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California State University Long Beach

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

MAE 431-01
Spring 2016
Design Project:
Two Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction of a Hot Gas Flue

Christopher Bill
Kristopher Thomas
Instructor:
Dr. John Hsu

Given Conditions
Initially, the rectangular flue is at a uniform temperature of 25C. The interior is then exposed to
hot gases at 350C and experiences convective heat transfer. The exterior experiences convection
with air at 25C. The flue has a 300mm square cross section and has refractory brick walls that
are 150mm thick. A grid spacing of 50mm is to be utilized in order to find the temperatures of
the 22 nodes at times of 5, 10, 50, and 100 hours after introduction of the flue gas.
Assumptions
Thermal properties can be assumed to be constant given the information provided in the
problem. In addition, transient heat conduction is assumed to be two dimensional since the length
of the chimney is long compared to its cross section. Heat transfer due to radiation can be
considered negligible.
Properties
Thermal conductivity of the refractory brick is given as 0.85 W/mK. The thermal diffusivity is
given as 5.5 x 10 m /s. The convective coefficient of the inside and outside of the wall are given
to be 100 and 5 W/m K respectively.
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Analysis
a)
=

Internal Nodes:
Node 2:

Node 3:
Node 6:
Node 7:
Node 10:
Node 11:
Node 14:
Node 15:

Node 17:
Node 18:

/012

#
$%&

()*
)+),

#)*
$%& )+),


+ 4012 + /012 + 2012 4 + 1 8012 + 80 = 0

:012 + ;012 + :012 + 8012 4 + 1 4012 + 40 = 0



012
8012 + :012 + 2<
+ =012 4 + 1 /012 + /0 = 0
012
4012 + >012 + 22
+ /012 4 + 1 :012 + :0 = 0


012
0
012
012
/012 + 22
+ 2;
+ ?012 4 + 1 2<
+ 2<
= 0
012
012
012
012
0
:012 + 28
+ 2=
+ 2<
4 + 1 22
+ 22
= 0

012
012
012
012
012
0
2<
+ 2=
+ 2:
+ 24
4 + 1 2;
+ 2;
=0
012
0
012
012
012
012
22
+ 2/
+ 2>
+ 2;
4 + 1 2=
+ 2=
= 0




012
012
012
012
012
0
2; + 2> + 2>
+ 2;
4 + 1 2:
+ 2:
= 0
012
012
012
012
0
012
2=
+ 2?
+ 8<
+ 2:
4 + 1 2>
+ 2>
= 0

Node 20:




012
012
012
012
012
0
2>
+ 82
+ 82
+ 2>
4 + 1 8<
+ 8<
= 0

Interior/Exterior Surface Nodes:


Node 1:
8012 2012
=012 2012

y 2012 20
0+
+
+ 0
F,0 2012 =

2
2 2 K

1 + 4 + 2
Node 4:
0 + N

0 012
0
2 + 2 8012 + 2 =012 + 20 + 2
= 0

F,0

>012 ;012
4012 ;012
y ;012 ;0
F,N ;012 +
+
=

2
2

2 2 K

2 4012 1 + 4 + 2

Node 5:

N 012
N
; + 2 >012 + ;0 + 2
=0

F,N

2012 =012
(/012 =012 )
?012 =012
+
+
+ 0 F,0 =012
2

y =012 =0
= K

2

2012 1 + 4 + 2

0
0
=012 + 2 /012 + ?012 + =0 + 2
= 0

F,0

Node 8:

012
>012
;012 >012
28
(:012 >012 )

+ N F,N >012 +
+
2

012
0
y > >
= K

2

;012 + 2 :012 1 + 4 + 2

QR S
#

012
>012 + 28
+ >0 + 2

QR S
#

F,N = 0

Node 9:

012
012
?012
=012 ?012
(2<
?012 )
24

+
+
+ 0 F,0 ?012
2

y ?012 ?0
= K

2


=012 1 + 4 + 2

0
0
012
012
?012 + 2 2<
+ 24
+ ?0 + 2
= 0

F,0

Node 12:

012
012
012
012
012
28
22
28
>012 28
2/
012
+ N F,N 28
+
+
2

012
0
y 28
28
= K

2


012
>012 + 2 22
1 + 4 + 2

N
N
012
012
0
28
+ 2/
+ 28
+ 2
= 0

F,N

Node 16:

012
012
012
012
012
012
2/
2/
28
2?
(2=
2/
)
012

+ N F,N 2/
+
+
2

012
0
y 2/
2/
= K

2


012
012
28
+ 2 2=
1 + 4 + 2

N
N
012
012
0
2/
+ 2?
+ 2/
+ 2
= 0

F,N

Node 19:
WXU
WXU
YTUZ
), TUV

)+

012
+ N F,N 2?
+

WXU
WXU
YTUZ
), T[U

)+

WXU
WXU
(TU\
YTUZ
)

