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Water supply and plumbing details : Plumbing equipments and

accessories, Types of plumbing systems, BIS specification. Plumbing


layout details of ducts Drainage system.
Drawing Water supply and plumbing layout at the building level.

Plumbing systems

TERMINOLOGY

PLUMBING
includes installation of the pipes, fixtures
and other apparatus inside a building for
bringing in the water supply and removing
the liquid and water borne wastes.
PLUMBING SERVICES
include services like water supply
drainage and sanitation
Water supply
includes the requirements of water supply,
connection of plumbing to public water
supply, design and construction of water
within the premises, inspection and
maintenance of water supply system
Drainage and Sanitation
services include design, construction and
maintenance of drains inside buildings and
from buildings up to the connections to the
public sewer, cesspool or other water
course

Water Supply Ststems

SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY


Surfaces sources:
Lakes, streams, rivers, reservoirs, runoff from roofs and paved areas
Underground sources:
shallow wells, deep wells, artesian wells, artesian springs, land springs

Surface and normal underground supplies

Water Supply Ststems

SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY


Artesian wells and springs
Artesian water:
By definition, artesian water comes from a source deep within the earth.
The water is protected by layers of clay and rock.
The opening to the surface is the artesian well.
The water is protected from environmental pollution and other forms
of contamination.

Water Supply Ststems

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Cold Water Supply

DEFINITIONS

Wholesome water: Suitable for domestic consumption and for food


preparation purposes. Obtained directly from the water company's main.
Wholesome is often used instead of potable, ie. fit to drink.
Greywater: water from showers, baths, taps and washing machines,
collected, treated, stored and recycled as an alternative to using wholesome
water for sanitary appliances (WC) and for outdoor uses (gardening).
Captured or harvested rainwater: rain water collected and stored from roofs
and other external surfaces. An old technology that has evolved to become
integral with contemporary building design. Used for flushing WCs, washing
machines and garden watering.

Cold Water Supply

HARDNESS OF WATER
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (mainly calcium and magnesium
ions) (in contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium
(Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations. Hard water is generally not harmful
to one's health.
Types of hardness:
1.Temporary :
Temporary hardness is caused by a combination of calcium ions and bicarbonate
ions in the water. It can be removed by boiling the water or by the addition of lime
(calcium hydroxide). Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the
bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is
softer upon cooling.
2.Permanent:
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by
boiling. It is usually caused by the presence in the water of calcium and magnesium
sulfates and/or chlorides which become more soluble as the temperature rises.
Despite the name, permanent hardness can be removed using a water softener or
ion exchange column, where the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with
the sodium ions in the column.

Cold Water Supply

FILTRATION OF WATER
Pressure filter- rate of filtration 4 to 12 m3
per m2 per hour. To backwash, valve A is
closed and valves B and C opened.
Compressed air clears the sand of dirt.
Diameter = 24 m.

Slow sand filter bed - rate of filtration 0.2


to 1.15 m3 per m2 per hour. Filter beds can
occupy large areas and the top layer of
sand will require removal and cleaning at
periodic intervals.

Cold Water Supply

FILTRATION OF WATER

Small domestic filter - the unglazed porcelain


cylinder will arrest very fine particles of dirt
and even micro-organisms. The cylinder can
be removed and sterilised in boiling water for
10 minutes.

Sterilisation and Softening- Sterilisation by


chlorine injection. Water used for drinking
must be sterilised. Chlorine is generally used
for this purpose to destroy organic matter.
Minute quantities (0.1 to 0.3 p.p.m.) are
normally added after the filtration process.

Cold Water Supply

STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

Gravitational Distribution:
water from gathering grounds is impounded in a reservoir. The water is
filtered and chlorinated before serving an inhabited area at lower level.
Pumped distribution:
water extracted from a river is pumped into a settlement tank, subsequently
filtered and chlorinated. Pump maintenance and running costs make this
process more expensive than gravity systems.
Ring main distribution:
water mains supplying a town or village may be in the form of a grid. This is
preferable to radial distribution as sections can be isolated with minimal
disruption to the remaining system and there is no more opportunity for
water to maintain a flow.

