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FuelScience

and
CombustionTechnology

CompletedModules
1 PropertiesofFuels
2 PetroleumScience
3 RefineryProcesses
4 MajorRefineryProducts
5 SolidFuels WoodAndPeat
6 SolidFuels Coal
7 NuclearEnergy NuclearFissionAndNuclearFusion
8

NuclearEnergy NuclearReactors
Lubrication Types,Functions,Tribology

9 Lubrication Regimes,Additives,Properties,ProductionProcess

LetsRevise
1 PropertiesofFuels
2 PetroleumScience
3 RefineryProcesses
4 MajorRefineryProducts
5

SolidFuels WoodAnd
Peat

6 SolidFuels Coal
7

FlashPoint,Vapor Pressure,Octane#,
Cetane #,Density
HowtoClassifyCrude Oils?
HowCrude Oil&NaturalGasisFormed?
Whatisdone inaRefinery?
HowaRefineryisconfigured?
What arethey?
Where&howtheyareemployed?
WhatisCoalGasification &Liquefaction?
ClassesofCoal?

NuclearEnergy Fission &


What arethesemechanisms?
Fusion

8 NuclearEnergy Plants

How areNuclearPlantsconfigured?

9 Lubrication

Function/sofLubs andtheirTypes?
HowaretheyProduced?

nC+(n+1)H2 CnH2n+2

CoalGasification

BindingEnergyCurve

CanYouFind?
Howmuchenergywouldbereleasedif1gramofU235 weretoundergofission?

FunctionsofaLubricant
Cooling

Lub oilcirculatingthroughtheenginewillcarryawayexcess
heat

Sealing

Lub oilprovidesanairtightbarrierbetweenthepistonrings
andcylinderwall.Maintainingthissealwillreduceenginewear
andincreasepoweroutput.

Lubrication

Flushing

Maintainingafilmofoilbetweenmovingpartswill:
Reducewearonparts
Reduceheatgenerationduetofriction
Circulatingengineoilwillremoveanycontaminants(Fuel
deposits,Metalfilings)fromtheengineblock.

OtherInformation
Regimes

Additives

Characterization

Hydrodynamic

PourPointDepressants

CarbonResidue

Boundary

ViscosityIndexImprovers

Viscosity

Mixed

Defoamants

Density &Gravity

OxidationInhibitors

FlashandFirePoints

RustandCorrosionInhibitors

NeutralizationNumber

DetergentsandDispersants

TotalAcid/BaseNos.

AntiwearAdditives

PourPoint

ExtremePressureAdditives

Color
ViscosityIndex

Important!
However,thequalityortheperformancefeaturesofa
lubricantcannotbeadequatelydescribedonthebasis
ofphysicalandchemicaltestsalone.
Thus,majorpurchasersoflubricatingoils,suchasthe
military,equipmentbuilders,andmanycommercial
consumers,includeperformancetests aswellas
physicalandchemicaltestsintheirpurchase
specifications.
E.g.OxidationTests,ThermalStability,RustProtection
Tests,FoamTests,EPandAntiwearTests,Emulsion
andDemulsibility Tests

TypesofLubricants
Physical

Applicationwise

Liquid Mineraloilorsyntheticoils

Engineoils

Solid Graphite,MoS2

GearOils

Semisolid Greases

TurbineOils

Gases Atomized2strokeoils

HydraulicOils
Metalworkingoils Cuttingoils,
FormingOils
Rustpreventives

LubeProcessingScheme

TypicalLubricantApplications

10

ChemicalFormulae
Compositions
CalorificValues

Prof.
SASP

11

CombustionEquations
CombustionCharacteristicsofFuels

Prof.
SASP

12

SelectionandApplicationofFuelBasedonEconomics&
Quality

TAD

13

CombustionCharacteristicsandotherConsiderations
EnvironmentalPollution
AlternativeOptionsforpetroleumfuels

TAD

14

CalculationofEnergyProductionbycombustionoffuels
DesignofBurnersandFurnaces

TAD

SelectionandApplicationofFuel
BasedonEconomics&Quality
Case1a:
Youhaveafixedamountofcapitaltobuyamotorcar.
Assumingthatyouhaveafixedincomeatthemoment
whatconsiderationsyouwouldgiveinbuying?
Case1b:
Suddenlyyoureceiveagoodjobopportunity,which
involvesconsiderableamountoftravelling,wherethey
provideyouwithavehicleofyourchoiceandyouhaveto
manageonlyfuelonyourown.Nowwhatwillbeyour
concerns?

SelectionandApplicationofFuel
BasedonEconomics&Quality
Case2:
Assumethatyouareintheplanningstageof
Utilitiesforalargeindustrialcomplexclosetoa
residentialarea.
Whatareyourconsiderationsinselectingpower
plantforthefacility?

