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This is a compilation of important government schemes and
programmes. This document has been prepared to cater to the
section on General Awareness in Phase I as well as Economic and
Social Issues in Phase II.

In India, there are 3 types of government schemes.

The nomenclature is derived from the pattern of funding and the modality for implementation.
1. Central Sectoral Schemes (Also known as Central Schemes)
Such schemes are 100% funded by the Union government and implemented by the Central
Government machinery.
Central sector schemes are mainly formulated on subjects from the Union List.
In addition, the Central Ministries also implement some schemes directly in States/UTs which are
called Central Sector Schemes but resources under these Schemes are not generally transferred to
2. Centrally Sponsored Schemes
Under Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) a certain percentage of the funding is borne by the States
in the ratio of 50:50, 70:30, 75:25, 90:10, etc and the implementation is by the State Governments.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes are formulated in subjects from the State List to encourage States to
prioritise in areas that require more attention.
Funds are routed either through consolidated fund of States and or are transferred directly to State/
District Level Autonomous Bodies/Implementing Agencies.
3. State Schemes
These schemes are funded and implemented by the State governments.
In 2013, the number of Centrally Sponsored Schemes was 173. Their number increased at a rapid pace during the era
of the Planning Commission. Hence, these schemes came under a lot of criticism as being violative of the federal
character of the Constitution and as being imposed from the top.
As per the Union Budget 2015-16, there are 31 schemes to be fully sponsored by the Union Government , 24
schemes to be run with changed sharing pattern between the Union and states and 8 schemes have been
delinked from Central support. (The delinking has been done as a result of the increased share of the States in
the divisible pool of taxes from 32% to 42% as per the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission)
Making his Budget Speech while presenting the General Budget 2015-16, the Finance Minister, Shri Arun Jaitley said
that consequent to the substantially higher devolution, many schemes on the State subjects are to be delinked from
Central support. However, keeping in mind that some of these schemes represent national priorities especially
those targeted at poverty alleviation, Centre has decided that it will continue to contribute to such schemes, the
Minister added. Besides, the schemes mandated by legal obligations and those backed by Cess collection have
been fully provided for.

(A) Schemes to be fully supported by Union Government:


Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA)

Multi-Sectoral Development Programme for Minorities (MSDP)
Pre-Matric scholarship for children of those engaged in unclean occupation
Scholarship Schemes (Post and Pre-Matric) for SC, ST and OBCs
Support for machinery for Implementation of Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and Prevention of
Atrocities Act, 1989
National Programme for Persons with Disabilities
Scheme for providing Education to Minorities
Umbrella Scheme for education of ST children
Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY)
Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG)-SABLA
National Nutrition Mission
Scheme for Protection and Development of Women
Assistance for Schemes under Proviso (i) to article 275 (1) of the Constitution
Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-plan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (Financed from Education Cess)
Mid Day Meal
Schemes of North Eastern Council
Special package for Bodoland Territorial Council

20. National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) including Annapurna

21. Grants from Central Pool of Resources for North Eastern Region and Sikkim
22. Social Security for Unorganized Workers Scheme
23. Support to Educational Development including Teacher Training and Adult Education
24. Border Area Development Programme
25. Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS)
26. Cess backed allocation for Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadhak Yojana (PMGSY)
27. Roads and Bridges financed from Central Road Fund
28. Project Tiger
29. Project Elephant
30. Additional Central Assistance for Externally Aided Projects (loan portion)
31. Additional Central Assistance for Externally Aided Projects (Grant portion)
(B) Schemes to be run with the Changed Sharing Pattern:
1. Cattle Development
2. Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
3. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
4. National Livestock Mission
5. National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture
6. Dairy Vikas Abhiyaan
7. Veterinary Services and Animal Health
8. National Rural Drinking Water Programme
9. Swaccha Bharat Abhiyaan (Rural and Urban)
10. National Afforestation Programme
11. National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-system (NPCA)
12. National AIDS and STD Control programme
13. National health Mission
14. National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM)
15. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyaan (RMSA)
16. Strategic Assistance for State Higher Education Rashtriya Uchcha Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)
17. For Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Judiciary
18. National Land Records Modernisation Programme
19. National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)
20. Rural Housing-Housing for All
21. Integrated Child Development Service
22. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Abhiyan (RGKA) (erstwhile Panchayat Yuva Krida aur Khel Abhiyan (PYKKA)
23. PMKSY (including Watershed programme and micro irrigation)
24. Impact Assessment Studies of AIBFMP
(C) Schemes delinked from support of the Centre:
National e-Governance Plan
Backward Regions Grant Funds
Modernization of Police Forces
Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Abhiyaan (RGPSA)
Scheme for Central Assistance to the States for developing export infrastructure
Scheme for setting up of 6000 Model Schools
National Mission on Food processing
8. Tourist Infrastructure
What is Financial Inclusion?
Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services at affordable costs to sections of
disadvantaged and low-income segments of society, in contrast to financial exclusion where those services are not
available or affordable.
It means that everyone is given access to:


With a bank account, every household gains access to banking and credit facilities.
This will enable them to come out of the grip of moneylenders, manage to keep away from financial crises caused by
emergent needs, and most importantly, benefit from a range of financial products/benefits.
Current status of financial inclusion in the country:
Various initiatives were taken up by RBI / GoI in order to ensure financial inclusion.
These include initiaatives like:
Nationalization of Banks ,
Expansion of Banks branch network ,
Establishment & expansion of Cooperative and RRBs ,
Introduction of Priority Sector lending ,
Lead Bank Scheme,
Formation of SHGs etc
During 2005-2006, RBI advised Banks to align their polices with the objective of financial Inclusion. Further, in order
to ensure greater financial inclusion and increasing the outreach of the banking sector, it was decided to use the services
of NGOs/SHGs, MFIs and other Civil Society Organizations as intermediaries in providing financial and banking
services through use of Business Facilitator and Business Correspondent Model.
However, as per Census, 2011:
Out of 24.67 crore households in the country, 14.48 crore (58.7%) households had access to banking services.
Of the 16.78 crore rural households, 9.14 crore (54.46%) were availing banking services.
Of the 7.89 crore urban households, 5.34 crore (67.68%) households were availing banking services.
In the year 2011, Banks covered 74,351 villages, with population more than 2,000 (as per 2001 census), with
banking facilities under the Swabhimaan campaign through Business Correspondents .
However the program had a very limited reach and impact.

The mission mode objective of the PMJDY consists of 6 pillars.

During the 1st year of implementation under Phase I (15th August, 2014-14th August,2015), three Pillars
namely(1)Universal access to banking facilities (2) Financial Literacy Programme and (3) Providing
Basic Banking Accounts with overdraft facility of Rs.5000 after six months and RuPay Debit card
with inbuilt accident insurance cover of Rs 1 lakh and RuPay Kisan card, will be implemented.
Phase II, beginning from 15th August 2015 upto15th August,2018 will address (1) Creation of Credit
Guarantee Fund for coverage of defaults in overdraft A/Cs (2) Micro Insurance and
(3) Unorganized sector Pension schemes like Swavlamban.
In addition, in this phase coverage of households in hilly, tribal and difficult areas would be carried out.
Moreover, this phase would focus on coverage of remaining adults in the households and students.
The plan, therefore, proposes to channel all Government benefits (from Centre/State/Local body) to the
beneficiaries to such accounts and pushing the Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT) scheme of the Union
Government including restarting the DBT in LPG scheme. MGNREGS sponsored by Ministry of
Rural Development (MoRD, GoI) is also likely to be included in Direct Benefit Transfer scheme.


Households are being targeted instead of villages as targeted earlier.
Moreover both rural and urban areas are being covered this time as against only rural areas targeted
The present plan pursues digital financial inclusion with special emphasis on monitoring by a Mission
headed by the Finance Minister.
Account can be opened in any bank branch or via Business Correspondent (Bank Mitra)
Such accounts can be opened with zero balance.
The deposits will earn interest, an accidental insurance of Rs 1 lakh will be provided along with a life insurance
cover of Rs 30,000.
The beneficiaries of various government schemes will get subsidies in cash in their accounts directly. (Direct
Benefits Transfer or DBT)


According to the NSSO survey of 2013, there are 5.77 crore small business units, mostly individual proprietorships,
which run small manufacturing, trading or services activities.
Most of these own account enterprises are owned by people belonging to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe or
Other Backward Classes.
Only 4% of such units get institutional finance.
Providing access to institutional finance to such micro/small business units would turn them into strong instrument of
GDP growth and also employment.
Micro Finance is an economic development tool whose objective is to assist the poor to work their way out of
It covers a range of services which include, in addition to the provision of credit, many other services such as
savings, insurance, money transfers, counseling etc.

The players in the Micro Finance sector can be qualified as falling into 3 main groups:- the SHG-Bank linkage
model started by NABARD, the Non Banking Finance companies and the others including Trusts, Societies
Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Bank , proposed to be made via a statutory enactment
would be responsible for regulating and refinancing all Micro-finance Institutions (MFI (and not the Micro
Units under MSME's, keep this point in mind) which are in the business of lending to micro/small business
entities engaged in manufacturing, trading and services activities.
The Bank would partner with state level/regional level co-ordinators to provide finance to Last Mile Financer of
small/micro business enterprises.

MUDRA stands for Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency.

The MUDRA Bank would primarily be responsible for
1) Laying down policy guidelines for micro/small enterprise financing business
2) Registration of MFI entities
3) Regulation of MFI entities
4) Accreditation /rating of MFI entities
5) Laying down responsible financing practices to ward off indebtedness and ensure proper client
protection principles and methods of recovery
6) Development of standardised set of covenants governing last mile lending to micro/small enterprises
7) Promoting right technology solutions for the last mile
8) Formulating and running a Credit Guarantee scheme for providing guarantees to the loans which are
being extended to micro enterprises
9) Creating a good architecture of Last Mile Credit Delivery to micro businesses under the scheme of
Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana


Available to people in age group 18 to 70 years with bank account.
Rs.12 per annum.
Payment Mode:
The premium will be directly auto-debited by the bank from the subscribers account. This is the only mode
Risk Coverage:
For accidental death and full disability - Rs.2 Lakh and for partial disability Rs.1 Lakh.
Any person having a bank account and Aadhaar number linked to the bank account can give a simple form to
the bank every year before 1st of June in order to join the scheme. Name of nominee to be given in the form.
Terms of Risk Coverage:
A person has to opt for the scheme every year. He can also prefer to give a long-term option of continuing in
which case his account will be auto-debited every year by the bank.
Who will implement this Scheme?:
The scheme will be offered by all Public Sector General Insurance Companies and all other insurers who are
willing to join the scheme and tie-up with banks for this purpose.
Government Contribution:
Various Ministries can co-contribute premium for various categories of their beneficiaries from their budget or
from Public Welfare Fund created in this budget from unclaimed money. This will be decided separately during
the year.
(ii) Common Publicity Expenditure will be borne by the Government.

Available to people in the age group of 18 to 50 and having a bank account. People who join the scheme
before completing 50 years can, however, continue to have the risk of life cover up to the age of 55 years
subject to payment of premium.
Rs.330 per annum. It will be auto-debited in one instalment.
Payment Mode:
The payment of premium will be directly auto-debited by the bank from the subscribers account.
Risk Coverage:
Rs.2 Lakh in case of death for any reason.
Terms of Risk Coverage:
A person has to opt for the scheme every year. He can also prefer to give a long-term option of continuing, in
which case his account will be auto-debited every year by the bank.
Who will implement this Scheme?:
The scheme will be offered by Life Insurance Corporation and all other life insurers who are willing to join
the scheme and tie-up with banks for this purpose.
Government Contribution:
Various other Ministries can co-contribute premium for various categories of their beneficiaries out of their
budget or out of Public Welfare Fund created in this budget out of unclaimed money. This will be decided
separately during the year.
(ii) Common Publicity Expenditure will be borne by Government.
The Government of India is extremely concerned about the old age income security of the working poor and is
focused on encouraging and enabling them to join the National Pension System (NPS).
To address the longevity risks among the workers in unorganised sector and to encourage the workers in
unorganised sector to voluntarily save for their retirement, who constitute 88% of the total labour force
of 47.29 crore as per the 66th Round of NSSO Survey of 2011-12, but do not have any formal pension
provision, the Government had started the Swavalamban Scheme in 2010-11.
However, coverage under Swavalamban Scheme is inadequate mainly due to lack of clarity of pension benefits
at the age after 60.

