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2010

MURSHIDABAD COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

A FINAL YEAR PROJECT

Submitted by:-

ZAID ZEESHAN 10603061030


MD. AKRAM KHAN 10603061033
RAHUL PRIYADARSHI 10603061044
SUMAN SAHA 10603061045
SOURAV SARKAR 0710601032003
ON

CELL PHONE CONTROLLED ROBOT

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:-

Mr. Sandip Kundu

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,

M.C.E.T., Berhampore, W.B.

WEST BENGAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (WBUT)


ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010

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Murshidabad College of Engineering and Technology
(AICTE Affiliated)
Banjetia, Berhampore, P.O Cossimbazar Raj, Dist. Murshidabad, West Bengal, 742102
Phone No. (03482) 258145, Telefax: (03482) 277267
Website: www.mcetbhb.net
Email: mcetbhb2@bsnl.in

Certificate of Approval
This is to certify that: ZAID ZEESHAN
MD. AKRAM KHAN
RAHUL PRIYADARSHI
SUMAN SAHA and
SOURAV SARKAR,

Studying final year in Electronics and Communication Engineering


has satisfactorily completed the Project on CELL PHONE CONTROLLED
ROBOT during the academic year 2009-2010.

Mr. Himanshu Kumar Das


Mr. Sandip Kundu
(Head Of Department)
(Project guide)

Mr. Debasis Chakrabarty


(Principal)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to


Mr. Sandip Kundu, Mr. Debasis Chakrabarty and
Mr. Himanshu Kumar Das for providing us with their
proper guideline and supervision to perform our final
year project. Then we would like to thank Mr. Subir
Das, of AEIE department for assisting us during the
whole project.

We would like to thank the whole ECE


Department of MCET for their continuous
cooperation and clarification of doubts while carrying
out project
work.

Our special thanks goes to all the faculty


members and college administration of MCET for
their assistance and encouragement.

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CONTENTS
Page No.

1
1. Introduction --------------------------------------------
2. An Overview ----------------------------------------1
3. Circuit Description --------------------------------- 2
4. Notations of the components used ----------- 5
5. Circuit --- Layout ------------------------------------6
6. Circuit --- Photograph ------------------------------7
7. Hex code -------------------------------------------------
8
8. The Working ----------------------------------------9
9. Flow chart -------------------------------------------11
10. Construction ----------------------------------------
12
11. Application ---------------------------------------- 13
12. Further Improvements & Future Scope ---- 14
13. Conclusion ------------------------------------------15
14. References ------------------------------------------
16

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INTRODUCTION:

Conventionally Wireless-controlled Robots use RF circuits, which have limited


working range, limited frequency range and limited control. Use of a mobile phone
for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantage of
robust control, working range as large as the area of the service provider, no
interference with other controllers.

Although the appearance and capabilities of robot vary vastly, all robots share
feature of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The control
of Robot involves three distinct phases: perception, processing and action. Generally,
the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the on-
board microcontroller or processor, and the task is performed using motors or with
some other actuators.

AN OVERVIEW:

In this project the robot, is controlled by a mobile phone that makes call to
the phone attached to the robot. In the course of the call, if any button is pressed
control corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the end of the call. This is
called Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF). The robot receives this DTMF tone
with the help of the phone stacked in the robot.

The received tone is processed by the microcontroller (89C51-16) with the help of
DTMF decoder (MT8870), which decodes the DTMF tone in to its equivalent binary
digit and this binary numbers are then send to the microcontroller. The
microcontroller is programmed to take a decision for any given input and outputs it
decisions to the motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or backward
motion or a turn.

The mobile that makes a call to the mobile attached to the robot acts as a remote,
so this does not require any transmitter or receiver units.

DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice frequency
band to the call switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone dialing is
called touch tone

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DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each
keys that it can easily be identified by the electronic circuit. The signal generated
by the DTMF encoder is the direct algebraic submission, in real time of the
amplitudes of two sine or cosine waves of different frequencies, that is pressing
5 will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to the other end of the
mobile phone. The table below shows the corresponding frequencies of the
numbered buttons.

Frequencies corresponding to touch tone

Numbered Tone send (as the sum) 697


button
1 1209 + 697
2 1336 + 697 770 4 5 6
3 1477 + 697
4 1209 + 770
852 7 8 9
5 1336 + 770
6 1477 + 770
7 1209 + 852 941 0 #
8 1336 + 852 *
9 1477 + 852
* 1209 + 941
0 1336 + 941
# 1477 + 941

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:
Figure below shows the block diagram of the circuit of this microcontroller
based robot. The important components of this robot are DTMF decoder,
Microcontroller and motor driver.

