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# The RF Stage Frequency Response

PROCEDURE (3-1)
Part 1
In this exercise you will measure the frequency response of the RF filter in the
AM/DSB Receiver. More specifically you will determine if the 3 dB frequency
response of the filter is sufficiently wide to pass the AM signal.

(1)Set up the modules as shown. Make sure that the AM/DSB RECEIVER is
placed on top because its top will have to be opened for this experiment.

## (2)Set up the Spectrum Analyzer controls as follows:

TRIGGER
continuous
CENTER FREQUENCY
850 kHz
SPAN
200 KHz
RESOLUTION BANDWIDTH
2.5 kHz
REFERENCE LEVEL (REF LEV)
0 dBm
ATTENUATION dBm/DIV 10 dbm

(3) Connect the Spectrum Analyzer to the Rf output (terminal 3) of the AM/DSB

(4)Use the Frequency Counter to set a Local Oscillator frequency. (fLO), of 1305
kHz at OSC OUTPUT
(terminal 4) on the AM/DS8 Receiver.

Since fLO = fc + fip, what carrier frequency is the receiver tuned to select?

fc = 850 kHz

## The RF Stage Frequency Response

Referring to Figure 3-3 you can see that the RF Filter and the Local Oscillatoi tuned
together in order to tune in a radio station. If the Local Oscillator has t set to 1 305
kHz, what should the center frequency of the RF Filter be?
Center frequency of the RF Filter is 850 kHz.

(5)Place the AGC switch in the 0 position. Have your instructor activate F
number 2 (FLT 2) on the AM/DSB Receiver. This is done by opening the panel
of the receiver, and placing the FLT 2 switch under the small hinged c in the 1
(fault active) position Note: Once the fault has been activated, the RF TUNING
knob must nc readjusted because the Local Oscillator has been shut off. If it is
necessa verify or readjust fLO, or If the RF TUNING knob has been
accidentally tur then FLT 2 must be returned to the 0 (fault inactive) position
and the L Oscillator readjusted again to 1305 kHz.

(6)The AM/DSB/SSB Generator will be used to inject a carrier signal intc AM/DSB
Receiver's RF filter so that its frequency response can be measi Set the
AM/DSB/SSB Generator as follows. a. Set the CARRIER LEVEL at MAX, and
make sure that it is pushed-in t LINEAR OVERMODULATION position. b. Set the
RF GAIN control (amplifier A;) midway between MIN and MAX c. Set the
AM/DSB RF OUTPUT (6) to around 850 kHz.

## (7)Connect the AM/DSB/SSB Generator's RF output (6) to the AM/DSB Reciever

50Q RF INPUT using a BNC cable. which module in your setup is acting as the
"Transmitter", which module is acting like the "Receiver" and what is acting
as the 'Channel'?
Transmitter
Channel

AM/DSB/SSB Generator
Cable

## (8)Vary the RF TUNNING control slowly on the AM/DSB/SSB Generator on both

sides 250 kHz while observing the RF OUTPUT (terminal 3) of the AM receiver
and the Spectrum Analyzers display. As the top of the carrier frequency it will
trace out the approximate frequency response of the RF Tiy using the
MAXHOLD button of the Spectrum Analyzer found und TRACE Controls to

trace out tne peaks. (The MAXHOLD can be turned he NORMAL button next to
it.) Use the markers to get ace "he DELTA marker function found under the
MARKER Contr useftrf for taking differences between measurements. (The
DELTA rr function can be turned off by clicking the NORMAL button above it.
Record the following measurements:

Freque
ncy
dBm (-)

770

790

810

830

850

870

890

910

930

53.82

51.72

49.11

45.86

45.73

49.10

52.73

56

58.56

(9) The frequency response of a band pass filter is specified by its center
frequency (f0) and bandwidth (BW). Fill in the table below. You can use the
spectrum Analyzers Marker's function to get exact measurements. To use the
markers click NORMAL under the MARKER control menu. Then just click on
the point that you wish to measure and read the marker values at the bottom
of the screen.
Center Frequency (f0)
840 kHz
3dB BW
60 KHz
10dB BW
166 kHz
(10)
The 3 dB bandwidth must be at least twice as large as the highest
frequency message (5 kHz for commercial AM broadcasts).
How does your result compare with these criteria?
Our 3dB BW is 12 times as large.

Part 2
In this exercise you will determine if the RF filter is sufficiently narrow to provide
image rejection.
The image frequency is an unwanted frequency that can potentially be picked up
simultaneously with the desired RF signal. All super heterodyne receivers suffer
from this problem. This problem arises because there are always two different
frequencies that can be mixed to the IF (intermediate) frequency. If we let:
Fc = the carrier signal's frequency (desired signal)
Fim = the image signals frequency (undesired signal)
Fif = the Intermediate Frequency (IF)
Flo = the Local Oscillator frequency (LO)
Then these two signals (fc, fim) that can mix to the intermediate frequency are:

## (1) Fif = flo - fc

(2) Fif = fim flo

As an example, if fif = 690 kHz and flo = 1145 kHz then there is an unwanted signal
at 1600 kHz, fim, that can mix to the IF frequency as shown below.
455 kHz = 1145 kHz 690 kHz
455 kHz = 1600 kHz 1145 kHz

## An algebraic manipulation of equations 1 and 2 can show that

(3) Fim = fc + 2fif

Explain why a problem arises if two different signals appear at the IF frequency?
A problem arises because the two signals are distorting one another and
by doing so disrupt the output that we see.