The Finance Minister has, therefore, announced a new initiative called Atal Pension Yojana (APY) in his
Budget Speech for 2015-16.
The APY will be focussed on all citizens in the unorganised sector, who join the National Pension System
(NPS) and who are not members of any statutory social security scheme.
Under the APY, the subscribers would receive the fixed pension of Rs. 1000 per month, Rs. 2000 per
month, Rs. 3000 per month, Rs. 4000 per month, Rs. 5000 per month, at the age of 60 years, depending on
their contributions, which itself would vary on the age of joining the APY.
The minimum age of joining APY is 18 years and maximum age is 40 years.
Therefore, minimum period of contribution by the subscriber under APY would be 20 years or more.
The benefit of fixed pension would be guaranteed by the Government.
The Central Government would also co-contribute 50% of the subscribers contribution or Rs. 1000 per
annum, whichever is lower, to each eligible subscriber account, for a period of 5 years, i.e., from 2015-16 to
2019-20, who join the NPS before 31st December, 2015 and who are not income tax payers.
The existing subscribers of Swavalamban Scheme would be automatically migrated to APY, unless they opt


Proposed in the Budget 2015-16

The sole motive is the welfare of senior citizens
The government intends to use the unclaimed deposits of Public Provident Fund (PPF) and Employee
Provident Fund (EPF)
The money in these accounts which have been inoperative for more than 7 years will be used for this fund
If someone claims the money after 7 years, it will be paid after document verification.


A substantial amount of money has been spent in the conservation and improvement of the river Ganga but the
efforts have not yielded desired results because of the lack of concerted effort by all the stakeholders.
The Ganga Action Plan was launched on 14th January 1986 with the main objective of pollution abatement,
to improve water quality by interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and toxic and industrial
chemical wastes present, from identified grossly polluting units entering in to the river.
After reviewing the effectiveness of the "Ganga Action Plan", the Government announced the "Mission Clean
Ganga" project on 31st December, 2009 with the objective that by 2020, no municipal sewage and industrial
waste would be released in the river without treatment, with the total budget of around Rs.15,000 crore.
The Government also established the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), chaired by the
Prime Minister, with the objective to ensure effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river
Ganga, by adopting a river basin approach for comprehensive planning and management.

In the Budget 2014-15, the Government had announced Rs 2037 crore towards this mission.
This project aims at Ganga Rejuvenation by combining the existing ongoing efforts and planning under it to
create a concrete action plan for future.

Salient Features

Over Rs. 20,000 crore has been sanctioned in 2014-2015 budget for the next 5 years.
Will cover 8 states, 47 towns & 12 rivers under the project.
Over 1,632 gram panchayats on the banks of Ganga to be made open defecation-free by 2022.
Several ministries are working with nodal Water Resources Ministry for this project includes Environment,
Urban Development , Shipping, Tourism & Rural Development Ministries.
Prime focus will be on involving people living on the rivers banks in this project.
Under the aegis of National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) & State Programme Management Groups
(SPMGs) States and Urban Local Bodies and Panchayati Raj institutions will be involved in this project.
Setting river centric urban planning process to facilitate better citizen connects, through interventions at Ghats
and River fronts.
Expansion of coverage of sewerage infrastructure in 118 urban habitations on banks of Ganga.
Enforcement of Ganga specific River Regulatory Zones.
Development of rational agricultural practices & efficient irrigation methods.
Setting Ganga Knowledge Centre.

Pollution will be checked through

Treatment of waste water in drains by applying bio-remediation method.

Treatment of waste water through in-situ treatment.
Treatment of waste water by the use of innovative technologies.
Treatment of waste water through municipal sewage & effluent treatment plants.
Introducing immediate measures to arrest inflow of sewage.
Introducing PPP approach for pollution control.
Introduction of 4-battalion of Territorial Army Ganga Eco-Task Force.
June 2015
In a determined bid to combat pollution in the river Ganga, a highly sophisticated digital system will be
launched shortly to pin down habitual polluters by involving people in river front cities.
An app, using state-of-the-art technology, has been developed with the help of ISRO (Indian Space
Research Organization) to involve people who can now click pictures of polluters-mainly industry,
habitual offenders and other source of pollution by their mobiles and upload same on the new app for

The ambitious Namami Gange project officials will soon initiate action on the visual which through the
Once the picture of polluted stretch is uploaded, officials said, it could not be erased and would have
comprehensive details like location, date and time
The GIS based system will replace monitoring on papers to digital platforms
The App would help in monitoring of work on the project too besides mega planning of further action plans.

Budget 2015-16
12257cr Krishonnati Yojana (Centre and State)
of which
- 4500 for Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (State Plan).
- 2823 for National Crop Insurance Programme.
- 1300 for National Food Security Mission.
- 835 for National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture.
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

Basic objective to achieve 4 per cent annual growth in the agricultural sector during the 11th plan.
Has been extended to XIIth plan (Agriculture growth rate target in 12th Plan is also 4%)
To incentivize the States to provide additional resources in their State Plans over and above their baseline
expenditure to bridge critical gaps.
RKVY is a State Plan Scheme
How much assistance would be provided to a state from centre would depend upon the amount provided in
State Plan Budgets for Agriculture and allied sectors, above a baseline expenditure on these sectors.
Virtually covers all sectors such as Crop Cultivation, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Dairy
Development, Agricultural Research and Education, Forestry and Wildlife, Plantation and Agricultural
Marketing, Food Storage and Warehousing, Soil and Water Conservation, Agricultural Financial Institutions,
other Agricultural Programmes and Cooperation.
Has 12 sub schemes
Some important ones are as follows:
Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI)
Initiative on Vegetable Clusters
National Mission for Protein Supplements

National Saffron Mission

Crop Diversification in Original Green Revolution States
Vidharbha Intensified Irrigation Development Programme (VIIDP)
Vidharbha Region is the eastern region of Maharashtra.
The main cash crops of the region are cotton, oranges and soya bean.
There has been a spate of farmer suicides in Maharashtra in the last decade, out of which more than 70%
farmers belong to the 11 districts of Vidarbha region.
This is mainly because of the infertility of the land, lack of ample amount of water resources, lack of
new technologies and due to the negligence of the state government towards the farmers' needs.)
VIIDP- initiated in 2012 (expected to continue till 2016-17)
The objectives of VIIDP are to bring more farming areas in Vidharbha region under protective
irrigation, to increase the productivity of rainfed cotton farming through rain water harvesting,
intensive irrigation and better crop management and to enhance the water use efficiency through
application of drip/sprinkler irrigation.

And so on
Top 3 priority sectors under RKVY in Punjab (during 11th Plan):
Animal Husbandry

National Crops Insurance Programme (NCIP)

Has three components viz.

1. Modified National Agricultural insurance Scheme (MNAIS),
2. Weather Based Crop insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and
3. Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS).
A new umbrella Central Sector Scheme in the name of 'National Crop Insurance Program (NCIP) has been
introduced by merging MNAIS, WBCIS & CPIS throughout the country from Rabi 2013-14.

The loanee farmers are covered on compulsory basis and non-loanee farmers on voluntary basis.
Modified National Agricultural insurance Scheme (MNAIS)
Provides insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of crops and
subsequent low crop yield.
The state government notifies which particular crops are to be covered for a particular season or year
The insurer companies are public sector as well as private sector General Insurance Companies
Available to all kinds of farmers, big or small; loanee or non-loanee; Landholders, sharecroppers or tenant
Weather-based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS)
Provides insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of crops due to
Adverse Weather Incidence and subsequent crop loss.
Implies that if a farmer did not insure his crop under MNAIS but somehow his crops were damaged due to
adverse weather conditions; he is still able to claim insurance if he goes with this component.
Crops are selected and notified by State Governments
Available to all kinds of farmers, big or small; loanee or non-loanee; Landholders, sharecroppers or tenant
Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS)
Active only on those states and UTs home to Coconut cultivators

National Food Security Mission

Central Scheme of GOI launched in 2007 for 5 years to increase production and productivity of wheat, rice
and pulses on a sustainable basis so as to ensure food security of the country
It was extended to 12th five year plan in 2012.

In the 12th Plan, NFSM aims at raising the food grain production by 25 million tones.
Besides rice, wheat and pulses, NFSM proposes to cover coarse cereals and fodder crops during the 12th
plan period (2012-17).
12th plan aims to cover all the states of India with focus on low productive areas to bridge the yield gaps for
additional production while stability in high production areas would be achieved through promotion of
conservation agriculture practices
Components - (i) NFSM-Rice, (ii) NFSM-Wheat, (iii) NFSM-Pulses, (iv) NFSM-Coarse Cereals and
(v) NFSM-Commercial Crops

Increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses and coarse cereals through area expansion in a sustainable
manner in the identified districts of the country.
Restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.
Enhancing farm level economy (i.e. farm profits) to restore confidence among the farmers.
The main aim is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved
technologies and farm management practices
Salient Features
Focus on low productivity and high potential districts including cultivation of food grain crops in rain
fed areas.
Implementation of cropping system centric interventions in a Mission mode approach through active
engagement of all the stakeholders at various levels.
Agro-climatic zone wise planning and cluster approach for crop productivity enhancement.
Focus on pulse production through utilization of rice fallows, rice bunds and intercropping of pulses
with coarse cereals, oilseeds and commercial crops (sugarcane, cotton, jute).
Promotion and extension of improved technologies i.e. seed, Integrated nutrient management (INM)
including micronutrients, soil amendments, integrated pest management (IPM), input use efficiency and
resource conservation technologies along with capacity building of the farmers/extension functionaries.
Close monitoring of flow of funds to ensure timely reach of interventions to the target beneficiaries.
Integration of various proposed interventions and targets with the district plan of each identified district.
Constant monitoring and concurrent evaluation by the implementing agencies for assessing the impact of
the interventions for a result oriented approach.
Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
Panchayati Raj Institutions will be actively involved in selection of beneficiary and selection of
interventions under Local Initiatives in the identified districts.
National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculture is responsible for around 14% of global emissions.

If the emissions from the agriculture are combined with the emissions caused by deforestation for farming,
fertilizer manufacturing and agricultural energy use, this sector becomes the largest contributor to global

In India, the agriculture sector accounts for 17.6% of total emissions.

At the same time, it consumes some one fourth of the electricity, so, it is indirectly responsible for another
10% of the GHG emissions. When we combine these figures with the fertilizer industries, catering solely to
agriculture, and use of diesel, we find that agriculture is the largest contributor of GHG in India.

That is why there is a need that the farm sector is given priority in Indias climate mitigation strategy.

The Objective of NMSA launched under NAPCC is to devise climate adaptation and mitigation within the
agriculture sector.

Expected to transform Indian agriculture into a climate resilient production system through suitable adaptation
and mitigation measures in the domains of both crop husbandry and animal husbandry
It is one of the 8 missions under NAPCC

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

Launched in 2008

Currently, eight missions are operational

Each is a sectoral response to the impacts of climate change.
Three of them on solar energy, afforestation and energy efficiency seek to slow down the growth of
Indias emissions.
Another three on agriculture, water and Himalayan eco-systems are about initiating measures to adapt to
the effects of climate change.
The remaining two on sustainable habitat and strategic knowledge are service missions and seek to
create more knowledge on useful climate responses.
1. Solar
(Jawaharlal Nehru) National solar mission.
To achieve following things by 2022
Installation of 20GW solar power
2 GW of off-grid Solar
20 million sq. meter of solar thermal collector area
20 million rural households to have solar lighting
The government recently enhanced the target of electricity production under the Solar Mission from
the original 20,000 MW by 2022 to 100,000 MW.
2. Energy
National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)
By 2015, help save about 5% of our annual energy consumption, and nearly 100 million tonnes of
carbon dioxide every year

National water mission.
Increase water use efficiency by 20%
Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas
And other fancy stuff like integrated water Management, awareness generation etc.


National mission for sustainable agriculture.
Enhancing productivity and resilience of agriculture
Reduce vulnerability to extremes of weather, long dry spells, flooding.

5. Green India (forest)

National mission for Green India
Afforest an additional 10 million hectare of forest lands, wastelands and community lands.

