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Section A

Answer all the questions in this section. Answer in the spaces provided.
7

Fig. 7.1 shows a coil ABCD that can turn between the two poles of a magnet. Bare metal
paper clips support and pass current into and out of the coil.

Fig. 7.1
(a) (i) State the direction of the force on the side AB.
.................................................................................................................................
(ii) Explain the reason for your choice of direction.
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[2]
(b) A student turns the coil through 180 so that AB is close to the N pole of the magnet.
(i) State the direction of the force on side AB of the coil.
.................................................................................................................................
(ii) The student releases the coil. Explain why the coil does not rotate continuously.
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[2]
(c) With the coil as shown in Fig. 7.1, the top half of the wire from C to the paper clip is
coated with an insulator, as shown in Fig. 7.2. Explain why the coil can now rotate
continuously.

Fig. 7.2
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................................................................................................................................... [2]

Question no:

Fig. 5.1 shows a piece of recording tape passing under the recording head of a tape
recorder. An alternating current is passed through the coil. The tape is coated with a
magnetic material that becomes magnetised.

Fig. 5.1
(a) (i) Explain why the tape becomes magnetized.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
(ii) Fig. 5.1 shows that sections of the tape are magnetised in opposite directions.
Explain why they become magnetised in opposite directions.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
(iii) The tape is moved faster past the recording head. State how this changes the
pattern on the tape.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[3]
(b) (i) Explain why the coating on the tape must be of a permanent magnetic material.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
(ii) State the name of a permanent magnetic material.
..................................................................................................................................
[2]

Question no:

(a) A wire carrying a current in a magnetic field experiences a force due to the current. On
Fig. 8.1, insert the words current, field and force in the boxes to show the relative directions
of the current, the magnetic field and the force.

Fig. 8.1
[1]
(b) Fig. 8.2 shows a current-carrying coil ABCD in a magnetic field.

Fig. 8.2
Each side of the coil is 4.0 cm in length. The force on AB is 20 N and the force on CD is 20 N.
(i) Calculate the total moment caused by these forces.
moment = .......................................................... [2]
(ii) The moment is increased by using a stronger magnetic field.
State two other ways to increase the moment.
1. .......................................................................................................................................
2. .......................................................................................................................................
[2]

Question no:

(a) Some atoms are radioactive. Explain what is meant by radioactive.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(b) Some hospital equipment is sterilised using gamma-rays. State two properties of
gamma-rays that make them suitable for this use.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) Explain why radioactive sources should only be handled at a distance from the body.
..........................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................[2]

Question no:

11

(a) A radioactive isotope emits only -particles.


(i) In the space below, draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus you would use to
prove that no -particles or -radiation are emitted from the isotope.
(ii) Describe the test you would carry out.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(iii) Explain how your results would show that only -particles are emitted.
...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
[6]
(b) Fig. 11.1 shows a stream of -particles about to enter the space between the poles of a
very strong magnet.

Fig. 11.1
Describe the path of the -particles in the space between the magnetic poles.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[3]
Question no:

Some pond water becomes contaminated by the release of radioactive waste.


The radioactivity of a sample of the contaminated water is tested every week for 5 weeks.
The results are shown in the table below.

(a) Plot these values on Fig. 9.1. [3]

Fig. 9.1
(b) Draw the best curve through your points.
[1]
(c) Use your graph to find the half-life of the radioactive material in the sample. Show clearly
on the graph how you obtained your answer.
half-life of radioactive material = weeks
[2]
(d) If the sample of contaminated water used in the test had been smaller, state how this
would have affected, if at all,
(i) the activity readings, .................................................................................................
(ii) the value of the half-life. ............................................................................................
[2]
Question no:

10

(a) One coil of a transformer is connected to a toy train set. The other coil is connected to a
240 V a.c. mains supply, as shown in Fig. 10.1.

Fig. 10.1
(i) How can you tell from Fig. 10.1 that the transformer is a step-down transformer?
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
[1]
(ii) Calculate the voltage at which the toy train operates.
toy train operates at V
[3]
(iii) 1. The voltage of the mains supply is reduced. What happens to the voltage
supplied to the train set? Tick one box.

