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THE USE OF PICTURES AS MEDIA

FOR TEACHING WRITING


(A Case Study at the Eleventh Grade of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes)

A FINAL PROJECT
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements
for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
in English

by

Yeni Kusuma Ningrum


2201401515

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
LANGUAGE AND ARTS FACULTY
SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY
2006
i

APPROVAL
This final project was approved by Board of Examiners of the English Department
of Language and Arts Faculty of Semarang State University on January 26, 2006.

Board of Examiners
1. Chairman
Drs. J. Mujianto, M. Hum
NIP. 131281221

_____________________

2. Secretary
Drs. A. Sofwan, Ph. D
NIP. 131813664

____________________

3. First Examiner
Drs. A. Maryanto, M.A, Ph. D
NIP. 130529509

____________________

4. Second Examiner/First Advisor


Rudi Hartono, S. S, M. Pd
NIP. 132300420

____________________

5. Third Examiner/Second Advisor


Dra. Dwi Rukmini, M. Pd
NIP. 130529839

___________________

Approved by
Dean of FBS

Prof. Dr. Rustono, M. Hum


NIP. 131281222

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I never think that Im the best but


Ill try doing my best

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This final project is dedicated to:


My Beloved Parents

: Bapak Sumarto and Mamah Murtiningsih;

My Brother and Sisters : Banu Endut, Mba Sari, and Anggun;


My Beloved Boyfriend : Mas Agus Pramono, S. T;
My Adopted Brother

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: Mas Widyo.

ABSTRACT
The title of the final project is The Use of Pictures as Media for Teaching
Writing (A Case Study at the Eleventh Grade of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes). The aim
of this study is to find out the difference between the mean scores of the
experimental and control group. So, this is experimental research in which I
studied two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental
group was the XI IPA 3 class that was taught writing by using pictures and verbal
guidance whereas the control group that was XI IPA 4 class that was taught
writing without pictures as media. Those two groups belong to SMA Negeri 3
Brebes.
I used a test to gather the data. The test was writing composition. The
students were expected to make a descriptive composition. Besides I also gave the
students the questionnaire to support the data
I used the students result that was completed by the mean to know the
difference between the two groups. The results showed the difference between the
two groups that is 1.71. The analysis was done based on Product Moment formula
to know whether the instruments were reliable or not.
Hopefully the results of the research can be used as consideration for
teachers to make improvements and betterments of the teaching writing in that
school.
The suggestion is that: the use of pictures can be done as one of the
techniques to teach writing composition.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillahirobil alamin. I wish to express my high gratitude, first and


foremost, to Allah S.W.T for His blessing so that I am able to finish my final
project.
I also like to extend my special gratitude to:
(1) Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd, as the first advisor and Dra. Dwi Rukmini, M.Pd,
as the second advisor who have already made their time to help and guide me
in writing and finishing this final project.
(2) All lecturers of the English Department of Semarang State University who
have taught and motivated me patiently during the years of my study.
(3) Drs. A. Maryanto, M. A, Ph. D as the first examiner who has examined and
also guided me to revise the final project.
(4) Drs. Sri Lahir, M.Pd, as the Headmaster of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes, and
Yuniarsih, Spd, as the teacher of English language who have gave me
opportunity to conduct the research.
(5) My beloved parents, Bapak Sumarto and Mamah Murtiningsih who always
give me a hand and support for my study.
(6) Mas Agus Pramono, S.T. who wakes me up from my sadness. Thanks for
loving me and please be patient to wait for me.
(7) Guns N Roses, Metallica, Halloween, Nirvana, Audio Slave, Radio Head,
Padi, Radja, Seventeen, and also G that always accompany me when I feel
lonely.
(8) Lia, Liu, Ucie, and Lina who support for my study and understand with my
condition

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(9) All of my PPL and KKN friends who have gave me suggestion to be more
adult and motivated me patiently.
(10) My best friend, Rachma and Herdin who have already helped and guided
me to finish this final project.
(11) All of my friends at extension 2001 UNNES who have spent the time for
studying with me during the years. Keep our friendship forever.
(12) Many others for their love and attention.
I also realize that there are many shortcomings in this final project in spite
of all my efforts. Therefore, I would be very grateful for corrections, comments
and critism that might be made to improve this final project.
Finally, I hope that the result of this final project will be useful for anyone
who needed it.

Semarang, January 2006

Yeni Kusuma Ningrum

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT....

ACKNOWLEGDMENTS.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS..

viii

CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study....

1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic..

1.3 Statement of the Problem...

1.4 Objectives of the Study..

1.5 Significances of the Study..

1.6 The Outline of the Study.

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 General Concept of Media..

2.1.1 What are Media?............................................................................

2.1.2 Pictures as Media...

10

2.1.3 Advantages of Using Pictures in Writing..

12

2.1.4 The General Categories for the Use of Pictures. 14


2.1.5 Contribution of Pictures to Teach Writing

15

2.1.6 Applying Pictures in Teaching Writing.

17

2.2 General Concept of Writing...

18

2.2.1 The Notion of Writing 18

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2.2.2 The Importance of Writing. 20


2.2.3 Types of Writing. 21
2.2.4 Writing in the Second Language Classroom.. 23
2.2.5 Writing Demanded by Competence-Based Curriculum. 24
2.2.6 The Definition of Paragraph 25
2.3 The Concept of Study.. 26
III METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
3.1 Subject of the Study. 28
3.1.1 Population and Sample 28
3.1.2 Variables.. 29
3.2 The Experimental Design. 29
3.3 Procedure of Experimentation

30

3.3.1 The Activities of the Experimental Group.

31

3.3.1.1 Pretest.. 31
3.3.1.2 Activities in Doing Experiment..

31

3.3.1.3 Post-test...

31

3.3.2 The Activities of the Control Group..

31

3.3.2.1 Pretest. 31
3.3.2.1 Activities in Doing Experiment.

32

3.3.2.3 Post-test..

32

3.4 Statistical Design. 32


3.5 Instrument...

33

3.6 Test Validation

34

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3.7 Method of analyzing Data... 36


3.7.1 Mode Scoring.

36

3.7.2 Classifying the Scores...

38

3.8 Method of Reporting the Result.

38

IV DATA ANALYSIS AN DTHE RESULT OF THE STUDY


4.1 Non-Statistically Analysis..

40

4.1.1 Test Result..

40

4.1.2 Test Scoring.....

41

4.2 Computation between the Two Means...

41

4.3 Grade Achievement....

44

4.4 Discussion of the Result Findings......

47

4.4.1 The Meaning of the Test....

47

4.4.2 The Effect of the Treatment......

48

4.4.3 The Weaknesses of Writing Using Pictures as Media for


teaching Writing.....

49

V CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION


5.1 Conclusion......

50

5.2 Suggestion...

50

REFERENCE...

52

LIST OF APPENDICES
1.The Lesson Plan of Experimental Group....

53

2. The Lesson Plan of Control group.

60

3. Research Instrument Sheet

62

4. The Composition Sheet in Description Writing.

62

5. Indicator of the Questionnaires..

63

6. Questionnaires Sheets...

64

7. The Result of Pretest of the Experimental Group in Composition...

68

8. The result of Pretest of the Control Group in Composition...

69

9. The Result of Post-test of the Experimental Group in Composition.. 70


10. The Result of Post-test of the Control Group in Composition..... 71
11. The Preparation Table of the Reliability Calculation in the Composition
for the Experimental Group

72

12. The Preparation Table of the Reliability Calculation in the Composition


for the Control Group..

73

13. The Students Results in Composition.

74

14. Questionnaires Results...

82

15. Table r Product Moment. 83


16. T-table.

84

17. Research Letters.. 85

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study


English is one of the international languages used as a means of
communication both oral and written to cooperate among people in different
countries in the world, so it is very important for us to learn English. Otherwise
we will be left behind. This time, we have to learn the language itself and to
practice it in oral or written communication in order to use English correctly.
English is spread all over the world. When we use English in communication, we
have to know the knowledge in this modern world. The development of
knowledge is growing very fast, so we need to learn English. Many books are
written in English language, so people who want to transfer knowledge must
understand the content of the books well. Furthermore, in developing countries,
the mastery of a foreign language for example English has an important role.
In Indonesia, for example, English as the first foreign language has been
given special attention and role. It is used as a means of communication or at least
in their international contact. It has accordingly been chosen as the first foreign
language to be taught in our school, rather than French, German, or Chinese
(Ramelan, 1992:3). It is not only taught at Junior High Schools, Senior High
Schools and Universities but now it is also taught at the elementary schools. In
addition, it is used to communicate with foreigners regardless of nationalities. By
mastering English, the students are supposed to be able to gain valuable

information and knowledge from the texts and books about science, commerce,
economy, technology, etc which are written in English.
In order to make English teaching successful, we have to consider some
factors such as the quality of teachers, students motivation and interest, library,
and also books that are used. All of the factors are involved in a teaching and
learning process. There are some important factors like teaching techniques and
teaching media which play an important role to achieve the objectives of learning.
Considering its important role in the international world such as in the
world scientific and technological advancement, our government has included
English as one of the compulsory subjects in Senior High School (SMA) in its
curriculum.
The importance of English is also remarked in Competence-Based
Curriculum 2004 (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2003:6). It is stated that
English is understood as a means for communication in speaking as well as in
writing. In teaching guidelines in Competence-Based Curriculum 2004 states that
means of communication is understanding and expressing information, thoughts,
feeling and developing knowledge, technology and culture by using language.
Based on the concept and function of English as stated in CompetenceBased Curriculum 2004 for SMA/MA that teaching-learning English has the
purpose to develop four language skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing,
students are able to communicate cover the four language skills with a view to
support the development of the four language skills, English language
components: vocabulary, structure and pronunciation (in speech) or spellings (in

