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Microstructure of Carbon and Alloy Steels of H igh Carbon Content

By the ASM Committee on Metallography of High-c,,rbon steet:

CONTENTS

. Loi.y-Alloy Híg h -Ca rbon Steels

Plain High-Carbon Steels

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44

49

THE MICROGRAPHS presented in

this

types - as rolled, quenched and tem- pered, patented, decarburized - of plain carbon and alloy steels of hígh carbon

structural

section

show

varíous

content. They also show welded struc- tures and give a mícroprobe analysís of

an inclusion

(micrographs 418

of

are

to 425).

for

are

steels,

The

composít íons

micrographs

the

the

steels

presented

which

given in

table below. Tool

most of whích also have a hígh carbon

content, are dealt wlth in the section

on Tool Materials

com-

(see page 101).

are

most

Hígh-carbcn

steels

monly available as wire, bar, strip and plate. Commercial applications of these steels ínclude antifriction bearíngs, spríngs, sorne knives, and tillage tools. steel 52100 is used extensively for ball bearíngs, both balls and races. Most of the steels listed in the table below ha ve been used for spríngs - from small clock

springs to the Iarge sprín gs used in

railroad equipment. Steels 1090 and 1095 are used far tillage tools (hand and power), and for knives for lawn mowers and hay and grain-cutting machines.

Far

properties

of

the

hígh-carbon

steels, see Volume 1 of this Handbook, especially the artícles "Hardenable Car- bon Steels" (beginning on page 94) and

"Steel Springs" (beginning on page 160).

Carbon Steels. As the carbon content of steel increases, the mícrostructure becomes more complex and more diffi- cult to interpret. For instance, a whít e- etching constituent at grain boundaries

in a steel that has been rapidly cooled can be eíther ferrite or cementite. Hígh-carbon steels are seldom used

in the as-rolled, normalized or annealed

condition, although they are usually

purchased in

Treatments specified for varseus applí-

cations include quenchíng and temper-

patenting and cold

drawíng, and austempering. Patenting is a heat treatment where- in wire (and orten rod) is austenítízed, quenched in a molten bath (usually, molten Jead) at a subcrltlcal tempera- ture, and cooled in air. Small-diam- eter wire or rod can be austenitized and

one

of

these

conditions.

íng,

patenting,

then air cooled (air patenting). Patent- ing usually results in míxed structures

45 and 46). As-patented

wire and rod have sorne commercial

but patentíng is . usually

done before cold drawing and between

drawing operations. Many coil

are made of cold drawn patented wíre

with no further heat treatment. For subsequent processíng (for in-

hígh-carbon

stance,

steels, especíally those havíng more

than 0.70% carbon, the unresolved and

not

satísfactory. Spheroidal cementite in a matríx of ferrite is the desired struc-

ture (see the mícrographs on page 47).

Except in the thinnest sectíons, car- bon steeís requíre a water quench from

the

temperature to de-

velop a"fully martensítíc structure (see

(see pages 44,

applications,

springs

machining)

pearlite

of

lamellar

structures

are

austenítízíng

mícrographs 363

íng

conditíon

and 364). Oíl quench-

usually results in a slack-quenched

(see

mícrograph

362).

Compositions of High-Carbon Steels for Which Micrographs Are Presented in This Section

Steel

e

Carbon steeisra)

1055

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0.50-0.60

1060

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0.55-0.65

10B61 (b)

 

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0.56··0.66

1064

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0.60-0.70

1065

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0.60-0.70

1070

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0.65-0.75

1074

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,

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0.70-0.80

1078

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0.72-0.85

1080

0.75-0.88

1090

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0.85-0.9

0.90-1.03

1095

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.

Alloy steetsrc)

Mn

0.60-0.90

0.60-0 90

0.6'1-0.90

0.50-0.80

0.60-0.9G

0.60-0.90

0.50-0.80

0.30-0.60

0.60-0.90

0.60-0.90

0.30-0.50

5160

0.56-0.64 e, 0.75-1.00 Mn, 0.035 max P,

0.040

max S, 0.20-0.35 SI, 0.70-0.90 Cr

51B60

Same as 5160, out wíth 0.0005 min l

52100

0.98-1.10 e, 0.25-0.45 Mn, 0.025 max P,

0.025

max S, 0.20- 0.35 Si, 1.30- 1.60 Cr

6150

0.48-0.53

e, 0.70-0.90 Mn,

0.20-0.35

Si,

 

0.80-1.10 Cr, 0.15 min V(d)

9254

0.51-0.59 e, 0.60-0.80 Mn, 1.20-1.60 Si, 0.60-0.80 Cr ( d)

(a) Ali

carbón

steels

have a maximum phos-

phorus content o! 0.040% and a maxtmum sut-

rur cont ent of 0.050%. (b ) Contains i '. mínimum

boron. (e) oompostttons or two non-

standard alloy steels ar e grven with the micro-

graphs.

of 0.0005%

(d )

Also 0.04 max

P, 0.04

max S.