),

)]
8

WXU
W
TUZ
YTUZ

N
N
012
012
012
012
0
2/
+ 2 2>
1 + 4 + 2
2?
+ 82
+ 2?
+ 2
= 0

F,N

)*

Node 21:

012
012
012
012
012
012
82
82
2?
88
(8<
82
)
012

+ N F,N 82
+
+
2

012
0
y 82
82
= K
2

N
N
012
012
012
012
0
2?
+ 2 8<
1 + 4 + 2
82
+ 88
+ 82
+ 2
= 0

F,N
Interior Corner Node:
Node 13:
012
012
012
012
0
2;
24
?012 24

3 24
24
012

+
+ 0 + 0
F,0 24
=
K
2

2
2 4

4
4

8
4

0
0
012
0
012
012 1 + 4 +
24
+ 2;
+ 24
+
= 0
3 ?
3
3
3 F,0
Exterior Corner Node:
Node 22:

012
012
012
0

82 88

88
88
012

+ N F,N 88
+0+0=
K

2

2
2 4

N 012
N
012
0
4 82
1 + 4 + 4
88 + 88
+ 4
= 0

F,N

b) Show the FDEs represented in matrix notation, [A][T]=[C]

c) Tabulate the temperatures of all nodes for the time at 5, 10, 50, 100 h.

Node

C at 5 h

C at 10 h

C at 50 h

C at 100 h

331.5071

337.9231

340.1987

340.1989

225.2513

267.7073

282.8929

282.8941

150.0066

207.8916

229.7564

229.7582

110.2692

161.7000

181.5949

181.5965

331.1020

337.5116

339.8500

339.8502

222.9799

265.2618

280.8084

280.8097

147.6487

205.0268

227.2693

227.2711

108.4021

159.2980

179.4909

179.4925

328.8039

335.5147

338.1727

338.1729

10

213.9840

256.3644

273.2219

273.2233

11

139.4009

195.5812

219.0220

219.0239

12

102.1474

151.6166

172.7076

172.7094

13

310.9826

322.3184

327.2518

327.2522

14

189.7746

234.9174

254.8850

254.8868

15

122.2556

177.3791

202.8898

202.8920

16

90.1990

137.7275

160.1831

160.1851

17

136.1659

190.2114

216.1772

216.1795

18

95.3837

149.6855

177.4697

177.4722

19

73.3263

118.2180

141.7654

141.7675

20

72.3116

121.7474

149.0473

149.0498

21

58.3147

98.0389

120.6254

120.6274

22

48.7250

80.3484

98.8922

98.8939

d) Show and justify the time to reach steady state.


An iterative loop that used time steps of one hour was implemented to determine when the steady
state (where the change in temperature was less than 0.0001C) would occur, which ended up
being 45 hours.
e) Show the temperatures after reaching steady state in terms of coordinate system, y and
x.

f) Plot the isothermal lines at steady state.

Matlab Code
clear all
% MAE 431-01
% Design Project
% Christopher Bill
% Kristopher Thomas
alpha = 5.5e-7; % m^2/s
k = 0.85; % W/m*K
hin = 100; % W/m^2*K
hout = 5; % W/m^2*K
Ti = 25; % C
Tinf = 350; % C
dx = .050; % m
step = 3600; % sec
tau = alpha*3600/dx^2;
Biin = hin*dx/k;
Biout = hout*dx/k;
A = zeros(22); % allocate A matrix
C = zeros(22,1); % allocate C matrix
T = zeros(22,101); % allocate node temperature
T(:,1) = 25;
% internal nodes
for i=[2 3 6 7 10 11]
A(i,i)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(i,i+1)=1; % top
A(i,i-1)=1; % bottom
if i > 5
A(i,i-4)=1; % left
A(i,i+4)=1; % right
else
A(i,i+4)=2; % right and left same for symmetric nodes
end
end
% external surface nodes
for i=[4 8 12 16]
A(i,i)=(1+2*tau*(2+Biout))/-tau;
A(i,i-1)=2; % bottom
if i > 15
A(i,i-4)=1; % left + right
A(i,i+3)=1; % left + right
elseif i < 5
A(i,i+4)=2; % right and left same for symmetric nodes
else
A(i,i-4)=1; % left
A(i,i+4)=1; % right
end
end
% internal surface nodes
for i=[1 5 9]
A(i,i)=(1+2*tau*(2+Biin))/-tau;