National mission on Sustainable Habitat
Energy-efficient buildings
Sewage Management


National mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
Identify challenges arising from climate change,
Promote the development Knowledge on Climate Change
Particularly in the areas of health, demography, migration, and livelihood of coastal communities

8. Himalayan Ecosystem
National mission for sustaining the Himalayan Eco System
Reduce climate impacts on the Himalayan glaciers And promote community-based management of
these ecosystems
Jan 2015

The government will soon add at least four new missions to the National Action Plan on Climate Change
(NAPCC), including one to promote wind energy, and another to build preparedness to deal with impacts on
human health.
Wind energy
Modelled on National Solar Mission
To be serviced by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
To produce 50,000-60,000 MW of power by 2022
Human health
Assess impact of climate change on human health
Build up capacities to respond to these
Being looked after by Health Ministry
Coastal resources
Prepare integrated coastal resource management plan
Map vulnerabilities along the entire shoreline
Environment Ministry to look after the mission
Incentivise efforts towards harnessing energy from waste
Lower dependence on coal, oil, gas
Make power production a more earth-friendly process

Focus Areas of NMSA

Dryland Agriculture/Rainfed area development

This further includes:
Development of drought and pest-resistant crop varieties.
Improving methods to conserve soil and water to ensure theirs optimal utilization (On farm water
Generate awareness through stakeholder consultations, training workshops and demonstration exercises for
farming communities, for agro-climatic information sharing and dissemination.
Financial support to enable farmers to invest in and adopt relevant technologies to overcome climate related
Risk Management:
This further includes:
Strengthening existing agricultural and weather insurance mechanisms.
Development and validation of weather derivative models by insurance providers.
Ensure access to archival and current weather data for this purpose.
Creation of web-enabled, regional language based services for facilitation of weather based insurance.
Development of GIS and remote-sensing methodologies for detailed soil resource mapping and land use
planning. All watershed and river basins to be covered.
Mapping vulnerable eco-regions and identification of pest and disease hotspots.
Developing and implementation of region-specific contingency plans based on vulnerability and risk scenario
Access to Information
This further includes
To improve and expand the data bases on (a) Soil Profile, (b) Area Under Cultivation, Production And Yield,
and (c) Cost of Cultivation.
To digitize data, maintain database of global quality, and streamline the procedure governing access there to

To build public awareness through National Portal on agricultural Statistics.

Use of Bio- technology

This further includes
Genetic engineering
Development of strategies for low input sustainable agriculture by producing crops with enhanced water and
nitrogen use efficiency which may also result in reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, and crops with
greater tolerance to drought, high temperature, submergence and salinity stresses.
Development of nutritional strategies for managing heat stress in dairy animals to prevent nutrient deficiencies
leading to low milk yield and productivity.
Development of salt tolerant and disease resistant fresh water fish and prawn.

Though NMSA has been successful in identifying the larger challenges faced by Indian agriculture but
strategies proposed to meet these challenges are largely drawn from past policies and are highly technology
focused. Most of the proposed strategies target the big farmers, while the small and marginal farmers are left
vulnerable. Water use efficiency has been given importance but the chemical fertilizers have been largely
ignored in the strategies. Chemical fertilizers are also a major driver of rising demand for irrigation water.
NMSA lacks adequate regulatory framework required to meet climate change related challenges to
Budget 2015-16 IRRIGATION
5300 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana
- 1800 Development of Micro irrigation (per drop more crop)
- 1500 Integrated Watershed Development Programme
- 2000 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sichai Yojana (including Acccelerated Irrigation Benefit and Flood Management
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) and PM Gram Sinchai Yojana

Will provide end to end solution in the irrigation supply chain, including the water source, the distribution
network and the farm level application (3 crucial components of irrigation)
Aims to bring irrigation to every farm by converging the ongoing schemes being implemented by
various ministries
Instead of a top down approach, the programme will provide requisite flexibility to state governments in
planning and executing the irrigation projects
The State Agriculture department would be the nodal agency for implementation of PMKSY projects
A state will become eligible for PMKSY funds only if it has prepared the district irrigation plans and state
irrigation plans and sustained an increasing expenditure sector in state plan
The cost will be shared in the ratio of 75:25 between the Central government and the State government
respectively (For North East and Hilly states, the ratio is 90:10)
It will cover regions not covered by the earlier schemes and will include fertile areas not covered by the
irrigation network.
PM Gram Sinchai Yojana is aimed at ensuring access to water to every farm (Har Khet Ko Pani) and
improving water use efficiency (Per Drop More Crop).
Total allocation to PMKSY for 2015-16 has been budgeted at Rs 5,300 crore, which includes Rs 1,800 crore
towards micro-irrigation.
Focus is on assured irrigation to mitigate risk to farmers
Kindly note that according to the 12th Five Year Plan document, water use efficiency in agriculture in India,
which consumes around 80% of our water resources is only around 38% (as compared to 50-60% in Japan,
China and Israel)

National Misssion on Micro Irrigation (NMMI)

It is a CSS being implemented since 2010 to promote the efficient methods of irrigation such as drip irrigation
and sprinkler irrigation systems in the country

w.e.f 2014-15, NMMI has been subsumed under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
The idea is to not only improve the water use efficiency but also extend the coverage and duration from the
available water source.
The scheme provides assistance at 60 per cent of the system cost for small and marginal farmers and at
50 per cent for general farmers

Soil Health Card

Year of commencement - 2014-15 (Launched by the PM from Suratgarh, Rajasthan on 19th Feb 2015)
i. Soil health card
ii. Training for soil analysis
iii. Financial assistance for package of nutrient recommendations
iv. Capacity building and regular monitoring and evaluation
v. Mission management

i. To issue soil health cards every three years, to all farmers of the country, so as to provide a basis to include nutrient
deficiencies in fertilization practices. The Card would carry crop wise recommendations of nutrients/fertilizers
required for farms in a particular village, so that the farmers can improve productivity by using the inputs
ii. To strengthen functioning of Soil Testing Laboratories(STLs) through capacity building, involvement of agriculture
students and effective linkage with Indian Council of Agriculture Research(ICAR)/ State Agriculture
iii. To diagnose soil fertility related constraints with standardized procedures for sampling uniformly across states and
analysis and design taluqa / block level fertilizer recommendations in targeted districts.
iv. To develop and promote soil test based nutrient management in the districts for enhancing nutrient use efficiency.
v. To build capacities of district and state level staff and of progressive farmers for promotion of nutrient management
d) Salient features
55 lakh soil samples to be tested and 3.12 crore soil health cards generated during 2014-15. Similarly, 97 lakh samples
to be tested and 5.47 crore soil health cards to be generated during 2015-16 and 96 lakh samples to be tested and 5.41
crore soil health cards generated during 2016-17.
In all, 248 lakh samples to be tested to generate 14 crore soil health cards during the three years period.
e) Funding pattern including subsidy, if any( component wise)
75:25 for all components
f) Name of the state /UTs where scheme is being implemented
To be implemented in all States.
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
Being implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development for the development of rainfed and degraded
areas of the country
On the basis of recommendations of Parthasarthy Committee (2006), 3 area development programmes
namely Desert Development Programme (DDP), DPAP (Drought Prone Areas Programme) and IWDP
(Integrated Wasteland Development Programme) were merged into a single modified programme called
IWMP w.e.f 2009

To restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such
as soil, vegetative cover and water
The outcomes are prevention of soil erosion, regeneration of natural vegetation, rainwater harvesting and
recharging of the ground water table
This enables multi cropping and the introduction of diverse agro based activities, which help to provide
sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in watershed areas

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (Traditional Farming Improvement Programme)

Agiculture Ministrys organic farming scheme
Has been launched by Government of India to support and promote organic farming and thereby improving
soil health.
This will encourage farmers to adopt eco-friendly concept of cultivation and reduce their dependence on
fertilizers and agricultural chemicals to improve yields.
Budget Allocation Government has made budgetary allocation of Rs. 300 Crores for the same in the
Union Budget 2015-16.
Organic farming practices in India have been used in traditional agricultural practices due to diverse presence
of natural organic form of nutrients in different parts of the country.
Indian climatic diversity and low input costs also help the growth of large number of crops throughout the
The Organic Farming Policy 2005 was a sound regulation to promote technically-endowed, economical,
environment-friendly, and socially acceptable use of natural resources in favour of organic agriculture. It also
laid emphasis on soil health and fertility maintenance.
Latter was to be carried on by identification of areas and crops which are most suitable for organic agriculture
and setting up model organic farms.
This also meant making use of traditional wisdom to promote such practices and making farmers aware of its
Preservation of soil health by employing natural resources like farm manure, poultry manure, urban compost,
biogas slurry etc. was the main thrust area. Thus, the new scheme is set on similar practices and principles
with emphasis on soil health


- 482 cr Dairy Vikas Abhiyan
- 411 cr Blue Revolution (including inland and marine fisheries)
Dairy Vikas Abhiyan
Poposes to bring surplus milk produced under unorganized sectors for procurement.
The programme will be an umbrella programme for National Dairy Plan, Scheme of Dairy entrepreneurship,
Dairy development plan.
Blue Revolution
An umbrella programme for schemes of inland fisheries, support to fisheries institutes, National fisheries
development board and other programmes for development of fisheries.
The Blue Revolution envisages transformation of the fisheries sector with increased investment, better
training and development of infrastructure.
India is the second largest producer of fish, however, it still lags China by a huge margin. India also scores
low on productivity scale.
The fisheries output in the country is presently about 10 million tonnes, with inland fisheries accounting for
5.6 million tonnes and marine fisheries 3.4 million tonnes.
India has large natural resources, and water bodies such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, in addition to an
8,118km-long coastline. So it is well positioned to have a Blue Revolution,

There has been concern over stagnation of production of marine fisheries.

Deep sea fishing would require large investments and we have to explore possibilities of public-private
Largest species of fish are found in India, and there is also a tremendous scope for breeding of colourful
ornamental fish.
Blue Revolution will focus on construction of new fishing harbours, modernization of fishing boats, imparting
training to fishermen, and above all promote fishing as a self-employment activity.

Minimum Support Prices Scheme

Announced by the Government of India for the first time in 1966-67 for Wheat in the wake of the Green
Is the price at which government purchases crops from the farmers, whatever may be the price for the crops.
Announced by the Government of India for 23 crops currently at the beginning of each season viz. Rabi and
Kharif- 14
Rabi- 6
Other- 3
Sugarcane is there (in other category)
The Central Government fixes the FRP (Fair and Remunerative Price) for sugarcane and the State government
fixes the SAP (State Advised Price)
Rangarajan Committee on sugar pricing and decontrol (Report came out in Oct 2012)
The government decides the support prices for various agricultural commodities after taking into account the
Recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) (Current Chairman- Dr.
Ashok Vishandass, previous chairman - Ashok Gulati, retired in Feb 2015)
Views of State Governments
Views of Ministries
Other relevant factors

Dr. C. Rangarajan Committee to look into all the issues relating to the deregulation of the sugar sector. The
report was submitted to the Prime Minster on 10-10-2012.