writing) are also important to be taught. It means that English teachers should
teach the four aspects, not just one aspect i.e. reading or speaking. Listening and
writing should also be taught to the students so that the students can master all
these four language skills.
English teachers should provide materials that are appropriate with the
curriculum and find suitable methods in teaching and learning process to enable
the students in mastering those language skills. Competence-Based Curriculum is
the newest curriculum in Indonesia. A curriculum has to prepare students to
achieve the competence. It also prepares the students to communicate using
language to participate in language society. One of the methods suggests in the
new approaches introduced by the government is by using visual aids as media in
classroom as stated by Kreidler (1965:1) that visual aids can be useful to the
language teachers.
Writing skills are more complex and difficult to teach requiring mastery
not only grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment
(Heaton, 1975:138). In writing process, the students are expected to write their
written product grammatically. Express their idea, and make the conclusion as the
steps to develop rhetorical devices in the written form. Because of the difficulties
of writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem. To bring about the
efforts, the linguists have made some methods that can be applied to improve
writing skills is by giving visual aids, that is pictures, to help and make the
students easy to write in English. They must be suitable for the classroom
situation in which the teacher is working.

One of the visual aids that can be used in teaching writing is picture.
Kreidler (1965:1) states that because pictures are recognized way of representing a
real situation, they can serve as an example of the advantages in using visual aids.
Pictures in the classroom can help the students associate what they hear with their
real life experience.
Some media such as pictures, charts, maps, etc. are very common to
achieve the instructional goals of teaching and learning process in Indonesia. By
using pictures in teaching and learning process, we can use them to remind us of a
real life experience or to suggest such an experience about us. The use of pictures
in teaching and learning process plays an important role.
The important advantages are that pictures offer the teacher to help him
change the situations rapidly in oral drill since the students goal in learning a new
language is to use that language for communication in variety of situation.
Because of the difficulties faced by most of the students in learning
English, especially in writing, I intended to try to use pictures to help and make
students write the composition easily.

1.2 Reasons for Choosing the Topic


The teaching of English at junior and senior high school aims at
developing the four language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing in
speaking as well as in writing using correct structure in English (Depdiknas,
2003:6).

From the four skills stated above, I only focus on the study on the use of
pictures as media for teaching writing. I used pictures to improve the students
ability in writing. The reasons for choosing the topic are as follows:
1. Pictures as media can be found in magazines and newspapers easily and
inexpensively.
2. Pictures as media for teaching writing in the texts book are not enough for
achievement for writing works.
3. The teacher can also guide their students to create words and to arrange
the words into paragraphs in their minds that they get from the pictures
4. Writing is a difficult language skill for the high school students and the
portion of writing lessons is little in the English Competence-Based
Curriculum.
5. The students commonly get bored in writing activity as they must spend
many times to write their ideas into a writing product.

1.3 Statements of the Problem


The statements of the study are:
1. How well do pictures give contribution to teach writing?
2. Is there any significant difference in the achievement between the students
who were taught writing using pictures and students who were taught
writing without pictures as media?

1.4 Objectives of the Study


The objectives of the study are:

1. To find out how well pictures give contribution to teach writing.


2. To know if there is significant difference achievement between the
students who were taught writing using pictures and students who were
taught writing without pictures as media?

1.5 Significances of the Study


The significances of the study are:
1. the result will be useful for the teacher to improve their teaching process
and English teachers will be more creative in teaching writing;
2. in teaching writing, it is expected that the students can be more creative
and they can express their idea, thought, felling as freely as possible.

1.6 The Outline of the Study


This final project consists of five chapters. In the first chapter, I present
background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statements of the problem,
the objective of the study, significances of the study and the outline of the study.
The second chapter discusses review of related literature which consists of the
meaning of media, writing, and the concept of the study. The concept of media
consists of what is meant by media, pictures as media, and the advantages of using
pictures in teaching, the general categories for the use of pictures, contribution of
pictures in teaching writing, applying pictures in teaching writing. General
concept of writing consists of the notion of writing, the important of writing; the
types of writing, writing in the second language classroom, and writing demanded

by Competence-Based Curriculum 2004, definition of paragraph. The last concept


is the concept of the study consists of some limitations of the research. The third
chapter discusses method of investigation which consists of subject of the study,
experimental design, and procedure of experimentation, test validation, method of
data analysis, and method of reporting the result. The fourth chapter discusses
data analysis and the result of the study. The last chapter, the fifth offers some
conclusion and suggestion.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter is divided into three sub sections. They are (1) general
concept of media, (2) general concept of writing, and (3) the concept of the study.

2.1 General Concept of Media


In this topic, I discuss what is meant by media, pictures as media, the
advantages of using pictures as media, the general categories for the use of
pictures, contribution of pictures to teach writing, and applying pictures in
teaching writing.

2.1.1 What are Media?


Media, the plural form of medium, are delivered from Latin word
medium which means between. Gerlach and Ely (1980:241) say that a medium
is any person, material, or event that establishes conditions which enable learners
or students to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes. By using media in the
instructional, it is expected that we will have a successful technique in teaching.
The teachers may use pictures as media to make the students understand the
teachers explanation easily.
Brown (1964:7) defines media as things that help the teachers implant the
media of what is presented in the mind of the students.
Based on the definitions above, I draw conclusion that media are
instruments like pictures, charts, graphs, sketches, maps, etc. which are used by
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the teachers during the teaching-learning process effectively to support the


presentation of the materials. It is expected to make the students understand about
the teachers explanation. Pictures also can make the students improve their
ability in writing skill because writing is a difficult subject to learn. By using
media, it is easy for the students to understand the given materials.
The teaching media can be interpreted as many instruments that play an
important role in teaching-learning process. They help the students to master the
materials presented by teacher more easily.
Sadiman et al. (2003:28-79) state that instructional media for teachinglearning process especially in Indonesia can be classified into five categories.
They are:
(1) Games and stimulation, for example: words, puzzle, and roles playing.
(2) Visual media. It is media that can be seen and the function of visual
media is distributing the message from the sources to the receiver.
Some of the examples are pictures/photo, sketch, diagram, chart,
graphs, cartoon, poster, map, globe and flannel board.
(3) Audio media. It is different from visual media, audio media connected
with one of the five senses that is ears that can hear something
produced by sounds. What is meant by audio media here is media that
is useful because of its sound. The examples radios which are turning
on and then producing sound, magnetic tape recording, tape recorder,
language laboratory.
(4) Audio Visual media. Audio Visual media are media that are useful
because of their sound and pictures. The examples are TV and video,
which are being turned on then producing sound and pictures as well.
(5) Still projected medium. It is the same with visual media. For example:
slide, filmstrip, overhead projector, opaque projector, micro projection
and microfilm, film, loop film.
Because of the important roles using media, teacher must be able to choose
appropriate media and use the right method in teaching and learning process in

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order to get successful. We can also get information that we need by using media.
It is one of the ways people receive information and entertainment from media.
Sadiman et al. (2003:16) say that educational media generally have some
advantages such as:
(1) To make the presentation of message in order that it is not really
verbalism.
(2) To solve the limitation of space, time, and sense power, for example
the object is too large and too small, the slow and the fast motion, the
event or phenomenon in the past time, the object which is too complex,
and etc.
(3) By using educational media effective and variation, the students
passive attitude can be overcome. In this case, educational media are
useful to motivate the students to learn.

Media will be very useful if they are used carefully and creatively
prepared by the teachers, and then, they are used effectively to support the
presentation of the lessons during the teaching and learning process. This leads to
the conclusion that using pictures as media in teaching and learning process is
very important.

2.1.2 Pictures as Media


Picture is one of the visual media that can be used in language teaching. It
means that picture can also be used for teaching writing since language teaching
should cover four skills. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It can
also be used to create a situation for writing classes clearly. One kind is that which
tells us a simple and obvious story.
Harmer (2001:134) explains that teachers have always used pictures or
graphics, whether drawn, taken from books, newspapers and magazines, or

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photographs to facilitate learning pictures are clearly indispensable for the


language teacher since they can be used in so many ways. We can teach
vocabulary; speaking and writing easily through pictures (we mean blackboard
drawing, wall pictures, charts and flash cards).
One kind of pictures that can be used as media in teaching-learning
process is still picture. Still pictures are ordinary pictures. According to Gerlach
and Ely (1980:273-308), one of them is opaque still pictures.
The definition of opaque still pictures stated by Gerlach and Ely
(1980:273-283) is as a visual representation of person, place or thing which is two
dimensional photographic prints are most common, but sketches, cartoons,
murals, cut-outs, charts, graphs, and maps are widely used. Pictures may use for
individual study, for display on bulletin boards and felt boards, in exhibits, and for
projection when groups of students need to look at one picture at the same time.
It is very important for the teachers to select suitable pictures in teaching
and learning process. The pictures are going to be used to see the students
reactions especially in improving their writing ability. Teacher can know about
how far the students can improve their idea in making sentences and simple
paragraph.
Based on practicality and economy reasons in using pictures in teaching
and learning process, I prepared some materials as the substitutes for the real
things. I chose cut-out pictures in conducting this experiment. It is used as the
representation of things that will be presented.

