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bernoullis theorem

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) apparatus consists of a classical

Venturi made of clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static

pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to

traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a

manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurization of the

manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.

This unit has been designed to be used with a Hydraulics Bench for students to study the

characteristics of flow through both converging and diverging sections. During the

experiment, water is fed through a hose connector and students may control the flow rate

of the water by adjusting a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section.

The venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge

coefficient can be determined. This test section can be used to demonstrate those

circumstances to which Bernoullis Theorem may be applied as well as in other

circumstances where the theorem is not sufficient to describe the fluid behavior.

2.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The unit is mounted on a base board which is to be placed on top of the Hydraulic Bench

(Model: FM110). This base board has four adjustable feet to level the apparatus.

The main test section is an accurately machined acrylic venturi of varying circular cross

section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings, which are connected

to the manometer tubes on the rig. These tappings allow the measurement of static

pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. The tapping positions and the test

section diameters are shown in Appendix A. The test section incorporates two unions, one

at either end, to facilitate reversal for convergent or divergent testing as illustrated in Figure

1 and Figure 2.

Manometer tubes

Unions

Gland Nut

Hypodermic probe

Water inlet

Test section

Adjustable feet

W ater outlet

Flow control valve

Additional tapping

A hypodermic tube, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be positioned to

read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total pressure head probe may

be moved after slacking the gland nut; this nut should be re-tightened by hand after

adjustment. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate setting up. All eight pressure

tapings are connected to a bank of pressurized manometer tubes. Pressurization of the

2

manometers is facilitated by connecting any hand pump to the inlet valve on the

manometer manifold.

The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses and the

connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose attached to the

outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics

bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and

pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control

valve and the bench supply control valve.

Please familiarize with the unit before operating the unit. The unit consists of the followings:

a) Venturi

The venturi meter is made of transparent acrylic with the following specifications:

Throat diameter

: 16 mm

Upstream Diameter : 26 mm

Designed Flow Rate : 20 LPM

b) Manometer

There are eight manometer tubes; each length 320 mm, for static pressure and total

head measuring along the venturi meter.

The manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as well as

tubes pressurization.

c) Baseboard

The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with 4 height adjustable stands to level

the venturi meter.

d) Discharge valve

One discharge valve is installed at the venturi discharge section for flow rate control.

e) Connections

Hose Connections are installed at both inlet and outlet.

f) Hydraulic Bench

Sump tank

: 120 litres

Volumetric tank : 100 litres

Centrifugal pump : 0.37 kW, 50 LPM

2.1

Parts Identification

6

2

7

3

4

9

1. Manometer Tubes

6. Discharge Valve

2. Test Section

7. Gland Nut

3. Water Inlet

8. Hypodermic Probe

4. Unions

9. Adjustable Feet

3.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY

3.1

Eulers equation for steady flow along a streamline is

z

v

1 p

g =V

s

s

s

(3.1)

p

ds = dp (the change in pressure)

s

(3.2)

z

ds = dz (the change in elevation)

s

(3.3)

V

ds = dV (the change in speed)

s

(3.4)

dp

gdz = VdV

or

dp

+ VdV + gdz = 0

(3.5)

dp V 2

+

+ gz = constant

2

(3.6)

The relation between pressure and density must be applied in this equation. For

the special case of incompressible flow, = constant, and Equation 3.6 becomes

the Bernoullis Equation.

V2

+ gz

2

constant

(3.7)

Restrictions:

i.

Steady flow

ii.

Incompressible flow

iii.

Frictionless flow

iv.

Flow along a streamline

3.2

Bernoullis Law

Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying

cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is

higher, and the pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate.

Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher

velocity, lower pressure). This is expressed with the following equation:

p

v2

+

+ z = h * = Constant

g 2g

(3.8)

Where,

p

g

v

z

h*

= Density of the flowing fluid

= Acceleration due to gravity

= Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section

= Elevation head of the center at the cross section with respect to a datum

= Total (stagnation) head

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure head

(h), velocity head (hv ), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these

terms is known as the total head (h*). According to the Bernoullis theorem of fluid

flow through a pipe, the total head h* at any cross section is constant. In a real flow

due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the

results will deviate from the theoretical ones.

In our experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections we are

considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum,

z = 0, and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:

p

v2

+

= h * = Constant

g 2g

(3.9)

For the experiments, the pressure head is denoted as hi and the total head as h*i,

where i represents the cross sections at different tapping points.

3.3

The pressure, p, which we have used in deriving the Bernoullis equation, Equation

3.7, is the thermodynamic pressure; it is commonly called the static pressure. The

static pressure is that pressure which would be measured by an instrument moving

with the flow. However, such a measurement is rather difficult to make in a

practical situation.

