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Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

generation system

type : hybride isol

But: optimisation du dimensionmt pour alimentation residentiel

Methd: technique itrative

a

b

Centre de Dveloppement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62 16340 Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria

Ecole Nationale Suprieure Polytechnique dEl Harrach, Algiers, Algeria

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 20 April 2010

Received in revised form

15 November 2010

Accepted 17 November 2010

Available online 23 December 2010

To allow a real penetration of the huge dispersed naturally renewable resources (wind, sun, etc.)

intermittent and more or less easily predictable, optimal sizing of hybrid renewable power generation

systems prove to be essential. This paper recommends an optimal sizing model based on iterative

technique, to optimize the capacity sizes of different components of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power

generation system using a battery bank. The recommended model takes into account the submodels of

the hybrid system, the Deciency of Power Supply Probability (DPSP) and the Levelised Unit Electricity

Cost (LUEC). The ow chart of the hybrid optimal sizing model is also illustrated. With this incorporated

model, the sizing optimization of grid-independent hybrid PV/wind power generation system can be

accomplished technically and economically according to the system reliability requirements. A case study

is conducted to analyze one hybrid project, which is designed to supply residential household located in

the area of the CDER (Center for Renewable Energy Development) situated in Bouzarah, Algeria (36

0

0

48 N, 3 1 E, 345 m).

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Hybrid PV/wind system

Unit sizing

Optimization

Economic evaluation

1. Introduction

Energy consumption in the last century has considerably

increased due to massive industrialization. The forecast of energy

needs for years to come only conrm this trend, especially given

demographic trends and development in some world regions,

particularly in Asia. On the one hand, the elds of traditional energy

resources of fossil origin can be exploited for several decades,

which suggests a situation of energy shortage globally which will

be imminent. On the other hand, nuclear waste poses further

problems in terms of pollution of radioactive waste, decommissioning of old plants and industrial hazard. To meet the energy

needs of todays society, it is necessary to nd solutions and to

diversify them.

Alternative energy resources such as solar and wind have

attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. However,

common drawback with solar and wind energy is their unpredictable

nature and dependence on weather and climatic changes. Standalone photovoltaic (PV) or wind energy systems do not produce

usable energy for considerable portion of time during the year.

In order to efciently and economically utilize the renewable

energy resources, one optimum match design sizing method is

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 213 21 90 15 03; fax: 213 21 90 15.

E-mail address: h.kaabeche@hotmail.com (A. Kaabeche).

0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.11.024

lowest investment with adequate and full use of the solar system,

wind system and battery bank, so that the hybrid system can work

at optimum conditions in terms of investment and system power

reliability requirement.

Different optimization techniques for hybrid PV/wind systems

sizing have been reported in the literature such as dynamic programming, graphical construction technique, probabilistic approach, articial intelligence methods, multi-objective design, linear

programming and iterative technique [1].

Thus, Musgrove [2] presented a dynamic programming model,

RAPSODY, which is designed to determine optimal operating strategies for a hybrid wind power system incorporating battery storage

and an auxiliary diesel generator. The model takes capital, operating

and maintenance, and fuel costs into account to calculate the

average daily cost of satisfying an electrical load prole. The developed model is provided with an efcient optimizing routine which

allows the user to obtain optimal component sizes for a particular

load prole and wind or solar resource. A graphical construction

technique to follow the optimum combination of PV array and

battery for a hybrid solarewind system has been presented by

Borowy and Salameh [3]. For a given load and a desired LPSP, the

number of batteries and PV modules were calculated based on the

minimum cost of the system. The minimum cost will be at the point

of tangency of the curve that represents the relationship between

optimum sizing of the battery bank and the PV array can be achieved. Another graphical technique has been given by Bin et al. [4],

Kaabeche et al. [5] and Markvart [6], to optimally design a hybrid

solarewind power generation system. However, in both graphical

methods, only two parameters (either PV and battery, or PV and

wind turbine) were included in the optimization process.