Austempering

can be applied to very

thin sectíons of plaín hígh-carbon steel,

but It is gen er s.lly better suited to th e

alloy

steels transform rnuch more slowly on

cooling

than do carbon steels. To develop a

fully

carbón alloy steel, oil quenching is usu-

ally suffi<.:iently rapid.

Pages 49 to 54 of this section show microstructures of 5160, 52100, 6150 and

four extensively used high -ca ::bon

hígh-carbon alloy steels,

Alloy

Steels,

The

from

the

martensitíc

9254,

hígh-carbon

austenitíc

struéture

conditíon

in

hígh-

alloy steels. Large quantitie1; of 5160 steel are used for coil springs for auto- mobiles. Very often tht: hot rolled prod-

uct is h ot coíled an d 1:h en h ea t t rea t ed.

by aust en itizin g a.t llOO

o:l quenching. After this treatment, the

st r u ct ur e is fu lly m a r t en si t 1c , wi t h n •) free carbide (n o!R micrograph 382). This structure will then be altered by tem- pering at about 800 F d ,27 C) for mc)st

spring

stru<.:ture, other than the dec:l.l'buriza-

tion, in micrograph 384).

Micr os t ru ct u r es of 5210 0 st e e1 n.r e presented on pages 50 to 53, beginning

ro ll c d

wi t h

product (391). Micrographs 396 through 405 show the efiects of various heat

in

tr

spherc!.dal

carbide in ferrite (396) is usually the

starting structure

further heat treating is to be performed.

machining or

The structures that res 1 1lt from various quenching and tempering procedures start with micrograph 397. A sk uctur<:l

of martensite with a disper-

sion of ñne carbide particles, which ii::

obtained by austenitizing; oíl qucnch- ing, and tempering at approxlmately

F

(8 71 C)

a n d

appiications (note the mie.ro-

a

m a c r o P,r a p h

of

i;b e

on

A

sph er oidal

structure

of

when

h o t

ca.r bide

eat men t s

52100

steel.

consisting

350

F

is common in ball bear-

ings and other wear-resistant products

o f s t.ru c -

tur" is showi: in micrograp!i 398).

m a d e of 5 2 10 0 s t e e l (t hf s t y p P.

( 177 C),

6150

is

Steel

wídely

used

for

coi!

springs, including aircraft-e .1gine valve springs. Tempered martensite obtained . by conventional quenchir.g and temper- ing is an acceptable (often a preferred) structure ior alloy sp,.ing steels.

*RooERT F. MEHL, Chairman, Professor Emeritus, Carnegie-Mellon UniYersity; GEORGB H. BAILE, Supervisor, MetalJurgy Scction, Engir:cer- ing and Research Center, SKF Industries, Inc.; RoBERT H. BlllGGS

(retired), formcrly Metallurgist, Suspension Div., E.tton ,<'orp.; H. B.

CHESS, Cbief Metallurgist, Torrington Co.; ERNEST .'\

Metallu rgist, Simc.n ds Sa w an d Ste el D i v ., W al ! ;'lc e-M u r : , Co : p .;

EVANC!C,

Chief

G EORGE

Lv, ain·

Cuyahoga W orb , Unitcd States Steel Cor¡-. En w A R. MA1"TBL, Resea··ch l abor at ór ics, Gencr I .!\fotorCor ;: :

F . K FITH, T e c h n k a l Sc r v i c e s M a n :ig e r , W e s t d o x D i v ., G 11e 1:: l

Time Corp.; J. M. KIEFER, Manager, V::'ire and Rod Met

ilury

D

Jt.'LIUS l 'URK, M, tal.Ju1¡,;ist, Paulo· ProJucts Cu.; HOWARD E. Bo YEr, Se.r et,1ry, Man ag in g Edit or , Met als Handbook

1o

Plcral

lOOOX

b y

a!.lstenltlzlng 2!1.3 mín at 1710 F (932 C),

(549

aír coolíng. Unresolved pearlite (dark) ; fer-

rite (whlte) at prior austeníte graín boundarles.

