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# University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

## Venturi and orifice/ Engine

Cycles

Assignment Number: 1
Author: Mohammed Rahman
Taught by: Dr Safa Alhakeem
Student Number: 1409201
ID: MMR1AES
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 25 April 2016

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Abstract
This assignment is made up of two parts. The first part of the assignment will include a
written report for a Laboratory experiment. This includes using a Hydraulics bench flowmeter
demonstration apparatus, in which myself and 3 other members collectively obtained flow
measurements in pipes using a Venturi meter and Orifice meter and Rotameter. In the
process of this assignment I will be establishing the relationship between flowrate and
pressure difference, and thereby determining the value for the coefficient of discharge.
The second part of the assignment is about engine cycles. For this will will describe different
types of cycles and also state their purposes. I will also form calculations to elaborate on the
performance of a Carnot cycle.

Contents

Apparatus

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems
Hydraulics bench flowmeter demonstration apparatus

The apparatus is designed to measure the flowrate using the Venturi meter, Orifice meter
and rotameter.

Venturi meter:
15mm.

## Inlet pipe diameter, d1 = 31.75mm.

Throat diameter, d2 =

Orifice meter:
20mm.

## Inlet pipe diameter, d1 = 31.75mm.

Orifice diameter, d2 =

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Introduction
Venturi meter and orifice meters are the most commonly used flow meters
for measuring mass/volumetric flow rate or velocity of a flowing fluid. We
will observe the flow of water through a pipe, in which it is allowed to flow
through the meter at different rates ranging from zero to the maximum.

## Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment

Flow measurement in pipes
Venturi and Orifice meters

purpose
To calibrate a Venturi and Orifice meter by establishing the relationship between flowrate and
pressure difference, and thereby determining a value for the coefficient of discharge.

control systems

## Orifice diameter, d2 = 20mm.

Theory

The flowrate through a Venturi and Orifice meter can be found from the equation

Q Cd

a1a 2
a 12

a 22

2gH

where the cross-sectional areas are a1 for the inlet pipe and a2 for the throat or orifice.

a1a 2
The term

a12 a 22

## is known as the meter coefficient, K.

Procedure

The apparatus has been adjusted to give a steady flowrate indicated as 20 on the Rotameter
scale.
Record the manometer readings h1, h2, h6 and h7. Measure the flowrate by recording the
time taken to collect a volume 10 litres. Adjust the flow control valve to obtain readings of 18,
16, 14,12 and 10 on the rotameter scale. Record manometer levels and measure flowrate

Observations

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H1 (mm)

H2 (mm)

H6 (mm)

H7 (mm)

385
365
322
305
285
260

205
184
185
185
190
190

250
210
195
180
170
160

135
115
115
120
125
128

Volume
(liters)
10
10
10
6
6
6

Time (sec)
34.6
40.27
42.96
28.79
32.58
40.18

Table of Results
1
Hv = (h1
h2) m
0.18
0.181
0.137
0.12
0.095
0.07
Q = Volume/time

2
Ho = (h6
h7)
m
0.12
0.095
0.08
0.06
0.045
0.032

3
Q
m

4
Hv

5
Ho

0.00028
0.00024
0.00023
0.00020
0.00018
0.00014

0.424
0.425
0.370
0.346
0.308
0.264

0.346
0.308
0.282
0.244
0.212
0.178

Analysis

Q H1 / 2

## By plotting Q vs H1/2 for the venturi and orifice meters.

Determine the slope of the graph, m, for each meter,

where

m Q H1 / 2

Cd

1
Q
1

m
K 2g H1 / 2 K 2g

m =1

H1/2

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Conclusions

## The experiment is carried out to experimentally verify the

Bernoulli's Equation and to compare the pressure difference in
venturi, orifice and variable area meter. The experiment is also
carried out to calculate the head loss from experiment data for a
rotameter. Based on the result that obtained, the pressure are
varies according to the area that the fluid flow. Bernoulli's
principle states that in a moving fluid, when the area decrease the
velocity is increase and the pressure inside the fluid decrease.