Tina et al. [7] presented a probabilistic approach based on the

convolution technique [8] to incorporate the uctuating nature of

the resources and the load, thus eliminating the need for time-series

data, to assess the long-term performance of a hybrid solarewind

system for both stand-alone and grid-connected applications.

Disadvantage of this probabilistic approach is that it cannot represent the dynamic changing performance of the hybrid system.

A methodology for optimum design of a hybrid PV/wind system

has been proposed by Koutroulis et al. [9]. The purpose of the

proposed methodology is to suggest, among a list of commercially

available system devices, the optimum number and type of units

ensuring that the 20-year round total system cost is minimized by

Genetic Algorithms subject to the constraint that the load energy

requirements are completely covered, resulting in zero load rejection. Yang et al. [10] proposed one optimum sizing method based

on Genetic Algorithms by using the Typical Meteorological Year

data. This optimization model is proposed to calculate the system

optimum conguration which can achieve the desired LPSP with

minimum Annualized Cost of System. Another Heuristic technique

based on the evolutionary algorithms have been performed by

Ekren et al. [11] for optimizing size of a PV/wind integrated hybrid

energy system with battery storage. The proposed methodology

uses a stochastic gradient search for the global optimization. In the

study, the objective function is the minimization of the hybrid

energy system total cost.

Bernal-Agustn et al. [12] present a multi-objective optimization

(NPC versus CO2 emissions) for a hybrid solar/wind/diesel system

with battery storage based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). A triple multi-objective optimization to minimize

simultaneously the total cost throughout the useful life of the

installation, pollutant emissions (CO2) and unmet load has been

presented by Dufo-Lpez and Bernal-Agustn [13]. For this task,

a MOEAs and a Genetic Algorithm have been used in order to nd

the best combination of components and control strategies for the

hybrid system. According to the methods proposed by Chedid and

Rahman [14] and Yokoyama et al. [15] the optimal sizes of the PV

and wind power sources and the batteries are determined by

minimizing the system total cost function using linear programming techniques. The total system cost consists of both the initial

cost and yearly operation and maintenance costs.

Yang et al. [16,17] have proposed an iterative optimization

technique following the loss of power supply probability (LPSP)

model for a hybrid solarewind system. The number selection of the

PV module, wind turbine and battery ensures the load demand

according to the power reliability requirement, and the system cost

is minimized. Similarly, an iterative optimization method was

presented by Kellogg et al. [18] to select the wind turbine size and

PV module number needed to make the difference of generated and

demanded power (DP) as close to zero as possible over a period of

time. From this iterative procedure, several possible combinations

of PV/wind generation capacities were obtained. The total annual

cost for each conguration is then calculated and the combination

with the lowest cost is selected to represent the optimal mixture.

Another iterative optimization technique for a stand-alone

hybrid photovoltaic/wind system (HPWS) with battery storage is

presented by Diaf et al. [19]. The main objective of the presented

study is to nd the optimum size of system, able to fulll the energy

requirements of a given load distribution, for three sites located at

1215

the system size. In the proposed stand-alone system, the supply of

wind power via an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is used and

therefore the energy produced by the wind generator can be sent

directly to the load.

In this paper, a grid-independent hybrid PV/wind system optimization model, which utilizes the iterative optimization technique

to follow the Deciency of Power Supply Probability (DPSP) model

and the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) model for power

reliability and system cost respectively, is presented. At the difference of the system conguration used by Diaf et al. [19] in which

the wind generator is taken as the primary source of energy and the

PV generator as the secondary source of energy. This conguration

is good especially for high wind potential regions. The conguration adopted in this study corresponds to the hybrid PV/wind

system in which both wind and PV generators present the primary

source of energy thereby represent the best complementarity

between the two renewable energy sources photovoltaic and wind

and leads to an energy management strategy different from that

presented in [19]. Also, the algorithm developed in this study does

not allow the unballasting of the production in the event of surplus

energy: power produced from natural sources intermittent (wind,

sun) greater than the amount of power consumed and the

maximum acceptable power storage device. Moreover, this algorithm permits the calculation of the excess energy. So, the surplus

energy produced could be used in the production of hydrogen from

an electrolyzer for Long-term energy storage, helping to improve

the total efciency of the hybrid system. Using the DPSP objective

function, the congurations of a hybrid system which can meet the

system reliability requirements can be obtained. There are three

sizing parameters in the simulation, i.e. the capacity of PV system,

the rated power of wind system and the capacity of the battery

bank. The optimum conguration can be identied from the set of

the above obtained congurations by reaching the lowest Levelised

Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). couter Lire phontiquement.

