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A CIE student is determining the position of the centre of mass of a triangular card. The apparatus is shown in Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1
(a) The student hangs the card on the nail through hole A. He checks that the card is able to swing freely and then hangs the
plumbline from the nail so that it is close to, but not touching, the card. When the card and plumbline are still, he makes a
small mark at the edge of the card where the plumbline crosses the edge. He removes the card and draws
a line from the mark to hole A.
He repeats the procedure using holes B and C.

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## Fig.1.2 is a drawing of the card.

Fig.1.2
On Fig.1.2, the position of each of the marks the student makes is shown with a small cross. On Fig. 1.2, draw in the lines
between the positions of the holes A, B and C and the corresponding crosses on the card.

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(b) If the experiment is completely accurate, the centre of mass of the card is at the position where the three lines meet. On
Fig. 1.2, judge the best position for the centre of mass, marking it with a small cross. Draw a line from this position to the
right-angled corner of the card and measure the distance a between the centre of mass and the right-angled corner of the card.

a = ........................................
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(c) In this experiment, it is important that the card is able to swing freely. For this reason, the plumbline should not touch the
card but be a small distance from it. This could cause an inaccuracy in marking the card at the correct position. Describe how
you would minimize this possible inaccuracy. You may draw a diagram.

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A teacher demonstrates the force on a wire carrying a current in a magnetic field. Fig. 2.1 shows some of the apparatus used.

Fig. 2.1
(a) The current is to be varied and measured.
(i) On Fig. 2.1, draw the circuit diagram of the circuit used to provide the current. Include a method to vary and measure the
current.
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## (ii) Describe how to increase the current in the wire.

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(iii) Describe how to reverse the direction of the current in the wire.
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(iv) Describe how to reverse the direction of the magnetic field.
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(b) The current is increased to a very large value.
Suggest one problem this may cause.
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## The CIE class is investigating the current in resistors in a circuit.

The circuit is shown in Fig. 3.1.

Fig. 3.1
(a) A student measures the current IA at the position A shown by the ammeter, and then at positions B (IB), C (IC) and D (ID).
The readings are: IA= 0.28 A IB = 0.13 A IC = 0.14 A ID = 0.27 A
Theory suggests that IA = IB + IC and ID = IB + IC.
(i) Calculate IB + IC.

IB + IC = ...............................................................
(ii) State whether the experimental results support the theory. Justify your statement by reference to the readings.
statement ....................................................................................................................................................................................
justification .................................................................................................................................................................................
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(b) The student suggests repeating the experiment to confirm her conclusion. She connects a variable resistor (rheostat) in
series with the switch. State the purpose of the variable
resistor..........................................................................................................................................................................................
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(c) The student connects a voltmeter and records the potential difference V across the combination of the three resistors.
(i) On Fig. 3.1, draw in the voltmeter connected as described, using the standard symbol for a voltmeter.

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(ii) Write down the voltmeter reading shown on Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 3.2

V = .........................................................
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(iii) Calculate the resistance R of the combination of the three resistors using the equation R =V/I.

R = ..........................................................
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CIE class is investigating the formation of images by a lens. Fig 4.1 shows the apparatus.

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Fig. 4.1
A student places the screen about 1.0 m from the illuminated object. He places the lens between the object and the screen at a
distance u = 0.200 m from the object. He adjusts the position of the screen until a clearly focused image is formed on the
screen. He records the distance v between the centre of the lens and the screen. He repeats the procedure using different
values of u. The readings are shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1

(a) State and briefly explain one precaution you would take in order to obtain reliable measurements in this experiment.
precaution ...................................................................................................................................................................................
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explanation ..................................................................................................................................................................................
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(c) (i) Use the graph to find the intercept on the y-axis.

## intercept on the y-axis = ...............................................................

(ii) Use the graph to find the intercept on the x-axis.

## intercept on the x-axis = ...............................................................

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5

A student walks away from a street lamp at night and notices that his shadow changes. The student investigates shadows in a
darkened laboratory. He uses a lamp on a stand and a vertical card, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1
(a) (i) On Fig. 5.1, draw a ray of light from the lamp to the bench, just passing over the top of the card.

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(ii) The region of the bench that does not receive light from the lamp is the shadow of the card. On Fig. 5.1, draw a line on
the surface of the bench to indicate this shadow.

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(b) The card is moved along the bench away from the lamp.

## State what happens to the shadow of the card.

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