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Dealing with the topic above, students asked to write a story using what
appears in the given pictures. It gave the students an opportunity to write in using
some patterns they have learnt. It is a small early step to express the students
ideas and taught freely.
.
2.1.3 Advantages of Using Pictures in Teaching
The success or failure of the English teaching is very much affected by the
factors involved like the teachers, time allotment, and the use of visual aids,
methodology, teaching materials and other facilities. It is clear, then, that an
English teacher is demanded to make more us of visual aids and improve the
methods of teaching when she wants to help the students to get satisfactory result.
Pictures are one kind of media that can help the teacher draw the students
interest and arouse their motivation to learn. If the students are motivated, they
will participate actively and will learn hard during the teaching-learning process.
Thus, a teacher utilized pictures to help him get the students interest and
motivation.
Because pictures are one of recognized ways of presenting a real situation,
they can serve as an example of the advantages in using pictures (Kreidler,
1965:1).
According to Sadiman et al. (2003: 29), they are several advantages of
pictures as media, such as:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Pictures are more realistic in the point of view than verbal media.
Pictures can solve the problem of limited place and time.
Pictures can solve the limitation of our point of view.
They can make clear a problem, everything in section and the level
of age, so that it can avoid misunderstanding.

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(5) The price is cheap and easy to get and use without other particular
instruments.

Gerlach and Ely (1980:277) add some other advantages of using pictures
in language teaching and learning. They are:
(1) pictures are inexpensive and widely available;
(2) they provide common experiences for an entire group;
(3) the visual details make it possible to study subjects that would
otherwise be impossible;
(4) pictures can help to prevent and correct misconception;
(5) pictures after a stimulus to further study, reading and research;
(6) pictures help to focus attention and develop critical judgment;
(7) pictures are easily to manipulate.

Other advantages of pictures offer in helping teachers to change situation


rapidly in oral drill. Since the students goal in learning a new language is to use
that language for communication of a variety of situation, it is essential that a
number of different situations to the classroom and at the same time be assured
that students understand to use pictures. Because practice for control of the
various features of language that must be mastered is most effective when it is fast
moving, varied and related to a situation, the teacher must carefully plan in his
drills.
Pictures often remind us about our real life experiences to suggest such
experiences to us. Pictures of our families can remain ourselves of happy times in
the past. Food and drink advertisements in magazines can make us hungry and
thirsty because we can imagine how well that food and drink would taste,
especially if they are food familiar to us. Storybooks for children have attractive
illustrations and often before a child can read, he tells himself or reads the story

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by looking at the illustration of the book. It is expected that using pictures can
make the students easily express their thoughts and feelings in writing process.
Through pictures, the students are stimulated to make varieties of creating
expressions.
The problem that usually comes up is that they get difficulties in choosing
and finding to the suitable words to express something. Therefore, the teachers
help and knowledge are useful to help the students to express their idea and
thought in making sentences.

2.1.4 The General Categories for the Use of Pictures


Gerlach and Ely (1980:273-308) describe four categories of still pictures
which can be found in filmstrips, slides, and overhead transparencies. They state
that still pictures are visual representation of persons, places, or things which are
two dimensional and have characteristics, such as they may be drawn, printed or
photographically processed, abstract and they vary in size and color. The most
common opaque still pictures are photographic prints, cartoon, wall painting,
sketches, and maps are widely used. They may be used for individual study, for
group study, for display on bulletin board etc.
According to Gerlach and Ely (1980:284-292), a filmstrip is a film which
contains a series of still pictures intended for projection in sequence. Sounds
filmstrip which comes from a tape or disc recording can sometimes be run
automatically with proper equipment.

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Gerlach and Ely (1980:292-298) state that a slide is film transparencies


contained in a frame. Slides can be used with a slide projector or viewer. Some
filmstrip projectors are designed to fit filmstrip.
They (1980:299-308) also state that overhead transparencies are a copy of
something on plastic which has been prepared for use on an overhead projector.
An overhead projector is a device, which projects the plastic on a screen. It can
be placed on the table in the front of the learners.
All the categories of still pictures mentioned above have been widely used
in the development of human science and technology. In Indonesia, especially the
most pictures used are opaque still pictures and overhead transparencies.
I chose the first type of still pictures, they were opaque still pictures
in conducting my experiment. There are the following considerations:
(1) Opaque still pictures are found everywhere.
(2) They are inexpensive, easy to get and use.
(3) They vary in size and color.
(4) They most widely used by many language teachers.

2.1.5 Contribution of Pictures to Teach Writing


Kreidler (1965:41) states that the ultimate aim of writing is to give
the students the opportunity to express their own ideas facile using the
language pattern they have learned. He also says that the students need this
kind of opportunity in order to begin to use English in a way that enables
them to express their ideas, interests, feeling, and needs, clearly, correctly and

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confidently. This is undoubtedly their goal in studying English and it is the


teachers role to help them reach it. One of the ways to teach writing is by
using pictures.
The using of pictures in teaching writing is actually meant to help students
in catching and expressing their idea easily. Take an example when the students
are asked to write about an artist or public figure, national figure, etc. Without
any pictures of figure, they will get difficulty in writing sentences or
paragraph because the students may need a very long time to find that people
and words to express their idea. They get difficulties to think about the figure.
They should think harder to imagine how he or she looks like. They spend some
time to time to think and the idea has not been caught yet. After that, they must
think harder to make the first sentence, the second sentence, the third, etc. By
showing a photograph of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as a familiar figure,
however, it will be easy for the students to find out the figure who will be
described easily. These facts prove that without media, students get a lot of
difficulties in expressing their ideas into making sentences. The students can be
asked to write or tell a story using the pictures given. It gives students an
opportunity to write using some pattern that they have learned.
Pictures also can be used to retell a story. This kind of composition
exercise begins with the teacher telling the story, simply and slowly, perhaps two
or three times, relating it to the pictures and explaining anything in the picture
which may be new for the students. Afterwards, the students re-create the story

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from the pictures given and perhaps a few words written on the blackboard to help
them as well.
Pictures with more details, several objects, several people performing
different actions, all relating to the same general theme are also useful devices for
stimulating in composition. In composition, students should organize the words in
order to make good and correct sentences. If they do it, their composition will
make sense.

2.1.6 Applying Pictures in Teaching Writing


Whatever other function of the material may have, providing interest and
giving motivation so on. The main function is that guiding the students to use
their store of the foreign language to express their idea and opinion. Visual
material can help to provide a variety of contexts for the teaching item, which is
very necessary at manipulation stage.
Wright (1976: 38) states that there are boards functions of visual material
used for writing activities are:
(1) to motivate the students;
(2) to create a meaningful context;
(3) to provide the students with information to refer to including objects,
actions, event relationship;
(4) to provide non-verbal cues for manipulation practice;
(5) to provide non-verbal prompts to written composition.

The teacher must present pictures and other materials in a way that is
relevant to the interest and age of the students. In fact, these materials should be
suitable with students interest whether they are in or out of the language
classroom. The materials also provoke individual responses and improve their

18

writing ability. The visual character of material used for composition will be
succeeding if it reflects concerning the relevance of the students interest.

2.2 General Concept of Writing


In this topic, I discuss the notion of writing, the important of writing, types
of writing, writing in the second language classroom, writing demanded by
Competence-Based Curriculum 2004, the definition of paragraph.

2.2.1 The Notion of Writing


People have practiced writing since long time ago. Bloomfield (1964:249)
said that writing has for many years, even centuries, occupied a large place in
teaching and learning procedures in schools. From the statement above, we can
see the importance of writing. In teaching writing, in this case for the senior high
school students are required to express the meaning with developing rhetoric steps
correctly in written text in the form of descriptive, narrative, anecdote, analysis
exposition and simple horlalory exposition with emphasizing on ideational and
textual meaning (Competence Based Curriculum 2004). Although it is difficult
skill to develop, it is very important to be taught.
Writing is actually nothing when it deals with a child who concentrates on
shaping individual letters. However, it will be quite different when we watch a
college student sitting quietly in front of his table and trying hard to express his
ideas, experiences, thoughts, and feelings that may be purposeful in the form of
written language.

19

In this case, writing does not only mean shaping letters and then
composing them into words, words into sentences, but also concerns with the
stock of vocabulary comprehending how to make a right sentence and the rules to
make a right sentence and the rules make as stated by Gere and quoted by
Saraswati (1996:9) that writing is a rule-governed behavior. It means writing
follows rules. Even making a very simple meaningful sentence like He eat or
He eating, a sequence of rules is needed; e.g. the first letter of the word used as
the beginning of a sentence should be in capital letter, the correlation of the
inflection s in verbs with a third singular person and singular subject such as
he, she, it, Dinda, a doctor, an egg etc. the fact that there are a lot of students write
he eat or He eating instead of He eats and He is eating is an evidence that
it is needed rules in writing.
Sentences made by students can be temporarily classified into the right
sentences but structurally they are incorrect writing. Then, it is not simply
drawing a range of orthographic symbols but actually it involves a complex
process where students have to use certain grammatical rules. It has function to
make students composition correctly, grammatically, and meaningfully. Without
knowing about theories in making sentences, it is impossible that they can write
and make composition correctly. Students will make mistakes in making
sentences, but the students can face this problem with studying about the theories.
It makes the composition not meaningful, so the students should study and know
about structure.