A schematic diagram of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system is

shown in Fig. 1. Battery chargers, connected to a common DC bus,

are used to charge the battery bank from the respective PV and

wind input power sources. Depending on the battery charger

technology, the maximum available power can be extracted from

the PV and wind power sources (Maximum Power Point Tracking,

MPPT). The battery bank is used to store the energy surplus and to

supply the load in case of low wind speed and/or irradiation

1216

voltage to the consumer load AC requirements. The energy

produced from each PV or wind source is transferred to the

consumer load through the battery charger and the DC/AC inverter,

while the energy surplus is used to charge the battery bank.

3. Hybrid PV/wind system model

3.1. PV generator model

The hourly output power of the PV generator with an area Apv

(m2) at a solar radiation on tilted plane module Gt (W/m2), is given

by [20]:

(1)

[21,22]:

hpv hr hpc

h

i

1 b Tc Tcref

(2)

conditioning efciency which is equal to 1 if a perfect maximum

power tracker (MPPT) is used. b is the generator efciency

temperature coefcient, it is assumed to be a constant and for

silicon cells the range of b is 0.004e0.006 per ( C), Tcref is the

reference cell temperature ( C) and Tc is the cell temperature ( C)

and can be calculated as follows [23]:

Tc Ta NOCT 20=800Gt

(3)

( C)

and NOCT is the nominal

cell operating temperature ( C). hpc b, NOCT and Apv, are parameters

that depend upon the type of module used. The data are obtained

from the PV module manufacturers.

Battery bank storage is sized to meet the load demand during

non-availability period of renewable energy source, commonly

referred to as days of autonomy. Normally the number of days of

autonomy is taken to be 2 or 3 days. Battery sizing depends on

factors such as maximum depth of discharge, temperature correction, rated battery capacity and battery life. The total capacity of the

battery bank that is to be employed to meet the load is determined

using the following expression [28]:

CB

EL SD

VB DODmax Tcf hB

(6)

days; VB is the battery bank voltage; DODmax is the maximum

battery depth of discharge; Tcf is the temperature correction factor

and hB is the battery efciency.

Depending on the PV and wind energy production and the load

power requirements, the state of charge of battery can be calculated

from the following equations:

Battery charging,

(7)

Battery discharging,

(8)

Where SOC(t) and SOC(t-1) are the states of charge of battery bank

(Wh) at the time t and t e 1, respectively; s is hourly self-discharge

rate; EGen(t) is the total energy generated by PV array and wind

generators after energy loss of controller; EL(t) is load demand at

the time t; hinv and hB are the efciency of inverter and charge

efciency of battery bank, respectively. At any time t, the charged

quantity of the battery bank is subject to the following two

constraints:

power output characteristic of the chosen wind turbine are the

factors that have to be considered to determine the wind energy

conversion system power output. Choosing a suitable model is very

important for wind turbine power output simulations. The most

simplied model to simulate the power output of a wind turbine

can be described by [24]:

value of nominal capacity of battery bank CB, and the minimum

charge quantity of battery bank SOCmin, is determined by the

maximum depth of discharge (DOD): SOCmin (1 e DOD)$CB.

According to the specications from the manufacturers, the batterys lifetime can be prolonged to the maximum if DOD takes the

value of 30e50%. In this paper, the DOD takes the value of 50%.