An MT8870 series DTMF decoder is used in this circuit, which uses the digital
counting techniques to detect and decode all sixteen DTMF tone pairs into a four bit
code output. The built-in dial tone rejection circuit eliminates the need for pre-
filtering. When the input signal is given at pin2 (IN-) single ended input
configuration is recognized to be effective, the correct four bit decode signal of the
DTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin11) through Q4 (pin14) outputs.

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MICROCONTROLLER MOTOR DRIVER LEFT MOTOR
AT89C51
INPUT DEVICE
(AT89C51) (L293D)
RIGHT MOTOR

AT89C51

Description

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer


with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device
is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out.
The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system
or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit
CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful
microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many
embedded control applications.

FEATURES

• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products


• 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

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Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output,


respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be
configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in
Figure. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may
be used. To drive the device from an external clock
source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is
driven, as shown.

There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the


external clock signal, since the input to the internal
clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but
minimum and maximum voltage high and low time
specifications must be observed.

Programming the Flash

The AT89C51 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the
erased state (that is, contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The
programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage
(VCC) program enable signal. The Low-voltage programming mode provides a
convenient way to program the AT89C51 inside the user‟s system, while the high-
voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional third party Flash or
EPROM programmers.

The AT89C51 is shipped with either the high-voltage or low-voltage


programming mode enabled.

The AT89C51 code memory array is programmed byte-by-byte in either


programming mode. To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory,
the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode.

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The notations are:

IC1: MT8870
IC2:- AT89C51
IC3:- L293D
IC4:- IC7805
RESISTANCES (R1 R2):- 100KΩ
RESISTANCE (R3):-330 KΩ
RESISTANCES (R4 – R8):- 10KΩ
CAPACITOR (C1):- 0.1 µF
CAPACITORS (C2,C3,C5,C6):- 22pF
CAPACITOR (C4):- 0.1µF
CRYSTAL (xtal1):-3.57Mhz
CRYSTAL (xtal2):- 12MHz
SWITCH (S1):- push to on switch
MOTORS (M1 M2):- 12V, 100 rpm
BATTERY:- 12V and
WHEELS :- 4

The circuit diagram is shown below with all necessary


connections:

5
6
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THE HEX CODES:

Project_Final.asm

;CELL PHONE CONTRONLLED ROBOT

;P1.4-P1.7--->8051i/p---> Connected to DTMF o/p

;P0.0-P0.3--->8051o/p---> Connected to L293D

org 0000h

mov p1,#ffh ;Make P1 as i/p port

L1: mov a,p1

anl a,#0ffh

cjne a,#b0h,L2 ;DTMF o/p=2

mov p0,#08ah ; M1 & M2 both forward

ljmp L1

L2: cjne a,#e0h,L3 ;DTMF o/p=8

mov p0,#85h ;M1 & M2 both reverse

ljmp L1

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L3: cjne a,#50h,L4 ;DTMF o/p=5

mov p0,#80h ;M1 & M2 both off

ljmp L1

L4: cjne a,#0d0h,L5 ;DTMF o/p=4

mov p0,#86h ;M1 --reverse, M2--forward

ljmp L1

L5: cjne a,#90h,L1 ;DTMF o/p=6

mov p0,#89h ;M1 --forward, M2--resverse

ljmp L1

end

THE WORKING:

In order to control the robot, you have to make a call to the phone attached
to the robot from any phone. Now the phone is picked up by the phone on the robot
through auto answer mode (which is in the phone already just we have to enable it).

Now after the circuit is ready and all hex codes are fetched we are ready to control
the robot.

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No. o/p of the DTMF I/p to the o/p of the Action
pressed decoder microcontroller microcontroller performed

2 0x02 (00000010) 0xFD (11111101) 0x09 (00001001) Forward

4 0x04 (00000100) 0xFB (11111011) 0x05 (00000101) Turn left

6 0x06 (00000110) 0xF9 (11111001) 0x0A (00001010) Turn right

8 0x08 (00001000) 0xF7 (11110111) 0x06 (00000110) Reverse

5 0x05 (00000101) 0xFA (11111010) 0x00 (00000000) Brake

The figure below describes the working of the robot by cell phones with the
help of network center

Network
center

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FLOW CHART

START

READ THE INPUT


FROM DTMF DECODER

M1=FWD CALL
IF INPUT=2 APPROPRIATE
M2=FWD DELAY

CALL
M1=REV
IF INPUT=8 APPROPRIATE
M2=REV DELAY

M1=STOP CALL
IF INPUT=5
APPROPRIATE
M2=STOP DELAY

M1=REV CALL
IF INPUT=4 APPROPRIATE
M2=FWD DELAY

M1=FWD CALL
IF INPUT=6 APPROPRIATE
M2=REV DELAY

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THE CONSTRUCTION:
The components listed below are used to construct this robot: the number they
are required in are written alongside them:

