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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC HR.SEC.

SCHOOL
ARAKKONAM

CHEMISTRY
XII-STD
STUDY MATERIAL -2014
BASED ON

TAMIL NADU TEXT BOOK


All the best but be the best,You Can

K.GOPI Msc.,M.Ed., (Chemistry)


Bharathidhasanar Matric Hr.Sec.School-Arakkonam

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

XII

TH

CHEMISTRY YEAR PLAN & PORTION


2014-15
1.Atomic Structure-II

Unit Test-1

2.Periodic Classification-II
3.P-Block Elements
Unit Test -2

8.Solid State
9.Thermodynamics
Unit Test-3

10Chemical Equilibrium-II
15.Isomerism in Organic Compounds
Unit Test-4

16.Hydroxy Derivatives

17.Ethers
Unit Test -5

4.d-Block Elements

5.f-block Elements
Unit Test -6

6.Co-Ordination and its compounds


7.Nuclear Chemistry

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Unit Test -7

11.Chemical Kinetics-II
12.Surface Chemistry
13.Electro Chemistry I

Unit Test -8

18.Carbonyl Compounds

19.Carboxylic Acid
Unit test 9

20.Organic Nitrogen Compounds.

14.Electro Chemistry-II
Unit Test 10

21.Biomolecules
22.Chemistry in action

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

MONTHLY EXAMS AND PORTION

1.Atomic Structure-II
2.Periodic lassification-II
3.P-Block Elements
8.Solid State
Monthly Exam 1

9. Thermodynamics
15.Isomerism in Organic
Compounds
16.Hydroxy Derivatives

4. d-Block Elements
5. f-block Elements
Monthly Exam 2

11.Chemical Kinetics-II
12.Surface Chemistry
18.Carbonyl Compounds
19.Carboxylic Acid

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

1.Atomic Structure-II
2.Periodic classification-II
3.P-Block Elements
4.d-Block Elements
8.Solid State
9.Thermodynamics

Quarterly Exam

10.Chemical equilibrium-II
11.Chemical Kinetics-II
15.Isomerism in Organic
Compounds
16.Hydroxy Derivatives
18.Carbonyl Compounds
19.Carboxylic Acid

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

f-Block Elements
Co-Ordination Compounds
Monthly Exam 3

Surface Chemistry
Electro Chemistry-I
Organic Nitrogen Compounds
Co-Ordination Compounds
Nuclear Chemistry

Monthly Exam-4

Electro Chemistry-II
Bio Molecules
Chemistry in Action

Half Yearly Exam

Full Portion

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

3 Marks
1.Atomic Structure -II

THREE MARKS.

1.What do you understand by the dual character of matter?


The idea of deBroglie wave nature waves or deBroglie matter
waves is
based on the fact that light has both wave and particle nature.
Hence particle like
electron or proton can also be considered to be particle with
wave nature.
On the other hand, light had been considered to be
electromagnetic waves.
However, after the discovery of light quanta (photons), it
was clarified that the light has wave nature at one time and
particle nature at another time. Therefore, light has a kind of
duality.
2.State Heisenbergs uncertainty principle;
it is impossible to measure simultaneously both the
position
and velocity (or momentum) of a microscopic particle
with absolute
accuracy or certainty.

3.Define an orbital;
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

An orbital is the region of space around the


nucleus within which the
probability of finding an electron of given energy is maximum
.The shape of this
region (electron cloud) gives the shape of the orbital
4.What are molecular orbitals
In a molecule, electrons are present in new orbitals
called molecular orbitals
Two atomic orbitals can combine to form two
molecular orbitals. One of
these two molecular orbitals one has a lower energy and
the
other has a
higher energy. The molecular orbital with lower energy
is called bonding
molecular orbital and the other with higher energy is
called anti bonding
molecular orbital.

5.Why He2 is not formed?


As the bond order for He2 comes out to be zero, this molecule
does not exist.
6.What is bond order?
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Bond order may be defined as half the difference between the


number of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals (Nb) and
the number of electrons in anti bonding molecular orbitals
(Na) i.e.,
Bond Order = 1/2(Nb - Na )

7.Define hybridisation.
Hybridization is the concept of intermixing of the orbitals of
an atom having
nearly the same energy to give exactly equivalent orbitals with
same energy, identical
shapes and symmetrical orientations in space.
The new equivalent orbitals formed are known as the hybrid
orbitals or
hybridized orbitals. Hybrid orbitals have properties entirely
different from the
properties of the original orbitals from which they have been
obtained.

BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

2.PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION - II

1.Mention the disadvantage of Pauling and Mulliken scale.


Although Mullikens scale is less empirical than Pauling
Scale, yet it suffers
from a serious disadvantage that electron affinities with the
exception of a few
elements are not reliably known.
2.Why EA of fluorine is less than that of chlorine?
On moving down a group the electron affinity decreases.
Thus, the electron
affinity of Cl should be less than F. But actually the electron
affinity of
F (320 kJ mol-1) is less than Cl (348 kJ mol-1). The reason
for this is probably
due to small size of fluorine atom. The addition of an extra
electron produces
high electron density which increases strong electron-electron
repulsion. The
repulsive forces between electrons results in low electron
affinity
3.Why the I.E of Ne is greater than that of F
The I.E of Ne is greater than that of F. It can be explained as
follows:
The nuclear charge of Ne (Z = 10) is more than that of F (Z =
9). Greater
the nuclear charge, greater would be the force of attraction
between nucleus and
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