.

i

8 h

< PR V2 VC2

VR2 VC2 ;

Pw V

: PR ;

0;

VC V VR

VR V VF

Otherwise

(4)

VR is the rated wind speed; and VF is the cut-off wind speed. In this

study, the adjustment of the wind prole for height is taken into

account by using the power law that has been recognized as

a useful tool to model the vertical prole of wind speed. The

equation can be described by [25,26]:

VH

V Href

H

Href

(9)

!f

the hybrid PV/wind energy system (HPWES) such as energy to load

ratio, battery to load ratio, and non-availability of energy [28]. In

order to select an optimal combination of a HPWES to satisfy the

load demand, evaluation may be carried on the basis of reliability

and economy of power supply. The proposed methodology for

evaluation of HPWES is described in the next section.

4.1. Reliability criteria based on DPSP technique

(5)

Where V(H) is the wind speed at hub height H, m/s; V(Href) is the

wind speed measured at the reference height Href , m/s; a is the

power law exponent. The determination of a becomes very

important. The value of 1/7 is usually taken when there is no

specic site data [26,27].

deciency of power supply probability (DPSP) which is the probability that an insufcient power supply results when the hybrid

system (PV array, wind power and energy storage) is unable to

satisfy the load demand. The DPSP technique is considered to be the

technical implemented criteria for sizing and evaluating a hybrid

PV/wind system employing a battery bank. The technical model for

1217

1218

methodology used can be summarized in the following steps:

(a) If the power generated from the PV/wind system is greater

than the load for a particular hour. In this case, the energy surplus is

stored in the battery bank and the new state of charge is calculated

using Eq. (7) until the full capacity is obtained; the remainder of the

available energy is not used.

(b) When the energy demand of the load is greater than the

available energy generated by the PV/wind system, the battery

bank will be used to assure the load demand. In this case, the new

state of charge at hour t is calculated using Eq. (8).

In case (a) when the state of charge of the battery bank reaches

a maximum value, SOCmax, the control system stops the charging

process. The excess power generated (EPG) is an important

parameter, which gives the excess in power generated and unutilized by the system. This value can vary due to the variation of

hourly average demand, insolation, wind velocity and state of

charge of the battery bank. At hour t, the excess power generated

(EPG) can be expressed as follows:

(10)

The relative excess power generated (REPG), expressed as the

ratio of power excess to the sum of load demand during the

considered period is calculated by the following equation:

REPG

T

X

EPGt=

t1

T

X

EL t

(11)

t1

its minimum level, SOCmin, the control system disconnects the load

and that decit called deciency power supply (DPS) at hour t, can

be expressed as:

(12)

a considered period T (1 year in this study), can be dened as the

ratio of all the (DPS(t)) values for that period to the sum of the load

demand. This can be dened as [29]:

DPSP

T

X

DPSt=

t1

T

X

EL t

(13)

t1

A DPSP of 1 means that the load will never be satised and the

DPSP of 0 means that the load will be always satised. From the

above-described situations, a program is developed in MATLAB to size

the components for each conguration, for a particular DPSP specied

by the user. The ow chart of HPWES model is illustrated in Fig. 2.

In this program, Ppv,min, Ppv,max and Pw,min, Pw,max represent the

lower and higher limits of the variation interval of the PV and wind

generator rated power, respectively. DPPV and DPW represent the

variation step of the PV and wind power, Dt the simulation step and

DSD is the step of storage days. In this study the maximum number

of storage days, NSD 5.

Table 1

The costs and lifetime aspect for the system components.

Component

rate f (%)

(US$/W) in the rst year % (year)

rate kd (%)

PV arraya

Wind turbinea

Battery banka

Invertera

4.84

3.000

0.207

0.715

1%

3%

1%

0%

of

of

of

of

price

price

price

price

25

20

4

10

Table 2

Specications of the PV module.

Type

Voc (V)

Isc (A)

Vmax (V)

Imax (A)

Pmax (W)

Arco-Solar

21.7

2.7

17.3

2.49

43

on a tilted plane, hourly mean values of ambient temperature and

wind speed, desired DPSP, load power requirements during the

year and specications of the system devices. Using the developed

program, a set of system congurations, which satisfy the system

power reliability requirements, can be obtained. The optimal one is

subsequently predicted on the basis of the minimum LUEC.

