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control systems

Cycles

Assignment Number: 1

Author: Mohammed Rahman

Taught by: Dr Safa Alhakeem

Student Number: 1409201

ID: MMR1AES

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 25 April 2016

control systems

Abstract

This assignment is made up of two parts. The first part of the assignment will include a

written report for a Laboratory experiment. This includes using a Hydraulics bench flowmeter

demonstration apparatus, in which myself and 3 other members collectively obtained flow

measurements in pipes using a Venturi meter and Orifice meter and Rotameter. In the

process of this assignment I will be establishing the relationship between flowrate and

pressure difference, and thereby determining the value for the coefficient of discharge.

The second part of the assignment is about engine cycles. For this will will describe different

types of cycles and also state their purposes. I will also form calculations to elaborate on the

performance of a Carnot cycle.

Contents

Apparatus

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Hydraulics bench flowmeter demonstration apparatus

The apparatus is designed to measure the flowrate using the Venturi meter, Orifice meter

and rotameter.

Venturi meter:

15mm.

Throat diameter, d2 =

Orifice meter:

20mm.

Orifice diameter, d2 =

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Introduction

Venturi meter and orifice meters are the most commonly used flow meters

for measuring mass/volumetric flow rate or velocity of a flowing fluid. We

will observe the flow of water through a pipe, in which it is allowed to flow

through the meter at different rates ranging from zero to the maximum.

Flow measurement in pipes

Venturi and Orifice meters

purpose

To calibrate a Venturi and Orifice meter by establishing the relationship between flowrate and

pressure difference, and thereby determining a value for the coefficient of discharge.

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Theory

The flowrate through a Venturi and Orifice meter can be found from the equation

Q Cd

a1a 2

a 12

a 22

2gH

where the cross-sectional areas are a1 for the inlet pipe and a2 for the throat or orifice.

a1a 2

The term

a12 a 22

Procedure

The apparatus has been adjusted to give a steady flowrate indicated as 20 on the Rotameter

scale.

Record the manometer readings h1, h2, h6 and h7. Measure the flowrate by recording the

time taken to collect a volume 10 litres. Adjust the flow control valve to obtain readings of 18,

16, 14,12 and 10 on the rotameter scale. Record manometer levels and measure flowrate

for each rotameter reading.

Observations

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H1 (mm)

H2 (mm)

H6 (mm)

H7 (mm)

385

365

322

305

285

260

205

184

185

185

190

190

250

210

195

180

170

160

135

115

115

120

125

128

Volume

(liters)

10

10

10

6

6

6

Time (sec)

34.6

40.27

42.96

28.79

32.58

40.18

Table of Results

1

Hv = (h1

h2) m

0.18

0.181

0.137

0.12

0.095

0.07

Q = Volume/time

2

Ho = (h6

h7)

m

0.12

0.095

0.08

0.06

0.045

0.032

3

Q

m

4

Hv

5

Ho

0.00028

0.00024

0.00023

0.00020

0.00018

0.00014

0.424

0.425

0.370

0.346

0.308

0.264

0.346

0.308

0.282

0.244

0.212

0.178

HV = Venturi head

HO = Orifice head

Analysis

Q H1 / 2

Determine the slope of the graph, m, for each meter,

where

m Q H1 / 2

Cd

1

Q

1

m

K 2g H1 / 2 K 2g

m =1

H1/2

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Conclusions

Bernoulli's Equation and to compare the pressure difference in

venturi, orifice and variable area meter. The experiment is also

carried out to calculate the head loss from experiment data for a

rotameter. Based on the result that obtained, the pressure are

varies according to the area that the fluid flow. Bernoulli's

principle states that in a moving fluid, when the area decrease the

velocity is increase and the pressure inside the fluid decrease.