20

2.2.2 The Importance of Writing


Ramelan (1992:9) says that writing as a part of mans culture because it
can be used to preserve thought ideas and also speech sounds. From the quotation
we can conclude that writing is a means of recording of what we want to store in
the form of written language. It is done due to the mere fact that our remembrance
is limited.
Writing as one of the language skills, has given an important contribution
to human work. The important of writing can be seen in peoples daily activities
and in our social life, like personal letters, teacher and students activities, office
activities and business activities (applications letter). In daily life, it is filled with
something that we need to explain about the processes. Explaining a process or
procedure through writing paragraph is a simple way. For example we write a
process how to make something. We write the process step by step so it helps the
reader understand about the information given. Because of writing activities, it
makes life easier, so people in big cities even in small villages may get the newest
information from media, such as newspapers, magazines, and tabloids, and so on.
Although writing is the most complex skills to develop, it is very
important to be learned and taught. It plays an important role in the modern
society. A lot of people are interested in it. At the beginning, they did it as a
hobby in order to kill their spare time, but later, many of them earn their living by
doing it for instance journalists, authors, novelists, interpreters, and script writers.
They can earn money in making news. They also improve their thought and ideas
in developing and reporting news.

21

Through writing such as letters, people can communicate to one another


over long distances in a very short limit of time. Writing activity has more
meanings in our daily life. People can give information to the other easily and
clearly. It is the cheaper way to communicate to one another than using telephone.
By sending letters, we just spend little money to buy stamps and envelope.
Through written material like books, magazines and newspapers, the
students will get much of their knowledge. Especially in writing their papers or
thesis, they must quote some important statements of some experts to support
their ideas. Books, as strong of knowledge, improve their writing ability in
English.
I hope that the students can learn more grammar and vocabulary, so I help
and guide the students to improve the language skills especially in writing skill.
By making composition in writing, it requires students to organize their own
words to make sentence by sentence correctly. It is one of the easy ways to
improve students understanding of the language skills. We can also know about
the students achievement in their writing composition.

2.2.3 Types of Writing


Before discussing the types of writing, I quote Finocchiaros opinion
(1974:85) says that the type of writing system (alphabet, picture), which exists in
the native language, is an important factor in determining the case or speed with
which students learned to write.
From the explanation above we can conclude that it is not guarantee that a
native speaker is always able to write a good composition in his native language

22

without having a creative power of anything beautiful or intrinsic value for the
content of a composition. Yet, we can use this creative power as a sign that he
knows how to write a foreign language. We should know the component of
writing such as grammar, form, content, etc. in order to make a good composition.
According to Finocchiaro (1974:86) writing falls into two types, i.e.:
(1) Practical or factual writing
These types of writing deal with facts. We can find it in the writing of
letters summaries or descriptive of how to do something.
(2) Creative or imaginative writing
This type of writing usually exists in literature. The examples of
imaginative writing are novels, short stories, romance etc.
Another author, Rivers (1998:242-243) classifies writing into four types as
follows:
(1) Notation
It is the simplest form of writing. It is an act of putting down in a
conventional graphic form something that has been spoken.
(2) Spelling
This process is sometimes useful when specific sound-symbol
conventions are under consideration, or when the student is being
asked to discriminate among various sound. If recognizable units of
the foreign language are involved, the process may be called spelling.
(3) Writing Practice
It involves putting in a graphic form according to the system accepted
by educated native speakers, combinations of words that may be
spoken to convey a certain meaning in a specific circumstance.
(4) Composition
It is the most highly developed form. The unlimited aim of a writer at
this stage is to be able to express him in a polished literary form that
requires the utilization of a special vocabulary and certain refinement
of structure.

2.2.4

Writing in the Second Language Classroom


The importance given to writing differs from teaching situation to

teaching situation. In some cases it shares equal billing with the other skills; in
other curricula it is only used, if at all, in its writing-for-learning role where

23

student write predominantly to argument their learning of the grammar and


vocabulary of the language (Harris, 2004:31).
Learning a language does not merely just know about it but it means more
than that. We must be able to use it (especially in communication) due to the main
function of a language as a means of communication, orally as well as in the form
of written language in writing. I order to achieve the goal, students must do a lot
of practices and application.
According to the research done by Cumming upon the students of Senior
High School in Japan that is quoted by Limbong (1997:27), writing proficiency in
L2 (second language) is influenced by the ability of the students in acquiring L2.
Such being the case, it is clear then, that writing ability can be learned like the
mastering of a language that can be learned to.
Writing skill is complex and difficult to teach since in this case writing
does not only mean putting down graphic form on a piece of paper. There are five
components of writing (Harris, 1969:68-69):
(1) Content
(2) Form
(3) Grammar

: the substance of writing, the idea expressed.


: the organization of the content.
: the employment of grammatical form and significance
pattern.
(4) Style
: the choice of structures and lexical items to give a
particular tone or flavor to writing.
(5) Mechanics : the use of the graphic convention of the language.

To encourage the students in their writing, an English teacher plays an


important role in developing their ability. He or she should be patient to support
and help them in improving their writing ability. If the students make mistakes in
their writing composition, teachers help them to make the correctness of the
mistakes.
Students are also given some reinforcements when they are writing
mostly right and less mistakes. Reinforcements can help them to be confident and
free to express their ideas into writing composition, so they can feel easy in
improving their writing skills. He/She has to give them a lot of training and

24

practicing how to express their idea into good sentences. So we can see the
students achievement in their writing composition.

2.2.5 Writing Demanded by Competence-Based Curriculum 2004


Before discussing the topic above, there is a brief description of the
principle of English teaching curriculum in order to have a clear understanding of
writing objective first. Here are some quotations of it:
(1) The objectives of teaching are aimed to develop the competence of
communication in English covering the skills of listening, speaking,
reading, and writing.
(2) It is need to pay attention that all of steps in writing above can
persisted if the students have experiences in reading narrative texts,
have already discussed and analyzed o that narrative texts is not new
things.
(3) Students able to communicate in oral and written by using the suitable
language style fluently and correctly in interaction discourse and/or
monologue especially in the form of discourse: descriptive, narrative,
anecdote, analysis exposition and horlalory exposition that aim at
interpersonal at interpersonal meaning.
(4) The students are hoped to be able to write various texts to daily
communication such as message, e-mail (joint: construction,
announcement, etc), demonstrate basic skill, and produce text in the
form of narrative, factual recount, descriptive.

2.2.6

The Definition of Paragraph


Talking about paragraph students may have had an understanding that

paragraph is a group of sentence that the first sentence of the group is indented,
that is, it begins a little bit more to the right of the right margin than the rest
sentences in the group. Paragraph is not only simply as a collection but they must
be well organized. The logical paragraph contains only one idea, that is the main

25

idea and this idea is developed by giving several supporting details. In other
words, paragraph has two types of sentences namely topic sentence and
supporting sentences. We should choose certain words, phrases and sentences,
which can be used to help us in improving the idea into a paragraph. One of the
paragraph functions is help someone to explain and interpret his idea. It makes
someone more creative to express his or her ideas freely.
A paragraph is a group of sentences that belong together because they deal
with one topic (Robinson, 1975:9). He also adds about paragraph that when free
writing is one paragraph long, the topic sentence begins the paragraph. When the
composition is longer, the topic sentence occasionally stands last in the paragraph
acting as a summary. Also, after the opening the topic sentence may not be
expressed but implied in a group of closely related sentences that form the
paragraph.
This leads to the conclusion that a paragraph consists of one main idea
and another is supporting sentence. The paragraph should be long enough to
develop the main idea clearly enough.

2.3 The Concept of the Study


This final project is entitled The Use of Pictures as Media for Teaching
Writing a Case Study at the Eleventh Grade of SMA Negeri Brebes 3. In order to
limit the study in such a way that it didnt broaden and to make easy in searching
the data, I used the term which can be described as follows:
(1) Pictures

26

In this study I applied series of pictures. The picture is cut-out pictures


from magazines, newspaper, and chart that are used as media in teaching English
especially in writing classes. The aim of using pictures here is to create the real
situation.
(2) Writing
Writing here is the activity in teaching and learning process in which the
students are able to express their ideas, thought, opinions, and feeling and
organized them in simple sentence based on pictures given by the teacher and
composing them into paragraphs. The form of the writing is guided writing since
the students should write based on the clues given such words that may be used
and a model of paragraph.
(3) The students at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes
What was meant by the students at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes
are not all the students, but just a part of the students taken as the research subject
as 30 students from the XI IPA 3 and the XI IPA 4 as the sample, it was
impossible to take all the students of the XI grade students to be sample.

CHAPTER III
METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

This chapter is divided into eight sub sections. They are: (1) subject of the
study, (2) the experimental design, (3) procedure of experimentation, (4) statistical
design, (5) instrument, (6) test validation, (7) method of analyzing data, and (8)
method of reporting the result.