32 1055

'

quenchlng

s t ee í

35 see

r od ,

In

•.,-In.

d l a m , p a t e n t e d

1020 F

a lead bath at

C),

��

lX

frorn

··elo:ty

pearlíte, wlth sorne dlstlnctly lamellar pearlite;

the few scattered whlte ár eas are ferrlte partly

aír blast. Strucvure is mostly unresolved

in a single strand by a hígh-

335 1060

steel

rod, 1/¡-in. diam. cooled

hot rolling

outllnlng prior austeníte graíns,

f'jcrn•

338

l. l'·\t•

IOOOX

1060 steel wire, 0.099-in. díam, air patented

(1016 C) f or

by

nd

·inr.c1,1tizin g

au

at

1850

F

coc•l1!1g In strand form. St ructure:

(dark) , mostly unresolved, and fer-

prior

austenlte graín boundarles

,lt

,!,

:

pr.rl!te

somo t

1055 and

1060

Steels

Pieral

333

lOOOX

diam, alr patented

H mín at 1890 F (1032

1055 steel wíre, 0.132-in

austenit lzing

by

air coolíng

wlth dlscontinuous

austeníte grain

C),

and

In strand form. Fine lamel-

preclpltatlon of

boundaries.

lar

ferrlte at

pearlite

prior

Picral

336

lOOOX

1060 steel

rod,

by

at 1730 F (943 C) for 2%

1 'U;4- ln . díarn, patented

austenítízíng

(d a rk)

mín, quenching in a lead bath at 990 F (532 C)

for 55 sec, and alr coolíng.

of

austenlte grain boundarles.

The structure consísts

(wh ite)

e.t

pr ior

pear lite

an d rer r -te

Picral

339

100 X

to síze.

Decar burlzed 1060 steel, heated at 2200 F

h.r before

(1204

C)

for

1

rolling

Note thin Iayer of scale at the surface (top of

decarburízed layer (whlte, near

mícrograprn ,

top),

unresolved pearllte, and ferrlte.

ra l

334

rooox

1060 steel

frorn hot

red, 1 '!íH- in .

rolllng

austenlte

air cooled

coll. Dark

pearlite, with sorne dlst!nct

ár eas are ferrlte partly

diam,

In a 1000-lb

graín

areas are unresolved

prior

lamellar pearlite; whlte

outllning

boundaries.

Picral

lOOOX

1060 steel wlre, 0.281-ln. díam, that was

austenltlzlng at 1930 F

(1054 C)

form. The dark ár eas are partly resolved pearl-

for 3 mín, and aír coollng

the white ár eas are ferrite at prior austen-

In strand

337

alr patented by

íte;

íte grain boundaríes.

Picral

SOOX

340 Decar burized 1060 steel, heated at 1600 to

cooled

scale

partly

1700

in

F

(871

to

927

C )

(top

for

12

mín arul

air, Note

of micrograph),

(below scale), pearlite

decarburízéd

Iayer

(dark), and sorne graín-boundary ferrite.

10B61,

1064,

í.065,

1070

and

1074

Steels

45

1%

nital

15 00X

10B61 steel, austenitized in a salt bath

quenched in

a salt bath at 525 F (274

cooled. Small white areas are ferrite; massíve gray areas, martensite; dark áreas, lower bainite.

341

at 1450 F

(788 C) for 3 mín,

C),

held 36%

mín.ia ír

500X

h ea t t r ea t -

ment as for 343. Surface decarburization

Intentionally

produced to incr ease formablllt y. Rem ain in g structure is balnite and tempered martensite.

Plcral

344

1064 steel

top

of

s t rip

given same

was

<near

mícrograph)

nital

7 1070 hard drawn steel

lOOX

wire.

valve-spring

Lcngítudína; sectíon. Tensile strength of

.000 ps i <1689 MP a ) was o b t a in e d b y 80% r e - Ion. Prior structure was fine lamellar pearl- ; structure shown is deformed pearlite.

Picral

500X

345 1065

patented

by austenitizing at 1710 F (932 C) for 1 1

0.135-in.

steel wire,

diam,

mín, quenching in a lead bath at 1010 F (543 C)

for 2 min, aír coolíng. Structure: mostlv- unre-

solved pearlite; sorne

grain-boundary ferrite.

2%

nital

348 1070

and

stcel

valve-sprlng

wire,

F

t em p er e d a t 850 F (454 C).

martensite. wlth

tempered.

Austenítízed

at

1600

(8 71 C). oil qu en c L.ed ,

Structure is maínly tempered

sorne free ferrite

(whlte areas) .

soox

austenítízed

1064 cold

at

rolled

F

(816

steel

C),

strip,

F

isothermal trans-

(371

C). Mixture of bainite and tempered martensíte,

fonnation), air cooled,

(316 C) and held (to

1500

quenched

at

to

700 F

600

complete

tempered

2%

n,tal

500"

and

tempered. Austenitized, t 1600 F (871 CJ, o!l quenched, tempered 2 mín at 850 F (454 C).

rerrtte

at the surface

346 1065

steel

sprmg

wír>,

quenched

Structure:

mostly tempered martensitc;

(top)

Is due

to decarburlzation.