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must increase as it passes through constriction to satisfy the

principle of continuity, while its pressure must decrease to satisfy

the principle of mechanical energy. In conclusion, the flow rate in

venturi meter is higher than orifice meter. RECOMMENDATION In

this experiment, there are few recommendations that can be

applied to get better data and results, thus the experiment can be

run properly and systematically. In order to get the accurate data,

the experiment must be repeated at least two times and

determined the average value of the data collected. When run the

experiment, make sure that there is no air bubbles inside the

equipment, because it will affect the results. Besides that, the

water supply must be connected correctly and make sure that

there is no any leakage inside the system. In taking the reading,

the eyes must be parallel to the scale and the meniscus in order to

prevent the parallax error and also to get accurate reading

Comment on the graphs, and compare the values you have obtained for Cd for each

meter with expected values, as quoted in standard textbooks. Comment briefly on

relevant choice of meter.

ENGINE CYCLES

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Q1

Three (A-C) theoretical engine p-v cycles using air are described below. Each

cycle comprises of 4 processes. Using the information supplied construct the

general form of each cycle clearly labelling each cardinal state point (1-4) or

(1-5) and name each cycle.

Cycle A

1-2

isentropic compression

2-3

3-4

isentropic expansion

4-1

Cycle B

1-2

isentropic compression

2-3

3-4

Isentropic Expansion

4-1

Cycle C

1-2

pressure

isentropic compression2-3

3-4

4-5

isentropic expansion

5-1

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Q2

Describe, with the aid of sketches, the four reversible processes that make up

the Carnot Cycle. If a Carnot heat engine receives 500 kJ heat per cycle from

a high temperature source of 452 oC and rejects heat to a low temperature

sink at 15oC determine:

The Carnot cycle is composed of four totally reversible processes, these are:

Isentropic expansion

Isothermal heat rejection

Isentropic compression

For both ideal and actual cycles: the thermal efficiency increases with an average

increase in temperature at which heat is supplied to the system or with a decrease in

the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the system.

Remind me later

Review

process with no heat transfer ( ). We defined for reversible processes. So

generally an adiabatic process is not necessarily isentropic -- only if the

process is reversible and adiabatic we can call it isentropic.

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. If a Carnot heat engine receives 500 kJ heat per cycle from a high temperature

source of 452oC and rejects heat to a low temperature sink at 15 oC determine

a) The thermal efficiency of the engine

b) The amount of heat rejected to the sink per cycle

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Bibliography

https://www.google.co.uk/search?

q=the+four+reversible+processes+that+make+up+the

+Carnot+Cycle&biw=1920&bih=960&site=webhp&sourc

e=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj_m7_H5rMAhVMLcAKHQ38C3cQ_AUIBigB#imgrc=ILeXTPe14XO

gPM%3A

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X0WTOqlmCI

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/orifice-nozzleventuri-d_590.html

efficiency (= useful energy out / total energy in). Clearly without the word useful the efficiency would be 100%

in all systems. (Why? Because energy is conserved)

http://hazeldorothy03orificevsventurimeter.blogspot.co.uk/

http://www.oberlin.edu/physics/dstyer/P111/Carnot.pdf

http://ffden2.phys.uaf.edu/webproj/212_spring_2014/Keanu_Paikai/Keanu_Paikai_2/EfficiencyofEngine

s.html

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Objectives:

1. To find the coefficient of discharge for venturi meter.

2. To find the coefficient of discharge for orifice meter.

Theory:

Venturi meter and orifice meter are the commonly used flow meters for measuring

mass/volumetric flow rate or velocity of the flowing fluid. These flow meters are also known

as variable head meters. They are categorized as fullboremeteras measurement of the fluid

takes place when it flows through a conduit or channel.

Venturimeter:

The venturi meter has a converging conical inlet, a cylindrical throat and a diverging recovery

cone. It has no projections into the fluid, no sharp corners and no sudden changes in contour.

The following figure shows the venturi meter with uniform cylindrical section before

converging entrance, a throat and divergent outlet.

Convergent Cylindrical inlet

Entrance

Throat

Divergent outlet

D

d

Pressure taps

Figure1.Venturimeter

The converging inlet section decreases the area of the fluid stream, causing the velocity to

increase and the pressure to decrease. The low pressure is measured in the center of the

cylindrical throat as the pressure will be at its lowest value, where neither the pressure nor the

velocity will be changing. As the fluid enters the diverging section the pressure is largely

recovered lowering the velocity of the fluid. The major disadvantages of this type of flow

detection are the high initial costs for installation and difficulty in installation and inspection.