outermost electron. Hence, the first I.E. of neon would be


greater than that of
fluorine.
4. I.E. of fluorine is more than that of oxygen.Why?
I.E. of fluorine is more than that of oxygen. It can be
explained
as follows.
(i) F (Z = 9; 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz
1) is having more nuclear charge than
oxygen (Z = 8; 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py12pz
1). In both the cases, the electron has to be
removed from the same 2p-subshell. As fluorine is having
more nuclear charge
than oxygen, it means that the nucleus of fluorine will attract
the outer 2p-electrons
more firmly than oxygen. Hence, first I.E. of fluorine would
be more than that of
oxygen.
5.I.E of C is More than B.explain
The I.E. of carbon (At. No.6) more than that of boron (At.
No.5)
Reason: Carbon (Z = 6; 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz0) is having
more nuclear
charge than boron (Z = 5; 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py02pz0). In both
the cases, one has to
remove electron from same 2p-subshell. Carbon is having
more nuclear charge
than boron. Therefore the nucleus of carbon, attracts the outer
2p-electron more
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

firmly than does boron. Thus, first I.E. of carbon would be


more than that of
boron
6.Calculate the effective nuclear charge experienced by the 4s
electron in potassium atom.
Solution
The electronic configuration of K atom is
K19 = (1s2) (2s2 2p6) (3s2 3p6) 4s1
Effective nuclear charge (Z*) = Z S
Z*= 19 [(0.85 No. of electrons in (n 1)th shell) +
(1.00 total number of electrons in the inner shells)]
= 19 [0.85 (8) + (1.00 10)]
Z*= 2.20
7.Explain Electron affinity.
Electron affinity or electron gain enthalpy is the amount of
energy released
when an isolated gaseous atom accepts an electron to form a
monovalent gaseous
anion.
Atom+ Electron Anion+ Energy

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

P-Block Elements
1.Prove that phosphorus acid is a powerful reducing agent?
It is a powerful reducing agent because it has P-H bond.
It reduces silver nitrate solution into silver.
2AgNO3+H2O+ H3PO3 2Ag+ H3PO4 + 2HNO3
2.What is Plumbo solvency?
Lead is not attacked by pure water in the absence of air,
but water containing
dissolved air has a solvent action on
it due to the formation of lead hydroxide (a poisonous
substance). This phenomenon is called Plumbo solvency.

2Pb + O2 +2H2O 2Pb(OH)2


3.Why is HF is not stored in silica or glass bottles? Write the
equations.
It cannot be stored in glass or silica bottles as it attack
silicates and silica
Na2SiO3 + 6HF Na2SiF6 + 3H2O
SiO 2+ 4HF SiF4 + 2H2O

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

4.Illustrate the oxidising power of fluorine.


An important feature of the halogen is their oxidising
property. Which is due to high electron affinity of halogen
atoms. The oxidizing power decreases from fluorine to
Iodine.Fluorine is the strongest
Oxidizing agent. It oxidises other halide ions to
halogens in solution or when dry.
F2 + 2X 2F- + X2 (X- = Cl-,Br -, I-)
5.Write about the Holmes signal?
Containers which have a perforated bottom and a hole at the
top are filled with calcium phosphide and calcium carbide.
These are thrown into the sea, Water enters the container
through the bottom and reacts with calcium carbide and
calcium phosphide to give acetylene and phosphine.
Phosphine gets ignited spontaneously as it comes in contact
with air and also ignites acetylene.Thus a bright red flame is
produced which is accompanied by huge smoke due to
the burning of phosphine.This serves as a signal to the
approaching ships.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

6.Write the uses of Helium?


1. Because of its lightness and non- inflammability helium is
used to filling balloons for meteorological observations.
2.Because of its lightness it is used in inflating aeroplane
tyres. 3.A mixture of oxygen and helium is used in the
treatment of asthma

7.How is ( K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O) potash alum prepared?


Alunite or alum stone is K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.4Al(OH)3. It is
finely powdered and boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, the
aluminium hydroxide part changes into aluminium sulphate.
When a little more potassium sulphate in calculated amount
is added, the alum is crystallised.
8. How is phosphoric acid prepared in the laboratory?
Boiling a mixture of red phophorus with 50% nitric acid
in a flask fitted with a reflux condenser on a water bath till no
more oxides of nitrogen are liberated. Iodine acts as a
catalyst. The product is evaporated below 453K and then
cooled in a vaccum desiccator surrounded
by freezing mixture when crystals of orthophosphoric
acid are deposited.
P + 5HNO3 H3PO4 + 5NO2 + H2O
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

9. Give three uses of neon.


1.Neon is used in discharge tubes and fluorescent bulbs
for advertisement display purposes.
2.Mixed with helium it is used to protect electrical
instruments from high Voltages.
3.Neon light is used in botanical gardens as it stimulates
growth and helps the formation of chlorophyll.
10. What are interhalogen compounds? Give the
preparation of any one.
Each halogen combines with another halogen to form
several compounds known as interhalogen compounds.
They can all be prepared by direct combination or by the
action of a halogen on a lower interhalogen, the product
formed depends on the conditions.
Cl2 + F2 (equal volume) 2ClF ( Ax Type)
11.What is inert pair effect?
One of the familiar characteristic of p-block elements is to
show inert pair effect that is the tendency of being less
availability for ns electron in bonding. The inert pair effect
increases down the group with the increase in atomic
number.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

12.What is the action of heat on phosphorus acid?


When it is heated it undergoes auto-oxidation and
reduction to form phosphoric acid and phosphine.
4H3PO3 3H3PO4 + PH3
13. H3PO3 diprotic why?
It is a dibasic acid and gives salts of two types.
ii) H3PO3 + NaOH NaH2PO3 + H2O
ii) H3PO3 + 2NaOH Na2HPO3 + 2H2O
Sodium dihydrogen phosphite Disodiumhydrogen phosphate
4.

d - BLOCK ELEMENTS

1. What are d-block elements?


In these elements, the last electron enters the d orbital of the
penultimate Shell i.e. the last electron goes to (n-1) d orbital.
Hence these elements are named as d-block elements. These
elements have partly filled d-sub shells in their elementary
form or in their simple ions. The d-block elements are called
transition elements because these represent a transition from
highly electropositive elements (metals) of s-block to least
electropositive elements (non-metals) of p-block.
2. How d-block elements are classified?
Based on whether the last electron goes to 3d,4d,5d or 6d
orbital, d-block
elements are classified into four series. They are
i) 3d series or First transition series (21Sc to 30Zn)
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

ii) 4d series or Second transition series (39Y to 48Cd)


iii) 5d series or Third transition series (57La and 72Hf to
80Hg)
iv) 6d series or Fourth transition series (89Ac and 104Rf to
112) or Incomplete series
3. Explain why d-block elements exhibit variable oxidation
states?
All transition elements exhibit variety of oxidation states
(or) variable valencies
in their compounds. This property is due to the following
reasons.
i) These elements have several (n 1) d and ns electrons.
ii) The energies of (n 1)d and ns orbitals are fairly close to
each other.