MT8870 DTMF decoder 1


AT89C51 microcontroller 1
L293D motor driver IC 1
IC7805 voltage converter 1
100KΩ Resistances 2
330 KΩ Resistances 1
10KΩ Resistances 5
22pF Capacitors 4
0.1µF Capacitor 2
3.57Mhz Crystal 1
12MHz Crystal 1
Push-to-on Switch 1
12V, 100 rpm Geared Motors 2
12V Battery 1
Wheels 4
Cell phones 2 and
Hands free 1

Connection of the hands free with the rover:

There are two connections coming out


of the phone mounted on the rover, these
are namely (1) the tip and (2) the ring. The
jack used here is the straight one similar to
that used for iPods, but thinner one.

The tip of the jack is called the “tip”


and the rest after a black strip is called the
“ring”. So connect these two connections
with the circuit and we are done

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Thus the required connection which is to be
made with the ear piece that is the connections
with the tip and the ring is to be taken care of,
because it is this which will make the circuit to
work as desired. If the wire is not connected
properly the robot will not function.

The ring of the hands free is shown with number


1 while the tip is with number 2.

Just cut the head phones remove the wire


coating and the set of wires are tip and ring.

APPLICATION
The project is not only limited to simple functioning of the robot that is
to move forward, backward, right and left, but it can also be implemented with
camera to watch what is going out in particular location of the floor in a close circuit
monitor or /and with a voice recorder to even record the conversation going on in a
room. This definitely requires a difficult circuitry. Thus it is up to the maker what
he/she wants his/her robot to be like: SIMPLE (like ours) or
SOPHISTICATED…as described further.

1) Scientific

Remote control vehicles have various scientific uses including hazardous


environments, working in deep oceans, and space exploration. The majority of the
probes to the other planets in our solar system have been remote control vehicles,
although some of the more recent ones were partially autonomous. The
sophistication of these devices has fueled greater debate on the need for manned
spaceflight and exploration.

2) Military and Law Enforcement

Military usage of remotely controlled military vehicles dates back to the first half of
20th century. Soviet Red Army used remotely controlled Teletanks during 1930s in
the Winter War and early stage of World War II.

3) Search and Rescue

UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the United States. This
was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurricanes that
struck Louisiana and Texas.

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4) Recreation and Hobby

See Radio-controlled model. Small scale remote control vehicles have long been
popular among hobbyists. These remote controlled vehicles span a wide range in
terms of price and sophistication. There are many types of radio controlled vehicles.
These include on-road cars, off-road trucks, boats, airplanes, and even helicopters.
The "robots" now popular in television shows such as Robot Wars, are a recent
extension of this hobby (these vehicles do not meet the classical definition of a
robot; they are remotely controlled by a human).

FURTHER IMROVEMENTS & FUTURE SCOPE


1. IR Sensors:

IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the robot goes
beyond line of sight. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we are maneuvering it
from a distant place.

2. Password Protection:

Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be
operated only if correct password is entered. Either cell phone should be password
protected or necessary modification should be made in the assembly language code.
This introduces conditioned access & increases security to a great extent.

3. Alarm Phone Dialer:

By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a 'DTMF Transceiver IC‟ CM8880, DTMF


tones can be generated from the robot. So, a project called 'Alarm Phone Dialer' can
be built which will generate necessary alarms for something that is desired to be
monitored (usually by triggering a relay). For example, a high water alarm, low
temperature alarm, opening of back window, garage door, etc.

When the system is activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the
user know the alarm has been activated. This would be great to get alerts of alarm
conditions from home when user is at work.

4. Adding a Camera:

If the current project is interfaced with a camera (e.g. a Webcam) robot can be
driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited as GSM networks
have a very large range.

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CONCLUSION

It was not at all easy to construct such a robot which actually runs with the
help of a CELL PHONE. Initially it was near to infeasible as we never knew about the
DTMF working as to how and where the wires-input is to be connected, the
connection of the head phone and many more. We had many such problems, but
with the help of our faculty members and of course with the related information that
we managed to collect from the internet, we came to the last and final day when
our- yes our “CELL PHONE CONTROLLED ROBOT” can actually run…and that too just
with a cell phone…..isn‟t it really amazing. We thank all those who helped us with all
they could, to make our project a success….

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REFERENCES:

1. Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia

2. http://www.8051projects.info/

3. http://www.instructables.com/

4. Schenker, L (1960), "Pushbutton Calling with a Two-Group Voice-


Frequency Code", The Bell system technical journal 39 (1): 235–255, ISSN
0005-8580

5. “DTMF Tester” , „Electronics For You‟ Magazine , Edition (June 2003)

6. http://www.alldatasheet.com/

7. http://www.datasheet4u.com/

8. http://www.datasheetcatalog.com/

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