349 1074 cold rolled steel sheet, at•;;•eniiz at 1500 F ('11€ C) for 5 ;,, in . oil qncr cned.

o'.'.

un tem per ed marte nstte, T.it h sca t t er ed !'!?'le ri, r- tlcles of cementíte (ponrly resolved).

T h e

micr ost ruct u::e

consíst -

p: cdo:11''1a ntly

46

Picra!

ssox

air

from the rolllng temperature. Structure

conslsts predominantly of pearllte (note large amount of partly resolved lamellar pearlite) , wlth sorne graín-boundary ferr!te.

350

'

1078

hot

rolled steel

bar, cooled

in

- --

.,.

.

.

.

'

.

'

':"

'

:1

250X

about

sectíon

mlcrograph).

.

As polished (not etched)

353

thíck.

(thíckness

The black spots are

gray stríngers

shown

as

Inclus!ons in 1080 steel flat spríng,

0.008 in.

!ron

A

longitudinal

in

alumínide;

height

the thln

near center are sulñde,

'

Picral

'.:¡ !16

8000X

after

1090 steel

strip, cold reduced Rolling direction

80%

·.,-

.n thabcve replica electron

tnre fa tlformed lamellar pearlite.

·

hot rolllng.

vertical

micrograph. Struc-

is

10i 8, 1080 a.o.d

1090 Steels

Picral

2ooox

hot rolled steel bar, austenitized at

F (1049 C) for 1/1 hr and furn ace

cooled to room temperature at 50 F (27.7 C) per hour. Structure is mostly pearlite, with sorne

spheroídal cement!te

351

1080

1920

parttcles.

2000X

rolled steel bar, t- ín, d!am, as

cooled from the finish-rollíng tempera-

ture of 1600 to 1650 F (871 to 899 C). A,r eplica

electrón

tlrely of larnellar pearlite.

The structuie consists en-

Picral

354

1090 hot

mícrograph,

2%

nital

/

lOOX

mod st eel (0.3S'% Mn ) mu síc wír e,

cold drawn to 263,000-psi (1813-MPaJ ten-

sile strength by 75% reductlon. Deformed pearl-

358.

357

íte

1090

(prior

structure was fine pearllte) . See

Picral

355

mín,

for 70 sec, air coolíng. The structure is mostly

unresolved

lOOOX

(504 CJ

1090 steel rod, 0.343-ln. dlam, patented

at 1750 F (954 C) for 4%

by austenítízíng

quenchíng

in a lead

pearllte

with

bath at 940 F

bainlte.

2%

ni t al

is

SOOX

hlgher

dírec-

358

tlon

structure

Same as 357, but shown

magníñcatíon, As in 357, drawing

at

a

horizontal

was

In

above

mícrograph. Prior

patenting.

produced by lead

Picral

359

lOOOX

1095 steel bar, norm alízed by austenitiz-

íng at

1600 F

(871 C)

and cooling

in aír . (black) ,

Structure is partly unresolved pearlite

partly lamellar pearlite.

2% nital

500X

362 1095 steel wire, austenitized

(941

C),

and oíl

at

1725

F

areas

quenched. Dark

slack quenching.

are a mixture of fine pearlite and lower bainite;

light areas are untempered martenslte. Thls

structure resulted from

K n

X

Lower

(light) .

3 6 5 }g9J g:elfot ; · r���ii��dªfo1 m

held

balnite (darkl ;

C),

(329

5

min,

oll

quenched,

untempered martensite

Heat Treated Structures m 1095 Steel

Nit al

l OOOX

10 95 h ot r olled st eel ba r , 114-in . di a m ,

spheroidized by holding

for 15 hr, and aír coo!ing. Structure is spheroidal cementíte partlcles in a ferr!te matrix.

360

at 1250 F

(677 C)

Picral

363

lOOOX

1095 steel, austenitized at 1600 F (871 C) and air cooled (nonnalized), austenitized

Fine,

at

untem pered martensíte , caused

quench

1500

F

(816

C)

and

water

quenched.

by more -severe

(see 362) ;

sorne spheroidal cement íte.

47

lX

1095 cold rolled and annealed steel strtp,

spherold!zed by holding at 1340 F (727 C) f o r 3 0 hr . L a p se a m a t s u r r a c e w a s 110 1le d o v e r

��

361

in cold drawíng.