A major recommendation of the committee relates to revising the existing arrangement for the price to be
paid to sugarcane farmers, which suffers from problems of accumulation of arrears of cane dues in years of
high price and low price for farmers in other years.
The existing arrangement comprises a Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) announced each year by the
Centre, under the Sugarcane Control Order and on the advice of CACP, as the minimum price of
However, many states in north India also announce a State Advised Price (SAP) under state legislation.
Generally, the SAP is substantially higher than the FRP, and wherever SAP is declared, it is the ruling
Instead of the present arrangement, the committee has proposed that at the time of cane supply, farmers be
paid FRP as the minimum price, as at present.
Further, subsequently, on a half-yearly basis, the state government concerned would announce the ex-mill
prices of sugar and its by-products, and farmers would be entitled to a 70% share in the value of the sugar
and by-products produced from the quantity of cane supplied by each farmer.
Based on the share so computed, additional payment, net of FRP already paid, would then be made to the
farmer. Since the sugar value estimate includes return on capital employed, this implies that farmers would
also get a share of the profits. With such a system in operation, states should not declare an SAP.
The committee has also recommended dismantling of the levy obligation for sourcing PDS sugar at a price
below the market price.
States should be allowed henceforth to fix the issue price of PDS sugar, while the existing subsidy to states
for PDS sugar transport and the difference between the levy price and the issue price would continue at the

existing level, augmented by the current level of implicit subsidy on account of the difference between the
levy price and the open market price.
This will free the industry from the burden of a government welfare programme, and indirectly benefit
both the farmer and the general consumer since the industry passes on the cost of levy mechanism to
farmers and consumers.
The committee has recommended dispensing with the present mechanism of regulated release of non-levy
sugar, as it imposes additional costs on factories on account of inventory accumulation.
The committee has recommended that cane area reservation ultimately be phased out and contracting
between farmers and mills allowed for enabling theemergence of a competitive market for assured supply
of cane, in the interest of farmers and economic efficiency.
However, in case some states want to continue it for the time being, they should do so while ensuring that
area reservation is done for at least three to five years at a time, so that industry has a stake in its
development. Further, wherever and whenever a state discontinues area reservation, the Centre should
remove the stipulation of a minimum distance between two mills.
On external trade, the committee has favoured a stable policy regime with modest tariff levels of 5% to
10% ordinarily, and dispensing with outright bans and quantitative restrictions.
The committee has also recommended dispensing with the mandatory requirement of jute packaging.
In respect of molasses, the committee favours free movement and dismantling of end-use based allocation
quotas that are in vogue in several states, to enable creation of a national market and better prices for this
valuable by-product as well as improved efficiency in its use

National Mission on Bamboo

Launched in 2006-07 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote the growth of bamboo sector
The programmes address four major areas of bamboo development as follows:
Research and Development
Plantation Development
Handicrafts Development
This scheme covers both Bamboo and Rattan
Rattan is a palm, normally a climber and solid, while bamboo is a grass, and typically a hollow cylinder

National Horticulture Mission

Centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2005-06

For promotion of holistic growth of horticulture sector comprising of fruits, vegetables, mushroom, spices,
flowers, aromatic plants, cashew and cocoa.
To enhance horticulture production and improve nutritional security and income support to farm households
and others through area-based regionally differentiated strategies.
The scheme is not available to coconut and medicinal plants, rest all horticultural crops are covered.
NHM scheme works on Cluster Basis. This means that the designated authority at the district level would
choose a cluster of minimum 100 hectares
Components of National Horticulture Mission
Establishment of New Gardens
Rejuvenaiton of old and senile orchards
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Nutrient Management
Protected Cultivation
Organic Farming
Pollination support through beekeeping
Creation of water resources
Human Resource Development
Post Harvest Management
Marketing Primary Processing

Nurseries and Tissue Culture Labs

Government of India contributes 85%, and 15% is met by the State Governments.
The scheme is not available here:
Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep
7 North East States and Sikkim
Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
North East States, HP, J&K and Uttarakhand are covered under the Technology Mission for Integrated
Development of Horticulture in the North Eastern States (TMNE).
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MIDH (The Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture) has
been launched for the holistic development of horticulture in the country during XII plan.
The scheme, which has taken take off from 2014-15, integrates the ongoing schemes of National Horticulture
Mission, Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States, National Bamboo Mission (3 Centrally
Sponsored Schemes), National Horticulture Board, Coconut Development Board and Central Institute for
Horticulture, Nagaland (3 Central Sectoral Schemes).
Kindly note that the National Mission for Micro Irrigation has not been subsumed

Kisan Credit Card

Was first proposed in Budget 1998-99

NABARD prepared a model KCC Scheme in consultation with the major banks on the basis of RV Gupta
Implemented by Commercial Banks, Cooperative Banks and RRBs
To provide adequate, timely and cost effective institutional credit from the banking system to the farmers for
their cultivation needs.
Was launched to provides short term loans in the form of production credit.
However, later its scope was extended to term loans for agriculture and allied activities and reasonable
component for consumption loan.
Kisan Credit Card holders are covered by a personal accident insurance. This cover is available when the
person enters the scheme.

National Food Security Act

Aims at providing legal entitlement to 5 kg of subsidised foodgrains to the identified person per month.
Grains like wheat, rice and coarse grain will be distributed at the price of 3 Rs. 3, Rs. 2 and Rs. 1 per kg
Pregnant women and lactating mothers and children are entitled to get meals under the prescribed
nutrition by MDM and ICDS. The age group would be 6 months to 14 years.
Pregnant women and lactating mothers will be entitled to get maternity benefit of not less than Rs.
In case of non availability of food grains, Union govt will give Food Security Allowance to States, who in
turn will give it to the beneficiaries
Set up a State Food Commission to supervise the working of the Act
District Grievance Redressal Officer - first point of complaint under NFSA
TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System- started in India from June 1997) reformed- Grievance
redressal mechanisms at district and state levels, TPDS store license- first priority will be given to panchayats,
SHGs and cooperatives, ICT tools to ensure transparency, etc
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) i.e. the bottom strata of BPL population will get 35kg of food grains per
family per month

The government set up a High Level Committee (HLC) in August 2014 under the chairmanship of Shri Shanta
Kumar to suggest inter-alia restructuring or unbundling of the FCI with a view to improving its operational
efficiency and financial management

Recommendations of High Level Committee on restructuring FCI

On procurement related issues:
The FCI should hand over all procurement operations of wheat, paddy, and rice to states that have gained

sufficient experience in this regard and have created reasonable infrastructure for procurement. The FCI will
accept only the surplus (after deducting the needs of the states under the NFSA) from these state governments
(not millers) to be moved to deficit states. The FCI should move on helping those states where farmers suffer
from distress sales at prices much below MSP, and which are dominated by small holdings.
Centre should make it clear to states that in case of any bonus being given by them on top of MSP, it will not
accept grains under the central pool beyond the quantity needed by the state for its own PDS and OWS.
The statutory levies including commissions need to be brought down uniformly to 3 per cent, or at most 4 per
cent of MSP, and this should be included in the MSP itself (states losing revenue due to this rationalization of
levies can be compensated through a diversification package for the next three-five years);
The Government of India must provide better price support operations for pulses and oilseeds and dovetail
their MSP policy with trade policy so that their landed costs are not below their MSP.
Cash transfers in PDS should be gradually introduced, starting with large cities with more than 1 million
population; extending it to grain surplus states; and then giving deficit states for the option of cash or physical
grain distribution.
On PDS- and NFSA-related issues:
Given that leakages in the PDS range from 40 to 50 per cent, the GoI should defer implementation of the NFSA
in states that have not done end to end computerization; have not put the list of beneficiaries online for anyone
to verify; and have not set up vigilance committees to check pilferage from PDS.
Coverage of population should be brought down to around 40 percent.
BPL families and some even above that they be given 7kg/person.
On central issue prices, while Antyodya households can be given grains at ` 3/2/1/kg for the time being, but
pricing for priority households must be linked to MSP.
On stocking and movement related issues:
FCI should outsource its stocking operations to various agencies.
Covered and plinth (CAP) storage should be gradually phased out with no grain stocks remaining in CAP for
more than 3 months.
Silo bag technology and conventional storages wherever possible should replace CAP.
On Buffer Stocking Operations and Liquidation Policy:
DFPD/FCI have to work in tandem to liquidate stocks in OMSS or in export markets, whenever stocks go
beyond the buffer stock norms. A transparent liquidation policy is the need of hour, which should automatically
kick-in when FCI is faced with surplus stocks than buffer norms.
Greater flexibility to FCI with business orientation to operate in OMSS and export markets is needed.
On direct subsidy to farmers:Farmers be given direct cash subsidy (of about Rs 7000/ha) and fertilizer sector
can then be deregulated.
On end to end computerization:
The HLC recommends total end-to-end computerization of the entire food management system, starting from
procurement from farmers, to stocking, movement, and finally distribution through the TPDS.
On the new face of the FCI:
The new face of the FCI will be akin to an agency for innovations in the food management system with the
primary focus of creating competition in every segment of the foodgrain supply chain, from procurement to
stocking to movement and finally distribution under the TPDS, so that overall costs of the system are substantially
reduced and leakages plugged and it serves a larger number of farmers and consumers.
National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM)
Is being implemented since 2004-05
3 components
ISOPOM Oilseeds
Implemented in 14 major oilseeds growing states (including Punjab)

Under implementation in 15 states (including Punjab)

The implementation strategy in the Mission would place emphasis on

increasing the Seed Replacement Ratio (SRR) with focus on varietal replacement
increasing irrigation coverage under oilseeds from 26 percent to 38 percent;
diversification of area from low yielding cereals crops to oilseeds crops;
inter-cropping of oilseeds and use of fallow land; area expansion under oil palm and TBOs (Tree Borne
increasing availability of quality planting materials of oil palm and TBOs;
enhancing procurement of oilseeds and collection and processing of TBOs.

Note: The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation implements the Price Support Scheme (PSS) for
oilseeds and pulses through NAFED (National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India
NAFED is the nodal procurement agency for oilseeds and pulses, apart from Cotton Corporation of India.
So, when the prices of oilseeds, pulses and cotton fall below MSP, NAFED purchases them from the farmers.
Integrated Scheme for Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)
Six schemes of 11th plan period have been merged in a single integrated scheme from April 1, 2014.
The objectives are as follows:
Promotion of agri-marketing through creation of marketing and agribusiness infrastructure including storage
Incentivize agri-market reforms
Provide market linkages to farmers
Provide access to agri-market information
Support quality certification of agriculture commodities.

This scheme has five components:

Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure (AMI):
This component has been created by merging Rural Godown Scheme / Grameen Bhandaran Yojana (GBY)
and Development/ Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardization
The objective is to create market infrastructure including Storage Infrastructure and Integrated Value Chain
Projects (IVC)
Marketing Research and Information Network (MRIN):
To collect and disseminate the price and market data for efficiently be used by producers
Strengthening of Agmark Grading Facilities (SAGF)
Agri-Business Development (ABD) through Venture Capital Assistance (VCA) Project Development
Facility (PDF)
Training, Research and Consultancy through Choudhary Charan Singh National Institute of
Agriculture Marketing (NIAM).
To promote creation of agricultural marketing infrastructure by providing backend subsidy support to State,
cooperative and private sector investments;
to promote creation of scientific storage capacity and to promote pledge financing to increase farmers' income;
to promote Integrated Value Chains (confined up to the stage of primary processing only);
to provide vertical integration of farmers with primary processors;
to use Information Communication Technology as a vehicle of extension; to sensitize and orient
farmers to respond to new challenges in agricultural marketing;
to establish a nation-wide information network system for speedy collection and dissemination of market
information and data on arrivals and prices for its efficient and timely utilization by farmers and other stake
to support framing of grade standards and quality certification of agricultural commodities;

to help farmers get better and remunerative prices for their graded produce;
to catalyze private investment in setting up of agribusiness projects and thereby provide assured market to
producers and strengthen backward linkages of agri-business projects with producers and their groups ;
to undertake and promote training, research, education, extension and consultancy in the agri marketing

Agri Tech Infrastructure Fund

Year of Commencement- 2014-15

Objectives ATIF is aimed at creating an appropriate e-market platform that would be deployable in 642 wholesale
regulated markets across States and UTs.
Salient features
The Scheme envisages initiation of an e-market platform that would be deployable in 642 wholesale regulated
markets across States and UTs.
For creation of a National Market, a common platform across all States is necessary. For the purpose, a
Service Provider to be engaged centrally who would build, operate and maintain the e-platform on PPP
(Build, Own, Operate, Transfer - BOOT) model. This platform would be customized/ configured to address
the variations in different states.
State Governments to suggest names of APMCs where this project would be initiated in the first phase of the
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) assistance towards setting up e-platforms (Grading and
Assaying Laboratories, IT infrastructure for e-market platform, training of market participants and other
miscellaneous/ contingency expenditure) would amount to Rs.34.00 lakhs, Rs.29.00 lakhs and Rs.24.00 lakhs
for A, B and C category markets respectively.
Eligibility - States is to complete the following pre-requisites in six months following sanction of State
specific proposal.
To provide for a single license to be valid across the State,
Single point levy of market fee
Provide for electronic auction as a mode for price discovery,\
Provide for integrating warehouses into the marketing system.