Cold Water Supply

STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

Gravitational Distribution:

Cold Water Supply

STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

Pumped distribution:

Cold Water Supply

STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION


Ring main distribution:

Cold Water Supply

COLD WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

a) Direct system
This system is used mostly in areas
where large level of reservoirs provide a
good mains supplant pressure.
In this system all sanitary fittings are
supplied with cold water direct from the
mains.

Cold Water Supply

COLD WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

b) Indirect System
The indirect system of cold water supply
has only one drinking water outlet, at the
sink.
The system requires more pipework than
the direct system and is therefore more
expensive to install, but uniform pressure
occurs at all cistern-supplied outlets.
The water authorities prefer this system
as it imposes less demand on the main.
Also, with fewer fittings attached to the
main, there is less chance of back
siphonage.
Other advantages of lower pressure
include less noise and wear on fittings,
and the opportunity to install a balanced
pressure shower from the cistern.

Plumbing systems

COLD WATER STORAGE CALCULATIONS


Water Supply for Residences
Cold water storage is provided to allow for up to 24 hour interruption of mains water
supply. A minimum of 150 to 200 litres per head per day may be considered adequate
for domestic needs of urban communities.

Plumbing systems

COLD WATER STORAGE TANKS


Requirements for installation and protection of water storage tanks:
Tanks must be installed on bases, platforms or supports designed to bear the
weight of the tank when it is filled to maximum capacity, without undue
distortion taking place.
Metal tanks (and other tanks when similarly specified) should be installed with
a membrane of non-corrosive insulating material between the support and the
underside of the tank.
Tanks must be supported in such a manner that no load is transmitted to the
attached pipes.
Tanks must be accessible for inspection, repairs, maintenance and replacement.
Tanks must be provided with a cover, designed to prevent the entry of dust,
roof water, surface water, groundwater, birds, animals or insects, to prevent
contamination.
Insulation from heat and cold should also be provided.
Tanks storing potable water should not be located directly beneath any sanitary
plumbing or any other pipes conveying non-potable water.
Where storage demand exceeds 4500 litres, storage tanks must be duplicated
and interconnected. For maintenance and repairs each tank must be capable of
isolation and independent operation.

Plumbing systems

COLD WATER STORAGE TANKS

Plumbing systems

Water mains

Water mains connection to buildings


The grid distribution of underground pipe
work enables sections to be isolated for
repair and maintenance without severe local
distribution.
Connections to the grid are made by the
local water authority or its approved
contractor at the expense of the developer or
building owner.
An isolation stop valve is usually provided at
the crown of the water main and a
communicating pipe terminated inside the
property boundary with another stop valve
for the building owners use.
The pipe remains the water authoritys
property, but the service pipe is the
responsibility of the building owner.

Plumbing systems

Water meters
Water meters are installed at the caution of the local water authority.
All buildings should have metered water supply.
Meters are either installed in the communication pipe, or by direct annular connection
to the stop valve.
If underground location is impractical, the water authority may agree internal
attachment to the rising main.

Plumbing systems

MATERIALS FOR PIPES


Pipes may be of any of the following materials:
cast iron, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, galvanized mild steel tubes,
copper, brass, wrought iron, asbestos cement, polyethylene, unplasticized PVC,
chlorinated PVC, or stainless steel.
The material chosen shall be resistant to corrosion, both inside and outside or shall be
suitably protected against corrosion.
Polyethylene and unplasticized PVC pipes shall not be installed near hot water pipes or
near any other heat sources.

The data required for determining the size of the communication and service pipes are:
a) the maximum rate of discharge required;
b) the length of the pipe; and
c) the head loss by friction in pipes, fittings and meters.

