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Microstructure of Carbon and Alloy Steels

of H igh Car bon Content


By the ASM Committee on Metallography of High-c,,rbon steet:

CONTENTS
Plain High-Carbon Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loi.y-Alloy Hgh-Carbon Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE MICROGRAPHS presented in
this section show varous structural
types - as rolled, quenched and tempered, patented, decarburized - of plain
carbon and alloy steels of hgh carbon
content. They also show welded structures and give a mcroprobe analyss of
an inclusion (micrographs 418 to 425).
The compostons of the steels for
which micrographs are presented are
given in the table below. Tool steels,
most of whch also have a hgh carbon
content, are dealt wlth in the section
on Tool Materials (see page 101).
Hgh-carbcn steels are most commonly available as wire, bar, strip and
plate. Commercial applications of these
steels nclude antifriction bearngs,
sprngs, sorne knives, and tillage tools.
steel 52100 is used extensively for ball
bearngs, both balls and races. Most of
the steels listed in the table below ha ve
been used for sprngs - from small clock
springs to the Iarge sprngs used in
railroad equipment. Steels 1090 and 1095
are used far tillage tools (hand and
power), and for knives for lawn mowers
and hay and grain-cutting machines.
Far properties of the hgh-carbon
steels, see Volume 1 of this Handbook,
especially the artcles "Hardenable Carbon Steels" (beginning on page 94) and
"Steel Springs" (beginning on page 160).
Carbon Steels. As the carbon content
of steel increases, the mcrostructure
becomes more complex and more difficult to interpret. For instance, a whteetching constituent at grain boundaries
in a steel that has been rapidly cooled
can be ether ferrite or cementite.
Hgh-carbon steels are seldom used
in the as-rolled, normalized or annealed
condition, although they are usually
purchased in one of these conditions.
Treatments specified for varseus applcations include quenchng and temperng, patenting, patenting and cold
drawng, and austempering.
Patenting is a heat treatment wherein wire (and orten rod) is austentzed,
quenched in a molten bath (usually,
molten Jead) at a subcrltlcal temperature, and cooled in air. Small-diameter wire or rod can be austenitized and

then air cooled (air patenting). Patenting usually results in mxed structures
(see pages 44, 45 and 46). As-patented
wire and rod have sorne commercial
applications, but patentng is . usually
done before cold dra wing and between
drawing operations. Many coil springs
are made of cold drawn patented wre
with no further heat treatment.
For subsequent processng (for instance, machining) of hgh-carbon
steels, especally those havng more
than 0.70% carbon, the unresolved and
lamellar pearlite structures are not
satsfactory. Spheroidal cementite in a
matrx of ferrite is the desired structure (see the mcrographs on page 47).
Except in the thinnest sectons, carbon stees requre a water quench from
the austentzng temperature to develop a" fully martenstc structure (see
mcrographs 363 and 364). Ol quenchng usually results in a slack-quenched
conditon (see mcrograph 362).
Compositions of High-Carbon Steels for Which
Micrographs Are Presented in This Section

Steel

Mn

Carbon steeisra)
1055 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.50-0.60
1060 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.55-0.65
10B61 (b) . . . . . . . .
0.560.66
1064 . . . . . . . . . .
0.60-0.70
1065 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.60-0.70
1070 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.65-0.75
1074 . , . . . . . . . . . .
0.70-0.80
1078 . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.72-0.85
1080..............
0.75-0.88
1090 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.85-0.9
1095 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.90-1.03
Alloy steetsrc)

0.60-0.90
0.60-0 90
0.6'1-0.90
0.50-0.80
0.60-0.9G
0.60-0.90
0.50-0.80
0.30-0.60
0.60-0.90
0.60-0.90
0.30-0.50

5160 ... 0.56-0.64 e, 0.75-1.00 Mn, 0.035 max P,


0.040 max S, 0.20-0.35 SI, 0.70-0.90 Cr
51B60 ... Same as 5160, out wth 0.0005 min l
52100 .. 0.98-1.10 e, 0.25-0.45 Mn, 0.025 max P,
0.025 max S, 0.20-0.35 Si, 1.30-1.60 Cr
6150 .. 0.48-0.53 e, 0.70-0.90 Mn, 0.20-0.35 Si,
0.80-1.10 Cr, 0.15 min V(d)
9254
0.51-0.59 e, 0.60-0.80 Mn,
1.20-1.60 Si, 0.60-0.80 Cr(d)
(a) Ali carbn steels have a maximum phosphorus content o! 0.040% and a maxtmum sutrur content of 0.050%. (b) Contains i'. mnimum
of 0.0005% boron. (e) oompostttons or two nonstandard alloy steels are grven with the micrographs. (d) Also 0.04 max P, 0.04 max S.

