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Paper A

Physical Chemistry (Written)


Paper B

Inorganic Chemistry (Written)


Paper C

Organic Chemistry (Written)



(For three Days , Four Hours Duration each day as detailed below):

Paper A

Physical Chemistry (Practical)


Paper B

Inorganic Chemistry (Practical)


Paper C

Organic Chemistry (Practical)

Total : 200

SYLLABUS FOR B.Sc. (Chemistry) Course


50 marks

Note. All units should be expressed in SI System

Ideal gas laws and general gas equation , Kinetic molecular theory of gases, Kinetic equation for ideal
gases and deduction of gas laws, molecular velocities (Averages, root mean square and most probable ),
distribution of molecular velocities and experimental verification, molecular collisions, mean free path,
collision frequency, heat capacity of gases ( Cp,Cv).

Thermal Energy:
Translational, rotational and vibrational contributions. Principle of equipartition of energy, Van der Waals
equation and its validity. Critical phenomenon and determination of constants. Van der experimental
determination of critical temperature. Law of Waals corresponding states. Liquefaction of gases.

Structural differences between gases and liquids, Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity, refractive
index, optical activity and dipole moment (their measurements and relation to chemical constitution).

Crystal lattice and unit cell, law of crystallography, crystal system. X-rays diffraction and the Braggs
equation . Experimental methods for X ray structure determination. Closed packed sphere structures,
structure of ionic solids, Elementary treatment of metals, insulators and semi- conductors.

Classification, preparation, purification and properties of colloidal solutions, Brief treatment of Gels,
Emulsions, Aerosols and Surface active agents.



Raoults law, Henrys law, activity and activity coefficients, Deviations of solutions from ideal behaviour .
Colligative properties, lowering of vapour pressure, Boiling point elevation, Depression in freezing point
and osmotic pressure (Their measurements and thermodynamic derivation of molecular masses).
Abnormal colligative properties of solutions.


Earlier developments, Nature of light radiations, Bohrs theory of atomic structure. Interpretation of
emission spectra of hydrogen atoms. Quantum mechanics, de Broglie equation and Eigen values.
Interpretatin of (H-E). Eigen function and Eigen values. Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. Particles in
one dimensional box (permitted energies and values).
Quantum number of atomic orbitals, Paulis Exclusion Principle. Distributionof electons in atomic orbials.
Chemical Bonding (Elementary treatment of Lewis, Valence bond and Molecular orbital theories).



Thermodynamics terms and types of system. State and state function. Equilibrium states, nature of heat
and work, Sign convention and units of work and q. Internal energy change, first law of the rmodynamics,
enthalpy . Heat capacity Cp Cv R.
Thermo-chemistry. Heat of reaction. Hesss law. Heat of formation Standard enthalpy of combustion and
its applications. Heat of neutralization. Heat of solution. Bond energies. Measurement of heat of reaction
. Effect of temperature on heat of reaction (Kirchhoffs equation ).
Types of thermodynamics processes. Reversibility and irreversibility. Isothermal reversible expansion of
an ideal gas. Adiabatic process for an ideal gas. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, Second
law of thermdynamics. The Carnots cycle. Efficiency of an engine. Thermodynamics temperature scale
Entropy and its calculations for phase transition, reversible and irreversible isothermal expansion.
Temperature dependence entropy. Entropy and probability, Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies.
Standard free energy, G-RT In K. Vant Hoffisochore, (intergrated form)Clausius Claperyron equation.



Basic concepts, law of mass action, Relationship between Kc , Kp, Kx and Kn for gasseous reactions.
Homogeneous gaseous equilibria. Effects of pressure, concentration on equilibrium changes. Examples
of chemical equilibria. Degree of dissociation.
Le Chateliers Principle and its applications to homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria,
thermodynamic equations. Effect of temperature on chemical equilibrium.



Phases, components, degrees of freedem. Gibbs phase rule and its derivation. Phase diagram, One
component system, (Water and sulphur system). Two component systems, eutectic systems, cooling
curves and cooling behaviour, silver-lead system, Compound formation with congruent m.p. Ferric
chloride- water system, sodium sulphate- water system.
Solid solution and alloy systems, liquid-vapour systems. Three component systems. Partially miscible a
three component systems. Liquid-liquid systems, Nernsts distribution law, applications and deviations.



The reaction rate (average and instantaneous). Rate equation, velocity constant. Rate law expression,
order and molecularity. Kinetic expressions for zero order, first order, pseudo-unimolecular and second
order (with same 8 different initial conc.) with examples. Determination of order and rate const of a
reaction. Effect of temperature. Activation energy and its determination.
Biomolecular collison theory of reaction rates (causes of its failure). Collision theory of unimolecular
reactions (Lindemanns mechanism). Some examples of m/re-action mechanisms.