Plumbing systems

FIXTURE UNIT CALCULATIONS


The fixture unit concept is a method of calculating drinking-water supply
and drainage piping requirements within buildings where economies may
be made in construction costs.
All pipes should be of such a size as to be capable of serving the fixtures
to which they are connected when all other fixtures in the building are
being operated at the same time.
A fixture unit (f/u) value is assigned to each type of fixture based on its
rate of water consumption, on the length of time it is normally in use and
on the average period between successive uses.
The fixture unit values are added and this gives a basis for determining
the flow that may be expected in a water or drainage pipe to which two
or more fixtures are connected. The total is then reduced by a factor,
usually in the order of 0.6 to 0.7, but depending upon the margin of
simultaneous use protection necessary under local conditions
The total number of fixture units connected to each branch pipe is then
added, multiplied by the factor referred to above, and the result used to
calculate the flow in water or drainage pipes in accordance with tables in
national building codes

Plumbing systems

Joints on Water Pipes


Copper pipes may be jointed by bronze
welding. Non-manipulative compression
joints are used on pipe work above ground
and manipulative compression joints are
used on underground pipe work.
Capillary joints have an integral ring of soft
solder. After cleaning the pipe and fitting
with wire wool and fluxing, heat application
enables the solder to flow and form a joint.
Solder alloy for drinking water supplies must
be lead free, i.e. copper and tin.
The Talbot joint is a push-fit joint for
polythene pipes. A brass ferrule or support
sleeve in the end of the pipe retains the pipe
shape. Threaded joints on steel pipes are
sealed by non-toxic jointing paste and hemp
or polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) tape.
A taper thread on the pipe will help to
ensure a water-tight joint. Union joints
permit slight deflection without leakage.

Cold Water Supply

Valves Used for Water


The globe-type stop valve is used to control
the flow of water at high pressure. To close the
flow of water the crutch head handle is rotated
slowly in a clockwise direction gradually
reducing the flow, thus preventing sudden
impact and the possibility of vibration and
water
hammer.

The gate or sluice valve is used to control the


flow of water on low pressure installations.
The
wheel head is rotated clockwise to control the
flow of water, but this valve will offer far less
resistance to flow than a globe valve.

Cold Water Supply

Valves Used for Water


The drain valve has several applications and is
found at the lowest point in pipe systems,
boilers and storage vessels.
For temperatures up to 100C valves are usually
made from brass.
For higher temperatures gun metal is used.
Brass contains 50% zinc and 50% copper. Gun
metal contains 85% copper, 5% zinc and 10%
tin.

Plumbing systems

Taps Used for Water


The pillar tap is used to supply water to basins,
baths, bidets and sinks. Combined hot and cold
pillar taps are available with fixed or swivel
outlet. The outlet of these taps must be biflow, i.e. separate waterways for hot and cold
water to prevent crossflow of water within the
pipework.

The bib tap is for wall fixing, normally about


150mm above a sanitary appliance. The
`Supatap bib tap permits a change of washer
without shutting off the water supply. It is also
available in pillar format. Quarter-turn taps are
easy to operate by hand or elbow, therefore
are suitable for use by the disabled and
medicalpractitioners.

Plumbing systems

Taps Used for Water

The `Supatap' bib tap permits a change of


washer without shutting off the water supply.
It is also available in pillar format. Quarter-turn
taps are easy to operate by hand or elbow,
therefore are suitable for use by the disabled
and medical practitioners.

Plumbing systems

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Drainage The removal of any liquid by a system constructed for the purpose.

Systems of Drainage
a) Combined system
A system in which foul water
(sewage) and surface water
are conveyed by the same
sewers and drains.

Plumbing systems

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

b) Separate system
A system in which foul water
(sewage) and surface water
are conveyed by the separate
sewers and drains.

Plumbing systems

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

c) Partially separate system


A modification of the separate
system in which part of the
surface water is conveyed by
the foul (sanitary) sewers and
drains.

Plumbing systems

DRAINAGE SCHEME

Plumbing systems

PIPE SYSTEM

Pipe System The system to be adopted will depend on


the type and planning of the building in which it is to be
installed and will be one of the following:

a) Single stack system


A system in which there is one soil pipe into which all
water closets, baths, sinks, and basins discharge. In
this system there is no trap ventilation.
b) Single stack Partially Vented
(or One-pipe system Partially vented) In addition to
the single stack system, there is a relief vent, which
ventilates only the traps of water closets.