4.2. Economic criteria based on LUEC concept

It is pertinent that economic analysis should be made while

attempting to optimize the size of integrated hybrid PV/wind

generation systems favouring an affordable unit price of power

produced. The economical approach, according to the concept of

Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC), is developed to be the best

indicator of economic protability of system cost analysis in this

study. The LUEC is dened as the total cost of the whole hybrid

system divided by the energy supplied from the hybrid system.

Four main parts are considered: PV array, wind turbine, battery

bank, and the inverter. Then, the LUEC can be expressed by:

LCC CRF

LUEC$=kWh P8760

t 1 EGen t

(14)

Where LCC is the life cycle cost of the hybrid system; EGen is the

hourly total energy generated by both the wind and PV system; CRF

is the capital recovery factor, a ratio to calculate the present value of

an annuity (a series of equal annual cash ows). The equation for

the capital recovery factor is:

k 1 kd Lp

CRF kd ; Lp d

1 kd Lp 1

(15)

system life period in years (25 years) [30]. The annual real interest

rate kd is related to the nominal interest rate k0d (the rate at which

you could get a loan) and the annual ination rate f by the equation

given below.

kd

k0d f

1f

(16)

According to the studied system, the life cycle cost (LCC) takes

into account the capital cost (Ccap), the present value of replacement cost (Crep) and the present value of maintenance cost (Cmain).

4.2.1. The initial capital cost

The initial capital cost of each system component consists of the

component price, the cost of civil work, installation and the

connections. In this study, the civil work and installation costs are

taken as 40% of PV generator price for PV part and 20% of wind

Table 3

Specications of the wind turbine.

4

Type

Rated

power

(W)

Cut-in

speed

VC (m/s)

Rated

speed

VR (m/s)

Cut-off

speed

VF (m/s)

Tower

high (m)

AIR 403

400

12

25

10

Table 4

Specications of the single battery.

Type

Nominal

capacity (Ah)

Voltage (V)

Round-trip

efciency

DOD (%)

Varta Solar

100

12

0.85

50

(17)

Where (CPV, Cunit,PV) are the total capacity (W) and unit cost

($/W) of PV array respectively; (CW, Cunit,W)are the total capacity

(W) and unit cost ($/W) of the wind machine respectively; (CB,

Cunit,B) are the total capacity (Wh) and unit cost ($/Wh) of the

battery bank respectively; and (CINV, Cunit,INV)are the nominal

capacity (W) and unit cost ($/W) of the inverter respectively; and C0

is the total constant cost including the cost of civil work and

installation.

4.2.2. The present value of replacement cost

The present value of replacement cost of a system component is

the present value of all the replacement costs occurring throughout

the system lifetime. As the life period of wind generator, battery

banc and inverter are shorter than PV system; the replacement cost

of the wind generator, the batteries and the inverter have to be

included in the cost analysis of the hybrid system. Considering the

ination rate of component replacements f0 and real interest rate

(kd), the present value of replacement cost (Crep) can be determined

as follows [31]:

Nrep

X

1 f0 Ni =Nrep 1

i1

1

1f1

1kd

L p

;

CO&M0 Lp ;

for kd sf1

for kd f1

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000 8760

6000

7000

8000 8760

6000

7000

8000 8760

Time (hours)

14

12

10

(18)

1 kd

component (wind generator in (W); battery bank in (Wh) and

inverter in (W)); Cunit is the unit component cost (wind generator

($/W); battery bank ($/Wh) and inverter ($/W)) and Nrep is the

number of component replacements over the system life period.

In its general form, the present value of operation and maintenance cost of the hybrid system CO&M,Hyb is expressed as [32]:

0

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Time (hours)

c

350

45

40

300

250

1f1

kd f1

1000

interest rate and Lp is the system life period in years. CO&M is the

operation and maintenance cost in the rst year. It can be given as

a fraction "k" of the initial capital cost (CIC ).CO&M is expressed as:

CPV CUnit;PV CW CUnit;W CB CUnit;B

CINV CUnit;INV C0

CO&M0

(19)

generator price for wind part. Then the initial capital cost for the

hybrid system, (CIC) is given by:

CIC

CO&M;Hyb

1219

200

150

100

35

30

25

20

15

10

50

5

0

0

2

10

12

14

16

Time (hours)

Fig. 3. Hourly load prole.

