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ADVANCED DIPLOMA IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

SECTION 1: THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AS AN INDUSTRY

Module 1: History of Tourism

Module 2: Modern Tourism


Module 3: Tourism Industry - Career Development
Module 4: Tourism Industry - Sectors
Module 5: Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - First Assessment
SECTION 2: TRAVEL PATTERNS AND TOURISM MARKETING AND PROMOTION
Module 6: Travel Patterns
Module 7: Tourism Destinations
Module 8: The Fundamentals of Tourism Promotion
Module 9: Tourism - Generating Sales
Module 10: Tourism - Retail Travel Sales
Module 11: Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - Second Assessment
SECTION 3: INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT AND HOTEL OPERATIONS
Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - Course Resource Documents
Module 12: Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry
Module 13: Introduction to the Accommodation Sector
Module 14: Introduction to Hotel Management
Module 15: Hotel Front Office Operations
Module 16: Hotel Housekeeping Department
Module 17: Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - Third Assessment
SECTION 4: FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES, AND SAFETY & HYGIENE
Module 18: Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector

Module 19: Food and Beverage Services


Module 20: Restaurant Operations Planning
Module 21: Kitchen Design and Layout
Module 22: Safe Food Handling in Food Service Operations
Module 23: Preventing and Treating Accidents in Food Service Operations
Module 24: Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - Fourth Assessment
END OF COURSE ASSESSMENT
Module 25: Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Hospitality Management - Final Assessment

Module 1: HISTORY OF TOURISM

In this module you will learn how travel developed in ancient and medieval times and about
the evolution of travel in Europe since the Renaissance. The module also covers development
of travel in the United States since the 18th century, how advancements in transportation led
to the popularisation of various tourist activities throughout history, and how the modern
tourist industry is influenced by the tourist habits of the past.

TOPIC LIST

History of tourism Learning outcomes


Ancient and Medieval travel
Renaissance and Modern travel
History of American travel
Lesson Summary

History of tourism Learning outcomes

After completing this module you will be able to:

State how travel developed in ancient and medieval times


Describe the evolution of travel in Europe since the Renaissance
Detail the development of travel in the United States since the 18th century
Describe how advancements in transportation led to the popularisation of various
tourist activities throughtout history
Explain how the modern tourist industry is influenced by the tourist habits of the past

Ancient and Medieval travel


People have always needed to travel. This unit will explain how the ways in which ancient
and medieval people traveled influenced our modern ideas of travel. It will also describe the
earliest forms of tourism and how the behaviour of early tourists still influences us today.

Early travel
In ancient times peoples tended to stay in one place. Travel was essentially to seek food or to
escape danger. Gradually, larger settlements began to appear in coastal areas and besides
rivers. This led to the development of watercrafts. These boats were used to travel to other
settlements in order to trade.

Egyptean Empire

The development of towns, cities and commerce led to the creation of empires. The first
empire nation with specific needs for travel was Egypt. At the peak of the Egyptean Empire,
travel for both business and pleasure began to flourish.
Travel satisfied peoples curiosity. As early as 2700 BC, writers noted that people would come
to visit the tombs constructed by the early pharaohs. It is notable that there are accounts of
people taking stone chippings with them as they left the tombs. This behaviour mirrors
modern peoples fondness for returning from a trip with a souvenir.

Assyrian and Persian Empires


Assyria comprised the area now known as Irak. As their empire expanded from the
Mediterranean in the west to the Persian Gulf in the east, the means of travel were improved
for military use.
Roads were improved, markers were established to indicate distances, and posts and wells
were developed for safety and nourishment. Even today, we see the influence of military
construction aiding pleasure travel. The United States interstate highway system was
developed initially to facilitate military transportation in the event of national emergency.
The Assyrian military travelled by chariot, others by horse, while the donkey was the
principal mode of transportation of common people. The Persians, who conquered the
Assyrians, continued improvements in travel infrastructure. New kinds of wagons were
developed including a four-wheeled carriage for the wealthy.

Greek Empire
While previous civilisations had created roads and modes of transport, it was the Greeks who
first developed a travel infrastructure in earnest.
The majority of Greek cities were situated on the coast. The Greeks were traders and would
travel to other cities by boat to trade commercial goods.
Travel for official business was less important as Greece was divided into city-states that were
fiercely independent.
However, pleasure travel did exist in three areas: for religious festivals, for sporting events
(most notably the Olympic Games), and to visit cities, especially Athens.