A(i,i+1)=2;
if i < 5
A(i,i+4)=2;
else
A(i,i-4)=1;
A(i,i+4)=1;
end

% top
% right and left same for symmetric nodes
% left
% right

end
% external corner node
A(22,22)=(1+4*tau*(1+Biout))/-tau;
A(22,21)=4;
% internal corner node
A(13,13)=(1+4*tau*(1+1/3*Biin))/-tau;
A(13,14)=1/3*8;
A(13,9)=1/3*4;
% hypotenuse nodes
A(17,17)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(17,18)=2; % top + right
A(17,14)=2; % bottom + left
A(20,20)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(20,21)=2; % top + right
A(20,18)=2; % bottom + left
A(18,18)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(18,19)=1; % top + right
A(18,17)=1; % bottom + left
A(18,20)=1;
A(18,15)=1;
A(14,14)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(14,15)=1;
A(14,13)=1;
A(14,17)=1;
A(14,10)=1;
A(15,15)=(1+4*tau)/-tau;
A(15,18)=1;
A(15,16)=1;
A(15,14)=1;
A(15,11)=1;
A(19,19)=(1+2*tau*(2+Biout))/-tau;
A(19,18)=2;
A(19,21)=1;
A(19,16)=1;
A(21,21)=(1+2*tau*(2+Biout))/-tau;
A(21,20)=2;
A(21,22)=1;
A(21,19)=1;
Anew=A*tau; % Remultiply by tau for matrix to display proper coefficients

%%%%%%%%%% Right Hand Side (C Matrix)

%%%%%%%%%%%%

for t=1:100
C(1) = -T(1,t) -2*tau*Biin*Tinf;
C(2) = -T(2,t);
C(3) = -T(3,t);
C(4) = -T(4,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(5) = -T(5,t) -2*tau*Biin*Tinf;
C(6) = -T(6,t);
C(7) = -T(7,t);
C(8) = -T(8,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(9) = -T(9,t) -2*tau*Biin*Tinf;
C(10) = -T(10,t);
C(11) = -T(11,t);
C(12) = -T(12,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(13) = -T(13,t) -4/3*tau*Biin*Tinf;
C(14) = -T(14,t);
C(15) = -T(15,t);
C(16) = -T(16,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(17) = -T(17,t);
C(18) = -T(18,t);
C(19) = -T(19,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(20) = -T(20,t);
C(21) = -T(21,t) -2*tau*Biout*Ti;
C(22) = -T(22,t) -4*tau*Biout*Ti;
T(:,t+1)= Anew\C;
end
Treport=[T(:,1) T(:,5) T(:,10) T(:,50) T(:,100)];
steady_time=0; % allocate variable for steady state time
%%% Iterate to find time when delta temperature is less than 0.0001 Celcius
for i=1:100
while(all((T(:,i+1)-T(:,i))<1e-4))
steady_time=i; % time to reach steady state in hours
break;
end
end
Treport=[T(:,1) T(:,5) T(:,10) T(:,50) T(:,100)]; % tabulated results
csvwrite('csvlist.csv',Anew) % write to file to export to excel
%%% Define position of nodes by assigning axes
xaxis = [0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6];
yaxis = [3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0];
%%% Graph steady state temperature to x- and y-axis
[Xaxis,Yaxis] = meshgrid((0:6)*dx,(0:3)*dx);
surface=zeros(4,7);
for i=1:22
surface(yaxis(i)+1,xaxis(i)+1)=T(i,steady_time);
end
contour(Xaxis,Yaxis,surface);

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Discussion
It was observed that the nodes closest to the flue had the quickest temperature increase and
experienced the highest steady state temperature with Node 1 reaching 340.2C. The minimum
steady state temperature was at the outside corner of the chimney (Node 22 @ 98.9C). It makes
sense that this point would have the lowest temperature because it is the furthest away from the
flue gas, while also experiencing convection from the outside air. Not to mention it is
experiencing the least conductive heat transfer from nearing nodes because it is not in contact
with 3 sides like the other exterior nodes. This made it significantly colder than the other outside
surface nodes, 20 degrees cooler than the nearest node and about 80 degrees cooler than the
center of the outside walls of the chimney. All of the above is also true for the interior corner
node for opposite reasons. It is closest to the flue with the most nodes surrounding it, leading it to
be the hottest node analyzed.

Conclusion
The analysis of the flue walls was simplified thanks to the the symmetry of a square flue
meaning only one eighth of the geometry was used in calculating node temperatures. This saves
on calculation time and processing resources. It suffices to say that the number of nodes analyzed
has a direct effect on the accuracy of the system being analyzed. More nodes will lead to a much
higher accuracy. The 50mm grid spacing that was implemented is probably about the minimum
that is necessary in order to thoroughly show the temperature gradient in the flue walls. That
being said, it would not be difficult to increase the accuracy of the analysis given the code that is
already in place; nodes would need to be renumbered and program loops adjusted accordingly.
However, at that point, it would be wise to use finite element analysis software such as FE Lab
or Abaqus in order to carry out the simulation as it would yield much better graphical
visualization and allow for easier changes to parameters.

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