*RooERT F. MEHL, Chairman, Professor Emeritus, Carnegie-Mellon


UniYersity; GEORGB H. BAILE, Supervisor, MetalJurgy Scction, Engir:cering and Research Center, SKF Industries, Inc.; RoBERT H. BlllGGS
(retired), formcrly Metallurgist, Suspension Div., E.tton ,<'orp.; H. B.
CHESS, Cbief Metallurgist, Torrington Co.; ERNEST .'\.. EVANC!C, Chief
Metallurgist, Simc.nds Saw and Steel Div., Wal!;'lce-Mur:, Co:p.;

44
49

Austempering can be applied to very


thin sectons of plan hgh-carbon steel,
but It is geners.lly better suited to the
hgh-carbon alloy steels,

Alloy Steels, The hgh-carbon alloy


steels transform rnuch more slowly on
cooling from the austenitc conditon
than do carbon steels. To develop a
fully martensitc struture in hghcarbn alloy steel, oil quenching is usually suffi<.:iently rapid.
Pages 49 to 54 of this section show
microstructures of 5160, 52100, 6150 and
9254, four extensively used high-ca::bon
alloy steels. Large quantitie1; of 5160
steel are used for coil springs for automobiles. Very often tht: hot rolled product is hot coled and 1:hen heat treated.
by austenitizing a.t llOO F (871 C) and
o:l quenching. After this treatment, the
structure is fully martensit1c, with n)
free carbide (no!R micrograph 382). This
structure will then be altered by tempering at about 800 F d,27 C) for mc)st
spring appiications (note the mie.rostru<.:ture, other than the dec:l.l'burization, in micrograph 384).
Microstructures of 52100 stee1 n.re
presented on pages 50 to 53, beginning
with a macroP,raph of i;be hot rollcd
product (391). Micrographs 396 through
405 show the efiects of various heat
treatments on spheroidal ca.rbide in
52100 steel. A structure of spherc!.dal
carbide in ferrite (396) is usually the
starting structure when machining or
further heat treating is to be performed.
The structures that res11lt from various
quenching and tempering procedures
start with micrograph 397. A skuctur<:l
consisting of martensite with a dispersion of ne carbide particles, which ii::
obtained by austenitizing; ol qucnching, and tempering at approxlmately
350 F ( 177 C), is common in ball bearings and other wear-resistant products
made of 52100 steel (thfs typP. of st.ructur" is showi: in micrograp!i 398).
Steel 6150 is wdely used for coi!
springs, including aircraft-e .1gine valve
springs. Tempered martensite obtained .
by conventional quenchir.g and tempering is an acceptable (often a preferred)
structure ior alloy sp,.ing steels.

GEORGE F. KFITH, Technkal Scrvices Man:iger, Westdox Div., G11e1::l


Time Corp.; J. M. KIEFER, Manager, V::'ire and Rod Met..ilury Lv,ain
Cuyahoga Worb, Unitcd States Steel Cor-.
EnwA..D R. MA1"TBL, Reseach laboratrics, GencrI .!\fotor Cor;: :
Jt.'LIUS l'URK, M, tal.Ju1,;ist, Paulo ProJucts Cu.; HOWARD E. BoYEr,
Se.ret,1ry, Managing Editor, Metals Handbook..

1o

1055 and 1060 Steels

Plcral

1055 stee rod, .,-In. dlam, patented by


a!.lstenltlzlng 2!1.3 mn at 1710 F (932 C),
quenchlng 35 see In a lead bath at 1020 F (549
C), ar coolng. Unresolved pearlite (dark) ; ferrite (whlte) at prior austente gran boundarles.

lOOOX

Pi eral

lOOOX

ral

rooox

1055 steel wre, 0.132-in diam, alr patented


by austenitlzing H mn at 1890 F (1032
C), and air coolng In strand form. Fine lamellar pearlite wlth dlscontinuous preclpltatlon of
ferrlte at prior austente grain boundaries.

lX

Picral

lOOOX

Picral

lOOOX

32
'