As we know, there was no pressure variation normal to straight streamlines. This

fact makes it possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall

pressure tapping, placed in a region where the flow streamlines are straight, as

shown in Figure 4 (a). The pressure tap is a small hole, drilled carefully in the wall,

with its axis perpendicular to the surface. If the hole is perpendicular to the duct

wall and free from burrs, accurate measurements of static pressure can be made

by connecting the tap to a suitable pressure measuring instrument.

Flow

streamlines

Pressure

tap

Small holes

Flow

Stem

To manometer or

pressure gage

Figure 4: Measurement of Static Pressure

In a fluid stream far from a wall, or where streamlines are curved, accurate static

pressure measurements can be made by careful use of a static pressure probe,

shown in Figure 4 (b). Such probes must be designed so that the measuring holes

are place correctly with respect to the probe tip and stem to avoid erroneous

results. In use, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

Static pressure probes or any variety of forms are available commercially in sizes

as small as 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) in diameter. The stagnation pressure is obtained

when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process. In

incompressible flow, the Bernoulli Equation can be used to relate changes in

speed and pressure along a streamline for such a process. Neglecting elevation

differences, Equation 3.7 becomes

p

v2

= constant

2

(3.10)

If the static pressure is p at a point in the flow where the speed is v, then the

stagnation pressure, Po, where the stagnation speed, Vo, is zero, may be

computed from

0

Vo2 p V 2

+

= +

2 2

po

(3.11)

Therefore,

1

p o = p + V 2

2

(3.12)

incompressible flow. The term V generally is the dynamic pressure. Solving

the dynamic pressure gives:

1

V 2 = p o p

2

(3.13)

Or

V =

2( p o p )

(3.14)

Thus, if the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured at a

point, Equation 3.14 would give the local flow speed.

Flow

Small hole

To manometer or

pressure gage

Flow

Total

head

tube

po

Small holes

Flow

B

C

Stem

p

po

Figure 6: Simultaneous Measurement of Stagnation and Static Pressures

Stagnation pressure is measured in the laboratory using a probe with a hole that

faces directly upstream as shown in Figure 5. Such a probe is called a stagnation

pressure probe (hypodermic probe) or Pitot (pronounced pea-toe) tube. Again, the

measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

We have seen that static pressure at a point can be measured with a static

pressure tap or probe (Figure 4). If we know the stagnation pressure at the same

point, then the flow speed could be computed from Equation 3.14. Two possible

experimental setups are shown in Figure 6.

In Figure 6(a), the static pressure corresponding to point A is read from the wall

static pressure tap. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the total

head tube, as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream from

the measurement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow)

Two probes often are combined, as in the Pitot-static tube shown in Figure 6(b).

The inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the

static pressure at C is sensed using the tapping on the wall. In flow fields where

the static pressure variation in the streamwise direction is small, the Pitot-static

tube may be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB =pC and

using Equation 3.14. (Note that when pB pC, this procedure will give erroneous

results)

Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow (Mach

number, M 0.3).

Note:

Ma =

u

c

(3.15)

Where,

u = fluid velocity

c = sonic velocity

3.4

A number of factors can cause for pressure to vary along the pipe such as:

The diameter of the pipe; if it is small the pressure is lower because the

velocity is increased (Bernoullis Theory),

Density of the fluid in the pipe,

The height of the pipe at which the pipe stands or the height at which the flow

through i.e. gravity,

Turbulence of the fluid

3.5

Venturi Meter

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge. The

venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in

the figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity

of the fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and

throat is thus developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the rate of

discharge. The diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream back to the

entrance area and convert velocity head into pressure head.

10

p1

v1

p

v

+ Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2

2g

2g

(3.16)

p1 p 2

22

A

1 2

+ Z1 Z 2 =

2 g A1

(3.17)

Ideally,

A 2

Qi = A2V2 = A2 1 2

A1

1 / 2

p1 p 2

+ Z 1 Z 2

2 g

1/ 2

(3.18)

However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less

than that given by equation (3.18) because of frictional effects and consequent

head loss between inlet and throat. Therefore,

A

Qa = C d A2 1 2

A1

1 2

p1 p 2

+ Z 1 Z 2

2 g

12

(3.19)

experimentally determined discharge coefficient, Cd that is termed as the

coefficient of discharge. With Z1 = Z2 in this apparatus, the discharge coefficient is

determined as follow:

Cd =

Qa

Qi

(3.20)

Discharge coefficient, Cd usually lies in the range between 0.9 and 0.99.

11

4.0

4.1

The Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) is supplied ready for use

and only requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:

1. Ensure that the clear acrylic test section is installed with the converging

section upstream. Also check that the unions are tighten (hand tight only). If

necessary to dismantle the test section then the total pressure probe must be

withdrawn fully (but not pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling)

before releasing the couplings.

2. Locate the apparatus on the flat top of the bench.

3. Attach a spirit level to baseboard and level the unit on top of the bench by

adjusting the feet.

4. Fill water into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately

90% full.