18

20

22

24

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Time (hours)

Fig. 4. Meteorological conditions for optimal design. (a) solar irradiation on horizontal

plane, (b) wind speed and (c) ambient temperature.

1220

45

70

DPSP=1 %

DPSP=3 %

DPSP=5 %

35

1 day storage

50

60

DPSP=1 %

DPSP=3 %

DPSP=5 %

40

40

30

20

5 days storage

30

25

20

15

10

10

0

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

0

400

4000

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

Fig. 5. System congurations for different DPSP for 1 day of autonomy of the battery

bank.

Fig. 7. System congurations for different DPSP for 5 days of autonomy of the battery

bank.

CO&M0 k CIC

research is that represented on Fig. 3. This hourly energy distribution is considered identical for every day of the year and corresponds

to the load prole generally encountered in remote areas in Algeria.

Hourly data of solar irradiation on the horizontal plane, wind

speed as well as ambient temperature, plotted in Fig. 4 during the

year 2003, were recorded using a properly data-acquisition system

installed at the CDER [33]. The annual wind energy potential for

Bouzarah at 10 m height is 187 kWh/m2 and the annual total solar

radiation on the horizontal surface is 1626 kWh/m2. On a comparative basis between the solar insolation and wind distribution of

the site, there is a great scope for generating power from solar for

longer periods in a year. Thus, the data recorded are used in system

unit sizing and the generation is assumed to keep constant in each

hour interval.

(20)

rate, and use annual real interest rate rather than the nominal

interest rate.

The following unit price, maintenance cost and lifetime of each

component (PV array, wind generator, battery bank and inverter) in

this study are assumed as mentioned in Table 1. The conguration

with the lowest (LUEC) is taken as the optimal one from the set of

congurations which guarantee the required reliability of power

supply.

5.1. Case study

a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind energy system, which is designed to

supply residential household located in the area of the CDER (Center

for Renewable Energy Development) situated in Bouzarah, Algeria

(36 480 N, 3 10 E, 345 m). The technical characteristics of the PV

module and wind turbine as well as the battery used in the studied

project are listed in Tables 2, 3 and 4. The load prole adopted in this

congurations are studied. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show the results of the

relationship between system reliabilities or DPSP values and

system congurations for different days of autonomy of the battery

bank. Fig. 5 shows the relationships for a one day-storage battery

bank. In this gure, the curves are hyperbolic nature. Each point of

them represents a couple (Number of PV modules, wind turbine

45

DPSP=1 %

DPSP=3 %

DPSP=5 %

40

35

3 days storage

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

Fig. 6. System congurations for different DPSP for 3 days of autonomy of the battery

bank.

LUEC for 3 days storage

LUEC for 5 days storage

6

5.5

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

1600 2000

Rat ed Power

o

f W ind Turbin

3600 4000

e (W)

20

Num

40

er o

80

u

Mod

f PV

60

les

Fig. 8. System congurations and Levelised Unit Electricity Cost for DPSP 1%.

1221

LUEC for 3 days storage

LUEC for 5 days storage

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0

400 800

1200 1600

2000

Rat ed Pow

er

2400 2800

of W ind Tu

b

Num

rbine (W)

30

20

50

40

PV

r of

60

du

Mo

les

The congurations meeting different desired DPSP requirements

under different battery capacities are obtained from the simulation

results. After the technical criteria, the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost

(LUEC) is utilized as the economic benchmark. The simulation results

are demonstrated, and the relationships between the LUEC and

system congurations are analyzed. In Figs. 8, 9 and 10, the curves

given by the solid symbols represent the Levelised Unit Electricity

Cost (LUEC) under different congurations. Obviously, one point

4.5

10

a zero value of the DPSP, the corresponding curve is called curve of

autonomy of the system: each point of this curve represents

a combination which ensures the total autonomy of the system. The

areas above the curves are also congurations that can ensure the

required power reliability. It also shows that when the system

reliability is higher; the system conguration (PV module and wind

turbine power) is higher too for the same capacity of battery bank.