1060 steel rod, 1/-in. diam. cooled frorn


335 hot
rolling in a single strand by a hghelo:ty ar blast. Strucvure is mostly unresolved
wlth
sorne dlstlnctly lamellar pearlite;
pearlte,
the few scattered whlte reas are ferrlte partly
outllnlng prior austente grans,

f'jcrn

338

IOOOX

1060 steel wire, 0.099-in. dam, air patented


by inr.c1,1tizing at 1850 F (1016 C) for
l. l'\t ... nd au cocl1!1g In strand form. Structure:
,lt : pr.rl!te (dark) , mostly unresolved, and fer,! , somo t prior austenlte gran boundarles

333

336

1060 steel rod, 1'U;4-ln. darn, patented by


austentzng at 1730 F (943 C) for 2%
mn, quenching in a lead bath at 990 F (532 C)
for 55 sec, and alr coolng. The structure conssts
of pearlite (dark) and rerr-te (white) e.t prior
austenlte grain boundarles.

Picral

339

100 X

Decarburlzed 1060 steel, heated at 2200 F


(1204 C) for 1 h.r before rolling to sze.

Note thin Iayer of scale at the surface (top of


mcrograprn , decarbur zed layer (whlte, near
top), unresolved pearllte, and ferrlte.

334

1060 steel red, 1'!H-in. diam, air cooled


frorn hot rolllng In a 1000-lb coll. Dark
areas are unresolved pearlite, with sorne dlst!nct
lamellar pearlite; whlte reas are ferrlte partly
outllning prior austenlte gran boundaries.

337

1060 steel wlre, 0.281-ln. dam, that was


alr patented by austenltlzlng at 1930 F
(1054 C) for 3 mn, and ar coollng In strand
form. The dark reas are partly resolved pearlte; the white reas are ferrite at prior austente grain boundares.

Picral

340

SOOX

Decarburized 1060 steel, heated at 1600 to


1700 F (871 to 927 C) for 12 mn arul
cooled in air, Note scale (top of micrograph),
decarburzd
Iayer (below scale), pearlite
partly
(dark), and sorne gran-boundary ferrite.

45

10B61, 1064, .065, 1070 and 1074 Steels

1% nital

341

soox

1500X

10B61 steel, austenitized in a salt bath


at 1450 F (788 C) for 3 mn, quenched in
a salt bath at 525 F (274 C), held 36% mn.iar
cooled. Small white areas are ferrite; massve
gray areas, martensite; dark reas, lower bainite.

Plcral

344

500X

1064 steel strip given same heat treatment as for 343. Surface decarburization
<near top of mcrograph) was Intentionally
produced to increase formablllty. Remaining
structure is balnite and tempered martensite.

nital

lOOX

1070 hard drawn steel valve-spring wire.


Lcngtudna; secton. Tensile strength of
.000 psi <1689 MPa) was obtained by 80% reIon. Prior structure was fine lamellar pearl; structure shown is deformed pearlite.

1064 cold rolled steel strip, austentzed


at 1500 F (816 C), quenched to 600 F
(316 C) and held (to complete isothermal transfonnation), air cooled, tempered at 700 F (371
C). Mixture of bainite and tempered martenste,

Picral

345

500X

1065 steel wire, 0.135-in. diam, patented


by austenitizing at 1710 F (932 C) for 11
mn, quenching in a lead bath at 1010 F (543 C)
for 2 min, ar coolng. Structure: mostlv- unresolved pearlite; sorne grain-boundary ferrite.

2% nital

348

1070 stcel valve-sprlng wire,


and tempered. Austentzed at 1600 F
(871 C). oil quencL.ed, tempered at 850 F (454 C).
Structure is manly tempered martensite. wlth
sorne free ferrite (whlte areas) .

2% n,tal

346

500"

1065 steel sprmg wr>, quenched and


tempered. Austenitized, t 1600 F (871 CJ,
o!l quenched, tempered 2 mn at 850 F (454 C).
Structure: mostly tempered martensitc; rerrtte
at the surface (top) Is due to decarburlzation.

cold rolled steel sheet, at;;eniiz


349 1074
at 1500 F ('11 C) for 5 ;,, in. oil qncr cned.
The microstructu::e consst- p:cdo:11''1antly o'.'.
untempered martenstte, T.ith scattered !'!?'le ri, rtlcles of cementte (ponrly resolved).

46

10i8, 1080 a.o.d 1090 Steels

sso x

Picra!

350
'

-... -- ...

Picral

2ooox

Picral

2000X

351

1078 hot rolled steel bar, cooled in air


from the rolllng temperature. Structure
conslsts predominantly of pearllte (note large
amount of partly resolved lamellar pearlite) ,
wlth sorne gran-boundary ferr!te.