Price Stabilization Fund (PSF)

Year of Commencement -2014-2015

Objectives: To support procurement/distribution interventions of States and State/Central agencies to
regulate price volatility of agricultural and horticultural commodities both when there is price rise or
Salient Features
PSF is for current plan. However, it could be extended to future Plan periods as well.
A Corpus Fund of Rs.500 crores to be established to provide advances for working capital and other
expenses at zero rate of interest to State Govts/ State Agencies/ Central agencies for procurement and
distribution of perishables agricultural and horticultural commodities.
The fund to initially support procurement/distribution interventions for highly volatile commodities
onion and potato only.
The fund to support interventions in two situations viz. (i) Procurement interventions for perishable agrihorticultural commodities when prices crash and farmers need to be protected. (ii) Alternatively, when
prices are anticipated to increase substantially, then procurement of these commodities could be
undertaken from farm gate/mandi to reduce the cost of intermediation and make them available at a
cheaper price to the consumers
Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) has been designated as the Fund Manager through
whom the funds will be channelized to the implementing agencies.
Funding Pattern -100% Central Funding

Make in India Initiative

Narendra Modi stated the reason and motive to launch Make In India very clearly,

It is important for the purchasing power of the common man to increase, as this would further boost demand, and
hence spur development, in addition to benefiting investors. The faster people are pulled out of poverty and brought
into the middle class, the more opportunity will there be for global business. Therefore, investors from abroad need to
create jobs. Cost effective manufacturing and a handsome buyer one who has purchasing power are both
required. More employment means more purchasing power.

The Government has launched Make in India initiative recently with objective to make India a
manufacturing superpower.
Key Elements of Make in India
25 Thrust Areas
Government has identified 25 sectors where India can become world leader.
These include automobiles, chemicals, IT, pharma, textiles, ports, aviation, leather, tourism and hospitality,
wellness, and railways etc.
Invest India
The campaign envisages a Single Point Interaction for Investors. Invest India will be first reference point
to guide foreign investors. It will provide help on regulatory and policy issues and assist in obtaining
regulatory clearances.
Make in India Portal
On September 25, the Make in India website went live which has exhaustive set of FAQ for general enquiries.
A dedicated cell has been created to answer specific queries.
The portal will track visitors for their geographical location, interest & real time user behavior
Subsequent visits will be customized for the visitor based on this information
eBiz : single window online clearance portal.
Domestic Focus
Government will identify select domestic companies having leadership in innovation & new technology.
Objective of this is to turn these into global champions to promote green and advanced manufacturing and
help these companies to integrate into global value chain.
Regulatory Regime Overhaul
Government will review all regulatory processes to make them simple and reduce compliance.
Investor facilitation cell
Investor facilitation cell to assist foreign investors from the time of their arrival in the country to the time of
their departure.
This cell will also woo top companies across sectors in identified countries.
Vision: Zero Defect and Zero Effect
If each one of our millions of youngsters resolves to manufacture at least one such item, India can become a
net exporter of goods.
I (PM Modi), therefore, urge upon the youth, in particular our small entrepreneurs that they would never
compromise, at least on two counts. First, zero defect and, second again zero effect. We should manufacture
goods in such a way that they carry zero defect, that our exported goods are never returned to us. We should
manufacture goods with zero effect that they should not have a negative impact on the environment.
Aggressive branding and marketing
Many previous governments had taken different steps to attract foreign investment (FDI) to boost
manufacturing. Make in India initiative talks about nothing different, but this initiative involves better
branding and marketing to gain investor confidence. The need to give stress to manufacturing and industries is
made clear. An entrepreneurial culture is encouraged, with relaxation in policies. Make in India is surely a
visionary move considering the low performance of our industries in last 3-4 years.
The Indian government aims to create 100 million manufacturing jobs by 2022.
65% of Indias 1.2 billion population is under the age of 35.
The average age of an Indian in 2020 will be 29, compared with 37 in China and the United States.
In the next decade, India is expected to have the largest available workforce in the world. But if the country
cannot create jobs for its youth, the demographic advantage would be wasted.
Out of 189 countries, in India stands at 134th in the World Banks Ease of doing Business Index.
In South Asia, only Bhutan (141) and Afghanistan (164) rank lower than India.
The World Bank report notes that it takes 27 days to start a business in India. In Singapore it takes two and a

half days. Registering a business takes less than a day in Singapore.

Shramev Jayate/ (Pandit Deeldayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Karyakam)
It is aimed at creating conducive environment for industrial development and ease of doing business through
introduction of several labour reforms.
This programme was launched to support the Make In India campaign
It targets to benefit atleast 4 crore labourers.
The five main schemes launched under Shramev Jayate are:
A dedicated Shram Suvidha Portal: That would allot Labour Identification Number (LIN) to nearly 6 lakhs
units and allow them to file online compliance for 16 out of 44 labour laws
An all-new Random Inspection Scheme: Utilizing technology to eliminate human discretion in selection of
units for Inspection, and uploading of Inspection Reports within 72 hours of inspection mandatory
Universal Account Number: Enables 4.17 crore employees to have their Provident Fund account portable,
hassle-free and universally accessible
Apprentice Protsahan Yojana: Will support manufacturing units mainly and other establishments by
reimbursing 50% of the stipend paid to apprentices during first two years of their training
Revamped Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana: Introducing a Smart Card for the workers in the
unorganized sector seeded with details of two more social security schemes
Digital India Programme

It is a repackaged and consolidated version of the hitherto called National e-governance plan
It seeks to deliver all government services electronically in less than four years.
It not only envisages giving boost to information technology but also envisages achieving import-export
balance in electronics.
Transform the so far agrarian Indian economy to a knowledge-centric economy
Plug the widening digital divide in Indian society
Give India equal footing with the developed world in terms of development with the aid of latest technology.
Salient Features
Umbrella programme which includes the hitherto National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) to connect
2,50,000 gram Panchayats by providing internet connectivity to all citizens.
To be completed in phased manner by 2019.
To be monitored by a Digital India committee comprised of several ministers.
Contemplates creation of massive infrastructure to provide high-speed internet at the gram level, e availability
of major government services like health, education, security, justice, financial inclusion etc. thereby digitally
empowering citizens.
Will also ensure public answerability via a unique ID, e-Pramaan based on standard government applications
and fully online delivery of services.
Has capacity to create huge number of jobs.
If implemented well, will be a great boost for the electronics industry in India and expectedly will see a fall in
imports of electronics.
Thrust Areas
Broadband highways,
Total mobile connectivity,
Public Internet Access Programme,
e-Kranti (electronic delivery of public services),
Information revolution,
Boost to electronics firms,
Employment (1.7 crore direct and 8.5 crore indirect opportunities)
Early harvest programmes
Connect citizens by social network called MyGov
Envisages as Net-Zero Electronics Import Target by 2020


Also includes development of an Electronic Development Fund.

Critical Note
The backbone of this programme will be National Optical Fiber Network, which was started in 2011 and set
out the vision to connect 250000 gram Panchayats in 27 months at the cost of Rs. 20,000 Crore.
Its target was subsequently scaled down to less than half (1.10 lakh Panchayats) due to miserable
implementation and then the targets as well as the plan lost into oblivion.
What went wrong with the above programme?
Chiefly it was lack of coordination.
Apart from lack of coordination, the other reasons to why NOFN failed included:
Neither hardware requirements nor software requirements were appropriately thought of.
Corruption and cartels at work, so procurement tenders did not happen in time.
No revenue model for the project to sustain
India did not have capability to manufacture the inputs
Issues in getting land and other resources from states
The new project is not only bigger in approach than NOFN but also five times bigger in its budget. The new
government has set a deadline of just 4 years; so it seems almost unrealistic that targets will be achieved
within the time limit.
If the project is implemented well it has the ability and energy to transform Indian way of life and doing
public business as it will synchronize and synergize all digital initiatives for a better and more connected
India. Not only IT/ITeS, telecom, electronics manufacturing sectors would be benefited from Digital India,
but there will be a positive impact on other industry sectors as well, like Power Sector and Banking and
Financial Services. But the challenges are daunting and they are indeed in its proper and time bound

Skill India Programme

Would skill the youth with an emphasis on employability and entrepreneur skills.
It will also provide training and support for traditional professions like welders, carpenters, cobblers, masons,
blacksmiths and weavers etc that could boost manufacturing and capital goods industry.

Convergence of various schemes to attain this objective is also proposed.

What is the need of such programme?
India has the world's youngest workforce with over 12 million new entrants in the labour market every year
but it is woefully short on skills as only 2 per cent of the employees have any certified abilities.
This has meant that the country's demographic dividend hasn't materialized because industry is unable to find
employable workers.
It's a situation that could breed socio-economic unrest if youth remain unemployed and have no training
Government also proposed changes in the apprenticeship law (Apprentices (Amendment) Act, 2014) that
governs the on-the-job training scheme to make it more 'responsive to industry and youth.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

Aim: To provide skills training for the youth.
Implementing Ministry: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (through the National Skill
Development Corporation).
Coverage: 24 lakh persons.
Primary focus: Class 10 and 12 dropouts.
Initial Outlay: 1500 crore.
The Skill training would be based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and industry led
Under the scheme, a monetary reward is given to trainees on assessment and certification by third party
assessment bodies. The average monetary reward is around Rs.8,000 per trainee.
The target for skill development will also take into account the demands from various other flagship
programs launched in recent times such as Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and Swachh
Bharat Abhiyan.
The PMKVY, will primarily focus on the first time entrants to the labour market and target mainly drop outs
from Class 10 and Class 12
Special emphasis has been given to recognition of prior learning.
Awareness building and mobilization efforts would be focused for attention. Mobilization would be done
through skill melas organized at the local level with participation of the State Governments, Municipal
Bodies, Pachayati Rai Institutions and community based organizations.
Skill training would be done on the basis of recent skill gap studies conducted by the NSDC for the period
For assessment of demand of Central Ministries/Departments/State Governments, industry and business
would be consulted.
With rural population still forming close to 70% of India's population, enhancing the employability of rural
youth is the key to unlocking India's demographic dividend.
With this in mind, the GOI has launched the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gramin Kaushalya Yojana (Under
Ministry of Rural Development and not Ministry of Skill Development!)
According to Census 2011, India has 55 million potential workers between the ages of 15 and 35 years in rural
areas. At the same time, the world is expected to face a shortage of 57 million workers by 2020. This presents a
historic opportunity for India to transform its demographic surplus into a demographic dividend.
There are several challenges preventing Indias rural poor from competing in the modern market, such as the lack
of formal education and marketable skills.
Features of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

Enable Poor and Marginalized to Access Benefits

Demand led skill training at no cost to the rural poor

Inclusive Program Design

Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%; Minority 15%; Women 33%)

Shifting Emphasis from Training to Career Progression


Pioneers in providing incentives for job retention, career progression and foreign placements

Greater Support for Placed Candidates

Post-placement support, migration support and alumni network

Proactive Approach to Build Placement Partnerships

Guaranteed Placement for at least 75% trained candidates

Enhancing the Capacity of Implementation Partners

Nurturing new training service providers and developing their skills
Regional Focus
Greater emphasis on projects for poor rural youth in Jammu and Kashmir (HIMAYAT),
the North-East region and 27 Left-Wing Extremist (LWE) districts (ROSHINI)
Standards-led Delivery
All program activities are subject to Standard Operating Procedures that are not open to interpretation by
local inspectors. All inspections are supported by geo-tagged, time stamped videos/photographs

Even though I couldnt complete my education, I have been able to create my own identity because of DDUGKY.
Now everyone knows me by my name.
Seema Bharti
Textile Expert,
Orient Craft Limited, Faridabad
Seemas commitment has made her a textile expert today and is known by one and all in her company. She is
looked at with respect despite not having been able to complete her education.
July 2015
The government on Thursday said it has approved the first integrated national policy for developing skills and
promoting entrepreneurship at a large scale with speed and quality.
"The policy aims to align supply with demand, bridging existing skill gaps, promoting industry engagement,
operationalise a quality assurance framework, leveraging technology and promoting apprenticeship to tackle the
identified issues," Finance Minister Arun Jaitley told reporters here.
The government has also approved common norms for Skill Development Schemes being implemented by the
Centre as well as an institutional framework for the National Skill Development Mission.
The National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 acknowledges the need for an effective
roadmap for promotion of entrepreneurship as the key to a successful skills strategy.

SETU (Self Employment and Talent Utilization) Scheme:

SETU will be a Techno-Financial, Incubation and Facilitation Programme to support all aspects of start up
businesses, and other self-employment activities, particularly in technology-driven areas.
An amount of Rs.1000 crore is being set up initially in NITI Aayog for SETU.
It will involve setting up of incubation centres and enhance skill development.
It aims to create around 1,00,000 jobs through start ups.