Travel in Ancient Greece was advanced by two important developments:


1. Currency Exchange: Prior to the development of currency, Greek travellers would pay
their way by carrying various goods and selling them at their destination.
Eventually , the coinage of Greek city-states became international currency, eliminating the
need to travel with a retinue of goods.

2. The Greek Language: As the Greek language spread throughtout the Mediterranean
area, it became easier for Greeks to communicate as they travelled.

The Roman Empire


Travel flourished in Roman times for several reasons. The Roman empire stimulated trade and
led to the growth of a large middle class with the money to travel.
Roman coins were all the traveller had to carry to finance the trip; the means of transportation,
roads and waterways, were excellent; communicatio was relatively easy as Greek and Latin
were the principal languages; and the Roman legal system provided protection from foreign
courts, there by ensuring the safety of the traveller.
Sightseeing became popular in the Roman era, particularly trips to Greece. Greece had
recently become a part of greater Rome and was now a popular destination.
The Greek writer Pausanias wrote a 10 volume guide to Greece aimed at Roman tourists in
170 AD. In his detailed guide he describes the monuments and sculptures of Greece as well as
the myths that inspired them.
As well as Greece, Egypt and Asia Minor were popular destinations for roman tourists.
Another notable development in tourism during Roman times was the rise in popularity of
second homes amongst the elite. Villas were built along the Italian coast and near mountains
spas as a refuge for the wealthy.

Pilgrims
As the Roman empire collapsed in the fifty century, the roads they constructed fell into disuse
as barbarians made it unsafe to travel. A Roman courier could travel up to 160 km a day,
whereas the average daily rate of travel during the Middle Ages was 32 km. It was not until
the twelfth century that the roads became secure again. This was due to the large numbers of
travellers going on pilgrimages.
Pilgrims travelled to pay homage at a particular site or as atonement for sin. Priests who heard
confessions would often tell their parishioners to travel to a holy site barefoot as a penance. In
other cases pilgrims journeyed to fulfil a promise made when they were sick. Sir John
Mandeville is credited with writing a fourteenth-century manual for pilgrims to the Holy
Land. In it we see an early example of the destructive effect of tourists.
Mandeville notes that before pilgrims begam visiting the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem it was a very open sight. However, pilgrims began breaking bits of stone from the
Sepulchre to take as souvenirs. This led to the construction of a wall around the tomb.
In 1388, King Richard II of England decreed that pilgrims must carry permits if they wished
to visit religious sites. These permits can be seen as the forerunner of the modern passport.

Renaissance and Modern Travel

The Renaissance began a new age of enlighenment in Europe. This perioud saw people
travelling purely to experience higher culture for the first time in centuries.
This unit will explain how upper-classcultural tourists developed tourism from the
renaissance onwards. It will also explain how the military conflicts of Western Europe
indirectly influenced modern tourist activities. Finally, it will detail how the industrial
revolution began an era in which middle and working class people could take annual holidays.
The next important factor in the post-Roman development of travel was the Renaissance. As
society moved from a rural to an urban base, wealth grew and more people had the money to
travel. Pilgrimages were still important although journeys to Jerusalem declined because of
the growth of Protestantism in Europe.
The impetus to travel in order to learn was aided by the arrival of Renaissance works from
Italy. Furthermore, the relatively stable monarchical hierarchy of Europe helped assure
travellerssafety.

The Grand Tour


The beginning of the sixteenrh century saw a new age of curiosity and exploration that
culminated in the popularity of the grand tour. The tour was initially a sixteenth-century
concept brought about by the need to develop a class of professional statesmen and
ambassadors. Young men accompanied ambassadors throughout Europe in order to complete
their education.
The practice continued into the seventheenth and eighteenth centuries eventually becoming a
right of passage for young upper-class men. No gentlemans education was complete until he
spent from one to three years traveling around Europe with a tutor.
This practice was undoubtedly influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, who believed that
human knowledge came entirely from external experience. Locke believed that once an
environment was exhausted it became necessary to travel on to another.
Thus, travel became a requirement for those seeking to develop the mind and accumulate
knowledge.
A typical grand tour for an English gentleman began in France. Here French was studied
together with dancing, fencing, riding, and drawing. Next, the student would head for Italy to
study sculpture, music appreciation and art. The return was by way of Germany, Switzerland
and the low countries (Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg).
Travel was by coach and could be rather uncomfortable. It was also necessary to prove ones
culture and sophistication by returning home with paintings and sculptures, many of which
were frauds reserved for unsuspecting travellers.

While the grand tour was primarily an English practice, the aristocracy of Scandinavia and
Russia also took up the custom. Though fewer in number, some noble Germans also took the
Grand Tour.
The Grand Tour reached its peak of popularity in the mid-eighteenth century, but was brought
to a sudden end by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.