A similar situation happens to the system for three and ve daysstorage battery bank (Figs. 6 and 7), but compared to the system

with one day-storage battery bank, the PV module and wind

turbine power are more moderate. It means the hybrid system with

more batteries (5 days of storage capacity) can meet the load

demand with less supply failure.

0.5

0

Fig. 9. System congurations and Levelised Unit Electricity Cost for DPSP 3%.

1 day storage

3 days storage

5 days storage

4.5

LUEC for 3 days storage

LUEC for 5 days storage

Fig. 11. Minimal values of LUEC vs. DPSP [fx3]for different days of autonomy of the

battery bank.

with the minimum LUEC value occurs in each curve which means

the best conguration for one certain DPSP value and one certain

battery bank. This conguration is considered as the optimal one

which meets the system reliability requirement with the lowest

LUEC value. On the other hand, a meticulous examination into Figs.

8, 9 and 10 shows that the lowest LUEC is found when the capacity of

wind turbine and the number of PV modules are both moderate. It is

also shown that the LUEC for one day battery storage is lower than

three and ve days for the desired DPSP of 1%, 3% and 5% for the

studied case because batteries are much more expensive with

a short lifespan.

5.4. Impact of power reliability on the LUEC

The minimal values of the Levelised Unit Electricity Costs for

different DPSP (power reliability requirements) are calculated by

the proposed optimal sizing method. The results for hybrid system

are demonstrated in Fig. 11. The best congurations for one, three

and ve days of autonomy of the battery bank happen for a DPSP of

10% (lowest value). It conrms that higher power reliable systems

are more expensive than lower requirement systems. On the other

hand, a deeper examination into Fig. 11 shows that the optimal

congurations for one day-storage capacity have the lowest LUEC

than the three and ve days-storage capacity because batteries are

much more expensive with a short lifespan. Thus, choosing an

optimal system conguration according to system power reliability

requirements can help save investment and avoid blind capital

spending sizing.

6. Conclusions

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

400 800 1200

1600 2000

Rat ed Power of W

3600 4000

10

Num

20

ber o

30

40

es

odul

PV M

Fig. 10. System congurations and Levelised Unit Electricity Cost for DPSP 5%.

In this paper, a grid-independent hybrid PV/wind system optimization model, which utilizes the iterative optimization technique

to follow the Deciency of Power Supply Probability (DPSP) model

and the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) model for power

reliability and system cost respectively, is presented. The conguration adopted in this study corresponds to the hybrid PV/wind

system in which both wind and PV generators present the primary

source of energy thereby represent the best complementarity

between the two renewable energy sources photovoltaic and wind

and leads to an energy management strategy different from that

presented in the previous studies. The recommended model

consists of three main parts: the submodel of the hybrid system, the

technical submodel developed according to the Deciency of Power

1222

Supply Probability (DPSP) technique for system reliability evaluation and the economic submodel developed based on the concept

of the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) which is considered as

a good indicator of economic protability in the eld of renewable

energy. A set of congurations meeting the desired DPSP can be

obtained by using the DPSP submodel. The conguration with the

lowest LUEC gives the optimal one.

A case study is conducted to analyze one hybrid project, which is

designed to supply residential household located in the area of the

CDER (Center for Renewable Energy Development) situated in

Bouzarah, Algeria (36 480 N, 3 10 E, 345 m). The algorithm input

data set consists of hourly solar irradiation on the horizontal plane,

wind speed as well as ambient temperature recorded at Bouzarah

(Algeria) for the year 2003, the desired DPSP, load power requirements during the year and specications of the system devices.

The grid-independent hybrid PV/wind system is simulated by

running the developed program and the relationships between

system power reliability and system congurations have been

studied. The optimal congurations of the hybrid system are determined in terms of different desired system reliability requirements (DPSP) and the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC).

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