3.1 Subject of the Study


3.1.1 Population and Sample
Gay (1987:102) states that population is the group of interest to the
researcher, the group to which she or he could like the result of the study to be
generalizing. The population of this research was the eleventh grade of SMA
Negeri 3 in the academic year 2005/2006. There were four classes for Natural
Science program and four classes for Social Science Program. On the average,
each class had 42 students. All of them were given the same materials in teaching
and learning process. Moreover, they were chosen as the population of the
research based on some reasons, those were:
1. The students were all in the same grade.
2. The students were relatively in the same grade.
3. The students had been studying English for the same period of time.
So, those eight classes were considered parallel.

27

28

Studying a population more effectively, I selected sample. Kerlinger


(1965; 118) states that a sample is a part of a population that is supposed to
represent the characteristic of the population.
I selected two classes of the students from the population as sample in this
study. In order to get the representative sample, the sample that could represent
the true situation of the population. They were experimental group taught using
pictures and control group which was taught without using pictures.
Gay (1987:98) points out that an experiment study needs 30 students for
each. Experimental groups as a sample can already represent for the whole
population of the study. Therefore, I selected 30 students as the experimental
group and 30 students as the control group.

3.1.2 Variables
The variables in this research were:
1. The independent variable that was method of teaching writing for both groups.
2. The dependent variable was the students achievement manifested in the test
score.

3.2 The Experimental Design


This study used pretest-post-test. The design of the experiment can be
described as follows:
E
C

01
03

X
Y

02
04
(Arikunto, 2002:79)

29

Which:
E : experiment group
C : control group
01 : pretest for the experimental group
02 : post-test for the experimental group
03 : pretest for the control group
04 : post-test for the control group
X : treatment with pictures as media
Y : treatment without pictures as media
In the design above, subjects were assigned to the experiment group (top
line) and the control group (bottom line). The quality of the subject was first
checked by presenting them (01 and 03), then the experiment treatment was
performed to the experimental group, while the control group was taught writing
without pictures as media. The test given was composition. The results of which
(02 and 04) were then computed statistically.

3.3 Procedure of Experimentation


They were the following steps in conducting the experiment:
1. Choosing the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 3 Brebes as the population.
2. Taking two groups of the students as the samples, one as the experimental
group and the other as the control group.
3. After that, conducting real experiment.

30

3.3.1 The Activities of the Experimental Group


3.1.1.1 Pretest
Pretest was given before doing the experiment. First, I came to the chosen
class and then I conducted myself to class and explained the students about what
they were going to do. I began to distribute the instruments and ask them to do the
pretest. This pretest conducted on August 27, 2005.
3.3.1.2 Activities in Doing Experiment
The experiment was conducted from August 29 to September 12, 2005. In
conducting the experiment, the students were given both verbal guidance pictures
and explanation as media.
3.3.1.3 Post-test
Post-test was given after conducting all the activities above. The test given
to the students was the same as pretest. It was conducted on September 19, 2005.
Table 3.1
List of activities experimental group
Activities
Materials

No

Time

1.

Pretest

2.

Describing seasons

3.

Describing occupations. Pictures of occupations. September 5, 2005

4.

Describing sports

5.

Post-test

Pictures of seasons

Picture of sports
-

August 27, 2005


August 29, 2005

September 12, 2005


September 19, 2005

3.3.2 The Activities of the Control Group


3.3.2.1 Pretest
Pretest was given before doing the experiment. First, I came to the chosen
class and then my conducted myself to class and explained the students about

31

what they were going to do. I began to distribute the instruments and ask them to
do the pretest. This pretest conducted on August 27, 2005.
3.3.2.2 Activities in Doing the Experiment
The activities began on August 31st to September 14, 2005 in the
experiment; the students were given verbal guidance without pictures as media.
3.3.2.3 Post-test
Post-test was given after conducting all the activities above. The test given
the students was the same as pretest. It was conducted on September 19, 2005.
Table 3.2
List of activities control group
Activities
Time

No
1.

Pretest

August 27, 2005

2.

Describing kinds of seasons

August 31st, 2005

3.

Describing kinds of occupations.

September 7, 2005

4.

Describing sports

September 14, 2005

5.

Post-test

September 19, 2005

3.4 Statistical Design


Brown (1988:116:117) points out that statistics is calculations made to
describe a sample.
I needed the calculations for statistically analysis as follows:
1. The coefficients of correlation of the reliability by using split half method; the
Pearsons Product Moment was applied.
rxy =


{ 2 ( ) 2 }{ 2 ( ) 2 }

(Arikunto, 2002:157)

32

2. To determine the reliability of the test, the Spearman-Brown Formula was


used.
r11 =

2 xr 12 12
1 + r 12 12

3. To determine whether there is a significant difference between the means of


the experimental and the control groups the t-test formula was applied.
t=

x y
x 2 + y 2 1
1

+
x + y 2 x y

(Arikunto, 2002:280)

3.5 Instrument
Before collecting the data, I made the test first as the instrument. The
instrument was a descriptive composition. To make sure that the instrument was
valid enough, I looked into Competence-Based Curriculum first. This curriculum
states that the students are supposed to make a descriptive composition. Thus, the
content of the test offered in the research was valid enough.
I also gave the students other instrument that is questionnaire to support
the data. A questionnaire is amount of written questions that is used to get
information from the respondents about everything that they know (Arikunto:
128).
According to Harris (1969:69), there are two kinds of test instrument used
to measure the four-language skill of the students, namely the objective test and
the essay test. Harris makes a comparison between the objective and essay tests of
writing in which can be conclude that as both objectives tests and composition

33

tests have their own special strength, the ideal practice is undoable to measure the
writing skill with a combination of both types of tests (Harris, 1969:71).
A writing test is actually subjective as said by Harris (1969:69) that
composition tests are unreliable measures because (1) students perform differently
on different topics and on different occasions; (2) the scoring of the compositions
is by a nature highly subjective.
In addition, he says (1969:70) that in writing compositions, students can
cover up weaknesses by avoiding problems (e.g. the use of certain grammatical
patterns and lexical items) they find difficult.
From the above advocating ideas, I decided to use essay test in form of
composition to the subject of my research. Before the test given for the students, I
showed it to the English teacher in the school.

3.6 Test Validation


A good test must fulfill some qualities such as; validity, reliability, and
practically.
(1) Validity
Validity means the test is appropriate in terms of our objectives so the test
is valid for our purposes. In this study, content validity is used. Therefore I did not
measure the validity of the instrument because it had already followed the rules in
writing. In other words we can say that a test is said for having a content validity
if the test is constructed (1) based on the course objectives, (2) by consulting the

34

curriculum to find the local content course of the study and the materials which
the student have learned.

(2) Reliability
The reliable yields the data can be trusted also. Reliability refers to relay
on level of something. Reliable means believable, and certifiable. In this research,
I used the computation method to identify the reliability of the instrument by
using Split Half formula.
Split Half Formula:
rxy =


{ ( ) 2 }{ 2 ( ) 2 }
2

(Arikunto, 2002:234)
Where : rxy = the result needed
N

= the number of the subject sample

= the score of the students who write by using pictures

= the score of the students who write without pictures

X 2 = the total score of X times X


Y2 = the total score of Y times Y
Here is the computation of the result of the students achievement in
writing by using Split Half formula (see Appendix 10 and 11).
After consulting the result to the critical value of Product Pearsons
Moment table with N=30, I found based on the reliability rxy value is greater than
the value in the table 0.86>0.31 for the experimental group and for the control
group is 0.62>0.361. Based on the result, it is concluded that the test is reliable.

35

3) Practicality
A good test may be very practical because of the following considerations:
a. the test is economical in money and time.
b. the test is easy to be administered and scored.

3.7 Method of Analyzing Data


Trough scoring, the results of the students work were needed to put in a
form that was readily interpretable. Those data were useful to depict students
levels of writing achievement.
Since the purpose of this research was to measure the students
proficiency, the writer interpret the result both statistically and none statistically.

3.7.1 Mode Scoring


Scoring the students work was a step to obtain quantitative information
from each student. One of the ways to scores or to evaluate the students
achievement in writing was rating scale. In using the rating scale, the scorer could
make a rank order of the results of the students works based on given categories
to know which students had the highest scores and which had the lowest scores.
The following scheme of rating scale was used to measure the students
achievement in their written product.
Table 3.3
The Scoring Guidance Taken from Heaton Grid and Categories
Fluency
5 Flowing style - very easy to understand both complex and
simple sentences very effective.
4 Quite flowing style mostly easy to understand a few
complex sentences very effective.
3 Style reasonably smooth not too hard to understand mostly
(but all simple sentences fairly effective).