1080 hot rolled steel bar, austenitized at


1920 F (1049 C) for 1/1 hr and furnace
cooled to room temperature at 50 F (27.7 C) per
hour. Structure is mostly pearlite, with sorne
spherodal cement!te parttcles .

.....

.....

.,.
.
'

.
':"

As polished (not etched)

353

'

'

:1

'

250X

354

Picral

355

lOOOX

Inclus!ons in 1080 steel flat sprng, about


0.008 in. thck. A longitudinal secton
(thckness shown as height in mlcrograph).
The black spots are !ron alumnide; the thln
gray strngers near center are sulde,

1090 hot rolled steel bar, t-n, d!am, as


cooled from the finish-rollng temperature of 1600 to 1650 F (871 to 899 C). A,replica
electrn mcrograph, The structuie consists entlrely of larnellar pearlite.

1090 steel rod, 0.343-ln. dlam, patented


by austentzng at 1750 F (954 C) for 4%
mn, quenchng in a lead bath at 940 F (504 CJ
for 70 sec, air coolng. The structure is mostly
unresolved pearllte with bainlte.

Picral

2% nital

2% nital

!16
.,-

8000X

1090 steel strip, cold reduced 80% after


hot rolllng. Rolling direction is vertical
.n th abcve replica electron micrograph. Structnre fa tlformed lamellar pearlite.
'.:

357

lOOX

1090 mod steel (0.3S'% Mn) musc wre,


cold drawn to 263,000-psi (1813-MPaJ tensile strength by 75% reductlon. Deformed pearlte (prior structure was fine pearllte) . See 358.

358

SOOX

Same as 357, but shown at a hlgher


magncaton, As in 357, drawing drectlon is horizontal In above mcrograph. Prior
structure was produced by lead patenting.

Heat Treated Structures m 1095 Steel

lOOOX

Picral

359

1095 steel bar, normalzed by austenitizng at 1600 F (871 C) and cooling in ar.
Structure is partly unresolved pearlite (black) ,
partly lamellar pearlite.

2% nital

362

500X

1095 steel wire, austenitized at 1725 F


(941 C), and ol quenched. Dark areas

are a mixture of fine pearlite and lower bainite;


light areas are untempered martenslte. Thls
structure resulted from slack quenching.

Kn

365 }g9J

riid fo 1

g:elfot;
(329 C), held 5 min, oll quenched, Lower
balnite (darkl ; untempered martensite (light) .

Nital

lOOOX

360

1095 hot rolled steel bar, 114-in. diam,


spheroidized by holding at 1250 F (677 C)
for 15 hr, and ar coo!ing. Structure is spheroidal

cementte partlcles in a ferr!te matrix.

Picral

363

lOOOX

1095 steel, austenitized at 1600 F (871 C)

and air cooled (nonnalized), austenitized


at 1500 F (816 C) and water quenched. Fine,
untempered martenste, caused by more -severe
quench (see 362) ; sorne spheroidal cementte.

47

361

lX

1095 cold rolled and annealed steel strtp,


spherold!zed by holding at 1340 F (727 C)
for 30 hr. Lap seam at surrace was 1101led over
in cold drawng.

' ..
Picral

364

1000)

Same steel and heat treatment as ror


363, but tempered at 300 F ,149 C) after
the quench. Structure is tempered martenste
(darker, comparert with 363) and sorne spheroidal cementite parbcles.

2% nital

367

55.J '>(

Same steel and austentdzing treatment


as for 365 and 366, b;,:; held ror : br in
an 850 F (454 C) quench and ar c0:>Je,l tausternpered) . Structure is mainly upper bi,\rlite.

Heat Treated and Cold Worked Structures m 1095 Steel

48

11,000X

4% nltal

369

4Yo

Thinfoif specimen

11,000X

nital

Same steel and austentzing treatment


... , "" as for 370, but quenched in lead at 1250 F
(677 C), ne.d for 10 rnin, and oil quenched.
A replica electrn mcrograpn, The structure
conssts ot larnellar pearlite.
-::i71

Ni:1

500X

Nital

10.000X

4% nital

1095 steel wire, %-In. dlam, austenitized


5 mn at 1525 F (829 C), quenched in oil
at 450 F {232 C), ar cooled, and tempered at
350 F (177 C) for :.J hr. Replica electrn micrograph, A mixture of tempered martensite and
balnlte, wlth sorne spheroidal cementite.

368

1095 steel wre, 1rl-in. diam, heat treated


by austenitizing at 1550 F (843 C) ,
quenching in Iead at 650 F (343 C), holding for
2 hr, and air cooling to room temperature. A
replica electron mcrograph, showing -a structure
that consists primarily of lower bainite.