'

1000·)

as ror

Picral

364

Same

steel

and

heat

treatment

,149 C)

after

the quench. Structure is tempered martensíte

(darker, comparert with 363) and dal cementite parbícles.

363, but tempered at 300 F

sorne spheroi-

2%

nit al

55.J '>(

367

Same steel and

as for

austenítdzing treatment

ror

:

br

in

ta u s -

365 an d 366, b;,¡:; h eld

qu en ch

an

ternpered) . St ruct ure is

850 F

(454 C)

a n d a ír c0:>Je ,l

mainly

upper

bi,\rlite.

48

Heat Treated and Cold Worked Structures m 1095 Steel

4%

nltal

11,000X

368

450

F

1095 steel wire, %-In. dlam, austenitized 5 mín at 1525 F (829 C), quenched in oil

aír cooled, and tempered at

electrón micro-

and

at

350 F (177

graph,

balnlte, wlth sorne spheroidal

{232 C),

for

Replica

A mixture of tempered

C )

:.J hr.

martensite

cementite.

4Yo nit al

11,0 00 X

-::i7 1

""

,

Same steel

as for

and austenítízing treatment

in lea d a t 1250 F

quenched.

structure

370, bu t qu en ch ed

for

10

rnin,

and

mícrograpn,

(677

A replica

consísts ot larnellar pearlite.

C),

ne.d

oil

The

electrón

4%

nital

10.000X

369

hr,

1095 steel wíre, 1rl-in. diam, heat treated

austenitizing at 1550 F (843 C) , in Iead at 650 F (343 C), holding for

and air cooling to room temperature. A

showing -a st ruct ure

by

quenching

2

replica

that consists primarily of lower bainite.

elect ron

mícrograph,

Thin·foif

specimen

83,000X

372

1095

steel

wíre,

to

cold

drawn, with

98.5%

díam. A thin-foil

transmission electrón micrograph of a section transversa to the longitudinal axis of the wire. Structure: deformed pearlíte. See 373.

reductíon,

0.042-in.

4%

nital

5500X

370

2

1095 steel wlre, 'A-in. díam, h eat t reated

austenitizlng at 1625 F {885 C) for 11.l

in lead at 625 F (329 C), holding

electron

Structure consísts of lower balnite

by

mín,

hr, quenchlng

for

rnícrograph.

and oíl quenchíng.

ár eas)

Replica

Cmottled

and martensíte (clear areas).

Thin-foil

373

specimen

83,000X

Same as 372, but a longitudinal sectlon

of

the wire

(axis

Is horizontal) . Initial

then holding at 970 F

structure (also for 372) was fine pearlite - from

(521 C ) for

10

austenitizing,

sec. A tnín -t oü elect ron micrograph.

Ni:1

500X

Nital

· lOOOX

374 1095 die steel, induction hardened to a depth of 0.10 in. Micro- show transítíon-zone constituents from sorne fine rnartens-

to prior structure of spheroidal cementite in a

.3:5

. s " Í u

grapas

íte

,top or 374)

matríx of rerríte

aower portien

of 374). Microgra¿h 375 (right)

s a m e a r e a , b u t a t a m a gn í ñ c a t ío n o l OOOX .

Ni t a l

375

377

50 0 X

Ni t a l

I OOOX

as for mícrographs 374 and 375, but showlng an

Same specímen

area nearer t he surface of t he steel, where t he struct ure consísts

of fine martensíte

(black constituent) . Small white particles are spheroíds or cernent-

constituent) and fine unresolved pearlíte

(gray

ite remaining from the prior structure.

Structures m 0.55C-2.40Mn and

5160 Sreels

4S

4% picral with 0.05%

HCI

500X

381 5160 hot rolled coü-spríng steel, austenít-

(871 C)

is

(dark, needlelike constlt uent ) a.n d r eta lned

for 30 min an d oíl

ízed at

1600 F

uenched. Structure

untempered

martensíte

austenite (lig h t c ons t i t u e n t ) .

% nital

384

at

llOX

aus-

5160

tenítized

spring

at

steel,

1600

0.632-in.

F

a t

for

(871

140

C)

F

díam,

for

5 mín,

tem-

tem -

hot coiled, oil quen ch ed

pered

pered martensíte an d decarburization .

(60 C),

40 m ín , Note

800 F

(427 C)

2%

nital

U OX

379

1800 F

5160

cooled from ñnísh-rollíng temperature of

hot

rolled steel, 0.635-in.-diam, aír

Structure is unresolved pearlite

(982 C).

(dark constítuent) and ferrite (light constitueut).

4%

nit a l.

4%

pic ral.

mixed

1

to

1

l OOOX

382

Same

steel

and

heat

treatment

as

for

381,

but

at

a

higher

magníñcatíon.

