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A student investigates the behavior of a capacitor as it is charged. The student connects a capacitor C and a resistor R in series
with an ammeter and a d.c. power supply, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1
(a)

The student notices that the reading on the ammeter decreases to zero.
(i) Explain why there is no current in the circuit after some time.
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(ii) The student disconnects the circuit using a movable lead, as shown in Fig. 1.2.

Fig. 1.2
In order to discharge the capacitor, the student may connect the end P of the movable lead to either point X, Y or Z.
State and explain which connection will discharge the capacitor the fastest.
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(b)

The capacitor is now fully discharged.

The student reconnects the circuit of Fig. 1.1 and observes the initial ammeter reading.
The ammeter is shown in Fig. 1.3.

Fig. 1.3
State the reading on the ammeter.
ammeter reading = ......................................[1]
(c)

The student observes the needle as the current in the ammeter begins to fall and starts timing when the current is 80
mA. The time t for the current to fall from 80 mA to a value I is measured. Readings of current I and time t are
shown in Fig. 1.4.

Fig. 1.4
(i) On Fig. 1.5, plot the graph of I / mA on the y-axis against t / s on the x-axis.
Draw the curved line of best fit.

Fig. 1.5
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(ii) Use your graph to describe the relationship between I and t.
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(iii) The resistance of resistor R is 100 .


Use your graph to find the potential difference V across the resistor at time t = 40 s.
You may use the relationship V = IR.
V = ......................................................
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Mark scheme

In an experiment to determine the volume of glass beads, a student used two different methods.

Method 1
The student measured the combined diameters of some beads and then calculated the volume of one bead. The end view of
the apparatus used is shown in Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1
Fig. 1.2 shows the side view of the same apparatus, drawn actual size.

Fig. 1.2

(a)

(i) On Fig. 1.2, use your rule to measure the distance x, in cm.
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(ii) Calculate d, the average diameter in cm of one glass bead. Show your working.
d = ............................................... cm
(iii) Calculate V, the volume of one glass bead using the equation

V = .................................................
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Method 2
The student used a displacement method to determine the volume of a glass bead. Fig. 1.3 and Fig. 1.4 show how this was
done.

Fig. 1.3
(b)

Fig. 1.4

(i) Write down the values of the readings taken.


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(ii) Calculate the volume of 225 glass beads.
volume = .........................................
(iii) Calculate V, the average volume of one glass bead.
V = .........................................
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(c)

Suggest which of the two methods will give the more accurate result for the volume of a glass bead. Give a reason
for your answer.
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Mark scheme

The effect of surface color on the cooling of an object is investigated. Fig. 4.1 shows two sets of apparatus used in this
investigation.

Fig. 4.1
Test-tube A has a dull black outer surface and test-tube B has a shiny silver outer surface. The test-tubes containing hot water
are allowed to cool. Readings are taken for 20 minutes to allow cooling curves to be plotted.
(a)

State two factors that must be the same for the two sets of apparatus so that the cooling curves may be compared.
1. ...............................................................................................................................................
2. ...............................................................................................................................................
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(b)

On Fig. 4.2, write the headings in the table that is to be used to record the results for test-tube A.

Fig. 4.2
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(c)

On Fig. 4.3, sketch and label the shape of the cooling curves for test-tube A and for test-tube B.

Fig. 4.3
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Mark scheme

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Total:
5

A student carried out a lens experiment to investigate the magnification of an image. The apparatus is shown in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1
The object is a triangular hole in a screen. Fig. 5.2 shows this, actual size.

Fig. 5.2
The student set the distance u at 35.0 cm and moved the screen to obtain a sharply focused image. The image distance v was
72.3 cm.
(a)

(i) Calculate m, the magnification, using the equation


m = v/u.
m = .................................................

(ii) Draw a diagram of the image, actual size, for a magnification m = 2.0.

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(b)

The image distance v is the distance from the screen to the centre of the lens. Explain briefly how you would
position a meter rule to obtain an accurate value for v.
You may draw a diagram.
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Mark scheme