4. Why transistion elements form complexes?


i) Small size and high positive charge density.
ii) Presence of vacant (n-1)d orbitals which are of appropriate
energy to accept
lone pair and unshared pair of electrons from the ligands for
bonding with
them.
5.Why Zn2+ salts are white while Ni2+ salts are coloured?
Zinc ion has absence of unpaired electron while nickel
ion has unpaired electron so due to his reason nickel ion has
exist in colour.
6. [Ti (H2O)6]3+ is coloured while [Sc (H2O)6]3+ is
colourless. Explain.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Sc ion has absence of unpaired electron while Ti ion has


unpaired electron so due to his reason nickel ion has exist in
colour.
7.Explain Why Mn2+ is more stable than Mn3+.
Electronic configuration of Mn2+ is :[Ar] 3d5 and Mn3+ is:
[Ar] 3d4 Mn2+ has 3d5 electrons and d- sub-level is half
filled. Mn3+ has 3d4 electrons and d-sub-level is neither half
filled or completely filled. Half filled sub-level is more stable
due to symmetry. Therefore Mn2+ is more stable than
Mn3+.
8.A substance is found to have a magnetic moment of
3.9BM. How many unpaired electrons does it contain?
The magnetic moment = n( n 2) BM n = number of
unpaired electrons.
3.9 = n( n + 2) ; 3.9 = n( n + 2) ; (3.9)2 = n (n+2)
15 = n2 + 2n ; n2+2n-15=0 ; Solving this equation n = 3
9.Why do transition elements form complexes?
i) Small size and high positive charge density.
ii) Presence of vacant (n-1)d orbitals which are of
appropriate energy to accept lone
pair and unshared pair of electrons from the
ligands for bonding with them.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

10. Give any two evidences for the oxidizing nature of


potassium dichromate.
K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4 + 6KI 4K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 3I 2 + H2O
It oxidizes potassium iodide to iodine
K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4 + 6FeSO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 +
3Fe 2(SO4)3 + 7H2O
It oxidizes ferrous sulphate to ferric sulphate
11.Why do d-block elements have variable oxidation states.
Give reason.
i) These elements have several (n-1)d and ns
electrons.
ii) The energies of (n-1)d and ns orbitals are fairly
close to each other.
12.How is chrome-plating done?

i) The articles to be plated with chromium: Cathode


ii) plate of lead : Anode
iii)Electrolytic bath contain : Chromic acid and Sulphuric
acid. During electrolysis chromium deposits on the article.
Generally the articles are first plated
with nickel and then subjected to chromium plating.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

13. Write the action of aqua regia on gold.


Gold dissolves in aquaregia (3parts of Con.HCl+1part of
Conc.HNO3) to form auric chloride.
2Au + 9HCl + 3HNO3 2AuCl3 + 6H2O + 3NOCl
14.What is spitting of silver? How can be it prevented?
Molten silver absorbs about twenty times its volume of
oxygen which it again expels on cooling. Globules of
molten silver are thrown off. This is called Spitting of silver.
This can be prevented by covering the molten metal with a
layer of charcoal.
f-block elements
THREE MARKS;

1.What are inner transition ( f-block) elements? Give two


examples
The elements in which the extra electron enters ( n- 2 )f
orbitals are called
f- block elements. These elements are also called
as inner
transition elements
because they form a transition series within the transition
elements. The f-block
elements are also known as rare earth elements. These are
divided into two
series.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

i) The Lanthanide series (4f-block elements)ii) The


Actinide series (5f- block elements )
2What is the difference in the electronic configuration of
transition and innertransition
elements?
The electronic configuration of Lanthanides are, The fourteen
electrons are filled in Ce to Lu with configuration [54 Xe
]4f1-14 5d1 6s2.
The general electronic configuration of transition elements is
(n-1)d1-10 ns1-2.
3.What are lanthanides? Give the various oxidation states of
lanthanides.
The common oxidation state exhibited by all the lanthanides
is +3 (Ln3+) in
aqueous solutions and in their solid compounds. Some
elements exhibit +2 and
+4 states as uncommon oxidation states
La - +3
Ce - +3, +4, +2
Pr - +3, +4
Nd - +3, +4, +2
4. What are mish metals? Give their uses
Alloys of Lanthanides are known as mish - metals .The major
constituents
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

of mish-metals are Ce(45-50%), La(25%), Nd(5%) and small


quantities
of other lanthanide metals and Fe and Ca impurities. Mishmetals are used
for the production of brands of steel like heat resistant,
stainless and
instrumental steels. Mg- alloys containing 30% mishmetal and
1% Zr are
useful in making parts of jet engines
5. Write the uses of Lanthanides and Actinides
LANTHANIDES USES
1. A pyrophoric alloy which contains cerium, lanthanum and
Neodymium; iron;
aluminium; calcium, carbon and silicon is used in cigarette
lighters, toys,
flame throwing tanks and tracer bullets.
2. Ceria (CeO2) and thoria (ThO2) are used in gas lamp
materials.
ACTINIDES USES
1.U-235 is fissionable, it is used as fuel in nuclear power
plants and as a
component in nuclear weapons
2.Plutonium - 238 is used as a power source in long mission
space probes.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

