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Name: Tavis

Date: 24th January 2015


Secondary Two - Transport in Living Systems
1.0 Transport system in Mammals
In complex multicellular organisms such as humans and other mammals, numerous cells are
located deep within the body, far from the external environment. Hence simple diffusion
cannot bring enough oxygen and nutrients to these cells, nor can it remove waste products
with efficient speed. Therefore requiring a transport system.

High Pressure

Low Pressure

High CO2 Concentration,

High O2 Concentration,

Low O2 Concentration

Low CO2 Concentration

Lowest Pressure

Highest Pressure

High CO2 Concentration,

High O2 Concentration,

Low O2 Concentration

Low CO2 Concentration

A transport system consisting of the lungs, heart, a network of blood vessels and capillaries is
required for transporting oxygen throughout the body. The heart acts as a pump, providing
high pressure, to allow oxygenated blood to be distributed to the other body parts faster and
to remove carbon dioxide from the blood stream efficiently. (FUN FACT: The sudden
increase in pressure when your heart pumps, results in a pulse. You can feel this pulse by
placing your fingers at your wrist region)
Diffusion occurs throughout the transport system at regions where there are differences in
concentrations. Circle on the diagram above to show regions of concentration
differences.
But first, how did CO2 and O2 arise in our bloodstream? When you consume a piece of bread,
the starch is broken down into glucose. Glucose then circulates within our bloodstream and
enters the various cells to provide energy. Through respiration, glucose breaks down in the
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presence of oxygen to produce CO2, water and lots of energy. Oxygen is obtained from the air
we inhale. CO2 has to be removed from our bloodstream as it is acidic. Our bloodstream
under normal conditions is around a neutral pH of 7.0, similar to water.
Glucose + Oxygen (O2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water + Large Amount of Energy
Your circulatory system consists of capillaries that are lined with a single layer of flattened
cells called the endothelium. The endothelium is thin and partially permeable allowing
oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse in and out respectively. These capillaries are commonly
found between and around organs. (RECALL: intestine, stomach, heart, kidney, liver and
lungs are organs.)

Learning Objectives Homework (To do in a piece of foolscap)


1a) What are multi cellular organisms?
1b) Identify the parts of the human circulatory system and their respective functions.
1c) State how diffusion facilitates transport of substances in animals (e.g. diffusion of
digested food molecules and oxygen from blood to tissues)
2) Explain the need for a transport system in multi cellular organisms.

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