Electrolytic conduction (definitions and measurements, specific, equivalent and molar conductances).
Conductance of strong and weak electrolytes, Kohlrauschs law and its applications. Ostwalds dilution
law. Transport number, Hittorfs rule. Determination of transference numbers. Applications of
conductance measurements.
Electromotive force and its measurements. Electrochemical cells; reversible and irreversible,
classification of half cells. Electrode potential and its measurements (standard electrodes). Cell notations.
Thermodynamic aspects of cell reactions. Liquid Junction potential. Types of Galvanic cells,
concentration cells without and with transference



Types of nuclear radiations, detection and measurement of radioactivity, stable and unstable isotopes.
Half life, natural radioactivity. Artificial nuclear transformations. Applications of radioactive isotopes.
Nuclear fission and fusion reactions. Brief description of nuclear reactor.

Paper A


Surface Tension Measurements:

Marks 16
Determination of surface tension of different liquids. Parachor values. Composition of
mixtures of two miscible liquids.

Viscosity Measurements:
Determination of viscosity coefficients of different liquids. Rheochor values and composition
of mixture of two miscible liquids.


Determination of specific and molar refractivities of different liquids, composition of two
miscible liquids.


Thermochemical Measurements:
(i) Heat of neutralization of acids and bases.
(ii) Heat of solution of different salts.


Molecular Mass:
Determination by ebullioscopic method.


Chemical Kinetics:
Determination of reaction rate constant for a first order reaction (acid hydrolysis).


Conductance Measurement:
(i) Determination of cell constant and molar conductance.
(ii) Verification of Ostwalds dilution law. Determination of degree of dissociation
for weak electrolytes.


Text Book of Physical Chemistry for B.Sc students by Ali Mohammad and Ghulam Rasool
Chaudhry, Ameen Publishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
Text Book of Physical Chemistry for B.Sc students by G. Nabi, Publishers; Ilmi Kitab Khana,
Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
Chaudhry, G. R., ;Text Book of Physical Chemistry, New Kitab Markaz, Aminpur Bazar,
Faisalabad, Pakistan, 2nd Edition (2001)
Maron S. H. & B. Jerome, Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry, Macruthan Publishing co.
Inc. New York. (Also published by National Book Foundation).
Atkins P.W. & M. J. Clugston, Principles of Physical Chemistry Pitman Publishing
Moore W. J., Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed. Longmans Publishers.
Jones M., Elements of Physical Chemistry, Addison-Sesky Publishing Company.
Adamson A. W.,Understanding Physical Chemistry 3rd Ed. Benjamin Cummings Publishing
Company Inc.
Heald C. & A.C.K. Smith, Applied Physical Chemistry English Language Book Society and
Akhtar M.N. & Ghulam Nabi ,Text Book of Physical Chemistry
Bhatti H. N. and K. Hussain, Principles of Physical Chemistry; Carwan Book House, Lahore.
Levitt B.P., Findlay's Practical Physical Chemistry, 9th Ed., Longman Group Limited.
Das R.C. and B. Behera, Experimental Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
Company Limited.
Crocleford H.D., H.W. Biard, F.W. Getzen & J.W. Nowell, Laboratory Manual of Physical
Chemistry, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons London.


50 Marks

Atomic Structure and periodic Table:

Electromagnetic radiations, Atomic spectra, the wave nature of electron, electron spin and the Paulis
exclusion Principle, the special distribution of electrons, the electronic configuration of elements. The
variation of properties with atomic structure, atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinities and
electronegativities. Modern trends in periodic table based upon chemical re-activities of elements.
Metals as reducing agents and non-metals as oxidizing agents. Redox actions, redox potential
(elementary treatment). Electrochemical series and its applications.


Chemical Bonding:

Nature and types of chemical bond, energetic of chemical bond, bond energies, bond length, polarity of
molecules, dipolemoment. Theories of chemical bonding Valence bond theory. Interpretation of pictorial
pictures of molecules based on hybridization and resonance. Interpretation of shapes of molecules based
on valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) treatment. Molecular orbital theory as applied to
homonuclear and heterounclear diatomic molecules. Hydrogen and metallic bonding.

Acid- Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions:

General concepts of acids and bases including soft and hard acid-base concepts. Relative strength of
acids and bases, significance of PK, ionization of water and pH concept. Buffers. Relationship between
acid-base equilibria and redox processes.


Ionic Reaction in six Solution:

Hydrolysis of salts, applications of law of mass action and the principle of solubility product and common
ion effect in inorganic qualitative analysis.


Chemistry of p-block Elements:

General characteristics of the following groups of p-block elements with reference to the aspects given
against each.


