limit of the analysis

window close to the TDC. The applicability of both model-based

approaches is verified by measurement data given information

about the sources of defect of the engine. Due to the low sampling interval of 1 of the crank angle both condition monitoring

systems (CMS) exhibit real-time performance. The detection of

these failures can be used in order to predict maintenance

intervals.

Nomenclature

h0

A

V

m

T

P

R

cv

k~

k

1

2

3

compression parameter

cylinder cross-sectional area

cylinder volume

mass of the mixture

temperature of the mixture

cylinder pressure

ideal gas constant

isochore heat capacitance

blow-by parameter

constant

power of volume

power of temperature

power of pressure

m

m2

m3

kg

K

bar

J/(molK)

J/(kgK)

References

Heywood, J. B. (1988): Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGrawHill.

Jones, N. B., Li, Y.-H. (2000): A review of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for

diesel engines. Tribotest J., 6: 267291.

Klein, M., Eriksson, L. (2006): Methods for cylinder pressure based compression ratio

estimation, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2006010185, SAE World Congress, Detroit,

USA, April 36.

Kouremenos, D. A., Hountalas, D. T. (1997): Diagnosis and condition monitoring of

mediumspeed marine diesel engines. Tribotest J., 4: 6391.

Liu, H.-Q., Chalhoub, N. G., Henein, N. (2001): Simulation of a single cylinder diesel engine

under cold start conditions using Simulink. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power,

123: 117124.

Pontoppidan, N. H., Sigurdsson, S., Larsen, J. (2005): Condition monitoring with

mean field independent component analysis. J. Mech. Syst. Signal. Pr., 19:

13371347.

Watzenig, D., Steiner, G., Sommer, M. S. (2008): Robust estimation of blow-by and

compression ratio for large diesel engines based on cylinder pressure traces, IEEE

Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC), Vancouver,

Canada, May 1215, 974978.

Woud, J. K., Boot, P. (1993): Diesel engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis based

on process models. 20th Int. Congress on Combustion Engines, London.

Authors

Daniel Watzenig

received his M.Sc. and his Ph.D. degree in

Electrical Engineering from Graz University

of Technology in 2002 and 2006, respectively.

In 2009, he received the venia docendi on

electrical measurement and measurement signal processing. He is currently heading the

Vehicle Electrics and Electronics Group of

the Virtual Vehicle Competence Center (K2

Mobility SVT Competence Center of Excellent

Technologies) in Graz. His research interests include statistical inverse

problems, automotive electronics and probabilistic design. He is distinguished lecturer at the Institute of Electrical Measurement and

Measurement Signal Processing at Graz University of Technology.

178

heft 5.2009

Martin Sommer

received his M.Sc. degree in Mechatronics in

2007 from the Johannes Kepler University

Linz. He is now working on his Ph.D. in the

field of model based measurement at the

Institute of Measurement and Measurement

Signal Processing at Graz University of Technology. Among his research interests are signal processing and mathematical modeling

of mechatronic systems.

D. Watzenig et al. Engine state monitoring and fault diagnosis of large marine diesel engines

Gerald Steiner

received the Dipl.-Ing. and Dr.techn. degrees in

Electrical Engineering from the Graz University

of Technology in 2002 and 2006, respectively.

He is currently with Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, as

R&D project coordinator for process instrumentation and serves as external lecturer at

the Graz University of Technology. His research

interests include industrial inverse problems,

sensor fusion, and process instrumentation.

heft 5.2009

179

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