Schemes for the welfare of Minorities:

For the welfare of six notified minorities, the thrust area of the present Government is skilling of minority
youth and their placement and also preservation of Heritage of Minorities including promotion of their
traditional Arts and Crafts.
The details of the steps being taken by the present Government for the welfare of the Minorities are USTAAD:- The Scheme aims at upgrading Skills and Training in preservation of traditional Ancestral
Arts/Crafts of minorities.
Salient Features of USTTAD
(Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
Building capacity and updating traditional skills of master craftsmen/artisans.

Setting standards of traditional crafts.

Design development and documentation.
Training of young generation through the master craftsmen/artisans.
Establishing linkages of traditional arts/crafts with the national and international market. Providing
an E-commerce portal to the minority artisans/craftsmen with back end support.
Enabling traditional artisans/craftsmen to generate means of better livelihood. Ensuring dignity of
It is fully funded by the Union government and Union Ministry of Minority Affairs is the
nodal ministry.

Hamari Darohar:- The Scheme aims to preserve rich heritage of minority communities in context of
Indian culture.
Khwaza Garib Nawaz Senior Secondary School will be established at Ajmer by Maulana Azad Education
Foundation (MAEF) to give a fillip to minority education.
Nai Manzil: A bridge course to bridge the academic and skill development gaps of the deeni Madrasa
passouts with their mainstream counterparts.
Strengthening of State Wakf Boards: The scheme envisages to provide assistance for meeting the training
and administrative cost of State Wakf Boards, removal of encroachment from Waqf Properties and also
strengthening of Zonal/Regional offices of Waqf Boards.
The Union Government set up the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) under the National
Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.
Six religious communities, viz; Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have
been notified as minority communities by the Union Government.


It is a Central Sector Scheme in the Annual Plan of Ministry of Tribal Affairs
It has been launched on a pilot basis in only 1 block in each of the 10 states namely: MP, HP,
Telanghana, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat
The VKY is broadly a process, aiming at overall development of tribal people with an outcome-base
approach, which would ensure that all the intended benefits , goods and services to the tribal people through
various programmes/schemes of Central and State Governments covered under the respective Tribal SubPlans actually reach them by way of appropriate convergence.
Through VKY, it is envisaged to develop the backward blocks in the Schedule V States as model Blocks
with visible infrastructural facilities to further the mission development while ensuring the following:



The MRTP (Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act) act ceased to be effective in 2009 and its
place was taken by Competition act 2002.
The Competition Act was inspired by DPSP article 38 (State to secure a social order for the promotion of
welfare of the people) and 39 (operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of
The four components of the act are
Anti-competition agreements
Abuse of dominance
Acquisition, mergers and amalgamation
Competition advocacy
The overall duty of the CCI is to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and
sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.
Under provisions of this act, the CCI was established as a statutory body.
CCI consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.
The act, was amended later and now also makes provision for Competition Appellate Tribunal.
This tribunal deals with the appeals against the orders of the CCI.
Competition Appellate Tribunal is a Statutory + Quasi-judicial organization established under the provisions
of the Competition Act, 2002.
The Chairperson of the Appellate Tribunal shall be a person, who is, or has been a Judge of the Supreme
Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

Launched in 2000
Under Ministry of Rural Development
The Rural Roads has been identified as one of the six components of Bharat Nirman
The 6 components of Bharat Nirman are- Water Supply, Housing, Rural Telecom Connectivity, Roads, Rural
electrification and Irrigation
Centrally Sponsored Scheme with the objective to provide all-weather road connectivity to all eligible
unconnected habitations, existing in the Core Network, in rural areas of country.
Envisages connecting all eligible unconnected habitations with a population of 500 persons and above in plain
areas, 250 persons and above in Hill States, Tribal (Schedule-V) areas, the Desert Areas (as identified in
Desert Development Programme) and 82 Selected Tribal and Backward Districts under Integrated Action Plan
(IAP) as identified by the Ministry of Home Affairs/Planning Commission.
The programme also has an Upgradation component with a target to upgrade 3.68 lakh Km of existing rural
roads (including 40% renewal of rural roads to be funded by the States) in order to ensure full farm to market
This programme is also being supported by ADB as well as World Bank.

Housing for All by 2022" Mission - National Mission for Urban Housing
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana/ Sardar Patel Urban Housing Mission

Schemes like Rajiv Awas Yojana, Rajiv Rinn Yojana would all be included under this mission
Aimed for urban areas with following components/options to States/Union Territories and cities
a) Slum rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers with participation of private developers using land as a resource;
b)Promotion of affordable housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy;
c)Affordable housing in partnership with Public & Private sectors and

d) Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction or enhancement.

The scheme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme except the credit linked subsidy
component, which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
The Mission also prescribes certain mandatory reforms for easing up the urban land market for housing, to
make adequate urban land available for affordable housing.

Houses constructed under the mission would be allotted in the name of the female head of the households or
in the joint name of the male head of the household and his wife
The scheme will cover the entire urban area consisting of 4041 statutory towns with initial focus on 500
Class I cities and it will be implemented in three phase
Dimension of the task at present is estimated at 3 crore. Exact number of houses, though, would depend on
demand survey
In the spirit of cooperative federalism, the Mission will provide flexibility to States for choosing best options
amongst four verticals of the Mission to meet the demand of housing in their states
The Mission will also compile best practices in terms of affordable housing policies of the States/UTs designs
and technologies adopted by States and Cities with an objective to spread best practices across States and
cities and foster cross learning.
Central grant of Rs. one lakh per house, on an average, will be available under the slum rehabilitation
A State Government would have flexibility in deploying this slum rehabilitation grant to any slum
rehabilitation project taken for development using land as a resource for providing houses to slum dwellers

Indira Awas Yojana

Objective of Indira Aawas Yojana (IAY) is primarily to provide assistance for:

Construction of dwelling unit
Upgradation of existing unserviceable kuccha houses
Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
Non-SC/ST rural BPL families
From 1995-96, the IAY benefits have been extended to the families of the members of armed and
paramilitary forces killed in action.
A minimum of 60% of the funds under the scheme are earmarked for assistance to SC/ST families living
below the poverty line.
3% of funds are reserved for disabled living below the poverty line in rural areas.
The dwelling units should invariably be allotted in the name of a female member of the beneficiary
Alternatively, it can be allotted in the name of both husband and wife.
In case there is no eligible female member in the family, house can be allotted to a male member.
The financial assistance provided under the scheme for each house has been enhanced from. ` 45,000/to ` 70,000/- in plain areas and from ` 48,500/- to ` 75,000/- in hilly/difficult areas including identified
Left Wing Extremism affected districts.

Rajiv Awas Yojana

Launched in 2011- Preparatory phase (2011-13) and Implementation phase (2013 onwards)
Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) for the slum dwellers and the urban poor envisages a Slum-free India through
encouraging States/Union Territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner.

It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to run from 2013 to 2022.

Aims to make India slum-free by 2022 by providing people with shelter or housing, free of cost.
One million beneficiaries are proposed to be covered under Rajiv Awas Yojana.

National Rural Drinking Water Programme

Flagship programme of the Government and a component of the Bharat Nirman

Objective of ensuring provision of safe and adequate drinking water supply through handpumps, piped
water supply etc. to all rural areas, households and persons.
The NRDWP has following six components:
NRDWP (Coverage),
NRDWP (Sustainability)
NRDWP (Water quality)
NRDWP (DDP areas)
NRDWP (Natural calamity)
NRDWP (Support)
In accordance with the policy of Government of India, the Department of Drinking Water Supply has
earmarked 10% of the total Central outlay for the programme for the NE States.
Objectives of this programme is to provide:
40 liters per capita per day (lpcd) of safe drinking water for human beings.
30 lpcd additional for cattle in the Desert Development Programme Areas.
One hand-pump or stand post for every 250 persons.
The water source should exist within the habitation / within 1.6 km in the plains and within 100 mtrs.
elevation in the hilly areas

Shayam Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission

Will be launched to deliver integrated project based infrastructure in the rural areas.
Will also include development of economic activities and skill development.
The preferred mode of delivery would be through PPPs while using various scheme funds.
Gujarat model will be imitated that has demonstrated successfully the Rurban development model of
urbanization of the rural areas, through which people living in the rural areas have got efficient civic
infrastructure and associate services.
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

Will replace Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

Budget of Rs 50,000 crore over the next 5 years
Will be implemented in 500 cities and towns with a population of one lakh and above.
It would cover some cities situated on stems of main rivers, a few state capitals and important cities located in
hilly areas, islands and tourist areas.
Will adopt a project approach to ensure basic infrastructure services relating to water supply, sewerage, stormwater drains, transportation and development of green spaces and parks with special provision for meeting the
needs of children.
10% of the budget allocation will be given to states and union territories as incentive based on the
achievement of reforms during the previous year
Under this mission, states will get the flexibility of designing schemes based on the needs of identified cities
and in their execution and monitoring.
States will only submit state annual action Plans to the centre for broad concurrence based on which funds
will be released.
But, in a significant departure from JNNURM, the central government will not appraise individual projects.
Central assistance will be to the extent of 50% of project cost for cities and towns with a population of up to
10 lakhs and one-third of the project cost for those with a population of above 10 lakhs.
Central assistance will be released in three installments - 20% first and the rest in two equal tranches - based
on achievement of milestones indicated in state annual action plans

SMART Cities Mission


With an investment entailing Rs 48,000 crore from the Centre, 100 smart cities will be developed in next five
The smart cities mission seeks to ensure basic infrastructure services to enable a decent quality of life in urban
pockets and a clean and sustainable environment and adoption of smart solutions.
Smart cities mission seeks to fetch the benefits of urban development to the poor through promotion of public
transportation and enhanced access to public spaces.
The improved urban environment under the mission will give fillip to economic activity which in turn benefits
the poor through increased employment and livelihood opportunities.
Urban population,according to 2011census, was about Rs 37 crore accounting for 31 per cent of total
population . As per latest estimates,about 5.80 crore urban population are poor
Fourteen countries have expressed interest in building smart cities. These include : US, Japan,
China,Singapore , Germany, France , Netherlands, Sweden , Israel,Turkey and Australia.
The improved urban environment under the mission will give fillip to economic activity which in turn benefits
the poor through increased employment and livelihood opportunities
Under the smart city mission ,each selected city would get central assistance of Rs.100 crore per annum for
five years and each state will shortlist a certain number of smart city aspirants as per the norms.
Smart city aspirants, say official sources, will be picked up through a transparent city challenge competition
intended to link financing with the potential of cities to perform to fully accomplish the well laid out
objectives of the ambitious mission.''
Thrust will be laid for participation of locals in prioritising and planning urban interventions. It will be
implemented through areas based approach consisting of retrofitting, re-development, pan city initiatives and
development of new cities.
Pan city components could be interventions like intelligent transport solutions that benefit all residents by
reducing commuting time.
The smart city initiative planners have agenda for core infrastructure services like adequate and clean water
supply, sanitation and solid waste management, efficient urban mobility and public transport ,affordable
housing for the poor, power supply, robust IT connectivity, governance, especially e-governance, security and
safety of inhabitants ,well developed health, education services besides sustainable urban development.