372

83,000X

1095 steel wre, cold drawn, with 98.5%


reducton, to 0.042-in. dam. A thin-foil

transmission electrn micrograph of a section


transversa to the longitudinal axis of the wire.
Structure: deformed pearlte. See 373.

lOOOX

1095 die steel, induction hardened to a depth of 0.10 in. Micro37 4 grapas
show transton-zone constituents from sorne fine rnartens.3 :5 te ,top or 374) to prior structure of spheroidal cementite in a
matrx of rerrte aower portien of 374). Micrograh 375 (right)
.s " u .. same area, but ata magncaton o lOOOX.

Nital

375
377

5500X

4% nital

370

1095 steel wlre, 'A-in. dam, heat treated


by austenitizlng at 1625 F {885 C) for 11.l
hr, quenchlng in lead at 625 F (329 C), holding

for 2 mn, and ol quenchng. Replica electron


rncrograph. Structure conssts of lower balnite
Cmottled reas) and martenste (clear areas).

Thin-foil specimen

373

83,000X

Same as 372, but a longitudinal sectlon


of the wire (axis Is horizontal) . Initial
structure (also for 372) was fine pearlite - from
austenitizing, then holding at 970 F (521 C) for
10 sec. A tnn-to electron micrograph.

500X

Nital

IOOOX

Same specmen as for mcrographs 374 and 375, but showlng an


area nearer the surface of the steel, where the structure conssts
of fine martenste (gray constituent) and fine unresolved pearlte
(black constituent) . Small white particles are spherods or cernentite remaining from the prior structure.

Structures m 0.55C-2.40Mn and 5160 Sreels

2% nital

379

UOX

5160 hot rolled steel, 0.635-in.-diam, ar


cooled from nsh-rollng temperature of
1800 F (982 C). Structure is unresolved pearlite
(dark consttuent) and ferrite (light constitueut).

4% picral with 0.05% HCI

381

500X

5160 hot rolled co-sprng steel, austentzed at 1600 F (871 C) for 30 min and ol
uenched. Structure is untempered martenste
(dark, needlelike constltuent) a.nd retalned
austenite (light constituent).

4% nital. 4% picral. mixed 1 to 1

382

lOOOX

Same steel and heat treatment as for


381, but at a higher magncaton. The
untempered martensite (dark gray constituent)
and the retained austente (light consttnenc)
are now more clearly resolved.

1'

% nital

384

5160 spring steel, 0.632-in. dam,


tentized at 1600 F (871 C) for 5
hot coiled, oil quenched at 140 F (60 C),
pered at 800 F (427 C) for 40 mn, Note
pered martenste and decarburization.

llOX

aus-

mn,

tem-

tem-

2% nital

385

2% nital

380
.

4% nit: ,, 4% picral, mixed 1 te 1

383

lOOOX

Same steel as !or 381, but tempered at


400 F (204 C) for 1 hr after austennzng
and quenchng. Structure Is predomncntly tempered martenste (dark), but there are small
partcles of ferrlte cwhte) ,

,,,

. .,,.:

Same steel and treatment as for 384, but


at a hgher .nr.gntcaton. Surface decarburization (white area near top of micrograph)
occurred in the bar mili. while the steel was :+
a temperature of about 2100 F (1149 C).

550X

Same as 379, but at a ngher m ..gncation. The pearl!te is still unresolved,


Whte reas ere ferrite. HarJness is Rockwell
e 32, and ASTM austentic gran size is 6 to 8

,,

275 X

4S

4% nital, 4% picral, mixed l to 1

lOOOX

hot rolled steel. austPr.::i2HI at 1500 F


386 5160
18':l C) fo, 30 mm, c,J quenehed, teropercd at 1000 F (538 e fo. 1 hr. 'I'he tr- ., t. t.
conssts predominantly of terr.pered m vrrenstt(dark) wlth sorne ferrite twhte) .

50

fu

1.2% C Low-Alloy Steel, and 51B60 and 52100 Steels

rolled:::. C, 0.5 Cr, 0.9 Mo, 0.2 V steel


387 Hot
ar, austenitlzed at 1700 F (927 C) for
:.o ruin, and 011 quenched. Structure consists of
un mpered martenste (dark, needlelike constuuent) and retained austente (white areasr.