The

untempered martensite

and

the

retained

(dark gray constituent)

(light

constítnenc)

austeníte

are now more clearly resolved.

1'

,,

.

2%

nital

275 X

Same steel and treatment as for 384, but

Surface decar-

burization

occurred in the bar mili. while the steel was ¡:¡+

a temperature of about 2100 F (1149 C).

385

at a

hígher

(white

.nr.gntñcatíon.

area

near top of micrograph)

.,,.:

2%

nital

550X

380

.

Same

tion.

as 379, but

The

pearl!te

at a nígher m

is

still

gníñca-

unresolved,

Whíte ár eas ere ferrite. HarJness is Rockwell e 32, and ASTM austenític graín size is 6 to 8

4%

nit : ,,

4%

pic r al ,

mix ed

1

te

1

l OOOX

383

Same steel as

400 F (204 C) for 1 hr after

!or 381, but tempered at

austenínzíng

and quenchíng. Structure Is predomíncntly tem-

pered

but there are small

martensíte

(dark),

cwhíte) ,

partícles of ferrlte

,,,

4%

nit a l, 4%

pic r a l,

mi xed

l

t o

1

l OOOX

386 5160 hot rolled steel. austPr.:: i2HI at 1500 F

C)

percd

consísts predominantly of

18':l

at

fo,

30 mm,

fo.·

queneh ed,

c,J

1

hr. 'I'he

· tr- .,

tero-

t. ·t.

1000 F

(538 e

terr.pered m vrrenstt-

(dark) wlth sorne ferrite twhíte) .

50

1.2% C Low-Alloy Steel, and

51B60 and

52100 Steels

fu

X

387 Hot rolled: ::. C, 0.5 Cr, 0.9 Mo, 0.2 V steel ar, austenitlzed at 1700 F (927 C) for

:.o ruin , an d 011 quen ch ed . S t r u ct u r e cons ists of

un· mpered

stuuent)

martensíte

(dark,

needlelike

(white

con-

areasr.

and retained austeníte

Picral

388

llOOX

as

for

Pieral

(n

lOOOX

Same

387,

steel

at

and

heat

treatment

389 51B60 hot rolled steel bar, rn-in. díam,

austenít tzed at 1600 F (871 C) , alr cooled

ormalized) ; austenitlzed at 1500 F (816 C), wa-

tem- ter quenched. Untempered martensíte, sorne re- tained austeníte (white), fine spheroidal carblde.

but

a higher

magníñcatíon, The

(white con-

large amount of retained austenite

stttuent)

perature was too high for this steel.

índícates that

the austenítízíng

N;tal

lOOOX

rolled steel bar, 1 1 .\-in. díam,

a

F

(57'i C) for 15 hr. Structure consísts of sphe-

•Mdal carbide particles in a matrix of ferríte.

martensitrc

30

51B60 hot

austerunzed

and

quenched

,en

to obtain

to

1250

structure,

t

heated

,

picral,

4

nital,

mixed

1

to

1

500X

-::93

1,

S:,,me specunen as shown in 392, but at

grain-

C"TY 'arbide rejected from solid solution

"

higher

magnifica, ion.

The

cur ' !? coolin¡; from rolling is now more clearly ,

1, :,

t

< !

r , r:1 'l.iJPP.rn ·s a s w h i t e

li n e s .

HCl, water, mixed

1

to

1

Actual

size

391

range

cooling

52100 steel bar, 4 1 ;-in. diam. Cross sectíon

after bot of 2150 to

to room

rolling

1700 F

wíthín the

temperature

an d aír

(cluster of

(1177 to 927 C)

Plts

temperature.

in

center are

íncíusíons.

small dark spots)

4%

picrat, 4%

nital,

mixed

1

to

1

lOOOX

Sarne specímen as shown in 392 and 293,

In

sorne

(whíte constituent) now shows as arcas rather iban as rhín lincs. Matrix is pearhte.

carbide

3q4

v

but

at

"

still

the ·

higher

magmñcation.

Iocatíons,

graín-ooundary

4%

picral, 4%

nltal,

mixed

1

to

1

lOOX

Microstructure of a specimen taken from

bar section sbown in 391. Structure is predomínantly pearlite (light and dark gray), with thin films of carbíde (black línes) outlírung prior austenite graín boundarles.

392

4%

picral,

4%

nital,

mixed

1

to

1

100"

395

(t op).

Same steel and processíng as for 391 to

surface

Wh ite · ar eas

394, but a sectíon th rough th e bar

of

fer r it e n ea r

t h e surfaee

show that sorne decar burtzatdon occurred during rolling a nd coolin g f'rom t he rolling tem perature.