Atal Innovation Mission

Will be established in NITI
Aim will be an Innovation Promotion Platform involving academics, entrepreneurs and researchers and draw
upon national and international experiences to foster a culture of innovation, R&D and scientific research in
The platform will also promote a network of world-class innovation hubs and Grand Challenges for India.
Initially a sum of Rs.150 crore wail be earmarked for this purpose.
Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana

Launched on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan

Jayaprakash Narayan ,popularly referred to as JP or Lok Nayak (Hindi for The People's Hero), was an
Indian independence activist, social reformer and political leader, remembered especially for leading
the mid-1970s opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, for whose overthrow he called a
"total revolution".
In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in
recognition of his social work. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965.
During the Indian independence movement he was arrested, jailed, and tortured several times by the
He won particular fame during the Quit Indiamovement
After being jailed in 1932 for civil disobedience against British rule, Narayan was imprisoned
in Nasik Jail, where he met Ram Manohar Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, Ashok
Mehta, Yusuf Desai and other national leaders.
After his release, the Congress Socialist Party, or (CSP), a left-wing group within the Congress, was
formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and Narayan as General secretary


Objective- For developing model villages through implementation of existing schemes and certain new
Under Ministry of Rural Development
Each MP (From Rajya Sabha as well as Lok Sabha) is obligated to develop three villages by 2019 and a
total of 8 villages each by 2024.
An MP should develop the first Adarsh Gram by 2016 and remaining two, during the current Lok Sabha
tenure by 2019. From 2019 to 2024, five more Adarsh Grams must be developed by each MP.
The MPs are required to pick one village with a population of 3000-4000 in plains and 1000-3000 in hills
within a month of the launch of the scheme.
MPs cannot pick villages which belong to themselves or their spouses.
It envisages integrated development of the selected village across multiple areas such as agriculture, health,
education, sanitation, environment, livelihoods etc. Far beyond mere infrastructure development, SAGY aims
at instilling certain values, such as peoples participation, Antyodaya, gender equality, dignity of women,
social justice, spirit of community service, cleanliness, eco-friendliness, maintaining ecological balance, peace
and harmony, mutual cooperation, self-reliance, local self-government, transparency and accountability in
public life, etc., in the villages and their people so that they get transformed into models for others.
The Members of Parliament (MPs) are the pivots this Scheme will run on. Gram Panchayat would be the basic
unit for development.
Ensuring universal access to education facilities, adult literacy, e-literacy are also important goals of SAGY.
Apart from education, these villages will have quality health care. The outcomes will include 100%
immunization, 100% institutional delivery, reduced IMR, MMR, reduction in malnutrition among children

There are no new funds.
The funds can be raised from existing schemes such as Indira Awas Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak
Yojana, MGNREGA, BRGF etc.
Money from MPLADS (Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme- comes under the Ministry
of Statistics and Programme Implementation)) also has to be used.
Revenue from the Gram Panchayat itself.
Central and State Finance Commission Grants
CSR funds.
Implementation of the scheme has to be done by Gram Panchayat.

Government will establish a portal for web based monitoring system. The output related to tangible targets
is to be measured every quarter. An independent agency will conduct mid-term and post-project evaluation.
Ajeevika- National Rural Livelihoods Mission

Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) was restructured as National Rural Livelihoods Mission
and launched in June, 2011
NRLM has now been renamed as Aajeevika
Ministry of Rural Development
This World Bank Supported Programme supports Rural BPL people by organizing them into SHG (Self
Help Groups) and making them capable for self-employment by providing capacities such as information,
knowledge, skills, tools, finance and collectivization.
Aajeevika will focus on setting up of federations of SHGs from village panchayat to district levels.
The goal of universal financial inclusion will be furthered through linking the SHGs with banks for securing
Aajeevika envisages Capacity Building and Training of the community Institutions and the personnel engaged
in programme implementation as well as other stakeholders like Bankers, PRI functionaries etc

MGNREGS- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Ministry of Rural Development

Is the largest work guarantee programme in the world, was enacted in 2005 with the primary objective of
guaranteeing 100 days of wage employment per year to rural households.
There is an emphasis on strengthening the process of decentralisation through giving a significant role to
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementing these works.
Main objective of the programme is to provide for the enhancement of livelihood security of the rural
households by ensuring a legal right for atleast 100 days of unskilled wage employment to willing adult
At least one third beneficiaries have to be women.
In 2014, those tribals who have received land rights under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, were made
eligible for additional 50 days of wage employment under the rural job scheme
Employment must be provided with 15 days of being demanded failing which an unemployment allowance
must be given.
Gram sabhas must recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50% of the works must be
executed by them
Funding is shared between the centre and the states.
There are three major items of expenditure wages (for unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled labour), material
and administrative costs.
The central government bears 100% of the cost of unskilled labour, 75% of the cost of semi-skilled and skilled
labour, 75% of the cost of materials and 6% of the administrative costs.
Covers the entire country
MGNREGA envisages creation of durable and productive assets which would contribute greatly to the
economic and ecological development of the rural areas.
At least one social audit in each Gram Panchayat every six months.

National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM)

Under Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation

Launched in 2013 in 12th FYP
Will replace the existing Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
Focus on organizing urban poor in self helf groups, creating opportunities for skill development leading
to market based employment and helping them to set up self employment ventures by ensuring easy
access to credit
Would also address the livelihood concerns of the urban street vendors

Socio Economic Caste Census (2011)


Was a comprehensive door to door enumeration, for both rural and urban areas but with different
Ranks the households based on their socio-economic status.(=a database is created)
State Governments can use this database to prepare the list of families living below poverty line (BPL)
(Combined with UID) This database can be utilized for identification of beneficiaries for various socioeconomic welfare schemes.
Will provide authentic information to policy makers about caste-wise population breakup in the country

National Health Mission

From May 1, 2013, the Union Government launched National Urban Health Mission and integrated it along
with the existing National Rural Health Mission as two sub-missions of National Health Mission.
NRHM and NUHM are now sub-missions of NHM.
For the purpose of financing, NHM has six components as follows:
National Rural Health Mission (now called NRHM-RCH Flexipool)
For all towns and villages below population of 50000
National Urban Health Mission Flexipool for population above 50000
Flexible pool for Communicable disease,
Flexible pool for Non communicable disease including Injury and Trauma,
Infrastructure Maintenance
Family Welfare Central Sector component.
The broad objectives of this mission are as follows:
Reduce MMR to 1/1000 live births
Reduce IMR to 25/1000 live births
Reduce TFR (Total Fertility Rate ) to 2.1
Prevention and reduction of anaemia in women aged 1549 years
Prevent and reduce mortality & morbidity from communicable, non-communicable; injuries and
emerging diseases
Reduce household out-of-pocket expenditure on total health care expenditure
Reduce annual incidence and mortality from Tuberculosis by half
Reduce prevalence of Leprosy to <1/10000 population and incidence to zero in all districts
Annual Malaria Incidence to be <1/1000
Less than 1 per cent microfilaria prevalence in all districts
Kala-azar Elimination by 2015, <1 case per 10000 population in all blocks
At the central level, the National Health Systems Resource Center (NHSRC) has been established to serve as
the apex body for technical support to the center and states.

National Rural Health Mission

This is rural sub-mission of the National Health Mission.

The major functions under this sub-mission is to provide Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and
Adolescent (RMNCH+A) Services to the rural deprived people through its network of ASHA, ANMs and
It includes:
Maternal Health
Access to safe abortion services
Prevention and Management of Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) and Sexually Transmitted Infections
Addressing Gender Based Violence
Newborn and Child Health
Universal Immunization
Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services
Adolescent Health

Family Planning
Addressing declining sex ratio.
The thrust of the NRHM sub-mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralized
health delivery system with inter sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide
range of determinants of health like water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality.

Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA)

One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country
with a trained female community health activist called ASHA or Accredited Social Health Activist.
Selected from the village itself and accountable to it, the ASHA will be trained to work as an interface
between the community and the public health system.
Notable points about ASHA are as follows:
ASHA must primarily be a woman resident of the village married/ widowed/ divorced, preferably in the age
group of 25 to 45 years.
She should be a literate woman with formal education up to class eight.
This may be relaxed only if no suitable person with this qualification is available.

Functions of ASHA are as follows:

Work as fountainhead of public health programmes in her village
Work as first port of call for health related demands of deprived sections of society
Promote institutional delivery, universal immunization and other public health initiatives
Referral and escort services for Reproductive & Child Health (RCH) and other healthcare programmes, and
construction of household toilets
Provide information to the community on determinants of health such as nutrition, basic sanitation & hygienic
practices, healthy living and working conditions, information on existing health services and the need for
timely utilisation of health & family welfare services.
Counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary
feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract
Infection/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs) and care of the young child.
Mobilise the community and facilitate them in accessing health and health related services available at the
Anganwadi/sub-centre/primary health centers, such as immunisation, Ante Natal Check-up (ANC), Post Natal
Check-up supplementary nutrition, sanitation and other services being provided by the government.
Work as deport holder forOral Rehydration Therapy (ORS), Iron Folic Acid Tablet(IFA), chloroquine,
Disposable Delivery Kits (DDK), Oral Pills & Condoms, etc.
There will be one ASHA per 1000 population.
Auxiliary Nurse Midwife and Anganwadi Worker (ANM)
Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM) is a resource person for ASHA.
They hold weekly/fortnightly meeting with ASHA, and provide on-job raining by discussing the activities
undertaken during the week/fortnight and provide guidance in case ASHA encounters any problem.
ANM also ensures that ASHA gets the compensation for performance and also TA/DA for attending the
training schedule.
Anganwadi Worker (AWW) Anganwadi Worker (AWW) guides ASHA in performing activities such as
organising Health Day once/twice a month at Anganwadi Centre and orientating women on health related
issues such as importance of nutritious food, personal hygiene, care during pregnancy, importance of
immunisation etc.
Anganwadi worker is a depot holder for drug kits and will be issuing it to ASHA.

National Urban Health Mission

NUHM seeks to improve the health status of the urban population particularly slum dwellers and other
vulnerable sections by facilitating their access to quality primary health care.
NUHM would cover all state capitals, district headquarters and other cities/towns with a population of 50,000
and above (as per census 2011) in a phased manner.
Cities and towns with population below 50,000 will be covered under NRHM.

National AYUSH Mission (NAM)

In India, we have a pluralistic health care delivery system where the Government provides opportunity to every
recognized medical system to develop and be practiced with a view to provide integrated and holistic health care
That is why there is a peaceful co-existence of Allopathy with Ayurveda and Siddha, which are traditional and
indigenous systems of medicine with Unaniwhich originated from Persia and Homoeopathy which is from Germany.
AYUSH is the acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Sowa, Rigpa, and
AYUSH services are provided by public, private and voluntary sector organizations and the range of their
distribution varies from state to state. All these medical systems are being utilized in the national health care
delivery system, each to its potential and availability in different parts of the country.
NAM has been launched to bridge the gaps in health services in vulnerable and far flung areas of the country.
The basic objective of NAM
To promote AYUSH medical systems through cost effective AYUSH services,
Strengthen educational systems,
Facilitate the enforcement of quality control of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani & Homoeopathy (ASU &H)
drugs and
Sustainable availability of ASU & H raw-materials
To provide cost effective and equitable AYUSH health care throughout the country by improving access to
the services.
To revitalize and strengthen the AYUSH systems making them as prominent medical streams in addressing
the health care of the society.
To improve educational institutions capable of imparting quality AYUSH education
To promote the adoption of Quality standards of AYUSH drugs and making available the sustained supply of
AYUSH raw-materials.
Universal Immunization Programme

Immunization programme was introduced in 1978

Became universal in 1985
Government of India is providing vaccination to prevent seven vaccine preventable diseases i.e.
severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and
Hepatitis B
In addition, Japanese Encephalitis (JE vaccine) vaccine was introduced in 112 endemic districts in campaign
mode in phased manner from 2006-10 and has now been incorporated under the Routine Immunization
4 new vaccines have been added as part of this programme (July 2014)
These are:
Rotavirus vaccine
Rubella vaccine
Polio (injectable) vaccine
Adult vaccine against JE


Launched in 2014 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

To achieve target of full immunisation of un-vaccinated subjects from 7 diseases by 2020.
Mission Indradhanush will be a nationwide initiative with a special focus on 201 high focus districts.