5. Connect the flexible inlet tube using the quick release coupling in the bed of

the channel.

6. Connect a flexible hose to the outlet and make sure that it is directed into the

channel.

7. Partially open the outlet flow control valve at the Bernoullis Theorem

Demonstration unit.

8. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1 then switch on the pump.

9. Gradually open V1 and allow the piping to fill with water until all air has been

expelled from the system.

10. Also check for Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube.

You would need to remove them from the system for better accuracy.

Note:

To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:

i. Get a pen or screw driver to press the air bleed valve at the top right side

of manometer board.

ii. Press air bleed valve lightly to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out.

(Take care or you will wet yourself or the premise).

Allow sufficient time for bleeding until all bubbles escape.

11. At this point, you will see water flowing into the venturi and discharge into the

collection tank of hydraulic bench.

12. Proceed to increase the water flowrate. When the flow in the pipe is steady

and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the discharge valve to reduce the

flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.

13. You will see that water level in the manometer tubes will begin to display

different level of water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too

low where it is out of visible point, open V1 to increase the static pressure. If

the water level is too high, open the outlet control valve to lower the static

pressure.

Note: The water level can be adjusted facilitate by the air bleed valve.

14. Adjust V1 and outlet control valve to obtain a flow through the test section and

observe that the static pressure profile along the converging and diverging

sections is indicated on its respective manometers. The total head pressure

along the venture tube can be measured by traversing the hypodermic tube.

12

Note:

The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow

control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow

through test section.

15. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a

stop watch.

4.2

1. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.

2. Turn off the water supply pump.

3. Drain off water from the unit when not in use.

13

5.0

5.1

Objective: To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

Procedures:

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.

2. Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.

3. Adjust the discharge valve to the maximum measurable flow rate of the venturi.

This is achieved when tube 1 and 3 give the maximum observable water head

difference.

Note: Refer to the venturi specification for the designed flow rate.

4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method

and record the manometers reading.

5. Repeat step 4 with at least three decreasing flow rates by regulating the

venturi discharge valve.

6. Obtain the actual flow rate, Qa from the volumetric flow measurement method.

7. Calculate the ideal flow rate, Qi from the head difference between h1 and h3

using Equation 3.18.

8. Plot Qa Vs Qi and finally obtain the discharge coefficient, Cd which is the slope.

Results:

Volume

(L)

Time

(s)

Qa

(LPM)

hA

14

hB

hC

hD

hE

hF

5.2

Objective: To measure flow rate with venturi meter

Procedures:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.

Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.

After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method

and record the manometers reading.

5. Repeat step 4 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the venturi

discharge valve.

6. Calculate the venturi meter flow rate of each data by applying the discharge

coefficient obtained.

7. Compare the volumetric flow rate with venturi meter flow rate.

Results:

Volume

(L)

Time

(s)

Qa

(LPM)

hA

15

hB

hC

hD

hE

hF

5.3

Objective: To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

Procedures:

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.

2. Check that all manometer tubings are properly connected to the corresponding

pressure taps and are air-bubble free.

3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.

4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method.

5. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to

manometer #H, so that its end reaches the cross section of the Venturi tube at

#A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #H and

#A. The reading shown by manometer #H is the sum of the static head and

velocity heads, i.e. the total (or stagnation) head (h*), because the hypodermic

tube is held against the flow of fluid forcing it to a stop (zero velocity). The

reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head (hi) because it is

connected to the Venturi tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow,

thus measuring the flow static pressure.

6. Repeat step 5 for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E and #F).

7. Repeat step 3 to 6 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the

venturi discharge valve.

8. Calculate the velocity, ViB

using the Bernoullis equation where;

ViB = 2 g (h 8 h i )

9. Calculate the velocity, ViC using the continuity equation where

ViC = Qav / Ai

10. Determined the difference between two calculated velocities.

Results:

Cross

Section

i

h* = hH

(mm)

hi

(mm)

ViB =

[2*g*(h* - hi )]

(m/s)

Using Continuity

equation

Ai =

ViC =

2

Di / 4 Qav / Ai

(m/s)

(m2)

A

B

C

D

E

F

* Please refer to Appendix C for Cross Section Diameter

16

Difference

ViB-ViC

(m/s)

6.0

1.

It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus

should be stored properly to prevent damage.

2.

Any manometer tube, which does not fill with water or slow fill, indicates that tapping

or connection of the manometer is blocked. To remove the obstacle, disconnect the

flexible connection tube and blow through.

3.

4.

Always wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and goggles throughout the

laboratory session.

5.

Always run the experiment after fully understand the unit and procedures.

17

7.0

REFERENCES

Applied Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition, Robert L. Mott, Prentice-Hall

Elementary Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition, Robert L. Street, Gary Z. Watters, John K.

Vennard, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Fluid mechanics 4th Edition, Reynold C. Binder

Fluid Mechanics with applications, Anthony Esposito, Prentice-Hall International Inc.

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