6. Coordination Compounds and


Bio-Coordination Compounds

1.What are simple salts? Give one example


A simple salt is formed by the neutralisation of an acid by a
base.
KOH+ HCl

KCl+H2O

Normally, a simple salt ionises in water and produces ions in


solution. The solution of the simple salt exhibits the properties
of its component ions
2.What are double salts? Give one example.
These are molecular compounds which are formed by the
evaporation of solution containing two (or) more salts in
stoichiometric proportions. Hence the molecular compounds
which dissociate in solution into its constituent ions are
known as double salt. Double salts retain their properties only
in solid state. They are also called as lattice compounds
Example;
K2SO4 . Al2(SO4)3 . 24H2O-Potash alum
FeSO4 . (NH4)2 SO4. 6H2O-Mohrs salt
3.In what way complex salt differs from double salt?
The molecular compounds, do not dissociate into its
constituent ions in solution are called coordination
compoundthe individual components lose their identity.
The metal of the complex ion is not free in solution
unlike metal in double salt in solution in this way co
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

ordination complex ion is differnce from doublt salt


solution.
4.What are ligands and coordination number?
A ligand is an ion (or) a molecule capable of functioning
as an electron donor. Therefore the neutral molecules or
ions which are directly attached to the central metal ion
are called as ligand (or) coordination groups
The coordination number of a metal ion in a complex can
be defined as the number of ligand donor atoms to which
the metal is directly bonded. Numerically coordination
number represents the total number of the chemical
bonds formed between the central metal ion and the
donor atoms of the ligands. For example in K4[Fe(CN)6]
the coordination number of Fe(II) is 6 and in
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4 the coordination number of Cu(II) is 4.
5.Give one example for a monodentate ligand, a bidentate
ligand and a chelating
ligand.
MONODENTATE LIGAND;
F--Fluoro, ClChloro CNCyano
BIDENTATE LIGAND
NH2 - CH2 - CH2 NH2 .C2O4Oxalato
Chelating ligand.;
If a ligand is capable of forming more than one bond with the
central metal atom (or) ion then the ring structures are
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

produced which are known as metal chelates. Hence the ring


forming group are described as chelating agents (or)
polydentate ligands.

6.Calculate the charge on the central metal ion present in the


following
complexes.
[Fe(NH3)4Cl2] NO3

Na[B(NO3)4]

7.Name the following complexes


[Co(NH3)5(H2O)]Cl3

Na[B(NO3)4]

8.Write the formula structure of the following


a) tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) ion
b) pentaamminesulphatocobalt(III) chloride
9.Draw the structure of cis and trans-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]
10.What are chelates? Give one example
If a ligand is capable of forming more than one bond with the
central metal atom (or) ion then the ring structures are
produced which are known as metal chelates. Hence the ring
forming group are described as chelating agents (or)
polydentate ligands.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

7.NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
1.Define radio activity.
The phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of certain
atomic nuclei resulting in the emission of radioactive rays is
called radioactivity.
Radioactivity is a nuclear phenomenon and it is not affected
by external
factors such as temperature, pressure etc. This phenomenon
was discovered
by Henry Becqurel.

2.What is half life period.


The time required to disintegrate one half of any radioactive
substance is called half life period (t). The half life period
(t) of a
radioactive substance is independent of initial concentration.
It depends only
on the disintegration constant of the radioactive element. t
is used to
indicate the relative stability of radioactive substance. If t is
the shorter,
faster is the rate of decay and hence the substance is more
unstable and
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

viceversa.
3.Write two difference between chemical reaction and nuclear
reaction
CHEMICAL
REACTIONS

NUCLEAR REACTIONS
Nuclear reactions involve
emission of
alpha, beta and gamma
particles from
the nucleus.

These reaction involve


some loss,
gain or overlap of outer
orbital
electrons of the reactant
atoms.
A chemical reaction is
Nuclear reaction is balanced
balanced in
in terms
terms of mass only
of both mass and energy.
The energy changes in any
chemical
reaction is very much less
when
compared with nuclear
reaction.
In chemical reactions, the
energy is
expressed in terms of
kilojoules per
mole.

The energy changes are far


exceed
than the energy changes in
chemical
reactions.
In nuclear reactions, the
energy
involved is expressed in
MeV (Million
electron volts) per individual
nucleus.

4.What is Q value of a nuclear reaction?


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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

The amount of energy absorbed or released during nuclear


reaction is called
Q-value of nuclear reaction
In the case of energy absorbed then mp>mr, then Q value will
be positive. Q value of a nuclear reaction in the case of energy
released = (mpmr) 931 MeV. In the case of energy released,
mr>mp, and hence Q value will be negative.
5.Explain the principle behind the Hydrogen bomb.
The highly destructive hydrogen bomb is also based on the
fusion reactions of hydrogen to form helium producing large
amount of energy. Hydrogen bomb consists of an arrangement
for nuclear fission in the centre surrounded by a mixture of
deuterium (1H2) and lithium isotope (3Li6). Fission reaction
provides the high temperature necessary to start the fusion.
6.What is Radio carbon dating?
This method was developed by Willard and Libby to
determine the age of wood or animal fossils. This method is
based on the fact that 6C14, radioactive isotope of carbon is
formed in the upper atmosphere by reaction with neutrons
(from cosmic rays).
7N14 + 0n1 6C14 + 1H1
The C14 atoms thus produced are rapidly oxidised to 14CO2
which in turn is Incorporated in plants as result of
photosynthesis. Animals too consume C14 byeating plants.
On death, organisms cease to take in fresh carbonations.
Carbon-14 begins to decay.
6C14 7N14 + -1e0
6.State two uses of radio carbon dating.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Carbon dating has proved to be a great tool for


correlating facts of historical importance.
It is very useful in understanding the evolution of life,
and rise and fall of civilizations.

8.SOLID STATE - II
1.Define the terms; space lattice and unit cell
Unit cell is the smallest fundamental repeating portion of a
crystal lattice
from which the crystal is built by repetition in three
dimension.