36

2 Jerky style an effort need to understand and enjoy complex


sentences confusing mostly simple sentences or compound
sentences
1 Very jerky hard to understand cannot enjoy reading
almost all simple sentences complex sentences excessive
use of and.
Grammar
5 Mastery of grammar taught on course only I or 2 minor
mistakes.
4 A few minor mistakes only (prepositions, articles, etc).
3 Only 1 or major mistakes but a few minor ones.
2 Major mistakes that lead to difficult in understanding lack of
mastery of sentence construction.
1 Numerous serious mistakes no mastery of sentences
construction almost unintelligible.
Vocabulary 5 Use of wide range of vocabulary taught previously.
4 Good use of new words acquired fairly appropriate
synonyms, circumlocution.
3 Attempts to use words acquired - fairly appropriate vocabulary
on the whole but sometimes restricted has resort to use
synonyms, circumlocution etc on a few occasions.
2 Restricted vocabulary use of synonyms (but not always
appropriate) imprecise and vague affects meaning.
1 Very restricted vocabulary inappropriate use of synonyms
seriously hinders communications.
Content
5 All sentences support the topic highly organized clear
progression of ideas well linked like educated native speaker.
4 Ideas well organized links could occasionally be clearer but
communication not impaired.
3 Some lack of organization re- reading required for
classification of ideas.
2 Little or no attempt at connectivity thought-reader can deduce
some organization individual ideas may be clear but very
difficult to deduce connection between them.
1 Lack of organization so serve that communication is seriously
impaired.
Spelling
5 No errors.
4 1 or 2 minor errors only (e.g. le or el).
3 Several errors do not interfere significantly with
communication not too hard to understand
2 Several errors some interfere with communication some
words very hard to organize.
1 Numerous errors hard to recognize several words
communication made very difficult.
(Heaton, 1975: 109-111)

37

3.7.2 Classifying the Scores


In order for the raw scores to become more meaningful numerical data,
they should be converted to numerical data, which had been processed to the scale
of 0 to 100. Then, the processed scores could be used as a basic to make decisions.
If all of the students scores were arranged from the highest to the lowest, it would
be easier to know the position of a student in his/her group.
The measurement of the students achievement that is suggested by Harris
(1969:134) could be interpreted with the following table.
Criteria of mastery
91-100
81-90
71-80
61-70
51-60
Less than 50

Grade
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very poor

3.8 Method of Reporting the Result


In line with the data analysis, I applied both non-statistical and statistical
analysis to report the result of the students achievement in writing. Principally,
the procedure of reporting the result should fulfill at least two criteria:
(1) The report readers knew or understood what the aim of the report was. It
means that the readers could interpret the report properly.
(2) The report should be objective. It means that the report described the real
condition of the research.
The procedure, the type, or the technique in reporting the result could be in
various ways, such as tables, statistically data, description etc. The report also
depicted the students achievement in writing.

38

The report of the students achievement could be arranged and interpreted


on the basis of norm or criterion report with teaching approach of mastery
learning, especially for the purpose of perfection in teaching learning process of
which information derived from the feedback of the result. So, I used the
criterion-referenced report because the information needed was of the
achievement in writing class.
Based on the information or the analyzed data, a teacher could determine the
technique and strategy of teaching in order that the materials could be absorbed
well by the students in the future.

CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND THE RESULT OF THE STUDY

In connection with the data analysis, I applied both statistical and nonstatistical analysis to make the results of the students achievement interpretable.

4.1 Non- Statistically Analysis


4.1.1 Test Result
The students problem in writing composition was divided into five
components. They were fluency, grammar, vocabulary, content and spelling.
Fluency

: measuring the students ability of using the style in their


composition.

Grammar

: measuring the students ability of using grammar such as


articles, prepositions and etc.

Vocabulary

: measuring the students ability of choosing the appropriate


words.

Content

: measuring the students ability of using sentences according


to the topic.

Spelling

: measuring the students ability of writing words correctly in


their composition.

Based on the analysis of the students results of the composition


which was scored using Heatons grid, each percentage of the total of the five

39

40

components was 20.00%, 19.18%, 20.36%, 20.23%, and 20.23% for the
experimental group and 19.77, 19.67%, 20.27%, 19.86% and 20.36% for the
control group.

4.1.2 Test Scoring


After administering the test, I got the result of the students achievement as
shown in appendix 9 and 10.
In order to further know the students achievement in detail; I used the
following formula to find out the achievement of each component. The formula:
Ssa=

Sc
X 100%
Stsc.Ss

Where : Ssa

= Students achievement

Sc = Number of obtained scores

Stsc

= Sub total score

Ss

= Number of students

4.2 Computation between the Two Means


After getting all the scores, the computation was made. The first way to
know the significant difference of the experiment could be seen through the
difference of the two means. The following formula was used to get the means:
Me =

Mc =

Where, Me = the mean score of the experimental group

e = the sum of all scores of the experimental group


Mc

= the mean score of the control group

41

c = the sum of all scores of the control group

= the number of the subject sample

The score distribution of the experimental and control groups can be seen
in Appendix 11 and 12. The computation of the scores of the experimental group
and control group was calculated as follows:
Me =

2187.50
= 72.91
30

The mean score of the experimental group was 72.91


Mc =

2136
= 71.20
30

The mean score of the control group was 71.20


If we compared the two means it was clear that the mean of the
experimental group was higher than that of the control group. The difference
between the two means was 1.74. To make the analysis more reliable, I analyzed
by using t-test formula as stated in chapter III. Using t-test formula could see the
difference between the two means.
t=

x y
x + y 2 1 1

2
x
y

Where, t

= t-test

Mx = the mean difference of the experimental group

42

My = the mean difference of the control group

x 2 = sum of quadrate deviation of the experimental group


y 2 = sum of quadrate deviation of the control group
Nx = the number of the experimental group
Ny = the number of the experimental group
Before applying the t-test formula, we should find out x 2 and y 2 first.
The step to get x 2 and y 2 was:
x 2 = X

( )2

y 2 = Y

2
(
122)
= 756-

2
(
122)
= 1559-

=756-496.13

= 1559-496.13

= 259.87

= 1062.87

30

t=

(Y )2

30

[4.06 6.7]
1
259.87 + 1062.87 1

+
30 + 30 2 30 30
[2.64
1322.74 2


58 30

2.64
= 2.15
1.23

Nx + Ny 2 = 30+30-2 = 58 = 1.77
T-calculation is higher than t-table.
After getting t-value, I consulted the critical value of the t-table to check
whether the difference was significant or not. Before the experiment had been
conducted, the level significant to be used in the experiment had been divided

43

first. I used the 5% (.05) alpha level significance as usually used in psychological
and educational research.
The number of subjects in this experiment for experimental and control
group were 60 with the degree of freedom (df) 58, that was N1+N2-2. At the 5%
(.05) alpha level of significance, the obtained critical value is 2.15. It is higher
than the critical value on the table is the table (2.15>1.77) the difference is
statistically significance. Based on the computation there was significant
difference between teaching writing using pictures and teaching writing without
pictures. It can be seen by the result of the test where the students was taught
writing using pictures got higher grades than the students taught writing without
pictures.

4.3 Grade Achievement

The study was to find out whether using pictures, as media to develop
mastery of writing skills of the eleventh grade year students was effective.
Below is the list of the level of mastery that shows the percentage and the
grade of the experimental and the control group.
Criteria of mastery
91-100
81-90
71-80
61-70
51-60
Less than 50

A
B
C
D
E

Grade
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very poor
(Harris, 1969:134)

Frequency was the number of the students in the one grade. The number of
the students in the one grade was put into percentage. To show the score was

44

described in the frequency and percentage for both pretest and post-test. The list
below was the achievement according to the grade for the both group.

A
B
C
D
E

A
B
C
D
E

Table 1
The list of the experimental group:
Frequency
Percentage
Pretest
Post-test
Pretest
Post-test
4
13.33%
7
25
23.33%
83.33%
23
1
76.59%
3.33%
Table 2
The list of the control group
Frequency
Percentage
Pretest
Post-test
Pretest
Post-test
1
1
13.34%
3.34%
10
22
33.33%
73.26%
18
7
59.94%
23.33%
1
3.33%
-

The result of the writing test of experimental and control group for pretest
and posttest is reported here in the form of polygon. The vertical line with
numbers besides at shows the percentage of students for each grade. The
horizontal line shows the grade achievement of the scores obtained by students.
a. Relative frequency of the result of writing test of the experimental group.
This polygon describes the result of writing test obtained the
experimental group. The broken line (---) shows the achievement of
experimental group in pretest. The percentage of the students who got grade D
were 76.59% and that of the students who got grade D were 23.33%. The solid
line (___) shows the achievement of experimental group in doing the posttest.

45

The percentage of the students who get grade D, C, and B were 13.33%,
83.33%, and 3.33% respectively.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
E D C B A

b. Relative frequency of the result of writing test of the control group


This polygon describes the result of writing test achieved the control
group. The broken line (---) shows the achievement of control in doing pretest.
The percentage of the students who got grade E, D, C and B were 3.33%,
59.94%, 33.3%, 3.33%. The solid line (___) shows the achievement of control
group in doing the posttest. The percentages of the students who get grade D,
C and B was 23.33%, 73.33%, and 3.33% respectively.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
E D C B A

46

c. Relative frequency of the result of writing post - test both of the groups.
This polygon presents the achievement of both groups in doing the
post-test. The broken line (---) describes the achievement of the control group
in doing post-test. The percentage of the students who get grade D, C, and B
were 23.33%, 73.26%, and 3.33%. The solid line (___) describes the
achievement of the experimental group in doing the post-test. The percentage
of the students who got D, C, and B were 3.33%, 83.33%, and 13.33%
respectively.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
E D C B A

4.4 Discussion of the Research Findings


4.4.1 The meaning of the Test

The aim of this test is to know the students achievement in writing


through the use of pictures as media in the eleventh grade.
In the pretest, the average scores of the experimental group are 69.53 and
69.56 for the control group respectively. Although it shows a slight difference
between the two groups, the result shows that the control group is better than the
experiment one. The result of posttest of the experimental group is higher than

47

that of the control group; they are 76.3 for the experimental group and 72.83
respectively.
The testing hypothesis indicates that the experimental group is
significantly higher than the control group. Based on the result above, we
conclude that the experimental group is better than the control group.
The research findings reveal that the result of the treatment is contrarily to
the hypothesis which states that There is no significant difference between the
students taught by using pictures as media for teaching writing and those who
taught without pictures. In line with the research findings, the hypothesis must be
changed to There is significant different between students taught writing by
using pictures as media for teaching writing and those who taught without
pictures.

