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KILN AUDIT

TRAINING
OKKE PLANT KOREA
Sept. 8 12, 2008

OBJECTIVES

To transfer the knowledge and skills


necessary for:

ATC

Performing a heat & mass balance on the pyro


system
Interpreting results & drawing conclusions
Benchmarking performance & making
recommendations

Sept. 8-12, 2008

AGENDA

ATC

Day 1
Introduction / Safety Briefing
Kiln Audit Training / Details, Report Writing
Guideline Presentations
Plant Walk Through
Checking of Instruments
Review of Operation from CCR
Day 2
Collection of Measurements (2 sets) AM / PM
Sept. 8-12, 2008

AGENDA

ATC

Day 3
Performing Calculations
Day 4
Complete Heat & Mass Balance
Identify Areas of Improvement &
Recommendations
Day 5
Presentations by participants

Sept. 8-12, 2008

GOALS OF KILN AUDIT

ATC

To get a detailed view of the kiln line


performance
Evaluate exact data for heat consumption,
production,...
Basis for comparison
impact of investment or modifications carried
out
comparison to other plants
Detect weak points - Action Plan
Detect optimization potential
Sept. 8-12, 2008

WHEN TO DO A KILN AUDIT

ATC

Every 3 years, a complete kiln audit is to be


completed with assistance from the TC
Once a year, a simple kiln audit should be
completed by the plant alone

Sept. 8-12, 2008

BOUNDARY SELECTION
Dust Flow
during compound operation
Raw
Material
direct Operation

Silo

Dust flow during

Raw Mill

Exhaust
Feed

Bypass

ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

BOUNDARY SELECTION
Dust Flow
during compound operation

D = 11.0 tph
Boundary for
mass balance

Raw
Material
direct Operation

Silo

Dust flow during

Raw Mill

Exhaust
Feed

Coal Ash = 1.8 tph


KF = 204 tph
Bypass

Cli = 126 tph


ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

BOUNDARY SELECTION

ATC

Any boundary shape can be chosen


Every stream that crosses the envelope must be taken
into account
The boundary line is chosen so that the boundary points
are:
useful for the balance goals
easily accessible for reliable measurements

Sept. 8-12, 2008

Energy cannot be created or destroyed but


may be converted from one form to another
Energy in = Energy out

MASS BALANCE

massin = massout
HEAT BALANCE

heatin = heatout
ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

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MASS BALANCE
Cooler exhaust gas
Kiln feed
Return
dust
Kiln exit
gases
Exit dust
Water
spray

False air

Primary air
Kiln System

Fuels
cooling
air

Bypass gas and dust

Clinker

massin = massout
ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

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HEAT BALANCE
Kiln feed
Return
dust
Kiln exit
gases
Exit dust
Water
spray

Wall
losses

Cooler exhaust gas


False air
Primary air

Kiln System

Fuel
cooling
air

Bypass gas and dust

Clinker

heatin = heatout
ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

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COOLER BALANCE
Vent air

Tertiary air
Secondary air
Raw mill

Coal mill

Clinker

Cooling air

ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

Clinker

13

HEAT BALANCE EXAMPLES


Wet Process
1. INPUT
FUEL

from sensible heat


from combustion

% kJ/kg clk
0.4
15
96.7
3343

Dry Preheater (4-Stage)

%
0.4
97.6

kJ/kg clk
13
3150

%
0.4
97.6

from sensible heat


from sensible heat of water

25
71

0.4
0.2

30
17

0.9
0.5

54

1.7

COMBUSTION AIR from sensible heat of all the


air supplied (prim. sec.)

67

1.2

20

0.6

0.2

5750

100

3425

100

3223

100

1750
2370
754
25

59
100
540

152

30.4
41.2
13.1
0.4

1.0
1.7
9.4

2.6

1750
506
314
21

50
276
452
42
14

51.1
14.8
9.2
0.6

1.5
8.1
13.2
1.2
0.4

1750
13
636
18

63
423
297

23

54.3
0.4
19.7
0.6

2.0
13.1
9.2

0.7

5750

100

3425

100

3223

100

RAW MEAL

Total input
2. OUTPUT
Heat of formation
Evaporation of water from raw meal
Exhaust gas sensible heat
Dust sensible heat
Incomplete combustion (CO)
Clinker exit temperature
Cooler exhaust gases
Losses due to radiation and convection
Water cooling (Recupol inlet chute)
Difference
Total output
ATC

kJ/kg clk
25
5560

Semi-Dry (Lepol)

Sept. 8-12, 2008

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QUESTIONS ???

ATC

Sept. 8-12, 2008

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