Plumbing systems

PIPE SYSTEM

Plumbing systems

PIPE SYSTEM
c) One-pipe system
The system of plumbing in which the
wastes from the sinks, baths and wash
basins, and the soil pipe branches are
all collected into one main pipe, which
is connected, directly to the drainage
system. Gully traps and waste pipes
are completely dispersed with, but all
the traps of the water closets, basins,
etc, are completely ventilated to
preserve the water seal.

Plumbing systems

PIPE SYSTEM
d) Two-pipe system
The system of plumbing in which soil
and waste pipes are distinct and
separate. The soil pipes being
connected to the drain direct and
waste pipes through a trapped gully.
All traps of all appliances are
completely ventilated in this system.

Plumbing systems

TRAPS

Foul air from the drain and sewer is

prevented from penetrating buildings by


applying a water trap to all sanitary
appliances.
A water seal trap is an integral part of gullies
and WCs, being moulded in during
manufacture.
Smaller fittings, i.e. sinks, basins, etc., must
be fitted with a trap.
The format of a traditional tubular trap
follows the outline of the letter ` P ' or ` S .
The outlet on a ` P ' trap is slightly less than
horizontal ( 212 ) and on an ` S ' trap it is
vertical.
A ` Q ' trap has an outlet inclined at an angle
of 45, i.e. half way between ` P and ` S ' .
These are no longer used for sanitation but
have an application to gullies.
Depth of water seal varies from 25 mm to
75mm.

Plumbing systems

LOSS OF TRAP WATER SEAL


The most obvious cause of water seal loss is leakage due to defective fittings or poor
workmanship. Otherwise, it may be caused by poor system design and/or
installation:
Self siphonage : as an appliance discharges, the water fills the waste pipe and
creates a vacuum to draw out the seal. Causes are a waste pipe that is too long,
too steep or too small in diameter.
Induced siphonage : the discharge from one appliance draws out the seal in the
trap of an adjacent appliance by creating a vacuum in that appliance's branch
pipe. Causes are the same as for self-siphonage, but most commonly a shared
waste pipe that is undersized. Discharge into inadequately sized stacks can have
the same effect on waste branch appliances.
Back pressure : compression occurs due to resistance to flow at the base of a
stack. The positive pressure displaces water in the lowest trap. Causes are a too
small radius bottom bend, an undersized stack or the lowest branch fitting too
close to the base of the stack.
Capillary action - a piece of rag, string or hair caught on the trap outlet.
Wavering out gusts of wind blowing over the top of the stack can cause a partial
vacuum to disturb water seals.

Plumbing systems

LOSS OF TRAP WATER SEAL

Plumbing systems

CESSPOOLS

A cesspool is an acceptable method of foul


water containment where main drainage is not
available. It is an impervious chamber
requiring periodic emptying, sited below
ground level. Traditional cesspools were
constructed of brickwork rendered inside with
waterproof cement mortar. Precast concrete
rings supported on a concrete base have also
been used, but factory manufactured glass
reinforced plastic units are now preferred. The
Building Regulations require a minimum
capacity below inlet level of 18000 litres. A
cesspool must be impervious to rainwater, well
ventilated and have no outlets or overflows. It
should be sited at least 15 m from a dwelling.
Capacity is based on 150 litres per person per day at 45 day emptying cycles,
e.g. a four person house: 4x150x45=27000litres (27m3)

Plumbing systems

SEPTIC TANK
Where main drainage is not available a septic tank is preferable to a cesspool. A septic
tank is self-cleansing and will only require annual desludging. The tank is a watertight
chamber in which the sewage is liquefied by anaerobic bacterial activity. Traditionally
built tanks are divided into two compartments with an overall length of three times the
breadth. Final processing of sewage is achieved by conveying it through subsoil drainage
pipes or a biological filter.

Capacity C= (180 X P) + 2000


e.g. a ten person house C=(180x10)+2000=3800litres (3.8m3)

Plumbing systems

SEPTIC TANK

Plumbing systems

SANITARY FITTINGS - Water Closets

Plumbing systems

SANITARY FITTINGS - Water Closets

Plumbing systems

APPLIANCES Basins and tubs

Plumbing systems

APPLIANCES Basins

Plumbing systems

APPLIANCES Baths and Showers

Plumbing systems

APPLIANCES Bidets

Plumbing systems

APPLIANCES Kitchen