The Victorian Era


The Industrial Revolution accelerated the movement from rural to urban areas. The cramped
living conditions of the cities gave industrial workers a desire for open space. At the same
time, the advent of the stream engine provided increasingly effective modes of transport in the
stream train and steamship.
These factors led to the growth of two popular types of tourist destination in the Victorian era:

Spas
Seaside Resorts

Spas: The popularising of spas was largely due to the medical profession, which during the
seventeenth century began to recommend the medicinal properties of mineral waters.
Spas were initially popular in continental Europe, where they were used in much the same
way as the bathhouses of the Ancient Greeks and Roman. However in the 17 th century,
medical professionals in England began to claim that bathing in mineral water had health
benefits.
Following this, members of the British court began to frequent spas making them fashionable
amongst the upper-classes. By the end of the seventeenth century, the alleged medical benefits
of spas were dismissed. However, spas retained their appeal and were now viewed as places
to relax.

Seasides Resorts: The medical profession, the British court, and Napoleon all helped
popularise the seaside resort. The original motive for sea bathing was for health reasons. Dr
Richard Russell argued that bathing in sea water was effective at combating multiple illnesses
including cirrhosis, gout, gonorrhoea, and scurvy. He insisted that people drink a pint of it
daily.
The growth of the seaside resort was stimulated by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic
Wars. It was no longer safe for noblemen to travel to in mainland Europe. These wars
effectively ended the practice of the Grand Tour. The now fashionable seaside resorts were the
alternative.
In Britain, different seaside resorts rose in popularity as they were visited by members of the
British court. Brightons fame was assured after it was visited by George IV. Similarly,
Southend and Cowes became associated with Princess Charlotte and Queen Victoria
respectively.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century the seaside resorts became popular with the
working classes. This was due to the introduction of paid holidays and higher wages.
The term holiday comes from holy days. Holy days are days of religious observances and
have existed in many different cultures for centuries. Ancient Rome featured public holidays
for great feasting. As Europe became Christian certain saintsdays religious festivals became
holy days when people fasted, prayed and refrained from work.
After the Industrial Revolution, religious holidays gradually became secularised. At the same
time, employers began offering vacation to their staff. The vacation was negotiated between
the employer and the workers and was granted as a result of increasing pressure from trade
unions.
It made sense to take the holidays during the warmer summer months. For the employer it was
advantageous to close the entire factory down for one week rather than face the problems of
operating with small groups of people absent over a longer period of time.

History of American Travel

Introduction to the Development of Tourism


Early Travel in America
As with Europe, the United States of America began developing a unique tourism culture in
the 18th century. Indeed, Americas tourist culture was defined by the same factors as in
Europe; the methods of transport available, the vacation habits of the wealthy and the
advancement of workersrights.
It was the development of the railway that opened up the USA to travellers. The completion of
the Erie Railroad spurred the development of Niagara Falls into a honeymoon resort by the
1870s. The vast river network at the interior of the nation allowed the development of
steamboat excursions, particularly gambling and amusement trips between New Orleans,
Louisiana and St Louis, Missouri.
The first tourist resorts created in the United States were seaside resorts. As in Britain,
physicians began encouraging people to bathe in seawater to promote good health. By the
early 1800s, resorts like Saratoga in New York State became fashionable amongst the wealthy.
As these destination increased in popularity, local entrepreneurs established attractions in
these resorts. This led to the popularisation of the seaside fun fair or amusement park.
As American Industry developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, wealthy business owners
began touring throughout the country. The southern elite were especially fond of travelling
and would undertake an American equivalent of the Grand Tour. Three types of attraction
were paramount on these tours: northern cities, historical sites (those associated with the
American Revolution and the US Civil War), and seaside resorts.

By the late 1800s the west coast had also become a popular tourist destination. Travellers
from the east coast and the south would travel to the west to hunt buffalo and enjoy the
landscape. Eventually, the west coast also became popular amongst European tourists.
During the 19th century, labour rights began to advance in America. The 12h workday was
reduced to 10h by the 1830s. Simultaneously, employers began offering workers a weeks
vacation. These factors, combined with a gradual increase in wages, meant the most workers
could were able to take a holiday by the mid-19th century.
Tourism today. Today, Americans take more than 500 million trips annually to places 160 km
or more from home. Over two-thirds of these trips are pleasure-oriented. Over half of the
pleasure trips are to visit friends and relatives. Approximately two-thirds of all trips are taken
by auto, truck or recreational vehicle. Weekend trips, as distinct from the traditional vacation
trip, have been increasing and now represent about 40 per cent of all trips taken.
For every $100 spent on trips over 40 km from home, about $37 is spent on personal
transportation, $21 on purchases, $14 on food, $13 on public transportation, $9 on lodging,
and $6 on the entertainment and recreation. The major beneficiaries of tourism, in terms of
US dollars spent there, are the states of California, Florida, New York, Texas and New Jersey.