2.State Braggs law.

3.What are superconductors?

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

4.How crystals are classified?

5.Give example for molecular and ionic crystals

6.What is a vitreous state?


The State Which Exist, Lying Between Solid and Liquid is
called as Vitreous state. Ex. Glass
7.Give two example for AB and AB2 type ionic crystals

8.What is imperfection in solids?


Almost all the crystals encountered in practice suffer from
imperfections or
defects of various kinds. An ideally perfect crystal is one
which has the same unit
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

cell and contains the same lattice points throughout the


crystal. The term
imperfection or defect is generally used to describe any
deviation of the ideally
perfect crystal from the periodic arrangement of its
constituents.
Point Defects
1. Schottky defects
2. Frenkel defects
10.Write a note on the assignment of atoms per unit cell in fcc

11.Write a short note on metallic crystals


Metallic crystal consists of an assemblage of positive ions
immersed in a sea
of mobile electrons. Thus, each electron belongs to a number
of positive ions and
each positive ion belong to a number of electrons. The force
that binds a metal
ion to a number of electrons within its sphere of influence is
known as metallic
bond. This force of attraction is strong and is thus responsible
for a compact
solid structure of metals.
12.How are glasses formed?
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

When certain liquids are cooled rapidly there is no formation


of crystals at a
definite temperature, such as occurring on slow cooling. The
viscosity of the
liquid increases steadily and finally a glassy substance is
formed.
9.THERMODYNAMICS II
1.What is entropy? What are the units of entropy?
Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the
molecules of a system and it is a thermodynamic state
function. The entropy function S represents the ratio of
heat involved (q) to the temperature (T) of the process.
SI unit is JK-1
2.What is Gibbs free energy?
The isothermally available energy in a system is called
Gipps free energy (G). G is defined as H TS where H and S
are the enthalpy and entropy of the system respectively and
T = temperature.
G = H - TS
3. What types of liquids or substances deviate from
Troutons rule?

i)Low boiling liquids such as Hydrogen and Helium


which boil only a little above 0K.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

ii)Polar substances like water, alcohol which form


hydrogen bonded liquids and exhibit very high boiling points
as well as high Hvap.
iii) Liquids such as acetic acid whose molecules are
partially associated in the vapour phase and possess very
low entropy vapourisation which is very much less than 21
cals / mol / deg.
4.Give the Kelvin Planck statement of second law of
thermodynamics.
It is impossible to construct an engine which operated
in a complete cycle will absorb heat from a single body and
convert it completely to work without leaving some
changes in the working system
5.State Classius statement of second law of
thermodynamics.
It is impossible to transfer heat from a cold body to a
hot body by a machine without doing some work

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

6.Calculate the molar heat of vapourisation of the ideal


liquid CCl (Bp. of CCl 4 76C and S=87.864J) Hvap

Svap = = 21cal.deg-1mole-1 ; Hvap = Svap X Tb

H vap of CCl4 = Svap X Tb = 87.86 X (76 + 273) =


30663.14 J mole-1.
8 . H and S values of a reaction at 300K are 10K.Cal.Mole-1 and 20 Cal.deg-1mole-1 respectively.
Calculate G value?
G = H - TS
At 300K G = - 10,000 20 X 300
= - 16,000 cals.mole-1.
G = - ve , spontaneous reaction.
8.Give entropy statement of second law of
thermodynamics. Write unit of entropy also.
A process accompanied by increase in entropy tends to be
spontaneous
Unit of entropy : heat x temperature -1 i) calories per
degree per mole ii)cgs unit of entropy = calk-1 iii) eu per
mole iv) SI unit is JK-1

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

13 What are spontaneous reactions?


The term natural process means that the process is
spontaneous and does not need to be induced. It takes place
on its own accord. In order to find out whether a process is
spontaneous or not, the entropy changes of the system and
the surrounding for the stipulated process is considered.
S = +ve , the entropy of the universe increases.
10.Chemical Equilibrium
1.In the equilibrium H2 +I2 2HI the number of moles
of H2, I2 and HI are 1,2,3 moles respectively. Total pressure
of the reaction mixture is 60 atm. Calculate the partial
pressures of H2, I2 and HI in the mixture.
Solution:
H2 + I2 2HI
Number of moles of H2 at equilibrium = 1 mole
Number of moles of I2 at equilibrium = 2 mole
Number of moles of HI at equilibrium = 3 mole

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Total number of moles of equilibrium = 1+2+3 = 6 moles


Mole fraction of H2 = 1; Mole fraction of I2 = 2
Mole fraction of HI = 3

Partial pressure = Mole fraction x Total pressure


P = 1x 60 = 10 atm ; P = 2x 60 = 20 atm ; P =3x 60 = 30
atm
2.State Le Chateliers principle.
If a system at equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance
or stress, then the equilibrium shifts in the direction that
tends to nullify the effect of the disturbance or stress.
3.What happens when ng = 0, ng = -ve, ng = +ve in a
gaseous reaction?
The relation between Kp and Kc is
Kp = Kc (RT) ng

i) when ng = 0, Kp = Kc

ii) when ng = -ve, Kp < Kc iii) when ng = +ve , Kp>Kc 3

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

4.Define reaction quotient. How is it related to


equilibrium constant?
Reaction quotient, Q is defined as the ratio of product of
initial concentrations of products to the product of initial
concentrations of reactants under non equilibrium
conditions.
When Q is greater than Kc, (Q>Kc) reverse reaction is
favoured.
When Q is lesser than Kc, (Q<Kc), forward is reaction
favoured.
When Q is equal to Kc , (Q=Kc), reaction is at equilibrium
5.What is the relationship between formation
equilibrium constant and dissociation equilibrium
constant? Give an example.
In a chemical equilibrium reaction, the equilibrium constant
of the dissociation equilibrium reaction which is also known
as dissociation constant is found to be the reciprocal value of
the equilibrium constant for the formation equilibrium
reaction. Formation equilibrium reaction, Dissociation
equilibrium reaction

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

6.Define equilibrium constant?


