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1.An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica)
or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by
sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.

Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer

networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous
for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little
attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few

4 Advantages over copper wiring

The advantages of optical fiber communication with respect to copper wire
systems are:

Broad bandwidth
A single optical fiber can carry 3,000,000 full-duplex voice calls or 90,000 TV
Immunity to electromagnetic interference
Light transmission through optical fibers is unaffected by other electromagnetic
radiation nearby. The optical fiber is electrically non-conductive, so it does not
act as an antenna to pick up electromagnetic signals. Information traveling
inside the optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, even
electromagnetic pulses generated by nuclear devices.
Low attenuation loss over long distances
Attenuation loss can be as low as 0.2 dB/km in optical fiber cables, allowing
transmission over long distances without the need for repeaters.

Electrical insulator
Optical fibers do not conduct electricity, preventing problems with ground loops
and conduction of lightning. Optical fibers can be strung on poles alongside
high voltage power cables.
Material cost and theft prevention
Conventional cable systems use large amounts of copper. In some places, this
copper is a target for theft due to its value on the scrap market.


Color code, used in fiber optics, resembles that of copper. the

major difference is 12-color sequence as oppose to 10-color for copper. The sequence
of colors is the same, with addition of two colors - Rose (11-th) and Aqua (12-th).

Fiber color codes are specified by TIA/EIA 598-A. in loose tube cables,
this color code will be used for tubes as well as fibers within the tubes
and subgroups

For cables that consist of more than 12 strands, the color code repeats itself. Each group of
12 strands is identified with some other means such as:
- Multiple buffer tubes each with 12 or less strands either numbered or colored following
the same color code, e.g., 1st tube is blue, 2nd is orange, etc.
- 24 strand groups with the color code repeating with some variation, e.g., the 1st group
of 12 strands are solid colors and the 2nd group are solid colors with a stripe or some other
identifying mark.
For outdoor aerial and burial type cables, the jacket color is usually black polyethelene
for both multimode and singlemode cables to prevent UV radiation damage.
For indoor cables, the outer most fiber cable jacket may be any color but the de facto
industry standard is:

Orange for multimode fibers

Yellow for singlemode fibers

This is also generally true for fiber optic patch cords.

Top 10 Safety Rules for Fiber Optics

Fiber optic cables were designed to enhance voice and data communication in
many different applications. The flexibility of the technology is extraordinary, and
advances in methods of communication have revealed even more uses for fiber
optics. Compromise on any of the following points will introduce invisible health
dangers can take extended periods of time to diagnose.

No food or drink Tiny glass fibers can be in the air whenever fiber optics
are being created or installed. A simple drink of water can carry glass shards
into the throat and down the esophagus where they can cause lacerations and
internal hemorrhages.

Wear safety glasses Every person in the area must wear safety glasses
with side shields to prevent fiber shards and splinters from entering the eyes.
People, who wear glasses, must still wear safety glasses.

Wear protective aprons All workers should be clothed in disposable lab

aprons to reduce the fiber particles that collect on personal clothing. If particles

collect on clothing, they will be ingested later through food, drink or breathing in

Avoid fiber ends There are reasons to look through a fiber cable, but care
must be exercised to ensure that there is visible light coming through the cable.
Prior to looking into the end of a cable, use an optical tracer or continuity
checker to determine if the fiber is dark. A power meter will verify that there is no
light source at the other end of the cable.

Contact lens wearers Beware! After handling fiber optics, someone who
wears contact lenses must wash their hands very thoroughly before handling
their contact lenses. Glass shards can lodge in the surface of the eye and cause

Keep hands away from face Many people have a habit of touching their
face with their hands for no apparent reason. This action must be avoided when
working with fiber optics. Tiny splinters from the fibers can penetrate the soft
skin on the face and be very difficult to remove.

Well-ventilated area Breathing clean air is an important part of a safe

working environment. Fiber optic cables have many tiny glass particles that are
dislodged when the cables are moved for any reason. A well-ventilated area will
allow the particles to move away from the people working with the fibers.

No combustible materials Fusion splicers and curing ovens can cause

flammable materials to combust. Caution must be taken to ensure that there are
no dangerous materials used near this equipment.

Dispose of scraps Tossing unused lengths of fiber on the floor is a safety

hazard that must be avoided. Not only can people trip, but walking on those
scraps causes particles to be dislodged and enter the air.

Clean up afterward A systematic cleaning effort for the entire work area
will ensure the safety of everyone involved.

As new technicians enter the workforce, the importance of safety protocols cannot
be overemphasized. Each person must adopt the best practices for safe handling
of all fiber optic components to preserve the healthy and safe environment for
everyone on the team.