The Venturieffectis the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a

constricted section of pipe. The fluid velocity must increase through the constriction to satisfy

the equation of continuity, while its pressure must decrease due to conservation of energy: the

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equation for the drop in pressure due to Venturi effect may be derived from a combination of

Bernoullis principle and the equation of continuity.

The equation for venturi meter is obtained by applying Bernoulli equation and equation of

continuity assuming an incompressible flow of fluids through manometer tubes. If V1 and V2

are the average upstream and downstream velocities and is the density of the fluid, then

using Bernoullis equation we get,

........................... (1)

where 1 and 2 are kinetic energy correction factors at two pressure tap positions.

Assuming density of fluid to be constant, the equation of continuity can be written as:

............................. (2) where D1 and D2 are diameter of pipe and throat in meters

respectively.

Eliminating V1 from equation (1) and equation (2) we get,

........................... (3)

where is the ratio of the diameter of throat to that of diameter of pipe.

If we assume a small friction lose between two pressure taps, the above equation (3) can be

corrected by introducing empirical factor Cv and written as,

............................. (4)

The small effect of the kinetic energy factors 1 and 2 are also taken into account in the

definition of Cv.

Volumetric flow rate Qa can be calculated as:

Qa =V2S2 =........................... (5)

where, S2 is the cross sectional area of throat in m2. Substituting (P1 P2)=gHin above

equation (5) we get,

Qa =V2S2 =............................... (6)

where His the manometric height difference * (specific gravity of manometric fluid

specific

gravity of manometric fluid of water).

Orificemeter:

An orifice meter is essentially a cylindrical tube that contains a plate with a thin hole in the

middle of it. The thin hole essentially forces the fluid to flow faster through the hole in order

to maintain flow rate. The point of maximum convergence usually occurs slightly

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downstream from the actual physical orifice this is the reason orifice meters are less accurate

than venturi meters, as we cannot use the exact location and diameter of the point of

maximum convergence in calculations. Beyond the vena contracta point, the fluid expands

again and velocity decreases as pressure increases.

Head loss

D1

Figure2.Orificemeter

Vena Contracta

D2

Variable distance

D1

The above figure 2 shows the orifice meter with the variable position of vena contracta with

respect to plate. Orifice meter uses the same principle of continuity equation and Bernoulli

principle to calculate the volumetric flow rate, as shown above for venturi meter.

So,

Qa =V2S2 =............................... (7)

Here Co is the orifice discharge coefficient.

Procedure:

1. Check all the clamps for tightness.

2. Check whether the water level in the tank is sufficient such that the suction pipe of

pump

is completely immersed.

3. For measurement through venturi, open the outlet valve of the venturi meter and close

the

valve of orifice meter.

4. For a good amount of variation in discharge also close the by-pass valve of pump.

5. Now switch on the pump.

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7. If any air bubbles exist in U-tube manometer remove them through air cock valve.

Operate the air cock valve slowly and cautiously to avoid mercury run away through

water.

8. Wait for a while for stabilization of flow.

9. Close the gate valve of measuring tank and measure the time for discharge of five

liters

of water and the manometer difference. Before taking any measurements, make sure

the

flow is stable.

10. Repeat the procedure by changing the discharge by slowly opening the by-pass valve

and

take the six readings.

11. Repeat the same for orifice meter.

Givendata:

Forventurimeter:

Cross sectional area of throat in venturi meter (S2) = 1.76*10-4 m2 Ratio of diameter of

throat to pipe () = 0.4848

Fororificemeter:

Cross sectional area of throat in venturi meter (S2) = 1.54*10-4 m2 Ratio of diameter of

throat to pipe () = 0.4904

http://www.academia.edu/18747069/Lab_Report_Flowme

ter_Measurement_Apparatus_FM101_2015_

http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/mymousa/files/Experiment-4Fluid-mechanics-lab.pdf

http://www.slideshare.net/jeufier/calibration-of-orificeventuri-meter

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