N;tal

30

lOOOX

51B60 hot rolled steel bar, 11.\-in. dam,


austerunzed and quenched to obtain a
martensitrc structure, t ,en heated to 1250 F
(57'i C) for 15 hr. Structure conssts of sphe Mdal carbide particles in a matrix of ferrte.

picral, 4 nital, mixed 1 to 1

500X

Picral

388

llOOX

Same steel and heat treatment as for


387, but at a higher magncaton, The
large amount of retained austenite (white constttuent) ndcates that the austentzng temperature was too high for this steel.

HCl, water, mixed 1 to 1

391

Actual size

52100 steel bar, 41;-in. diam. Cross secton


after bot rolling wthn the temperature
range of 2150 to 1700 F (1177 to 927 C) and ar
cooling to room temperature. Plts (cluster of
small dark spots) in center are ncusons.

4% picrat, 4% nital, mixed 1 to 1

lOOOX

S:,,me specunen as shown in 392, but at 3q4 Sarne specmen as shown in 392 and 293,
v
but at " still higher magmcation. In
" higher magnifica, ion. The grainsorne Iocatons, the gran-ooundary carbide
1, .. C"TY 'arbide rejected from solid solution
cur '!? coolin; from rolling is now more clearly , (whte constituent) now shows as arcas rather
1,:, t <! r ,r:1 'l.iJPP.rns as white lines.
iban as rhn lincs. Matrix is pearhte.

-::93

Pi eral

389

lOOOX

51B60 hot rolled steel bar, rn-in. dam,


austenttzed at 1600 F (871 C) , alr cooled
(normalized) ; austenitlzed at 1500 F (816 C), water quenched. Untempered martenste, sorne retained austente (white), fine spheroidal carblde.

4% picral, 4% nltal, mixed 1 to 1

392

lOOX

Microstructure of a specimen taken from


bar section sbown in 391. Structure is
predomnantly pearlite (light and dark gray),
with thin films of carbde (black lnes) outlrung
prior austenite gran boundarles.

4% picral, 4% nital, mixed 1 to 1

395

100"

Same steel and processng as for 391 to


394, but a secton through the bar surface
(top). White areas of ferrite near the surfaee
show that sorne decarburtzatdon occurred during
rolling and cooling f'rom the rolling temperature.

Spheroidzed and Quenched-and-Tempered 52100 Steel

4% nital, 4% picral, mixed 1 to 1

397

500X

52100 steel rsee 396), austenitized at 1450


F (788 C) for 1.,fi hr, ol quenched, tempered at 350 F (177 C} for 1 hr. The black areas

4% nital, 4% picral,
52100 steel
1575 F (857
tempered at 500 F

399

mixed 1 to l

500X

(see 396), austenitized at


C) for i hr, oil quenched,
(260 C) for 1 hr. Structure
Is tempered martensite and undssolved carbide
particles. Ghost lines are less prominent, because
o! the hgher austenitizing and temperng temperatures (see mcrograph 398) .

1% mtal, 4% picral, mixed 1 to 1

402

lOOOX

Same specmen as used for 401, but shown


at a higher magncaton. Dark areas
are tempered martensite; retaned austente
angular, light-gray reas) is well resolved. A
.ew undssolved carbide partlcles reman from
the original structure (mcrograph 396) .

4% nitat, 4% picral, mixed 1 to 1

398

51

500X

52100 steel (see 396). auster.ittzed 1, hr


at 1550 F 843 C) and ol quenched, thor,
tempered same as 397. Tempered marrez,.,;e. and

are bante, the gray areas are tempered martenste, and the white dots are carbide partcles
that did not dissolve during austenitizing.

carbde partcles (white) undssolved during


austenittsng. Ghost lines are due to nhomogeneous distribution of carbon and chromlum.

4% nital, 4% picral, rnixed 1 to 1

4% nital, 4% picral, rnixed 1 to 1

400

500X

52100 steel (see 396), austenitized at


1550 F (843 C) for 1,i! hr, oil quencned,
tempered at 750 F (399 C) for 1 hr. Strncture

is tempered rnar.enste and a dispersin of carbide particles not dissolved during austentzng.
Ghost lines have nearly disappeared (compare
with mcrographs 398 and 399).

4% nital, 4% picrar, mixed l to 1

403

rooox

52100 steel rsee 396), austenitized at


1800 F (982 C) for 2 hr, oil quenched,
tempered st 350 F (l'n C) for 1 hr. Stru,;tu1e

consists e[ coarse places (needles) of ternpered


martensite and retained austenite (white). Carbide particles are almost wholly dssolved.