These districts account for nearly 50% of the total partially vaccinated or unvaccinated children in the

Out of 201 districts, 82 districts are from 4 states of UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and MP, which are nearly 25% of
the unvaccinated or partially vaccinated children of India.
Mission Indradhanush will provide protection against seven life-threatening diseases (diphtheria,
whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis B).
In addition, vaccination against Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenza type B will be provided in
selected districts of the country. Vaccination against tetanus will be provided to the pregnant women.
The Mission focuses on interventions to rapidly increase full immunization coverage of children by
approximately 5% annually and to expand full immunization coverage to at least 90% children in the next
five years.
WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and other donor partners will provide technical support for Mission

Four special vaccination campaigns will be conducted from 7th of every month staring from April, 2015 and
this will cover all children less than two years of age and pregnant women for tetanus toxoid vaccine in these
selected 201 districts.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP)

Is a comprehensive programme for prevention and control of vector borne diseases namely:
Kala Azar
Launched in 2003-04 by merging National anti -malaria control programme ,National Filaria Control
Programme and Kala Azar Control programmes

Revised National TB Control Programme

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a Bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

It is spread through the air by a person suffering from TB.
To control TB, National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) has been in operation in the country
since 1962.
This could not achieve the desired results.
Therefore, it was reviewed by an expert committee in 1992 and based on its recommendations, Revised
National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which is an application to India of WHO-recommended


strategy of Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS), was launched in the country on 26 March
The objectives of RNTCP are:
To achieve and maintain a cure rate of at least 85% among newly detected infectious TB cases
Achieve and maintain detection of at least 70% of such cases in the population
The five principal components of DOTS are:
Political and administrative commitment
Case detection by sputum smear microscopy
Uninterrupted supply of high-quality anti-TB drugs
Standardized treatment regimens with directly observed treatment for at least the first two months
Systematic monitoring and accountability
Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR TB)
TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful first line anti TB drugs
is called MDR TB
Develops when the course of antibiotics is interrupted
Treated with second line of anti TB drugs
Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR TB)
When the rate of MDR in a particular area becomes very high, the control of TB becomes
very difficult
This gives rise to XDR TB
Caused by strains of the disease resistant to both first and second line antibiotics
Is virtually incurable
Was first described in 2006

Janani Suraksha Yojana

Launched in 2005
Is safe motherhood intervention under the National Health Mission
Being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and neo-natal (infants upto 28 days after
birth) mortality by promoting institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women.
This programme provides cash assistance with delivery and post-delivery care.
JSY is a 100 % centrally sponsored scheme and it integrates cash assistance with delivery and postdelivery care
The success of the scheme is be determined by the increase in institutional delivery among the poor families.
The Asha as well as AWW like activists become the effective link between Government and poor women in
this programme.
In 2013, The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has relaxed eligibility parameters for the Janani
Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides financial assistance to mothers for institutional deliveries.
Now, Below Party Line (BPL) women can access JSY benefits irrespective of their age and number of
All women from BPL category, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in all States and Union Territories
will be eligible for JSY benefits if they have given birth in a government or private accredited health facility.
BPL women who prefer to deliver at home can also get JSY benefits.
The decision was taken after it was realised that a majority of women, who needed JSY benefits, remained
out of the purview of the scheme because they had to prove they were 19 years of age and had no more than
two children,
A woman gets Rs.1,400 for delivery in a government facility or accredited private facility and Accredited
Social Health Activist (ASHA) gets Rs. 600 in rural areas. In the urban areas, the amounts paid are Rs.1,000
and Rs. 400 respectively.
However, in High Performing States (those with good health indices, such as Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka), assistance for institutional delivery was available to women from BPL/SC/ST households, aged
19 or above and only up to two live births for delivery in a government or private accredited health facility.

The financial entitlement was Rs. 700 to the mother and Rs. 600 for the ASHA in rural areas and Rs. 600 and
Rs. 400 in urban settings.
Further, in all States/Union Territories, the scheme provided Rs. 500 to BPL women aged 19 or above and
who deliver up to two live births who prefer to deliver at home. With the amendments, all women who
deliver at home will be entitled to this amount, basically for nutrition.

Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram

Launched on 1st June, 2011.

This scheme supplements the cash assistance given to a pregnant woman under Janani Suraksha Yojana
Aimed at mitigating the burden of out of pocket expenses incurred by pregnant women and sick newborns.
The entitlements under this programme include free drugs and consumables, free diet up to 3 days
during normal delivery and up to 7 days for C-section, free diagnostics, and free blood wherever
The following are the Free Entitlements for pregnant women:
Free and cashless delivery
Free C-Section
Free drugs and consumables
Free diagnostics
Free diet during stay in the health institutions
Free provision of blood
Exemption from user charges
Free transport from home to health institutions
Free transport between facilities in case of referral
Free drop back from Institutions to home after 48hrs stay
The following are the Free Entitlements for Sick newborns till 30 days after birth.This has now been expanded
to cover sick infants:
Free treatment
Free drugs and consumables
Free diagnostics
Free provision of blood
Exemption from user charges
Free Transport from Home to Health Institutions
Free Transport between facilities in case of referral
Free drop Back from Institutions to home
This initiative also provides for free transport from home to institution, between facilities in case of a referral
and drop back home.
Similar entitlements have been put in place for all sick newborns accessing public health institutions for
treatment till 30 days after birth. This has now been expanded to cover sick infants.

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao

Under Women and Child Development ministry

Two schemes, to improve child sex-ratio (2011 census- 918/1000, 1971 census- 964/1000)
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
Three objectives
Prevent female infanticide
Ensure every girl child is protected
Ensure every girl child is educated
Initial focus
100 districts with low sex ratio.
Atleast 1 district in each state.
In 100 critical districts, improve sex ratio by 10 points in a year

Reduce gender difference under-5 child mortality

Increase girls in secondary schools
Separate toilets for girls (by 2015)
Celebrate girl child day- 24th Jan

Sukanya Samriddhi account (girl child prosperity scheme)

This small-deposit scheme is subpart of Beti Bachao campaign.
(Minor) bank account for girl child below the age of 10.
She can withdraw 50% of the money after reaching age of 18 e.g. for higher education.
18 years deadline will also help preventing child-marriages. (Although scheme is silent- on whether account
money will be forfeited if child marriage done.)
For initial account opening, minimum deposit Rs.1000 required.
Later, any amount in multiple of 100 can be deposited, but maximum Rs. 1.5 lakh per year.
Interest rate: 9.2% compounded annually. No income tax for this year.
Account can be opened via post office or commercial banks, Account will remain operative until she reaches
21 age.

Various Committees on Poverty Estimation in India

While India is home to over 1/3 of poor people in the world, half of global poor live in India, Pakistan and
The next big concentration of poverty is in the sub-Saharan Africa.
Currently, Poverty Benchmark around the world is $1.25 per person a day.
Traditionally, lack of income was seen as an anchor to define a poor person. For example, if a person earned
less than Rs. 100 per month in rural area in 1962, he was poor.
In 1979, this lack of income criteria was changed to precisely as starvation criteria on the basis of Y K Alagh
So according to Alagh committee recommendation, a rural person is poor if he consumes less than 2400
calories. It was kept 2100 calories for urban.
Then, in 1993, Lakdawala formula was used which said that apart from 2400/2100 calories, one should also
be able to afford clothing and shelter. (In informal language Y K Alagh counted only Roti, while Lakdawala
counted Roti, Kapda as well as Makan. YK Alagh excluded Kapda and Makan because he thought state would
provide this).
To take into account the food, clothing as well as shelter, Lakdawala devised a poverty line on the basis of
household per capita consumption expenditure.
As per Alagh Committee, 16% population of India was poor. When Lakdawala estimated, the number was
found to be 36.3%.
The 2005 Suresh Tendulkar Committee shifted away from the calories conundrum and considered Roti,
Kapta, Makan as well as monthly spending on education, health, electricity and transport also
But somehow, his calculations were faulty.
On the basis of this, Poverty line was fixed Rs. 673 for rural areas and Rs. 860 for urban areas in 2009-10 per
month per person.
In June 2011, Government (erstwhile planning commission) submitted in Supreme Court that urban
poverty line is Rs. 32 per day and rural is Rs 26 in rural area.
In July 2014, this figure was Rs 32 in villages, Rs 47 in cities, on the basis of Rangarajan Committee,
which was appointed when Suresh Tendulkars estimates backfired and government came under severe
Further, 29.5% of the India population lives below the poverty line as defined by the Rangarajan committee,
as against 21.9% according to Tendulkar.

Multidimensional Poverty & MDPI

Poverty is multidimensional.

This simply implies that it extends beyond money incomes to education, health care, political participation
and advancement of one's own culture and social organization.
This further implies that merely counting expenditure is not poverty because being poor is being poor in
capabilities and not in income only.
If the freedom and capabilities of poor are enhanced, they can come out of poverty on their own by
eliminating deprivations.
Using the above pretext, UNDP views poverty as a state of multiple deprivations and measures it with
Multidimensional Poverty Index.
This approach says that poor experience several forms of deprivation such as of health, lack of education,
inadequate living standard, lack of income, social exclusion, disempowerment, poor quality of work and lack
of security from exploitation and violence etc. etc.
In the MPI, there are three vital dimensions of poverty viz. Education, Health and Living standard. There are
10 indicators to measure this.
Calculation is done using micro data from household surveys.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

Is a centrally sponsored scheme for universalisation of elementary education in the country.

Comes under Ministry of Human Resource Development
The SSA covers all districts in the country in order to ensure access, retention and quality improvement in
elementary education.
Provides funding for infrastructure (building), services (teachers), free textbook, bags, uniforms,
transport, hostel etc
Objectives of this programme are as follows:
Open new schools in areas which do not have them and to expand existing school infrastructures and
Address inadequate teacher numbers, and provide training a development for existing teachers
Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on the education of girls and
children with special needs as well as computer education
Government of India uses SSA to implement the Right to Education
This scheme is being run with the support of World Bank.
In May 2014 also, India has signed a $1 bn loan pact with World Bank to improve quality under the
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

To meet the increased demand for access to Secondary Education.

Accordingly, a new scheme, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksya Abhiyan (RMSA) was launched in March, 2009.
Its a centrally sponsored scheme.
2017: achieve above 90% gross enrollment ratio
2020: universal retention i.e. all primary school children should reach high school.
Earlier schemes for girls hostels, vocational education etc. merged into this schemes.

Mid Day Meal Scheme

With a view to enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels
among children, the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education was launched as
a centrally sponsored scheme on 15th August 1995
Gradually, it has been expanded to cover children at primary level in all Blocks in the country.
In October 2007 the scheme was further revised to cover children in upper primary level (Classes VI to VIII)
in 3479 educationally backward blocks.
From 2008-09 onwards the programme covers all children study in class I to VIII in all areas across the
The nutritional Norms are as under :
At Primary Level (up to 5th Standard)

Energy 450 K. Cal

Proteins 12 gms.
adequate micronutrients like Iron, Vitamin A , Folic Acid etc.
At Secondary Level (6th -8th Standard)
Energy 700 cal
proteins 20 gms
adequate micronutrients like Iron, Vitamin A , Folic Acid etc.
The Scheme was further revised in April 2008 to extend the scheme to recognized as well as
unrecognized Madarsas / Maqtabs supported under SSA .

The National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA, 2013) contains provisions related to welfare schemes including
Mid Day Meal Scheme.
In accordance with the provisions of the Act, the MDM Rules have been finalized.
The salient provisions of the rules are as under:

Entitlements of children: Every child within the age group of six to fourteen years studying in classes I to
VIII who enroll and attend the school, shall be provided hot cooked meal having nutritional standards of 450
calories and 12 gm of protein for primary and 700 calories and 20 gm protein for upper primary free of charge
every day except on school holidays. The place of serving meals to the children shall be school only.
Implementation of the Scheme: Every school shall have the facility for cooking meal in hygienic
manner. Schools in urban area may use the facility of centralised kitchens for cooking meals wherever
required in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Central Government and the meal shall be served to
children at respective school only.
Responsibility of School Management Committee: The School Management Committee mandated under
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 shall also monitor implementation of the Mid-day meal
Scheme and shall oversee quality of meals provided to the children, cleanliness of the place of cooking and
maintenance of hygiene in implementation of mid day meal scheme.
Utilization of School Funds: The Headmaster or Headmistress of the school shall be empowered to utilise
any fund available in school for the purpose of continuation of Mid Day Meal Scheme in the school in case of
temporary unavailability of food grains, cooking cost etc. in the school. The utilised fund shall be reimbursed
to the school account immediately after receipt of mid day meal funds.
Testing of the meals by Accredited Labs to ensure nutritional standards: Hot cooked meal provided to
children shall be evaluated and certified by the Government Food Research Laboratory or any laboratory
accredited or recognized by law, so as to ensure that the meal meets with the nutritional standards and quality.
The Food and Drugs Administration Department of the State may collect samples to ensure the nutritive value
and quality of the meals. The samples shall be collected at least once in a month from randomly selected
schools or centralised kitchens and sent for examination to the accredited laboratories.
Food Security Allowance. If the Mid-Day Meal is not provided in school on any school day due to nonavailability of food grains, cooking cost, fuel or absence of cook-cum-helper or any other reason, the State
Government shall pay food security allowance