Spheroidízed

and Quenched-and-Tempered

52100

Steel

51

4% nital, 4%

picral,

mixed

1

to

l

500X

at

for íi hr, oil quenched,

tempered at 500 F (260 C) for 1 hr. Structure

Is

particles.

Ghost lines are less prominent, because

o! the hígher austenitizing and temperíng tem-

tempered martensite and undíssolved carbide

399

52100

1575

F

steel

(857

(see

C)

396),

398) .

austenitized

peratures (see mícr ogra ph

1% mtal, 4%

are

at

a

tempered

picral,

higher

mixed

1

to

1

lOOOX

402 Same specímen as used for 401, but shown

areas

magníñcatíon.

Dark

martensite;

ár eas)

retaín ed

is

well

austenít e

resolved.

A

from

angular, light-gray

.ew undíssolved carbide

the original structure (mícrograph 396) .

partlcles remaín

4%

nital, 4%

picral,

mixed

1

to

1

500X

397 52100 steel rsee 396), austenitized at 1450

quen ch ed, t e m -

pered at 350 F (177 C} for 1 hr. The black areas

are baíníte, the gray areas are tempered mar-

tensíte, and the white dots are carbide partícles

that did not dissolve during austenitizing.

F

(788

C )

for

1.,fi

hr ,

oíl

4%

nital, 4%

picral, rnixed

1

to

1

500X

at

1 ,i! hr, oil quencned,

tempered at 750 F (399 C) for 1 hr. Strncture

of car-

austenítízíng.

(compare

bide particles not dissolved Ghost lines have nearly

400

52100

1550

F

steel

(843

(see

C)

396),

for

austenitized

dispersión

is tempered rnarí.ensít e an d a

during

disappeared

with mícrographs 398 and 399).

4%

nital, 4%

picrar, mixed

l

to

1

rooox

403 52100 steel rsee 396), austenitized at

1800

F

(982

C)

(l 'n

for 2 hr, oil

C)

for

(needles)

of

quenched,

tempered st 350 F

consists e[ coarse places

martensite and retained austenite

1 hr. Stru,;tu1e

ternpered

Car-

(white).

díssolved.

bide particles are almost wholly

4%

nitat,

4%

picral,

Ghost

mixed

(see

843 C)

1

to

396).

1

auster.ittzed

500X

1,

hr

thor,

and

during

398

carbíde

52100 steel

at

1550 F

partícles

and oíl quenched,

undíssolved

are

tempered same as 397. Temper ed marrez,.,;e.

(white)

lines

geneous distribution of carbon and chromlum.

austenittsíng.

due to ínhomo-

4%

nital, 4%

picral,

rnixed

1

to

1

500X

at

for J2 hr, oil quenched,

ror 1 hr. Structure

is maínly tempered martcnslte. High ín g temperature resulted

tenite (angular, white aieas) and a re: carbíde partícles, (Compare with 398 to 400.)

tempered at 350 F

401

5211;0

1700

¡.,

st eel

(927

ts ee

C)

(177

396),

C)

austen ít ízed

austenítíz-

in sorne retained aus-

4%

nital, 4%

picr al.

steel

F

mix'°d

1

(see

C)

for

(260 C),

1

to

500X

at

a

h,·, aír

In

404 52100

15'75

F

salt bath at

to

396),

thr,

auscenítízed

quenched

(857

500

held ror is

cooled

of sph er oídal carbíde

and sorne retained austen íte.

room temperature. Struc:ure e· , •h \; .

particles in lower b¡,,m t.e,

Heat Trcared Structures and Defects in

5210G Steel

,

V.

mt a '

4 %

"105

521!>0

1750

to

needles

1300 F

F

boundaríes

pic r •

st e

m ix e d

(see

C)

1

gray),

t o

1

l ODDX

to graín

and

at

cooled slowly

oil quenched. Note dark-gray

396• .

for

2

aust en itized

hr,

carbide

rejectcd

bainite

19 ,4

<704 e

of

mart ·nsite,

(light

(black),

reta ned austenlte ,s1.1all, light areas).

4%

nital

SOOX

406 52100 steel rod that was austenltlzed at

slack

quenched

are a mixture or fine pearlite and

in oll to room iemperature. The dark

1650

F

(899

C)

ár eas

for

20

min

and

ár eas (etched)

baíníte. The Iíght

(alrnost unetched)

are

rntempered martensíte.

4%

nital

407

52100

(1127

steel

C)

rod, austenítízed

ror

15

mín, oil

at

quenched.