The equilibrium constant (Kc) represents the ratio of
product of the molar concentrations of the products to the
product of the molar concentrations of the reactants at
equilibrium condition. The concentration of each species is
raised to the power of number of moles present in the
stoichiometric equation.
7. Dissociation of PCl5 decreases in the presence of increase
in Cl2. Why?
According to Le chatelier principle, increase in
concentration of any one of the reactants or products
shifts the equilibrium more towards the opposite direction.
So by
increasing the concentration of Cl2, the equilibrium
shifts in the reverse direction, that is more of PCl5 is
formed. By increasing the presence of Cl2, PCl5 dissociation is
decreased.
12 Why is equilibrium reaction refered to as dynamic
equilibrium?
Chemical equilibrium is dynamic when the
forward and reverse reactions take place endlessly and
simultaneously with equal rates. Rf=Rr

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

11.CHEMICAL KINETICS
1.Explain Pseudo first order reaction
Thus in a second order reaction, when one of the reactants
concentrationis in excess (10 to 100 times) of the other
reactant, then the reaction follows a first order kinetics and
such a reaction is called pseudo-first order reaction.
In a reaction of the type,
CH3COOCH3 + H2O CH3COOH + CH3OH

2. Write Arrhenius equation and Explain The terms


Arrhenius equation is given as
k = A eEa/RT
where k = rate constant, Ea = activation energy, A =
frequency factor,
R = gas constant, T = temperature in Kelvin. If k1 and k2 are
the rate constants
measured at two different T1 and T temperatures respectively
3. Explain threshold energy
threshold energy which is needed to make the collisions
effective and successful. The additional energy required by
the molecules to attain the threshold energy in addition to the
energy of colliding molecules is called as activation energy
Ea. Thus,
activation energy = threshold energy - Energy of colliding
molecules
4.Explain Half Life Period
Half life period, t, of a reaction is defined as the time
required to reduce the concentration of a reactant to one half
of its initial value. t values are calculated by using the
integrated rate equation of any order of a reaction.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

5. Explain Consecutive reactions


The reactions in which the reactant forms an intermediate and
the intermediate forms the product in one or many subsequent
reactions are called as consecutive or sequential reactions. In
such reactions the product is not formed directly from the
reactant.
6.Explain Parallel reactions
In these group of reactions, one or more reactants react
simultaneously in two or more pathways to give two or more
products.
7.Explain Characteristics of order of a reaction
(i) The magnitude of order of a reaction may be zero, or
fractional or integral values. For an elementary reaction, its
order is never fractional since it is a one step process.
(ii) Order of a reaction should be determined only by
experiments. It cannot be predicted interms of stoichiometry
of reactants and products.
(iii)Simple reactions possess low values of order like n =0,1,2,
Reactions with order greater than or equal to 3.0 are called
complex reactions. Higher order reactions are rare.
8.What is order of the reaction
The term order can be defined as the sum of the powers
of the exponential powers to which each concentration term is
raised in the experimentally determined rate law of a chemical
reaction.
12.Surface Chemistry
1. Define adsorption.
The process of adsorption of gases by solids is a common
phenomenon.
The charcoal specially coconut charcoal has a great
capacity of the adsorption
of gases. Silica gel is also utilised for the adsorption of
number of gases. The
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

solid that takes up gas or vapour or solute from a given


solution is called
adsorbent and the solute or gas which is held to surface of
solid is known as
adsorbate.
2. Define colloidal solution.
A colloidal system is made up of two phases. The substance
distributed
as the colloidal particles is called the dispersed phase. The
second continuous
phase in which the colloidal particles are dispersed is called
the dispersion
medium.

3.What is electrophoresis?
If electric potential is applied across two platinum electrodes
immersed
in a hydrophilic sol, the dispersed particles move toward one
or the other
electrode. The movement of sol particles under an applied
electric potential
is called electrophoresis or cataphoresis. If the sol particles
here negatively
charged, they migrate toward the positive electrode. On the
other hand, if
they have positively charged they move toward the negative
electrode. From
the direction of movement of the sol particles, we can
determine the charge
of the sol particles.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

2. What is catalysis ?
A catalyst is a substance which alters the speed of a
chemical reaction
without itself undergoing any chemical change and the
phenomenon is known
as catalysis.
3. What are the two types of catalysis
Catalytic reactions are classified into two broad types;
1. Homogeneous catalysis
2. Heterogeneous catalysis
4. What are active centers ?
The catalytic surface has unbalanced chemical bonds on it.
The reactant
gaseous molecules are adsorbed on the surface by these free
bonds. This accelerates the rate of the reaction. The
distribution of free bonds on the catalytic surface is not
uniform. These are crowded at the peaks, cracks and corners
of the catalyst. The catalytic activity due to adsorption of
reacting molecules is maximum at these spots. These are,
therefore, referred to as the active centres. If a catalyst has
more active centres, then its catalytic
activity is increased.
5. Why colloidal system in gas in gas does not exist ?
A colloidal solution of gas in gas is not possible as gases
are completely
miscible and always form true solutions.
8. Why colloids are purified ?
In the methods of preparation stated above, the resulting sol
frequently
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

contains besides colloidal particles appreciable amounts of


electrolytes. To
obtain the pure sol, these electrolytes have to be removed.
This purification
of sols can be accomplished by three methods:
(a) Dialysis
(b) Electrodialysis and
(c) Ultrafiltration
9. What are emulsions ?
These are liquid-liquid colloidal systems, i.e., the dispersion
of finely
divided droplets in another liquid. If a mixture of two
immiscible or partially
miscible liquids is shaken, a coarse dispersion of one liquid in
the other is
obtained which is called emulsion. Generally, one of the two
liquids is water.
There are two types of emulsions.
10. What is Tyndall effect ?
When a strong beam of light is passed through a sol and
viewed at right
angles, the path of light shows up as a hazy beam. This is due
to the fact that
sol particles absorb light energy and then emit it in all
directions. This
scattering of light illuminates the path of the beam. The
phenomenon of the
scattering of light by the sol particles is called Tyndall effect
13.ELECTRO CHEMISTRY-II
1.Explain laws of faraday
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Faradays First law :