2. An attempt is made to use the train set in a country where the mains supply is
110 V. Suggest one difference that might be noticed in the way the toy train
operates.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
[2]
(b) Fig. 10.2 shows an electromagnetic relay being used to operate an electric motor.

Fig. 10.2
Below are sentences that describe stages of the process by which the circuit works.
A The armature pivots and the contacts close.
B The core of the relay is magnetised.
C The switch is closed and the current flows through the coil.
DA current flows through the motor, making it work.
E The core attracts the top part of the armature.
Put the sentences so that the stages are in the correct order. Put the appropriate letters
in the boxes below. One box has been filled in as an example.

[3]
Question no:

11

(a) -particles can be scattered by thin gold foils. Fig. 11.1 shows part of the paths of three -particles.
Complete the paths of the three -particles.
[3]

Fig. 11.1
(b) What does the scattering of -particles show about atomic structure?
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
[2]
(c) State the nucleon number (mass number) of an -particle.
nucleon number = [1]

Question no:

10

(a) Fig. 10.1 is the decay curve for a radioactive isotope that emits only -particles.

Fig. 10.1
Use the graph to find the value of the half-life of the isotope.
Indicate, on the graph, how you arrived at your value.
half-life . [2]
(b) A student determines the percentage of -particles absorbed by a thick aluminium
sheet. He uses a source that is emitting only -particles and that has a long half-life.
(i) In the space below, draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus required, set up to
make the determination.
[2]
(ii) List the readings that the student needs to take.
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[3]
Question no:

11

Fig. 11.1 shows a flexible wire hanging between two magnetic poles. The flexible wire is
connected to a 12 V d.c. supply that is switched off.

Fig. 11.1
(a) Explain why the wire moves when the supply is switched on.
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..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(b) State the direction of the deflection of the wire.
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(c) When the wire first moves, energy is changed from one form to another. State these two
forms of energy.
from ........................................................... to ............................................................ [1]
(d) Fig. 11.2 shows the flexible wire made into a rigid rectangular coil and mounted on an
axle.

Fig. 11.2
(i) Add to the diagram an arrangement that will allow current to be fed into the coil
whilst allowing the coil to turn continuously. Label the parts you have added.
[1]
(ii) Briefly explain how your arrangement works.
...................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[2]
Question no:

12

In a country where the mains electricity supply is 240 V, the transformer in Fig. 12.1 is used
to enable a 6 V lamp to be lit.

Fig. 12.1
(a) Calculate the number of turns needed on the secondary coil if the lamp is to be lit at
normal brightness.
number of turns = ........................ [3]
(b) Without further calculation, state the number of secondary turns needed to light, at
normal brightness,
(i) two identical 6 V lamps in parallel i.e.
number of turns = ....................
(ii) two identical 6 V lamps in series i.e.
number of turns = ....................

[2]
Question no:

Fig. 8.1 shows the outline of an a.c. generator. The peak output voltage of the generator is
6.0 V and the output has a frequency of 10Hz.

Fig. 8.1
(a) Fig. 8.2 shows the axes of a voltage-time graph for the generator output.

Fig. 8.2
On Fig. 8.2,
(i) mark suitable voltage values on the voltage axis,
(ii) draw a graph of the generator output.
[3]
(b) The generator shown in Fig. 8.1 works by electromagnetic induction.
Explain how this effect produces the output voltage.
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[3]
(c) State the energy changes that occur in the generator when it is producing output.
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[2]
Question no:

Section B
Answer two questions from this section. Answer in the spaces provided.
11

An atom of one isotope of sodium contains 11 protons, 13 neutrons and 11 electrons.