4.4.2 The Effect of the Treatment

4.4.2.1 I show some factors that are influenced by the result of the experiment.
The explanation below shows the advantages of using pictures as media
(Subject of the study).
a. Pictures gave the students exact data of the things they were writing about,
like shapes, colors, size, etc. Thought the help of pictures, the students
express their own ideas easily. They wrote composition not only based on
their imagination but more than that.
b. Pictures presented to the students were suitable for their own needs. Needs
are interesting topics to be talked so it will wise if the materials presented
to students have any relationship to their needs.

48

c.

The treatment gave the students different nuances of teaching. They were
more interested in following the given material. They were also interesting
in improving their English trough writing.

4.4.2.2 According to the convention level of achievement, the result of teaching


writing by using pictures is good. The average score is 72.91.
4.4.2.3 Based on the analysis of the research findings that teaching writing by
using pictures was more efficient that teaching without using pictures as
media.

4.3.3 The Weaknesses of using pictures as media for teaching writing

We all know that every method has its advantages and weaknesses. The
use of pictures also has its weaknesses as described below:
a. It spends a lot of money to prepare the materials. The materials can be
found in magazines, newspapers, and other written media that given actual
information. After getting the materials, they most be increased in number
in order to distribute them to the students.
Teachers spend the spare time at home for searching for the materials.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

The result of the calculation using the T test is 2.15>1.77. This implies that
there is difference in the achievement between the students who were taught
writing using pictures as media and students who were taught writing without
pictures as media. The slight difference can be seen from the means of both
groups. From the calculation enclosed, the mean of the experimental group is
higher than the mean of the control group. It means that writing composition by
using pictures is better than writing composition without pictures.

5.2 Suggestion

From the conclusions stated above, I suggest the English teachers to use
pictures in teaching writing in the form of composition. They can inspire the
students what to write.

49

50

REFERENCE
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.
Jakarta; PT. Rineka Cipta.
Blooomfield, Leonard. 1964. Language. New york, Holt, Reinhart and Wistion.

Brown. J. D. 1988. Understanding Research in Second Language Learning: A


Teachers Guide to Statistics and Research Design. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Brown. J. W.; Lewis, R. B.; Harkroad. F.F. 1964. Audio Visual Instruction,
Material and Instruction. New York: MC. Graw Hill Book Company.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2003. Kurikulum 2004: Standard Kompetensi
Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA. Jakarta; Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional.
Finocchiaro, and M. Bonomo. 1973. The Foreign Language Learners: A guide for
Teachers. New York; Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, L. R. 1987. Educational research: Competencies for Analysis and
Application. Ohio; Merrill Publishing Company.
Gerlach, V. S.; Ely. D. P. 1980. Teaching and Media: a Systematic Approach.
New Jersey. Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gronlund, Norman. E. 1981. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New
York; Macmillan Publishing Co.
Harmer, J. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New york;
Longman, Inc.
-------------. 2004. How to Teach Writing; Language: Inc.

Harris, David. P. 1969. Teaching English as a Second Language. New York; MC


Graw-Hill Book Company.

51

Heaton, J. B. 1975. Writing English Language Test. London; Longman, Group


Ltd.
Kreidler, Carol. J. 1965. Visual Aids: for Teaching English to Speakers of Other
Languages. Washington DC. Center for Applied Linguistics.
Limbong, T. 1997. Suggested Material for Teaching Writing to SMEA Students.
Thesis S1 Unpublished. Semarang; FPBS, IKIP Semarang.
Ramelan. 1992. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang. IKIP Semarang
Press.
Rivers, W. M. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. London; The University
of Chicago Press, Ltd.
Sadiman, S, A; Rahardjo; Anung; dan Rahardjito. 2003. Media Pendidikan
Pengertian, Pengembangan dan Pemanfaatannya. Jakarta. P.T. Raja
Grafindo Persada.
Saraswati, P. 1996. Teaching Paragraph Writing Through Model and Exercises
for Senior High School Students. S1 Thesis. Semarang. FPBS IKIP
Semarang.
Wright, Andrew.1976. Visual Materials for the Language Teacher. New York;
longman, Inc.

APPENDICES

52

53

Appendix 1: The Lesson Plan of Experimental Group

Lesson

: English

Main Discussion

: Writing

Sub Main Discussion : Descriptive Writing


Grade

: Eleventh

Time

: 6 X 45 minutes

I. General Teaching Subjective


The students are able to express their own ideas, feelings, opinions, and
statements systematically, logically, and creatively based on the pictures given.

II. Specific Teaching Subjective


After taking the course of descriptive writing, it is hoped that the students
are able to do the teaching-learning activity to get the skill to write a descriptive
composition based on the pictures given for about 200 words.

III. Subject Matter


1. The meaning of descriptive composition
Descriptive composition is a kind of composition to describe a
particular person, place, and thing. In the composition require the students
to organize their own ideas, expressed in their own words to describe
something.
2. The Meaning of Picture
Picture is a two-dimensional visual representation of person,
places, and things. A picture is also simple in that printed or photographically
processed and it can also be mounted for preservation for the use in the future.
3. An example of pictures

Pictures of whether

Pictures of occupations

Pictures of sports

54

IV. Teaching Learning Activity


1. The teacher explains the meaning of descriptive composition and the
meaning of pictures.
2. The students listen to the teachers explanation
3. The teacher gives that have to be developed to the students.
4. The students are asked to develop the pictures into paragraph.

V. Method
The methods used in the experimental group are explanation and task method.

VI. Evaluation
1. Task kind: written test
2. Test form: subjective test

55

Appendix 2: The Lesson Plan of Control Group

Lesson

: English

Main Discussion

: Writing

Sub Main Discussion : Description Writing


Time

: 3 X 45 minutes

I. General Teaching Subjective


The students are able to express their ideas, feelings, opinions, and
statements systematically, logically, and creatively based the teachers guidance.

II. Specific Teaching Subjective


After taking the course of descriptive writing, it is hoped that the students
are able to do the teaching-learning activity to get the skill to write a description
composition based on the teachers guidance for about 200 words.

III. Subject Matter

The Meaning of Descriptive Composition


Descriptive composition is a kind of composition to describe a

particular person, place, and thing. In the composition require the students to
organize their own ideas, expressed in their own words to describe something.

IV. Teaching Learning Activity


1. Teacher explains the meaning of descriptive paragraph.
2. The teacher gives the students the topic of the composition.
3. The students listen to the teachers explanation.
4. The students are asked to develop the thing into paragraph.

56

V. Method
The method used in the control group is explanation and task method.

VI. Evaluation
1. Task kind

: written task

2. Test form : subjective writing.

57

Appendix 3: Research Instrument Sheet

Instrument
Mata Pelajaran

: Bahasa Inggris

Kelas

: XI

Hari, tanggal

: Sabtu, 27 Agustus 2005

Alokasi Waktu

: 90 menit

Instructions:
1. Write your name and number
2. Choose a picture and make a descriptive writing
3. Write your composition text in 200 words

Rabbit

Eiffel Tower

Cow

58

Appendix 4 : The Composition Sheet in Writing Descriptive Text

Composition Sheet
Name

Number :
Class

:
____________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

59

60

Appendix 5: Indicator of the questionnaires

No
Variable
Indicator
1. The students quality in The students frequency in
studying
writing
Students interest
Students problems
2. Media
The use of pictures as media
in teaching and learning
process.
3. Situation
The supporting situation
4. Materials
The students interest in the
materials given
5. The teachers quality in
The way teacher in teaching
teaching
The reinforcements given

Item
1
2,3,4
5,6,7
8,9,10

11,12
13
14
15

Scoring

a. The maximum score

= number of obtained high score X total item


= 4 X 15 = 60

b. The minimum score

= number of low score X total item


= 1 X 15 = 15

c. The percentage

= total value of answer X 100%


total value of ideal answer

Percentage of high score = 60 X 100% = 100%


60
Percentage of low score

= 15 X 100% = 15%
60

Interval percentage
Interval
78.76% - 100%
57.51% - 78.75%
36.26% - 57.50%
15.00% 36.25%

Criteria
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor

61

Appendix 6: Questionnaires Sheet

Angket
Nama

: ________________

Nomor

: ________________

Kelas

: ________________

Petunjuk Pengisian :
1. Tulislah nama, nomor, dan kelas Anda pada tempat yang telah disediakan.
2. Jawablah pertanyaan yang sudah disediakan sesuai denagn pendapat Anda
sendiri dengan cara menyilang jawaban yang anda pilih.