An

electrón mlcrograph of a replica rotarv-snad- owed wít h chromium. Structure Is coarse, un- tempered martenslte. Note cracks 1n martenslte platelets (upper left, upper rlght).

4º'• n1h l

SOOOX

408

ut

5210C steel rod, austenitlzec at 1800 F (982 e, fat 1 hr, quenched in a lead bath

cooled. An

ele tron

oweo with ch cnuum. struccure is bainite (prob- nbJ,· upper baíníte) .

F

(357 ci

held

for

hr,

2

·eplica

o ír

mícrograph

of a

rotary-shad-

l %

4'

,,e

.,

ita

lOOX

aus-

crack

cnít

1'.,t

In

ízíng.

ed

52100 steel roller, aft r

a

water

qu"r ung. and

.rown

in

fr um

tcmper-

the sur

crack, extending

by

was cm

a searn

the bar stock.

-412.

, uct n:! ís ma r t ensíte . SPe also

4%

nital

10,000X

409 52100

(899

An

electrón

C)

steel

fer

wire,

30

austenltlzed at

sec,

quenched

in

of

a

replica

1650

a

F

lead

bath at 985 F (529 C). held for 30 sec, air cooled.

rotary-

shadowed with chromíum. Structure is lamellar

pearltte and bainite.

micrograph

1 %

nital

750X

412

areas)

f .1m e cra ck as 'n

, ilt

gnírteatton.

along

4:

1•

hw

at

at

ion

a

hígher

(whit e

the sídes of the crack Is evldence

that the cra ck was there bffore heat treatn ,.nt

(surtace Is not decarburized) .

Decarbu.ri

4%

nital

10,000X

41O

52100 steel rod that was austenltlzed at

2100 F (1149 C) for 3 mín, quenched In "

lea d ba t h a t 10 70 F ( 5 77 C ), h eld for 5 mm

air cooled

statlc-shadowed with chromium. The struct ur,

is fine, lamellar pearlite.

An electron mícrograph of a replíc;

1 %

nit ai

l C-

413

Hardened

abrasíve

52100

cutoff

steel

wheel.

damaged

Dark

by

ár eas

ai:

an

martensíte

tempered by overheating.

by

Light

area

are untempered

austernttzed

martensíte, which had been ll· rríctíonal heat.

4%

picral, 0.05%

HCI

3X

two

52100

prior

scructure of rods. Weld zone (white) ?• the eenter Is bounded by tran- e tíon zones (black) .

weld

:J.14

Friction

between

rods

of

396 tor

0.6-in.-diam

-teel, See mícrograph

;s polished (not etched)

lOOOX

l

18

Inelusion

found

in

typical

52100

of

steel.

those

For

,,-,,r¡position

results

of

of such mclusíons, see

mícroprobe

analyses

in

iícrographs 419 to 425.

•s pclished (not etched}

lOOOX

422

52100

sean

in

steel. Note high eoncen tration

in

':: core, and low concentration in

Result

for

of

rnícroprobe

oxygen

inclusion

m and in surroundíng s.eel.

Fr.ction Weld and

Ind usion in 5210(• Sreel

4%

picrat, 0.05%

HCI

500X

Weld zone of frietion weld

in 52100 steel (central, white area in macrograph 414). Struc- ture is mainly untempered martens- lte, wít h sorne retained austenite

and residual carblde particles.

415

As polished (not etched)

lOOOX

419 Result of microprobe sean

for iron in inelusion in 52100

steel. Note un!form dístríbut íon of

!ron

absence of !ron in the ineluslon.

1n

the surroundín g

steel, but

As polished (not etched)

lOOOX

423

52100

Result

for

of

mícroprobe

in

calcíum

High

in c!\J! 'cr,

sean

in

or

steel.

concem ratíon

Mn, S and ca

in rlm

(see 420, 421)

suggests

a

<M L,Ca) s

compound.

4%

picral, 0.05%

HCI

500X

416 Transition zone of friction

weld in 52100 steel (see ma- crograph 414). Structme ís bainlte (blaek). untempered martenslte

ce-

mentite from the prior

(gray), and

sorne

spheroldal

structure,

As polished (not etched)

!OOOX

420

Result

for

of microprobe sean

in

ínclusíon

manganese

in 52100 steel. Note

tíon in rím, but little at center or

in surrounding steel.

high concentra-

As poiished (not etched)

IOOOX

424

Result

of

mícroprobe

se· n

for alur-Inum '"l ínclusíon in

52100 steel. 'I'hre is a high tration in the core, buz livcle in the

cor-cen-

rim or ir. the surroundíng steel.

53

4%

picral,

0.05%

HC,

SOOX

417 Outer part of transítíon

zone in friction weld (414).