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# Transforms of Derivatives Solutions of Differential Equations

By using the definition of the Laplace transform and then integrating by parts we have



L () =
 () =   ()|
()
 +



## If we assume that  () 0 as  , then the term   ()|

 becomes (0), while


## L () = () (0), where () = L ()

We can easily expand this for  !! ().
L () =  L () (0) = "() (0)# (0) =  \$ () (0) (0)
So, in general, the Laplace transform of an nth derivative is
L % (&) ()' =  & ()  & ( (0)  & \$  ! (0)  (& () (0), where () = L ()

## To solve differential equations, we slightly modify the above notation.

L *() = +(); L ( +() = *()
L * = +() *(0); L * =  \$ +() *(0) *(0)
L %* (&) ' =  & +()  & ( *(0)  & \$ * ! (0) * (& () (0)
Note that to solve a differential equation using Laplace transforms we need to know the values of *(0)
and * ! (0). When these are given, the problem is called an initial-value problem.
Example: Solve * + * =  with *(0) = - and *(0) = 1.
First, we take the Laplace transform of each term in the equation.
L * + L * = L 
( \$ + 1)+() =

1
+ 1 + -
\$

( \$ + 1)+() =

\$ + 1
+ -
\$

1

\$

+() =

1
-

+ \$
\$

 +1

## Now taking inverse transforms, we get

1

L ( +() = L ( / \$ 0 + - L ( 1 \$
2 =  + - cos 

 +1
Department of Mathematics, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH

## Example: Solve * * 6* = 2 with *(0) = 1 and *(0) = 0.

Take the transform of each term in the equation.
L * L * 6 L * = L 2

2
 \$ +() *(0) *(0) "+() *(0)# 6+() =

2
 \$ +()  +() + 1 6+() =


( \$  6)+() =

\$  + 2


+() =

\$  + 2

( 3)( + 2)

## Expanding the right side into partial fractions gives

1 1 8
1
4
1
+() = +

+

3  15  3 5  + 2
Taking inverse transforms, we get
1
1
8
1
4
1
L ( +() = L ( / 0 + L ( /
0 + L ( /
0
3

15
3
5
+2

1 8 = 4 \$

*() = +
+
3
15
5

Note: Here is a simplified method of expanding rational expressions into partial fractions. Any number
which makes a factor of the denominator equal to zero is called a pole. This method works provided
the order (degree) of the factor is one. For example, if the denominator factors into ( 5)( + 7),
then there are three poles: 0, 5, and -7. If any of the factors were of degree higher than one, that is  \$
or ( 5)\$ , then this method would not work.
Lets use the expression from the previous example:
? @\$
( =)( @\$)

? @\$
.
( =)( @\$)

## The poles are 0, 3, -2. We have

= + = + @\$, and we need to find A, B, and C. For each pole, remove its factor and set
\$  + 2
1
E = lim
=
 ( 3)( + 2)
3
\$  + 2
8
=
= ( + 2)
15

I = lim

\$  + 2 4
=
\$ ( 3)
5

J = lim
So,

? @\$
( =)( @\$)

= = + (L( =) + ( @\$).

## Example: Solve * + * = \$ with *(0) = *(0) = *(0) = 0.

For this problem we need to know that
L * =  = +()  \$ *(0) *(0) *(0)
L * = +() *(0)
L  \$N  =

1
2

We then have
 = +() + +() =

2

+() =

1

( 2)( \$ + 1)

Since one of the factors in the denominator is not linear, we cannot use our simplified method for
partial fractions unless we resort to complex numbers.
B

Setting +() = + \$ +

D @O
? @(

## and solving for A, B, C, and D, we get

+() =

1
1
2
1
+
+

\$
\$
2 10( 2) 5( + 1) 5( + 1)

## Then, the solution is

1
1
1
1
2

1
1
L ( +() = L ( / 0 + L ( /
0 + L ( 1 \$
2 L ( / \$
0

10
2
5
 +1
5
 +1
2
1 \$ 2
1
*() = +
+ cos  sin 
2 10 5
5

## Department of Mathematics, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH

Exercises: Use Laplace transforms to solve the following initial value problems.
1.

## * !! * = sin  , *(0) = *(0) = 0

2.

* 2* + * = 0, *(0) = 0,

3.

## * 2Q* + (Q \$ + \$ )* = 0, *(0) = 0, *(0) = 1

4.

* !! + 4* = sin  ,

5.

* ! + * = (),

*(1) = 2

*(0) = *(0) = 0
*(0) = 0, () = 1

1 0  < 1

1
1

 cos  sin 
+

2
2
2

1.

*() = 1 +

2.

*() = 2  (

3.

*() =

4.

*() =

5.

1 V
sinh 

sinh 2 sin 

10
5