1. Seberapa sering Anda menulis karangan bahasa Inggris?


A. sangat sering
B. sering
C. kadang-kadang
D. tidak pernah
2. Menurut Anda, bagaimana cara pembelajaran menulis karangan bahasa Inggris
tadi di kelas?
A. sangat menarik
B. menarik
C. cukup menarik
D. membosankan
3. Menurut Anda bagaimana penting kemapuan menulis karangan bahasa Inggris
bagi kehidupan sehari-hari dan masa depan?
A. sangat penting
B. penting
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak penting

62

4. Anda mengalami kesulitan dalam menulis karangan bahasa Inggris karena guru
dalam mengajar kurang memberikan latihan.
A. sangat setuju
B. setuju
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak setuju
5. Dalam proses belajar mengajar tadi Anda mempraktekan bentuk pola kalimat
bahasa Inggris guna mengungkapkan pikiran, ide atau gagasan?
A. sangat jelas
B. setuju
C. tidak setuju
D. tidak tahu
6. Apakah Anda mempraktekan menulis karangan bahasa Inggris diluar kelas atau
dalam kehidupan sehari-hari?
A. sangat sering
B. sering
C. kadang-kadang
D. tidak pernah
7. Anda mengalami kesulitan dalam menulis karangan bahasa Inggris karena guru
dalam mengajar jarang mengajak Anda menulis karangan bahasa Inggris.
A. sangat setuju
B. setuju
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak setuju
8. Apakah penggunaan media gambar dapat membantu pemahaman Anda dalam
menulis karangan bahasa Inggris?
A. sangat membantu
B. membantu
C. cukup membantu
D. tidak membantu

63

9. Apakah penggunaan media gambar perlu diperbanyak lagi untuk membantu


Anda dalam menulis karangan bahasa Inggris?
A. sangat perlu
B. perlu
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak perlu
10. Menurut Anda bagaimana media pembelajaran yang digunakan untuk menulis
karangan bahasa Inggris di kelas tadi?
A. sangat menarik
B. menarik
C. cukup menarik
D. membosankan
11. Bagaimana menurut Anda bila guru mengajar bahasa Inggris dengan
menggunakan situasi dan kondisi yang nyata atau keadaan sehari-hari?
A. sangat menarik
B. menarik
C. cukup menarik
D. membosankan
12. Dalam proses belajar mengajar tadi, Anda mengekspresikan pikiran atau ide
melalui tulisan secara bebas, tanpa tekanan, atau paksaan.
A. sangat setuju
B. setuju
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak setuju
13. Menurut Anda apakah menarik materi yang disampaikan guru dalam proses
belajar mengajar tadi?
A. sangat menarik
B. menarik
C. ragu-ragu
D. tidak menarik

64

14. Menurut Anda bagaimana cara mengajar guru dalam menulis karangan pada
kegiatan mengajar tadi sehingga siswa memahaminya dengan baik?
A. sangat jelas
B. jelas
C. cukup baik
D. tidak jelas
15. Apakah guru memberikan pujian (dengan ucapan/gerak tubuh) kepada Anda
setelah Anda menulis tentang suatu hal (menulis karangan descriptive dengan
baik)?
A. selalu
B. sering
C. kadang-kadang
D. sekali kali benar

65

Appendix 13 : Questionnaires Result


No Name

10 11 12 13 14 15 Sum

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

3
2
2
1
1
2
3
2
1
2

4
3
2
2
3
3
4
3
3
4

4
4
3
4
4
3
2
3
4
4

3
3
4
2
3
2
3
1
3
1

4
2
3
1
3
3
3
3
3
3

2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2

4
3
3
4
3
3
2
2
1
1

4
2
3
2
3
4
4
4
4
4

4
1
3
1
3
3
3
3
4
3

4
2
2
2
4
4
3
3
3
4

Ardi. S
Dewi. H
Lasria
Kuryadi
Saeful. A.
Sekar
Sumarni
Tati
Yos Elang
Yuli. E.

4
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
3
3

2
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
4
3

4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3

3
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

1
3
1
1
3
2
1
2
2
3

50
38
37
32
42
44
40
42
43
43

%
83.33
63.33
61.66
53.33
70.00
73.00
70.00
71.66
71.66
66.66

Criteria
Very Good
Good
Good
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good

66

Apendix 14 : Table r Product Moment


THE CRITICAL VALUE OF r PRODUCT MOMENT
Interval

belief

interval

belief

interval

belief

N
(1)
3

95%
(2)
0.997

99%
(3)
0.999

N
(1)
26

95%
(2)
0.388

99%
(3)
0.496

N
(1)
55

95%
(2)
0.266

99%
(3)
0.345

0.950

0.990

27

0.381

0.487

60

0.254

0.330

0.878

0.959

28

0.374

0.478

65

0.244

0.317

0.811

0.917

29

0.367

0.470

70

0.235

0.306

0.754

0.874

30

0.361

0.463

75

0.227

0.296

0.707

0.874

31

0.355

0.456

80

0.220

0.286

0.666

0.798

32

0.349

0.449

85

0.213

0.278

10

0.632

0.765

33

0.344

0.442

90

0.207

0.270

11

0.602

0.735

34

0.339

0.436

95

0.202

0.263

12

0.576

0.708

35

0.334

0.430

100

0.195

0.256

13

0.553

0.684

36

0.329

0.424

125

0.176

0.230

14

0.532

0.661

37

0.325

0.418

150

0.159

0.210

15

0.514

0.641

38

0.320

0.413

175

0.148

0.194

16

0.497

0.623

39

0.316

0.408

200

0.138

0.181

17

0.482

0.606

40

0.312

0.403

300

0.113

0.148

18

0.468

0.590

41

0.308

0.396

400

0.098

0.128

19

0.456

0.575

42

0.304

0.393

500

0.088

0.115

20

0.444

0.561

43

0.301

0.389

600

0.080

0.105

21

0.433

0.549

44

0.297

0.384

700

0.074

0.097

22

0.423

0.537

45

0.294

0.380

800

0.070

0.091

23

0.413

0.526

46

0.291

0.276

900

0.065

0.086

24

0.404

0.515

47

0.288

0.372

1000

0.063

0.081

25

0.396

0.505

48

0.284

0.368

49

0.281

0.364

50

0.297

0.361

67

Appendix 16: T-Table

Table nilai kritis (beda mean)


df

3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
1.476

Level of significance for one-tailed test


.05
.025
.01
.005
Level of significance for two-tailed test
.10
.05
.02
.01
31.821
12.706
9.314
63.657
6.965
4.303
2.920
9.925
4.541
3.182
2.353
5.841
3.747
2.776
2.132
4.604
3.365
2.571
2.015
4.032

1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372

1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812

2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228

1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.311

1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753

2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131

1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325

1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725

2.120
2.110
2.101
2.093
2.086

1.323
1.321
1.19
1.318
1.316

1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711
1.708

2.080
2.074
2.069
2.04
2.060

1.315
1.14
1.13
1.311
1.310

1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699
1.697

2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045
2.042

1.303
1.296
1.289
1.283

1.684
1.671
1.658
1.645

2.021
2.000
1.980
1.960

.10
.20

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
60
120

3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764
2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602
2.583
2.567
2.552
2.539
2.528
2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492
2.485
2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462
2.457
2.423
2.390
2.358
2.326

.0005
.001
636.619
31.598
12.941
8.610
6.859

3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169

5.959
5.405
5.041
4.781
4.587

3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947

4.437
4.318
4.221
4.140
4.073

2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861
2.845

4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850

2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787

3.819
3.792
3.767
3.745
3.725

2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750

3.707
3.690
3.674
3.659
3.646

2.704
2.660
2.617
2.576

3.551
3.460
3.373
3.291

68

.20
3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
1.476

Level of significance for one-tailed test


.025
.01
.005
Level of significance for two-tailed test
.10
.05
.02
.01
63.657
31.821
12.706
9.314
9.925
6.965
4.303
2.920
5.841
4.541
3.182
2.353
4.604
3.747
2.776
2.132
4.032
3.365
2.571
2.015

1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372

1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812

2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228

3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764

3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169

5.959
5.405
5.041
4.781
4.587

1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.311

1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753

2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131

2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602

3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947

4.437
4.318
4.221
4.140
4.073

1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325

1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725

2.120
2.110
2.101
2.093
2.086

2.583
2.567
2.552
2.539
2.528

2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861
2.845

4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850

1.323
1.321
1.19
1.318
1.316

1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711
1.708

2.080
2.074
2.069
2.04
2.060

2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492
2.485

2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787

3.819
3.792
3.767
3.745
3.725

1.315
1.14
1.13
1.311
1.310

1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699
1.697

2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045
2.042

2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462
2.457

2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750

3.707
3.690
3.674
3.659
3.646

1.303
1.296
1.289
1.283

1.684
1.671
1.658
1.645

2.021
2.000
1.980
1.960

2.423
2.390
2.358
2.326

2.704
2.660
2.617
2.576

3.551
3.460
3.373
3.291

.10

.05

.0005
.001
636.619
31.598
12.941
8.610
6.859