(a) (i) State the nucleon number (mass number) of this isotope.
.....................................................................................................................................
[1]
(ii) Explain why the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral atom.
..........................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
[1]
(b) A nucleus of this isotope undergoes radioactive decay by the emission of a beta-particle.
(i) State the energy change that occurs during radioactive decay.
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.....................................................................................................................................
[2]
(ii) Complete the nuclear equation that represents this decay by filling in the appropriate
numbers in the blank spaces. Na is the chemical symbol for sodium.

[4]
(c) At the start of an experiment, the count rate due to a sample of this isotope of sodium is found to be
1200 counts per minute. This is shown on Fig. 11.1 by a point plotted at time t = 0.
The half-life of this isotope is 15 hours.
(i) On Fig. 11.1, draw a smooth line to show how the count rate is expected to change
between t = 0 and t = 30 hours.
[3]

Fig. 11.1
(ii) Explain why readings taken in an actual experiment may not follow a smooth line.
..........................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
[1]
(iii) Determine the count rate due to this isotope 30 hours before the start of the experiment.
count rate = .......................................................... [1]
(iv) In the space below, draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to measure the count
rate of the radioactive isotope.

[2]
Question no:

10

A doctor uses a radioactive isotope, iodine-131, to find the volume of blood in a patients body.
Information about iodine-131 is given in Fig. 10.1.

Fig. 10.1
(a) (i) Describe the structure of an atom of iodine-131.
(ii) The radioactive decay equation below shows an iodine-131 nucleus decaying into a
xenon nucleus (Xe). Copy the equation and insert the proton number and the nucleon
number of the xenon nucleus.

[5]
(b) Describe the differences between beta-particles and gamma-rays.
[3]
(c) The doctor uses a sample of iodine-131 that initially produces a count rate of 144 000 per
second.
The whole sample is injected into the patients arm. Nine small samples of blood, each of
volume 2.0 cm3, are taken from the other arm at 2 minute intervals.
Fig. 10.2 shows the count rates from the nine samples.

Fig. 10.2
(i) State two reasons why different count rates are obtained from the nine samples.
(ii) Calculate the average value of the count rates from the last four samples.
This is the average count rate from a volume of 2.0 cm3 of blood.
(iii) Using your answer to (ii), determine the volume of blood in the patients body, which
has a total count rate of 144 000 per second.
(iv) Sample number 9 is kept.
The count rate is measured again after 16 days.
Estimate the value obtained, given that the half-life of iodine-131 is 8.0 days.
[6]
(d) Describe one precaution that the doctor must take when handling this radioactive source.
[1]
Question no:

12

As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of radioactive


substances with different half-lives to be used for the treatment of cancer.
Diagram 12.1 shows radioactive rays directed towards the cancer cells in a patients
brain.

Diagram 12.1
(a) What is meant by halflife?
[ 1 mark ]
(b) Sketch a graph of activity against time to illustrate the decay rate of a radioactive
substance. Use your graph to explain how the half-life is determined.
[4 marks ]
Table 12.1 shows the properties of four radioactive substances, J, K , L and M

Table 12.1
(c) (i) Based on Table 12.1 above, explain the suitable properties of the
radioactive substance for use to kill cancer cells in a patient.
(ii) Determine which radioactive substance is the most suitable for the treatment
of cancer cells in a patient and give your reasons.
[10 marks]
(d) Diagram 12 .2 shows a radioactive decay series for Rn-222 nucleus to Pb210.

Diagram 12.2
(i) Describe what happens to a nucleus when it undergoes a radioactive decay.
(ii) Write an equation to represent the radioactive decay series of Rn-222 to Pb210 in Diagram 12.2
(iii) State the number of alpha particles and beta particles produced in the decay.
[ 5 marks]
Question no:

Topical Zico final


10(c) Carbon14 is used to find the age of objects. A 10 g sample of carbon is taken from a young
plant. Fig-8 shows how the number of counts in one minute from the sample decreases
with time.

Fig-8

The number of counts per hour from an identical sample of carbon taken from an old
piece
of wood is 380.

(i) Use Fig-8 to determine the age of this piece of wood. Explain how you obtained
your
answer.
(ii) Explain why it is important to take background radiation into account in this
measurement.
[4]