Boron and Aluminum:

Gradation of the characteristic properties within group III. Metallurgy of aluminium and
its chemical characteristics. Electron deficient molecules such as boranes aluminium hydrides and
halides, including their structure onding. Boric acid, borax and alums.


Carbon and Silicon:

Gradation of the characteristic properties within group IV. Green-house effect.

Production of pure silicon chips for solar energy cells, silicones. Structural aspects of metasilicates
/ ortho and meta silicates. Industrial applications of Zeolites. Cement and Glass Industry. Water


Nitrogen and Phosphorus:

Gradation of the characteristics properties within group V. Oxides and oxyacids of

nitrogen and their role in environmental pollution. Nitrogen and phosphorus based fertilizers.


Oxygen and Sulphur:

Gradation of the characteristics properties within group VI. Oxides and Oxyacids of
sulphur. Role of sulphur dioxide in air pollution. Thionic acids. Use of hypo in photography.



Gradation of the characteristic properties within group VII. Oxyacids of chlorine.

Structural and chemical aspects of interhalogons and pseudohalogens.


Zero Group Elements:

Basis of reactivity of noble gases. Nature of bonding and structure of xenon

compounds (fluorides, oxides and oxyflourides), laboratory and commercial utilization of noble

Transition Elements (d-block elements):


General characteristics of d-block elements, Electronic configuration, coordinate bond

formation, Development of coordination compounds, nomenclature. Applications of valence bond,
crystal field theories to explain the structures of coordination compounds. Colour and magnetic
behaviour of coordination compounds.


Modern Materials:
Introduction to liquid crystals, inorganic polymers, engineering ceramics, fiber glass,
thin films and semiconductors.

Paper B

B.Sc. Inorganic Chemistry (Practical)

Qualitative Analysis:

Mixture of four radicals (cations and anions) from standard samples as well as from water,
soil and simple ores by semi-micro techniques/macro-techniques.
Spot tests for the following cations:
Ni (II), Ag (i) Hg (II) Cd (II)



Separation of cations:-
Ni (II), Co (II), Mn (II), Cu (II), by paper chromatography


Quantitative Analysis:-

(Calculations should be based on morality). Multistage exercises based on iodometry, iodometry,

complexometry and redox reactions, e.g.,
Preparation of Ferrous Sulphate from Kipps Waste and determining the
percentage purity of the sample by estimating Fe (II) with K2 Cr2 O7.

Preparations of CuZo4, from copper turnings and determining parity of the sample
by Iodometry and Iodimetry.
Determinations of hardness of water using EDTA and other relevant exercises.

Gravimetric Analysis:Estimations of Ba


and Pb


ions as BaSO4 and as PbCrO4



Text Books of Inorganic Chemistry (for B.Sc students) by Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Illmi Kitab
Khana, Lahore.


Iqbal, M. Z., Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Revised Edition (1998).
Chaudhry, G. R., ;Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry, New Kitab Markaz, Aminpur Bazar,
Faisalabad, Pakistan, 2nd Edition (2001)
Bhatti, H. N. and B.A. Nasir, Modern Inorganic Chemistry, The Carvan Book House, Lahore,
Pakistan, 1st Edition (2000)
Cotton, F. Albert, Geoffrey Wilkinson and Paul L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1995).
Lee, J.D., Concise Inorganic Chemistry, Chapman & Hall, 5th Edition, (1996).
Jolly, William. L., Modern Inorganic Chemistry, McGraw Hill, 2 Edition (1991).
Shriver, D.F., P.W. Atkins and C.H. Langford, Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford, 2nd Edition
Sharpe, A.G., Inorganic Chemistry, Longman, 3rd Edition (1992).
Rayner-Canham, Geof., Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, W.H. Freeman & Co. (1995).
Jefferey, G.H., J.Bassett, J.Mendham and R.C.Denney, Vogels Textbook of Quantitative
Chemical Analysis, 5th Edition, Benjamin-Cummings, (1989).
Vogel, A.I, A Text Book of Macro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, Longman
Green & Co, (1995).
Skoog, D.A., D.M.West and F.J.Holler, Analytical Chemistry, 6 Edition, Saunders College
Publications, (1994).


14- Graham, H and J.H. Man, Chemistry in Context. 5th Edition, Thomas Nelson Ltd., (2000), U.K.
15- Philp M., Advance Chemistry, Combridge Low Price Edition, (1996) U.K.
16- David H. Modern Analytical Chemistry, McGraw Hill International Edition, (2000).

