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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 1
PROJECT OVERVIEW................................................................................................. 1
PROJECT SCOPE....................................................................................................... 1
PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................... 2
2.1

BREAD BOARD.............................................................................................. 2

2.1.1

WHAT IS BREAD BOARD..............................................................................2

2.1.2

CONNECTIONS ON BREAD BOARD.............................................................2

2.2

COMPONENTS................................................................................................ 3

2.2.1

1 IC 4011................................................................................................. 3

2.2.2

1 LED....................................................................................................... 3

2.2.3

1 LDR...................................................................................................... 4

2.2.4

2 RESISTORS........................................................................................... 4

2.2.5

BATTERY.................................................................................................. 5

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING................................................................................. 6


3.1 STEP: 1.............................................................................................................. 6
3.2 STEP: 2.............................................................................................................. 6
3.3 STEP: 3.............................................................................................................. 7
3.4 STEP: 4.............................................................................................................. 7
3.5 STEP: 5.............................................................................................................. 8
3.7 Our project....................................................................................................... 9

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
PROJECT OVERVIEW

In this project, we will build a light detector circuit using a NAND gate chip. A light
detector circuit is a circuit that can detect light. When a bright light shines on the circuit, such as
from a flashlight, we will make it so that a buzzer turns on. The circuit is very basic. The
component that will allow us to detect light is a photoresistor. We will use a photoresistor's lightsensing ability to detect whether the circuit is exposed to darkness or bright light.

PROJECT SCOPE
The main aim of this project is to saving system with LDR this is to save the power. We want
to save power automatically instead of doing manual. So its easy to cost effectiveness. This
saved power can be used in some other cases. So in villages, towns etc. we can design
intelligent systems for the usage of light or we can also use this to reduce the electricity bill
of our home. This project can also be used for security of the houses, banks, etc.

Chapter 2: Project Description

Chapter 2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1
2.1.1

BREAD BOARD
WHAT IS BREAD BOARD

A breadboard is a device for testing temporary electronics projects. Components used to test a
circuit can be reused for other projects. None of the components are damaged.
Almost all people start to learn electronics using breadboard because it is the simplestway of
making circuit. The photograph shows a typical small breadboard which is suitable for beginners
buildingsimple circuits with one or two ICs (chips).

2.1.2

CONNECTIONS ON BREAD BOARD

Connections on Breadboard Breadboard has many tiny sockets or holes arranged on a 0.1 grid.
The leads or terminals of most of the components like resistors, diodes, transistors, etc. can be
pushed straight into the holes. A breadboard has 4 rows of holes at the top and 4 rows at the
bottom and there are several columns of holes in the middle. There are two groups of vertical
columns in the middle part, as you see in the picture below it has been separated by a blue
rectangular block. None of the rows and columns are linked to one another. The holes in rows are
linked horizontally and column holes are linked vertically.

Chapter 2:Project Description

2.2
2.2.1

COMPONENTS
1 IC 4011

The 4011 is a quad NAND gate chip. It is a chip that is made up of 4 independent NAND gates.
The pinout of the 4011 quad NAND gate chip is shown below, so that you can see how to
connect it in the circuit.

2.2.2

1 LED

1 LED A semiconductor diode that emits light when conducting current and is used in electronic
equipment.

Chapter 2:Project Description

2.2.3

1 LDR

1 LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) Light Dependent Resistor or Photoresistor, which is a passive
electronic component, basically a resistor which has a resistance that varies depending of the
light intensity. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor that absorbs photons
and based on the quantity and frequency of the absorbed photons the semiconductor material
give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free
electrons conduct electricity resulting in lowering resistance of the photoresistor. The number of
electrons is dependent of the photons frequency.

2.2.4

2 RESISTORS

2 Resistors (330 ohms, 6.8k ohms) A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates
the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a
specific voltage for an active device.

Chapter 2:Project Description

2.2.5

BATTERY

9 volts battery A battery is an electrochemical cell (or enclosed and protected material) that can
be charged electrically to provide a static potential for power or released electrical charge when
needed.

Chapter 2:Project Description

Chapter 3
CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING
3.1 STEP: 1
Put IC in the middle of breadboard as shown in the picture.

3.2 STEP: 2
Then merge 1 input and 2 input as single as:

Chapter 2:Project Description

3.3 STEP: 3
Put a resistor 6.8K across one side of input and LDR on the other side of input then ground LDR
and Connect resistor with Vdd.

3.4 STEP: 4
Conect one side of 330 ohm resisor with the ouput (pin 3) and another side with positive end of
LED. Ground negative end of LED.

Chapter 2:Project Description

3.5 STEP: 5
At the end, connect batterys positive end to VDD and negative end with all ground pins.

3.6

Circuit Diagram

Chapter 2:Project Description

3.7 Our project

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References

REFERENCES
1) http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Articles/Light-detector-circuit-with-NANDgate.php
2) http://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-Light-Detector-with-Sensitivity-Control-No/
3) http://www.instructables.com/id/light-detector-no-microprocessors-just-simple-el/

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