SelectionandApplicationofFuel
BasedonEconomics&Quality
Case3:
Aprocessplantuseshighpressuresteamtodriveitsturbinesand
mediumpressuresteamforprocessheating.Lowpressuresteamis
alsoemployedinstrippingcolumns.
AllsteamrequirementsarefulfilledviaSuperheatedHPSteamBoilers.
Mediumpressuresteamtakenfromsteamturbinewhilelowpressure
steamistakenbythrottlingMPsteam.
Powerisproducedviasteamturbines,DieselGeneratorwhichuses
lowSulphurdieselandalsofromNationalgrid.
Howtowedeterminethebestmixofheatandpowersources?

SelectionandApplicationofFuel
BasedonEconomics&Quality
Inalmosteverycase,thecostswhichoccur
overthelifeofacapitalinvestmentcanbe
classifiedintooneofthefollowingcategories:
InitialCost,
AnnualExpensesandRevenues,
PeriodicReplacementandMaintenance,or
SalvageValue

Thefuelcostwillbeapartofregularexpense

SelectionandApplicationofFuel
BasedonEconomics&Quality
TheamountofPowerGeneratedbydifferentfuelsarealmost
sameperunitmassinmanycases.
Buttheapparentcostofafuelwillbeasumofmanycost
componentsimposedbygovernmentsdependingontheir
fiscalpolicies.
Themaintenancecostswitheachtypeofengines,technology,
availabilityofspares,availabilityofvenderserviceswillthen
determinethecomparingparametersofoptions.
Cashflowdiagramsisagoodtoolinanalyzingselectionoffuel
/technology

DieselVs Gasoline

Categoriesofcostsforpower
generatingtechnologies

Exhibit 1
CIFPrice

LandedCost

TaxedCost

WholesaleCost
RetailCost
RetailPricebeforeVAT
RetailPriceAfterVAT
MaximumConsumer
Price

FOBPrice
CompetitorDiscount/Premium
Freight
Insurance
LossesDuringFreight
Jetty/PipelinePrices
PortDevelopmentTaxes
BankCharges
LCCharges
CustomsDuty
ExciseDuty
SocialResponsibilityLevy
CostofWorkingCapital
StorageTerminalCharges
ProfitMargin
Marketing&DistributionCosts
ProvincialCouncilTaxonImportedFuel
ProvincialCouncilTurnoverTax
VAT
DealerDiscount

CIFprice
Portcharges
Taxes
DistributionCharges
ImporterCosts
ImporterMargin
Dealermargin

Exhibit 1

FuelBasedCharacteristicPerformance
ParametersofanEngine
Air/fuelratios(MassBasis)
ThenormaloperatingrangeforaconventionalSIengine
usinggasolinefuelis12 A/F18whileforCIengines
withdieselfuel,itis18 A/F70

VolumetricEfficiency
Volumetricefficiencyisonlyusedwithfourstrokecycle
engineswhichhaveadistinctinductionprocess.
Itisdefinedasthevolumeflowrateofairintotheintake
systemdividedbytherateatwhichvolumeisdisplacedby
thepiston:

SpecificFuelConsumption
Fuelflowrateperunitpoweroutput

ImportantFeaturesofInternal
CombustionEngines

Vc ClearanceVolume
Vd Displacedvolume
Vt=Vc+ Vd
Tc Top(Dead)Center
Bc Bottom(Dead)Center

FuelInjectorinaDieselEngine

Q.
Ahydrocarbonfuelofcomposition84.1
percentbymassCand15.9percentbymassH
hasamolecularweightof114.15.
Determinethenumberofmolesofair
requiredforstoichiometriccombustionand
thenumberofmolesofproductsproduced
permoleoffuel.
CalculateA/Fratioandthemolecular
weightsofthereactantsandtheproducts.
C=12.011/H=1.008

Themolecularweightrelationgives
114.15=12.011a+1.008b

Thegravimetricanalysisofthefuelgives

.
.

.
.

Thusa=8b=18
C8H18 +12.5(02 +3.773N2)=8C02 +9H20+47.16N2

Inmoles:1+12.5(1+3.773)=8+9+47.16
InMass:
114.15+59.66x28.96=8x44.01+9x18.02+47.16x28.16
1:15.6

&
Sincethecompositionofthecombustionproductsis
significantlydifferentforfuelleanandfuelrich
mixtures,andbecausethestoichiometricfuel/air
ratiodependsonfuelcomposition,theratioofthe
actualfuel/airratiotothestoichiometricratio(orits
inverse)isamoreinformativeparameterfordefining
mixturecomposition: hence
fuel/airequivalenceratio=(A/F)Actual/(A/F)Stoichiometric=
Andtheinverseisknownas