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Terms

Definitions

What is an Isotonic
solution?

A solution in the IV that is equal to the concentration in the body no net movement of sodium

Reasons to give
Isotonic solution

To maintain or slowly raise blood pressure

Types of Isotonic
Solution

Normal Saline: 0.9%


D5W *** works as hypotonic solution
Tx of metabolic alkalosis

D5W

Classified as an Isotonic solution, but works as a hypotonic solution


- The glucose is immediately used up by the cells and all that is left
is extra water - thus water will move into the cells causing edema (if
too much)
tx of dehydration, hypernatremia,

Hydrostatic
Pressure

pressure that a fluid exerts on a container - wants to escape the


vascular space

Oncotic Pressure

proteins attract water and sodium - so they want to stay in the


vascular space; Greater concentration of proteins = greater OP

Types of Hypotonic
Solutions

0.45% NaCl (Saline Solution)


**D5W - works as Hypo but, classified as Isotonic

What is a hypotonic
solution?

A solution that has a smaller concentration of NaCl than of the body

Reasons to give
hypotonic solution

patient is dehydrated - gives cells more water

How does a
hypotonic solution
work?

A greater concentration of water goes into the vein thus the HP goes
up and the OP goes down - the extra will diffuse out into the
interstitial space and into the cells causing the cells to swell - while
in the vascular system the HP goes down and the OP goes up.

Types of Hypertonic
Solutions

0.9% NaCl (Saline Solution)


Albumin
D50
D10W

Reasons to give a

Patient needs to have an immediate and drastic rise in blood

hypertonic solution

pressure or to decrease anasacara.

How does a
hypertonic solution
work?

A smaller concentration of water goes into the vein (HP goes down
and OP goes up) - the cells will act as a buffer and push all their
water into the vascular system (HP goes way up and OP goes way
down) - this causes the cells to shrink and the blood pressure to go
back up in the vascular system.

What is a
hypertonic
solution?

A solution that has less water and more NaCl than the
concentrations in the body - causes cell shrinkage

Sodium Inbalance

CNS, confusion, seizures, and dizziness - Dhydration (hypernatrium)


and Edema (Hyponatrium)

Water moves _____


sodium.

with

Calcium Imbalance

muscle disturbances, aches, cramps, weakness, and bone defects

Potassium
Imbalance

Cardiac Irregularity

`Hydrogen moves
____ Potassium,

in opposition

Alkalotic patient
gets what type of IV
solution?

Hypotonic Solution

Acidotic patient
gets what type of IV
solution?

Hypertonic Solution

There are a ____


number of
electrolyte
intracellular.

small

There are a
____number of
electrolytes
extracellular.

big

Normal pH level

7.35 - 7.45 (7.4)


Less than 7.4 - acid
Greater than 7.4 - alkaline

Normal Carbon
Dioxide

35 - 45 (40)
Less than 40 - Alkaline
Greater than 40 - Acid

Normal Bicarbonate

22-26 (24)
Less than 24 - Acid
Greater than 24 - Alkaline

D5NS

prevents ketone formation and loss of K and intracellular water;


used in hypovolemic shock, burns

D10NS:

nutrition and to replenish Na an Cl

3%-5% NaCl used


in

(hypertonic solution)
water intoxication and sever sodium depletion

Hypertonic solution

draws fluid from the cell


D10NS, 3%-5% NaCl

Hypotonic solution

0.45% NaCl
D.25% in 0.45% Saline
D5NaCl0.2%

0.45% NaCl

Hypotonic solution
used for replacement when requirement for Na use is questionable

D.25% in 0.45%
Saline
D5NaCl0.2%

Hypotonic solution
common rehydration solution