The mass of the substance (m) liberated at the electrodes
during the
electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of
electricity (Q) that
passes through the electrolyte.
Faradays Second law :
When the same quantity of electricity passes through solutions
of different
electrolytes, the amounts of the substances liberated at the
electrodes are
directly proportional to their chemical equivalents.
2.Explain Electrochemical equivalent.
Electrochemical equivalent defined in First law
If m is the mass of substance (in grams) deposited on
electrode by passing
Q coulombs of electricity, then
m Q ... First law
64
We know that Q = I t
or m = Z I t
where Z is the constant known as the Electrochemical
equivalent of the
substance (electrolyte). If I = 1 ampere and t = 1 second, then
m=Z
Thus, the electrochemical equivalent is the amount of a
substance
deposited by 1 ampere current passing for 1 second (i.e., one
coulomb)
3.Metallic Conductivity Decreases with increase in
temperature Why?
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Conductivity of metal decreases The conductivity of


electrolytes with increase in temperature due increases with
increase in to the enhanced thermal vibration temperature.
This is due to of metal atoms disrupting the increase with
ionic mobility. movement of electrons passing through them.
4.Explain Equivalent conductance
Equivalent conductance : Equivalent conductance (C) is
defined as
the conductance of an electrolyte solution containing one
gram equivalent
of the electrolyte. It is equal to the product of specific
conductance () of the solution and the volume (V) of the
solution that contains one gram equivalent of the electrolyte.
(C) =V In general if an electrolyte solution contains N
gram-equivalents in 1,000 cc of the solution the volume of the
solution containing 1 gram equivalent will be 1000 N 10-6
m3 (1 cc = 10-6 m3)
C = 103 N mho.m2 gm.equiv.-1
for 1 : 1 electrolyte normality N equals to molarity C. Then
C =103 C mho.m2.(gm.equiv)-1
C values depend on the type of the electrolyte, concentration
of the solution and temperature.
5.State kohlraushs law
This law states that, at infinite dilution wherein the
ionisation of all electrolytes is complete, each ion migrates
independently and contributes a definite value to the total
equivalent conductance of the electrolyte.
6.What is Common ion effect?
The reduction of the degree of dissociation of a salt by the
addition of a common-ion is called the Common-ion effect.
7.What is Buffer
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

A buffer solution is one which maintains its pH fairly constant


even upon the addition of small amounts of acid or base.
In other words, a buffer solution resists (or buffers) a change
in its pH.
15.ISOMERISM IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.Mesotartaric acid is an optically inactive compound


with asymmetric carbon atoms.Justify your answer.
Meso tartaric acid has two asymmetric carbon atoms,
one asymmetric carbon atom is dextrorotatory and the other
leavorotatory-both rotating to the same extent in opposite
directions. The net result is, that this isomer becomes
optically inactive and is called Meso isomer. The optical
inactivity of the Meso isomer is due to the internal
compensation.
It is due to the inherent symmetry in the
molecule.
2.What are the condition for a compound to be optically
active?
i) At least one carbon atom that is bonded to four
different atoms or groups, it is called asymmetric carbon
atom.
ii) Asymmetric molecule is not superimposable on its
mirror image.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

iii) Chirality is the essential and the sufficient condition


for a molecule to optically active.

3.Differentiate diasteriomers from enantiomers.


Enantiomer
Diastereomer
1.

*Optical isomers having the same magnitude


Differ in the magnitude of optical
but different sign of optical rotation.
rotation.

2 * They have configuration with non-super


imposable object mirror image relationship.
They are never mirror images.
3 * Separation of enantiomers is a tedious process
Separation from the other pairs of enantiomers is easy.

4. What is racemic mixture? Give an example.


When equal amounts of d-isomer and l-isomer are
mixed one gets a racemic mixtureand this process is called
racemisation.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Ex. d and l - tartaric acid.

5.What are optical isomers? Give an example.


The compounds having same molecular and structural
formula but differ only in magnitude of the optical rotation
are called optical isomers. This phenomenon is known as
optical isomerism. Ex. d-lactic acid and l-lactic acid.
6.Write briefly on Racemic mixture with an example.
When equal amounts of d-isomer and l-isomer are
mixed one gets a racemic mixture and this process is
called racemisation. Ex. d and l - tartaric acid.
A racemic mixture becomes optically inactive. Because,
in this mixture rotation
towards clockwise direction by the dextro isomer is
compensated by the rotation towards
the anticlockwise direction by the laevo isomers.
7. Trans isomer is more stable than cis isomer. Why?
In the cis-isomer, similar groups are very near to each
other Vander waals repulsion and steric hindrance make the
molecule much unstable. In the trans-isomer, similar groups

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

are diagonally opposite to each other. Hence ther is no steric


interaction. Generally trans isomer is more stable than cis
isomer.
17.ETHERS
1.Write the IUPAC names of
(a) C2H5OCH3 methyl ethyl ether
(b) C6H5OC2H5 phenatole (or)ethyl phenyl ether
2.Ethers should not be heated to dryness. Why ?
Because of ether is very explosive even at room temperature
so we should not keep it outside it should be kept on cooling
place only.
3.Ethers are the best solvents of Grignard reagents- Account
for this
statement.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

3.Williamsons synthesis
This is the most important method. It consists of heating alkyl
halides
with sodium or potassium alkoxide

6. Why are ethers not soluble in water ?


ethers are not soluble in water due to absence of hydrogen
bond and organic solvents never miscible with inorganic
solvents.
7. Mention the uses of diethyl ether.
1.Used as anesthetic.
2. Used as a solvent
8. What happens when anisole is treated with Lewis acid ?