Paper C



1- Basic Concepts:
Atomic, molecular and hybrid orbitals: multiple localized and delocalized bonds; properties of bonds;
inductive; effect dipole moment. The concept of resonance, rules for resonance; resonance energy; steric
inhibition of resonance; hyperson jugation; resonance effect; hydrogen bonding; automerism. Introduction
to resonance, rules for resonance, resonance energy, steric inhibition of resonance, Introduction to
spectroscopy with special reference to ultraviolete / visible and infrared spectroscopy.

2- Hydrocarbons:
Classification of hydrocarbons. Nomenclature, methods of preparations, physical characteristics and
chemical reactions of alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Source of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Structure of benzene and the concept of aromatics hydrocarbons. Structure of benzene and the concept
of aromaticity Aromatic electrophilic substitution.

3- Stereoisomerism:
Conformational Analysis of ethane and butane.
Optical Isomerism. Optical activity, chiral carbon atom and optical isomerism; relative and absolute
configuration, creation of chiral carbon and racemization, optical isomerism in compounds containing two
chiral carbon atoms; diasteroisomers; elements of symmetry; resolution of racemic mixture.
Geometrical Isomerism, cis / trans isomerism, designation of configuration, Determination of

4- Alkyl Halides:
Nomenclature, methods of preparation and chemical reactions with special reference to nucleophilic
substitution and elimination reaction of alkyl halides. Preparations, structure and synthetic applications of
Grignards reagents.

5- The Hydroxyl group and Ethers:

Nature of hydroxyl group in alcohols and phenols

Alcohols:- Classification and nomenclature of alcohols; methods of preparation and chemical reactions
of alcohols; distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Polyhydric alcohols.

Phenols:- Methods of preparation of phenols; acidity of phenols; chemical reactions of phenols.


Methods of preparation and reactions of ethers.

6- The Carbonyl Group:

Nature of carbonyl group and its reactivity; nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones; methods of
preparation of aldehydes and ketones; chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones; distinction between
aldehydes and ketones.

7- Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives:

Nomenclature of carboxylic acids; methods of preparation and chemical reactions of carboxylic
acids, strength of carboxylic acids and the factors affecting it. Formation and hydrolysis of acid
anhydrides, acid amides, acid halides and esters including glycerides. Introduction to aminoacids.

8- Nitrogen Compounds:
Amines: Classification and nomenclature of amines; methods of preparation and chemical
reactions of amines; distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Preparation and
reactions of aniline. Basicity of aliphatic and aromatic amines and factors affecting it.
Siazontum Salts and their synthetic applications.
Heterocyclic Compounds: Methods of preparation of pyrrole and pyridine; aromatic character of
pyrrole and pyridine and comparison of their reactivity with benzene. Some of the important reactions of
pyrrole and pyridine.

9- Carbohydrates:
Classification of carbohydrates, characteristic features of mono-, di- and polysaccharides and some of
their important reactions. Structure of ring size and conformation of glucose.

Paper C



Organic Chemistry (Practicals):



Identification of organic compounds containing only one emphasis on compounds

containing the following functional group with special emphasis on compounds
containing the COOH, OH, CO, NH2, and CONH2.
Basic experimental techniques used in organic chemistry.
1. Filtration.
2. Simple and fractional distillation.
3. Solvent extraction.
4. Sublimation
5. Recrystallization
Organic Preparation:1. Preparation of tribromophenol (Halogenations)
2. Preparation of nitrobenzene (Nitration)
3. Preparation of aspirin (Acetylation)
4. Preparation of ethyl Benzoate (Esterification)
5. Preparation of benzoic acid from toluene (Oxidation of side chain)


Younas, M., Text Book of Organic Chemistry, Ilmi Kutab Khana, Lahore.
Rehman, A., Text Book of Organic Chemistry, Caravan Book House, Lahore.
March, J., Advanced Organic Chemistry, Wiley, New York.
Pine, S. H., Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sykes, P., A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry, Longman, London.
Younas, M., Organic Spectroscopy, A. H. Publisher, Lahore.
Solomons, T. W. G., Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, Wiley, New York.
Kemp, W., Organic Spectroscopy, Macmillan, London.
Chughtai, F. A., Organic Reactions, Majid Book Depot, Lahore/Faisalabad.
Vogel, A. I., A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, Longman, London.
Clarke, H. T. and D. Haynes., A Hand Book of Organic Analysis, Edward Arnold, London.
Mann, F. G and B. C. Saunders. Practical Organic Chemistry, Longman, London.
Shriner, R. L., D.Y. Curtin, R.C. Fuson, and T.C. Morrill, The Systematic Identification of
Organic Compounds, Wiley, New York
Rehman, A., Experimental Organic Chemistry, The Caravan Book House, Lahore
Morrison R. T. and R.N. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, Allyn and Bacon, London.