401

500X

5211;0 steel tsee 396), austentzed at


1700 ., (927 C) for J2 hr, oil quenched,
tempered at 350 F (177 C) ror 1 hr. Structure

is manly tempered martcnslte. High austentzng temperature resulted in sorne retained austenite (angular, white ai eas) and a re: carbde
partcles, (Compare with 398 to 400.)

4% nital, 4% picral. mix'd 1 to 1

404

500X

52100 steel (see 396), auscentzed at


15'75 F (857 C) for t hr, quenched In a
salt bath at 500 F (260 C), held ror is h,, ar

cooled to room temperature. Struc:ure e , h\;.


of spherodal carbde particles in lower b,,mt.e,
and sorne retained austente.

Heat Trcared Structures and Defects

in

5210G Steel

"105

, V. mta' 4% picr mixed 1 to 1


lODDX
521!>0 ste
(see 396. austenitized at
1750 F 19 ,4 C) for 2 hr, cooled slowly
to 1300 F <704 e oil quenched. Note dark-gray

406

needles of mart nsite, carbide rejectcd to gran


boundares (light gray), bainite (black), and
reta ned austenlte ,s1.1all, light areas).

quenched in oll to room iemperature. The dark


reas (etched) are a mixture or fine pearlite and
bante. The Ight reas (alrnost unetched) are
rntempered martenste.

electrn mlcrograph of a replica rotarv-snadowed wth chromium. Structure Is coarse, untempered martenslte. Note cracks 1n martenslte
platelets (upper left, upper rlght).

4' n1hl

4% nital

4% nital

408

SOOOX

5210C steel rod, austenitlzec at 1800 F


(982 e, fat 1 hr, quenched in a lead bath
ut 6 F (357 ci held for 2 hr, o r cooled. An
ele tron mcrograph of a eplica rotary-shadoweo with ch cnuum. struccure is bainite (probnbJ, upper bante) .

l%

4'

ita

lOOX

crack In a 52100 steel roller, aft r aus... cnt zng. water qu"r ung. and tcmper1 1'.,t crack, extending .rown frum the sur
,,e was cm ..ed by a searn in the bar stock.
.,.. , uctn:! s martenste. SPe also -412.

4% nital

SOOX

52100 steel rod that was austenltlzed at


1650 F (899 C) for 20 min and slack

10,000X

409

52100 steel wire, austenltlzed at 1650 F


(899 C) fer 30 sec, quenched in a lead
bath at 985 F (529 C). held for 30 sec, air cooled.

electrn micrograph of a replica rotaryshadowed with chromum. Structure is lamellar


pearltte and bainite.
An

1 % nital

412

750X

f.1me crack as 'n 4:1 hw at a hgher


,ilt.. gnrteatton.

Decarbu.ri..ation

(white

areas) along the sdes of the crack Is evldence

that the crack was there bffore heat treatn ,.nt


(surtace Is not decarburized) .

4% nital

407

52100 steel rod, austentzed at


(1127 C) ror 15 mn, oil quenched. An

41 O

10,000X

52100 steel rod that was austenltlzed at


2100 F (1149 C) for 3 mn, quenched In "
lead bath at 1070 F (577 C), held for 5 mm
air cooled ..An electron mcrograph of a replc;

statlc-shadowed with chromium. The structur,


is fine, lamellar pearlite.

1 % nitai

413

lC-

Hardened 52100 steel damaged by ai:


abrasve cutoff wheel. Dark reas an
martenste tempered by overheating. Light area
are untempered martenste, which had been ll
austernttzed by rrctonal heat.

Fr.ction Weld and Indusion in 5210( Sreel

4% picral, 0.05% HCI

:J.14

3X

Friction weld between two


0.6-in.-diam rods of 52100
-teel, See mcrograph 396 tor prior
scructure of rods. Weld zone (white)
? the eenter Is bounded by trane ton zones (black) .

;s polished (not etched)

lOOOX

l 18 Inelusion typical of those

found in 52100 steel. For


,,-,,rposition of such mclusons, see
results of mcroprobe analyses in
icrographs 419 to 425.

s pclished (not etched}

422

lOOOX

Result of rncroprobe sean


for oxygen in inclusion in
52100 steel. Note high eoncentration
':: core, and low concentration in

m and in surroundng s.eel.

4% picrat, 0.05% HCI

415

500X

Weld zone of frietion weld


in 52100 steel (central, white
area in macrograph 414). Structure is mainly untempered martenslte, wth sorne retained austenite
and residual carblde particles.