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## According to the laws governing fluid dynamics, a fluid's velocity

must increase as it passes through constriction to satisfy the
principle of continuity, while its pressure must decrease to satisfy
the principle of mechanical energy. In conclusion, the flow rate in
venturi meter is higher than orifice meter. RECOMMENDATION In
this experiment, there are few recommendations that can be
applied to get better data and results, thus the experiment can be
run properly and systematically. In order to get the accurate data,
the experiment must be repeated at least two times and
determined the average value of the data collected. When run the
experiment, make sure that there is no air bubbles inside the
equipment, because it will affect the results. Besides that, the
water supply must be connected correctly and make sure that
there is no any leakage inside the system. In taking the reading,
the eyes must be parallel to the scale and the meniscus in order to
prevent the parallax error and also to get accurate reading
Comment on the graphs, and compare the values you have obtained for Cd for each
meter with expected values, as quoted in standard textbooks. Comment briefly on
relevant choice of meter.

ENGINE CYCLES

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Q1

Three (A-C) theoretical engine p-v cycles using air are described below. Each
cycle comprises of 4 processes. Using the information supplied construct the
general form of each cycle clearly labelling each cardinal state point (1-4) or
(1-5) and name each cycle.

Cycle A

1-2

isentropic compression

2-3

## Constant volume increase in pressure

3-4

isentropic expansion

4-1

## Constant volume decrease in pressure

Cycle B

1-2

isentropic compression

2-3

## Constant pressure increase in volume

3-4

Isentropic Expansion

4-1

## Constant volume decrease in pressure

Cycle C

1-2
pressure

isentropic compression2-3

3-4

## Constant pressure increase in volume

4-5

isentropic expansion

5-1

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Q2

Describe, with the aid of sketches, the four reversible processes that make up
the Carnot Cycle. If a Carnot heat engine receives 500 kJ heat per cycle from
a high temperature source of 452 oC and rejects heat to a low temperature
sink at 15oC determine:

The Carnot cycle is composed of four totally reversible processes, these are:

Isentropic expansion
Isothermal heat rejection
Isentropic compression

For both ideal and actual cycles: the thermal efficiency increases with an average
increase in temperature at which heat is supplied to the system or with a decrease in
the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the system.
Remind me later
Review

## Isentropic means no change in entropy ( ). An adiabatic process is a

process with no heat transfer ( ). We defined for reversible processes. So
generally an adiabatic process is not necessarily isentropic -- only if the
process is reversible and adiabatic we can call it isentropic.

control systems

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

. If a Carnot heat engine receives 500 kJ heat per cycle from a high temperature
source of 452oC and rejects heat to a low temperature sink at 15 oC determine
a) The thermal efficiency of the engine
b) The amount of heat rejected to the sink per cycle

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Bibliography
q=the+four+reversible+processes+that+make+up+the
+Carnot+Cycle&biw=1920&bih=960&site=webhp&sourc
e=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj_m7_H5rMAhVMLcAKHQ38C3cQ_AUIBigB#imgrc=ILeXTPe14XO
gPM%3A
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/orifice-nozzleventuri-d_590.html
efficiency (= useful energy out / total energy in). Clearly without the word useful the efficiency would be 100%
in all systems. (Why? Because energy is conserved)

http://hazeldorothy03orificevsventurimeter.blogspot.co.uk/
http://www.oberlin.edu/physics/dstyer/P111/Carnot.pdf
http://ffden2.phys.uaf.edu/webproj/212_spring_2014/Keanu_Paikai/Keanu_Paikai_2/EfficiencyofEngine
s.html

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

Objectives:
1. To find the coefficient of discharge for venturi meter.
2. To find the coefficient of discharge for orifice meter.
Theory:
Venturi meter and orifice meter are the commonly used flow meters for measuring
mass/volumetric flow rate or velocity of the flowing fluid. These flow meters are also known
as variable head meters. They are categorized as fullboremeteras measurement of the fluid
takes place when it flows through a conduit or channel.
Venturimeter:
The venturi meter has a converging conical inlet, a cylindrical throat and a diverging recovery
cone. It has no projections into the fluid, no sharp corners and no sudden changes in contour.
The following figure shows the venturi meter with uniform cylindrical section before
converging entrance, a throat and divergent outlet.
Convergent Cylindrical inlet