9. What happens when anisole is nitrated ?

10.Write equation for the conversion of phenol to anisole

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

19. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS


1.What is trans esterification?
In presence of a little acid, methyl acetate is cleaved by
ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate.
CH3COOCH3 + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + CH3OH
2. What is meant by esterification reaction? Write the
equation.
Carboxylic acid reacts with alcohols in presence of
mineral acid as catalyst and forms esters. This reaction is
called esterification.

CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O


3.Give the source and trivial name of i) HCOOH ii)
C3H7COOH iii) C11H23COOH.

HCOOH
Red ant (formica)
Formic acid
C3H7COOH
Butter (Butyrum)
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

Butyric acid
C11H23COOH.
Laurel Oil
Lauric acid
4. Mention the uses of oxalic acid.
i) for removing ink stains and iron stains.
ii) as mordant in dyeing and calico printing
iii) in manufacture of ink and metal polishes. iv) Redox
titration.
5.Formic acid reduces Tollens reagent but acetic acid does
not. Give reason.
Formic acid is unique because it contains both an
aldehyde group and carboxyl group also. Hence it can act as a
reducing agent. But acetic acid does not.

6.Write the tests to identify salicylic acid.


i) An aqueous solution of salicylic acid gives violet
colour with neutral ferric chloride.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

ii) It gives effervescence with the sodium bicarbonate.


iii) It is soluble in sodium hydroxide and reprecipitated
on acidification.
iv) with bromine water the colour is discharged with the
formation of white precipitate.

7.Account the reducing nature of formic acid with


suitable illustration.
Formic acid is unique because it contains both an
aldehyde group and carboxyl group also.
Hence it can act as a reducing agent. But acetic acid
does not.
Formic acid reduces ammoniacal silver nitrate solution
to metallic silver.
HCOOH + Ag 2O H2O + CO2 + 2Ag

8. Write three tests to identify carboxylic acids.


i) Aqueous solution of carboxylic acids turn blue litmus
into red colour.
ii)Carboxylic acids give brisk effervescence with sodium
bi-carbonate due to the evolution of carbon-di-oxide.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

iii)On warming carboxylic acids with alcohol and


concentrated sulphuric acid it forms ester which is identified
from its fruity odour.
9. Mention the uses of Benzoic acid.
i) Benzoic acid is used as an urinary antiseptic.
ii) Sodium benzoate is used as food preservative.
iii) It is used for the manufacture of dyes
iv) Benzoic acid vapours are used to disinfect bronchial
tube.

22. BIOMOLECULES
1. What are carbohydrates ? Give two examples
Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy
ketones. They
are naturally occuring organic substances. They are present in
both plants
and animals. Carbohydrates are formed in the plants by
photosynthesis from
carbon dioxide and water in sunlight
2. Give the structure of sucrose.

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

3. What is starch ? What are the ultimate hydrolysis products.


Starch is a white amorphous substance with no taste or smell.
Starch is present in wheat, corn, barley, rice, potatoes, nuts,
etc.
4. What is the action of con. HI on glucose ?

22. CHEMISTRY IN ACTION


1. Define chemotherapy.
Treatment of certain diseases by destroying the invading
organism
without damaging the cells of the host, by the use of certain
organic
compounds in known as chemotherapy.
2. What are anaesthetics ? Give one example.
The drugs which produce loss of sensation are called
anaesthetics. They
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

are classified into two types. (i) General anaesthetics are the
agent, which
bring about loss of all modalities of sensation, particularly
pain along with
reversible loss of conciousness. (ii) Local anaesthetics
prevent the pain
sensation in localised areas without affecting the degree of
conciousness.

3. In what way antipyretics are important.


Local anaesthetics prevent the pain sensation in localised
areas without affecting the degree of conciousness
4. Why Iodoform and phenolic solutions are called antiseptic
?
(i) Iodoform, CHI3 is used as an antiseptic and its 1% solution
is a
disinfectant.
(ii) 0.2 percent solution of phenol acts as an antiseptic and its
1% solution
is a disinfectant.
5. Give two examples of anti malarias
quinine, primaquine and chloroquine are some of the best
antimalarials.
6. What are antibiotics ?
Many microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and moulds) produce
certain
chemicals which inhibit the growth or metabolism of some
other
microorganism. Such chemical compounds are known as
antibiotics.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

7. In what way antacids are important ?


Certain drug formulations provide relief from such burning
sensation.
These are known as antacids.
Quite often, after eating oily and spicy food, one may feel
uncomfortable
due to some burning sensation in stomach/food pipe. This is
due to the
imbalance in the acidity in the stomach
8. What are antipasmodics ?
There are a group of medicines that include natural bellodona
alkaloids
(atropine, bellodona) .These medicines are used to relieve
cramps, spasms of the stomach,
intestines and bladder. Some are used with antacid, or other
medicine in the
treatment of peptic ulcer. These medicine prevent nausea,
vomiting and
motion sickness. In certain surgical and emergency procedure,
these are
used to help relax stomach and intestine for certain types of
examination or
diagnosis
9. Give any two characteristics of Dye.
(i) It should have a suitable colour.
(ii) It should be able to fix itself or be capable of being fixed
to the fabric.
10. What are chromophores ? Give two examples.
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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

(i) An organic compound appears coloured due to the


presence of certain
unsaturated groups (the groups with multiple bonds) in it.
Such groups with
multiple bonds are called chromophores
11. What are artificial sweetening agents ? Give two
examples.
Mono and disaccharides are sweet in taste. Sweetness is
commonly
associated with sugars. However, certain organic compounds
which have
been synthesized in laboratories are known to be many times
sweeter than
canesugar. Such compounds are called artificial sweetening
agents or
artificial sweetners
12. What is Buna-S ?

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY

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BHARATHIDHASANAR MATRIC.HR.SEC SCHOOL-ARAKKONAM -12th CHEMISTRY