By using the definition of the Laplace transform and then integrating by parts we have
L () =
() =
()
()
+
1
+ 1 + 
$
( $ + 1)+() =
$ + 1
+ 
$
1
$
+() =
1

+ $
$
+1
2
$ +() *(0) *(0) "+() *(0)# 6+() =
2
$ +() +() + 1 6+() =
( $ 6)+() =
$ + 2
+() =
$ + 2
( 3)( + 2)
+
3 15 3 5 + 2
Taking inverse transforms, we get
1
1
8
1
4
1
L ( +() = L ( / 0 + L ( /
0 + L ( /
0
3
15
3
5
+2
1 8 = 4 $
*() = +
+
3
15
5
Note: Here is a simplified method of expanding rational expressions into partial fractions. Any number
which makes a factor of the denominator equal to zero is called a pole. This method works provided
the order (degree) of the factor is one. For example, if the denominator factors into ( 5)( + 7),
then there are three poles: 0, 5, and 7. If any of the factors were of degree higher than one, that is $
or ( 5)$ , then this method would not work.
Lets use the expression from the previous example:
?
@$
(
=)(
@$)
?
@$
.
(
=)(
@$)
=
+
= +
@$, and we need to find A, B, and C. For each pole, remove its factor and set
$ + 2
1
E = lim
=
( 3)( + 2)
3
$ + 2
8
=
= ( + 2)
15
I = lim
$ + 2 4
=
$ ( 3)
5
J = lim
So,
?
@$
(
=)(
@$)
= = + (L( =) + ( @$).
1
2
We then have
= +() + +() =
2
+() =
1
( 2)( $ + 1)
Since one of the factors in the denominator is not linear, we cannot use our simplified method for
partial fractions unless we resort to complex numbers.
B
Setting +() = + $ +
D
@O
? @(
+() =
1
1
2
1
+
+
$
$
2 10( 2) 5( + 1) 5( + 1)
Exercises: Use Laplace transforms to solve the following initial value problems.
1.
2.
* 2* + * = 0, *(0) = 0,
3.
4.
* !! + 4* = sin ,
5.
* ! + * = (),
*(1) = 2
*(0) = *(0) = 0
*(0) = 0, () = 1
1 0 < 1
1
1
Answers:
cos sin
+
2
2
2
1.
*() = 1 +
2.
*() = 2 (
3.
*() =
4.
*() =
5.
1 V
sinh
sinh 2 sin
10
5