The ability of the RF filter to reject (attenuate) the image frequency depends on its
response to the frequencies, fc and fm. The image rejection is equal to the change
in dB. The image rejection is calculated as:
(4) Change in dB = dBm(fc) dBm(fim) = image rejection in decibels
Where
dBm (fc) = the response of the RF fitter at frequency fc in dB measured by the
Spectrum Analyzer.
dBm (fim) = the response of the RF fitter at frequency fim

(11)
Measure the image rejection of the RF filter for a carrier frequency of
850 kHz. This will require you to measure the response of the RF filter at 850
kHz as you did in part 1 above, and then measure it again at the image
frequency (fim).
Fim = 1750 kHz
All modules will be set as in Part 1 except:
Start frequency: 800 kHz
Stop frequency: 1800 kHz
Set the AM/DSB/SSB Generator's RF output (6) to fc = 850 kHz and measure
dBm(fc), and then set the generator's RF output to fim and and measure dBm(fif) on
the spectrum analyzer.

(12)

## dBm (fc) = -44.59 dBm

dBm (fim) = -92.13
image Rejection in decibels = 47.54 dB

A good receiver has around 50 dB of image rejection. Does the receiver that you
measured meet this standard?
Yes. We meet the standard of 50 dB.

(13)
Have your instructor return T 2 to 0 (inactive) position for the next
exercise.
PROCEDURE (3-2)
In this section we will inject a signal into the radio receiver and observe what signals
come out of the mixers output.

## (1) Set up the modules as shown:

AM / DSB/SSB
GENERATOR

none

FREQUENCY COUNTER

Spectrum analyzer

none

POWER SUPPLY

OSCILLOSCOPE

## (2)Connect the AM/DSB/SSB Generators RF OUTPUT (6) to the AM/DSB

OUTPUT (Terminal 5) to the Spectrum analyzers input. Set the generator as
follows:
AM/DSB/SSB Generator

CARRIER LEVEL
RF Tuning

## :Adjust for fc = 690 Hz

* Use the Frequency Counter to set the frequency, fc, to 690 Hz. The frequency
counter requires a large signal to operate so you will have to set the RF gain to at
least 1/4 turn cw. Then you will turn it lower.

RF GAIN

: approximately turn cw

AGC

:0

RF tuning

: flo = 1145

Spectrum Analyzer
START FREQUENCY : O Hz
STOP FREQUENCY : 2000 kHz
If the carrier frequency is set to fc= 690 kHz, and the local oscillator in the receiver
is set to flo=1145 kHz, then what is the expected IF frequency (f]F) out of the
mixer?
fif = 1145 690 = 455 kHz

## (3)Adjust the RF GAIN (amplifier A2) on the AM/DSB/SSB Generator to obtain a

spectrum as shown (Try using the MAXHOLD feature on the Spectrum
Analyzer to clear up the noisy display.)

Out of the four signals shown above which one is the desired signal? It is referred to
by what name? (Hint It is the one that will pass through the IF filter.)
The largest signal. flo - fc

If you turn up the input signal, to the AM Receiver, many more frequencies appear.
This happens because the mixer circuitry becomes overloaded and the signals start
to clip or limit, to more like suare waves, which contain multiple harmonics.
Gain Control circuit) which will and reduce the amplitude of

Fc = -52.64 dBm

## flo = -49.47 dBm

flo + fc = -70.34

We will see in section 3-31 that the IF filter will eliminate all the signals but the IF
signal.
PROCEDURE (3-3)
(1)Tune the AM/DSB Receiver to receive an 850 kHz signal. Tune it as exactly as
possible. Set the AGC off (0 position).
Fif = 455 kHz
What LO frequency is required to receive 850?
Flo = 1305 kHz
(2)Set the AM/DSB/SSB Generator to exactly 850 kHz. Connect the AM/DSB RF
output (6) to the 50 ohm RF input of the receiver. Set the RF gain to
minimum.

(3)Connect the IF OUTPUT (7) of the AM/DSB Receiver to the input of the
Spectrum Analyzer. Set the Spectrum Analyzer as follows:
TRIGGER
: CONTINOUS
CENTER FREQUENCY
: FIF
SPAN
RESOLUTION BW : 25 kHz
REFERENCE LEVEL : 0
ATTENUATION
: 15dB
DB/DIV
: 10 dB/DIV

## (4)Vary the RF TUNNING control very slowly on the AM/DSB/SSB Generator on

both sides of 850 while observing the IF OUTPUT (Terminal 7) of the AM/DSB
Receiver on the spectrum analyzer display. As the top of the carrier frequency
line moves, it will trace out the approxiamate frequency response of the
receiver at the output of the if filter (7). Try using the maxhold button of the
spectrum analyzer found under the trace button. Use the markers to get
accurate readings. The DELTA marker function under the MARKER is useful for

## taking differenced between measurements. (The DELTA function can be

turned off by clicking the NORMAL button above it)

## Record the following measurements:

Freque
ncy
kHz
dBm (-)

445

447.5

450

452.5

455

457.5

460

462.5

465

48.16

40.34

31.95

26.12

24.17

28.30

48.09

43.98

50.18

(5)The frequency response is specified by its c3enter frequency (f0) and (BW).
Fill in the table below.
Center Frequency (fc) = 455 kHz
3 dB BW = 4.74 kHz
10 dB BW = 9.8 kHz
(6)The 3 dB bandwidth must be at least twice as large as the highest frequency
in the message (10 kHz for AM). How does your result compare with this
criterion?
It does not meet the specs therefore we will have attenuation.

(7)If the 3 dB bandwidth is not at least twice as large as the highest frequency in
the message signal, what win happen in an AM receiver?
There will be attenuation.

(8)For AM broadcasting the signals are placed 10 kHz apart. What is the value of