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Nouns:

= machine
= college
= truck
= black
= white
= beverage/drink
= foreign country
= foreigner
= high school
= travel
= library

Adjectives:
= old
= perfect
= sick/sore
= smart
() = important

Adverbs and Other Words::


= immediately
= immediately
= quickly/fast
= often
= sometimes
= many/a lot of
Verbs:
= play
= a moment ago
= to use
= place
= to write
= same time
() = (make a) mistake
= night
() = (to) repair
= last night
= catch/grab/grasp
= suddenly
= read
= every year
= pay for something
= again
= get/receive/acquire
= alone
= to arrive
= daytime
= East
Adjectives:
= South
= young
= West
= old
= North
Korean Adverbs
To this point, you have studied Korean verbs and adjectives in great depth, but you have
yet to learn much about Korean adverbs. First of all, what is an adverb? Adverbs are
words in sentences that tell you when, where, or to what degree something is being done.

When: I went to work on Tuesday


Where: I am inside the house
Degree: I opened the door quickly
In this lesson, you will learn how to use adverbs in Korean sentences. Let's get started!

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When and Where


Anytime you put a word in a sentence that indicates when or where something is taking
place, you must add the particle to the end of that word. Keep in mind, however, that
is not the only particle that can go at the end of words of position or time. There are
other particles that can go at the end of these words to indicate from when/where
something occurred, until when/where, etc. For now, though, lets just talk about .
This is very important. Even though all places (park, house, hospital, school, office, room,
kitchen, etc) are also nouns, when they are being talked about as a place, the particle
must be attached to them. Notice the difference between the following two sentences:
= I built a hospital
= I went to the/a hospital
In the first sentence, hospital is the thing in which you are building so it is an object,
which requires you to use the / particle.
In the second sentence, the hospital is the place in which you went to so it is a place,
which requires it to have the particle.
However, if you wanted to say where you built that hospital, you could say this:
= I built a hospital beside the park
In addition to this, any word that indicates when something is taking place, needs have
the Korean particle attached to it. For example:
= I will go on Tuesday
= I studied in the evening
= I built a hospital beside the park in the fall
The best part about Korean adverbs is that they can essentially be placed at any place in
the sentence. The only place they cannot be placed is at the end of the sentence - because
a sentence must always end in an adjective or verb. They could even be placed at the
beginning of a sentence:
= I will study in the summer
For some reason, however, Korean people usually dont add whenever they say today
(), tomorrow (), and yesterday ():
= I will study Korean tomorrow.

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To what degree/How much


In addition to when and where adverbs, many adverbs can tell us to what degree
something is being done. These adverbs usually (but not always) end in ly in English:
I ran really quickly
I ate fast
I left immediately
I often meet my friend on Thursday
I eat too much sometimes
When adding these types of adverbs to sentences, no particle needs to be attached:
= I meet my friend often
Also, many of these words are just transferred from their adjective forms to create an
adverb. This is done in English as well, for example:
Quick -> Quickly
Easy -> Easily
Quiet -> Quietly
A lot of adverbs in Korean are simply made by adding to the stem of an adjective:
Adjective
Adverb
= easy
= easily
= similar
= similarly
= different
= differently
Adjectives that end in are sometimes changed into adverbs by changing to .
With most adjectives you can either add to the stem or with no difference in
meaning. The only thing I can suggest is try to listen to which one is said in a specific
situation, because even Korean people dont know the answer to the question what is the
difference between and :
Adjective
Adverb
= quiet
/ = quietly
= safe
/ = safely
Finally, some adjectives are changed into adverbs in a different way. When this happens,
they are usually very similar to their original adjective form:
Adjective
Adverb
= many
= many/a lot*
= quick/fast
= quickly
* and essentially have the same meaning aside from the fact that one is an
adverb and one is an adjective. With most words, the difference between the adjective
and adverb form is very clear, but with /, the meaning is similar: For example:

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= I ate a lot of rice


= I ate a lot of rice.
Now that you know ALL that, using adverbs in sentences is easy as pie!:
= I ate quietly
= I crossed the street safely
= I lived happily
You can, of course, use more than one adjective in a sentence. To look at the list I
showed you earlier:
I ran really quickly =
I ate fast =
I left immediately =
I often meet my friend on Thursday =
I eat too much sometimes =
Though you can do that, using two adjectives that indicate the degree of something is
generally not done in Korean. For example, this would sound awkward:
= I easily quickly crossed the street (Its also
awkward in English!)
Negative Sentences
There are two ways you can make a sentence negative:
By adding (acting as an adverb in the sentence) before a verb/adjective
By adding ~ to the stem of a verb/adjective. then becomes the
verb/adjective in that sentence and must be conjugated accordingly.
Both have the exact same meaning. When I learned this, I asking a Korean teacher how
can one know when to use or ~ ? His answer: It is totally up to the speaker.
After saying that, however, he did say that he thinks ~ is usually connected to
words ending in whereas is added to the sentence when the verb/adjective just
ends in . But dont pay much attention that that: they are exactly the same:
/ = I didnt study
/ = Im not happy
/ = Im not going to
school tomorrow
/ = I dont like fish
/ = That girl isn't pretty

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is usually conjugated and changed differently compared to normal verbs/adjective,
and this case is no exception. The negative form of is . If you want to say
I am not ____ instead of using , you must use (essentially, +
):
= I am not a teacher
( )
= I am not your friend
( )
= I am not a University Student
( )
Notice the difference between how and are used. is always attached
directly to the noun: ( ) whereas comes after a noun with the
particle / attached.
Also Notice that the examples above are not conjugated. I haven't taught you how to
conjugate yet, so I don't want to show you how to conjugate either. You
will learn how to conjugate in Lesson 9.

Just like how is the opposite of - is the opposite of . You learned


that can be used to mean to have or to be in/at a location/for something to be
there:
To have: = I have money
To be in/at a location: = I am inside the school
, then, can have the meanings of to not have or to not be in/at a location/for there
to be none of:
= I dont have money
= I dont have time
= We don't have a car
= My friend is not in Korea now
= There was nobody there

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Other Negative Words


Just like in English, there are many words that actually have a negative meaning. For
example, "" is a verb that means to dislike something. There is also ""
which means "bad/to not like/to dislike." The difference between and is
the same as the difference between and . Because is a verb, the
object particles (/) must be attached to the thing that one dislikes. For example:
= I dislike fruit
, however (like ) is an adjective. Therefore, if you want to use "" to say
that you dislike something, the particles "/" must be attached to the thing that one
dislikes. For example:
= I dislike fruit
Both of those are essentially the same as:
/
/

Be careful to not make double negative sentences. Although technically grammatically


correct, this one reads funny:
= I dont dislike fruit
Thats it for this lesson! I dont think this one was very hard. I went easy on you!
Try taking our first Min-Test, which you will find on the next page!

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