As polished (not etched)

419

lOOOX

Result of microprobe sean


for iron in inelusion in 52100
steel. Note un!form dstrbuton of
!ron 1n the surroundng steel, but
absence of !ron in the ineluslon.

As polished (not etched)

423

lOOOX

Result of mcroprobe sean


for calcum in inc!\J! 'cr, in
52100 steel. High concemraton or
Mn, S and ca in rlm (see 420, 421)
suggests a <M L,Ca) s compound .

4% picral, 0.05% HCI

416

53

500X

Transition zone of friction


weld in 52100 steel (see macrograph 414). Structme s bainlte
(blaek). untempered martenslte
(gray), and sorne spheroldal cementite from the prior structure,

As polished (not etched)

420

!OOOX

Result of microprobe sean


for manganese in ncluson
in 52100 steel. Note high concentraton in rm, but little at center or
in surrounding steel.

As poiished (not etched)

424

IOOOX

Result of mcroprobe se n
for alur-Inum '"l ncluson in
52100 steel. 'I'hre is a high cor-centration in the core, buz livcle in the
rim or ir. the surroundng steel.

4% picral, 0.05% HC,

417

SOOX

Outer part of transton


zone in friction weld (414).
Scattered carbide particles Irom
prior structure <whltE: fine martensite (medium-gray). and bamte
(dark-gray or black).

ooox
Result of mieroprobe set n
for sulfur in ncluson in
52100 ste el. :'lote high concentraton
in rirn. but little in eenter or in
surroundng steel.
As polished (not etched)

421

As polishcc (n.Jt etct,Pd1

425

lOOCX

Result of mcroprobe sean


tor chromurn in ncius 1 in
52100 :::t,e:. '.i'here is v-ry !,t'e i''
thc mcruson, bu; .tnifvnr. 1i->t"' . . . ...
ton in the SWTOUildlL1 stecl.

54

Heat Treated Srructures m 6150 and 9254 Sreels

2% n; .,;I

550X

"'5

6150 steel wire, austentzed at 1650 F


.'""
(1'99 C) for 20 min ar-, s iack quene: :?d
In ol to room temperature. Lower baute
.d"-rK1 and untempcred martenste <l!ght.).

1% "itzl

if

6}ir
+2
;.t :.>OO F' (149 C)

!rr.

5000X

atd\eJre
.tl.ll eleccron mcrograph of ..1
replica rotary-shadowed with o+rorr-um. The
tructure is temoered marten; :te and sorne re;idual spherc. lal carbide partcles.

J.,a.

';35X

steel ro+, '-in. dam, ,,ui;..ertized t1.t


i-32 1150
lt:'..'' ::-' (843 C) for 1 hr, quenched to
, O' I' ,316 .'), neld :6 mL1, ar cooled. S,11ctt1re
, 10. ';ly oa.i;ite (p.obably, ower baL'lt. \.

Picral

427

550X

4% nital

6150 steel, austenitized at 1620 F (882 C)


for 1, hr, cooled to 1350 F (732 C), held
5 hr, cooled to 1200 F (649 C) at 50 F (28 C) per
he .r, held 1 hr, ar cooled, Pearltte and ferrlte.

428

4% nitat
io.ooo x
steel wlre, astentzed at 1600 F
430 6150
(871 C) for 2 hr, quenched in lead to
1200 F (649 C), held for 2 hr, water quenched.

4% nital

An electrn mcrograph of a replica i.,tarf" iadowed wth chromlum. Structure is partly


spherodzed carbde in a ferrite matrix.

43;

lOOOX

.same sc..e, rod uame+cr, and :. .1.t ereatment as ror mcro jraph 432, but shown
at " higher m,.,g'1.ification. 'he heat treatrnent
,.sect if. commonly :..nown as auctemperme.

sor

6150 steel wre, austenitized at 1625 l


(885 C) for 20 mn, quenched to 1250 F
(677 C), held 20 mn, oil quenched to room tem

perature. Structure conssts malnly of pearllte.

10,000X

431

6150 steel wire, austentzed at 1600 F


(871 C) for 2 hr, quenched in lead vi
1325 F (718 C), held 2 hr, water queuched
An electrn mcrograph of a replica rotarvshadowed with chromum. Partly spherodzer'

and partly !amellar pearhte in ferrite.

'!% nital

434

1000)'

9254 steel, austenitized at 1600 F (871 CJ,


oil quenched, tempered at 850 F (4.l4 -::).

'l:J-,e nucror tructure -onssts ruanly of temre-.,'


martensit. a few ares,s are f :rrite.