Entrance

Throat
Divergent outlet
D
d
Pressure taps

Figure1.Venturimeter
The converging inlet section decreases the area of the fluid stream, causing the velocity to
increase and the pressure to decrease. The low pressure is measured in the center of the
cylindrical throat as the pressure will be at its lowest value, where neither the pressure nor the
velocity will be changing. As the fluid enters the diverging section the pressure is largely
recovered lowering the velocity of the fluid. The major disadvantages of this type of flow
detection are the high initial costs for installation and difficulty in installation and inspection.
The Venturieffectis the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a
constricted section of pipe. The fluid velocity must increase through the constriction to satisfy
the equation of continuity, while its pressure must decrease due to conservation of energy: the

control systems

## gain in kinetic energy is balanced by a drop in pressure or a pressure gradient force. An

equation for the drop in pressure due to Venturi effect may be derived from a combination of
Bernoullis principle and the equation of continuity.
The equation for venturi meter is obtained by applying Bernoulli equation and equation of
continuity assuming an incompressible flow of fluids through manometer tubes. If V1 and V2
are the average upstream and downstream velocities and is the density of the fluid, then
using Bernoullis equation we get,
........................... (1)
where 1 and 2 are kinetic energy correction factors at two pressure tap positions.
Assuming density of fluid to be constant, the equation of continuity can be written as:
............................. (2) where D1 and D2 are diameter of pipe and throat in meters
respectively.
Eliminating V1 from equation (1) and equation (2) we get,
........................... (3)
where is the ratio of the diameter of throat to that of diameter of pipe.
If we assume a small friction lose between two pressure taps, the above equation (3) can be
corrected by introducing empirical factor Cv and written as,
............................. (4)
The small effect of the kinetic energy factors 1 and 2 are also taken into account in the
definition of Cv.
Volumetric flow rate Qa can be calculated as:
Qa =V2S2 =........................... (5)
where, S2 is the cross sectional area of throat in m2. Substituting (P1 P2)=gHin above
equation (5) we get,
Qa =V2S2 =............................... (6)
where His the manometric height difference * (specific gravity of manometric fluid
specific
gravity of manometric fluid of water).
Orificemeter:
An orifice meter is essentially a cylindrical tube that contains a plate with a thin hole in the
middle of it. The thin hole essentially forces the fluid to flow faster through the hole in order
to maintain flow rate. The point of maximum convergence usually occurs slightly

## University of Bolton, Mechanical Engineering, AME5003 Thermofluids and

control systems

downstream from the actual physical orifice this is the reason orifice meters are less accurate
than venturi meters, as we cannot use the exact location and diameter of the point of
maximum convergence in calculations. Beyond the vena contracta point, the fluid expands
again and velocity decreases as pressure increases.
D1

Figure2.Orificemeter
Vena Contracta
D2
Variable distance
D1

The above figure 2 shows the orifice meter with the variable position of vena contracta with
respect to plate. Orifice meter uses the same principle of continuity equation and Bernoulli
principle to calculate the volumetric flow rate, as shown above for venturi meter.
So,
Qa =V2S2 =............................... (7)
Here Co is the orifice discharge coefficient.

Procedure:
1. Check all the clamps for tightness.
2. Check whether the water level in the tank is sufficient such that the suction pipe of
pump
is completely immersed.
3. For measurement through venturi, open the outlet valve of the venturi meter and close
the
valve of orifice meter.
4. For a good amount of variation in discharge also close the by-pass valve of pump.
5. Now switch on the pump.

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## 6. Open the gate valve and start the flow.

7. If any air bubbles exist in U-tube manometer remove them through air cock valve.
Operate the air cock valve slowly and cautiously to avoid mercury run away through
water.
8. Wait for a while for stabilization of flow.
9. Close the gate valve of measuring tank and measure the time for discharge of five
liters
of water and the manometer difference. Before taking any measurements, make sure
the
flow is stable.
10. Repeat the procedure by changing the discharge by slowly opening the by-pass valve
and