Lesson Summary

Ancient peoples used watercrafts to travel.


The first empire nation with specific needs for travel was Egypt.
People would travel to visit the tombs of the Pharaohs from as early as 2700 BC.
The Assirian military travelled by chariot and horseback on primitive roads.
The Persian Empire invented a four wheeled carriage.
It was the Greek empire that first developed an expansive travel infrastructure.
The Greeks would travel to other cities by boat to trade commercial goods.
Travel in Ancient Greece was advanced by currency exchange and the Greek
language.
The Roman Empire stimulated trade and led to the growth of a large middle class with
the money to travel.
Seightseeing became popular in the Roman era, particularly trips to Greece.
In 12th century, large number of people began taking pilgrimages
During the Renaissance, people began travelling purely to experience higher culture
for the first time in centuries
The Grand Tour was a 16th century concept in which young men accompanied
ambassadors throughout Europe in order to complete their education.
The Grand Tour was designed to develop a class of professional statesmen and
ambassadors.
The Grand Tour ended due to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.
Spas and seaside resorts were popular during the Victorian Era.
Spas became popular after they were recommended by medical professionals.
Members of the British court began to frequent spas making them fashionable
amongst upper-classes.

Seasides resort became popular as the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars
prevented people from travelling to Europe.
The United States of America began developing a unique tourism culture in the 18 th
century.
The development of the railway enabled people to travel around the USA.
The first tourist resorts created in the United States were seaside resorts.
As American industry developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, wealthy business
owners began touring throughout the USA.
The southern elite were fond of travelling and would undertake an American
equivalent of the Grand Tour.
By the late 1800s the American west coast was a popular tourist destination.
During the 19th century, labour rights began to change the tourist habits of working
class Americans.
Today, Americans take more than 500 million trips annually to places 160 km or more
from home.
Two-thirds of trips taken in America today are pleasure oriented.

Module 2: Modern Tourism


In this module you will learn about the modes of transport used throughout history and how
they influenced people's vacationing habits. You will also learn how accommodation for
travellers has developed since the middle ages and how time has affected people's decision to
travel since the industrial revolution. The module also covers the two financial considerations
of potential tourists and how Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs can be used to market tourism
effectively.

TOPIC LIST:

Modern Tourism Learning Outcomes


Modes of Transport
Types of Accomodation
Travel Considerations
Lesson Summary

Modern Tourism Learning Outcomes


After completing this module you will be able to:

List the modes of transport used throughout history and explain how they influenced
peoples vacationing habits
Describe how accommodation for travellers has developed since the middle ages
List the three main influences on peoples decision to vacation

Explain how time has affected peoples decision to travel since the industrial
revolution
List and explain the two financial considerations of potential tourists
Explain how Maslow Hierarchy of Needs can be used to market tourism effectively

Modes of Transport
Introduction
As stated in the previous module, the modes of transport available to people have a huge
effect on the places people choose to travel.
This unit will explain how specific modes of transport influenced peoples travel behaviour as
well as their vacationing habits.

Stagecoaches
Stagecoaches were invented in Hungary in the 15 th century. The word coach comes from the
Hungarian town of Kocs. The first coaches were closed carriages suspended on leather straps
between four wheels. The straps acted as suspension to compensate for the poor condition of
the roads.
The need to rest horses every few km led to the development of posting houses where the
animals could drink and eat. Posting houses also provided food and accommodation for
travelers. The poor state of most roads meant that travel was very uncomfortable. Posting
houses offered stagecoach travellers a place to rest. Over time posting houses envolved into
taverns.
A major development in travel by road came in the early nineteenth century when John
McAdam and Thomas Telford invented a new type of road surface that greatly improved the
common dirt roads found throughout Europe.
The technique consisted of laying small broken stones on the ground and ensuring that there
was suitable drainage on each side of the road. It is said that McAdam insisted that no stone
be used if it could not fit into the mouth of the labourer laying it down. The roads created with
this method were much more comfortable to travel by stagecoach.

Rail Travel
The first railway was opened in England in 1825. Rail travel was both faster and cheaper than
travel by stagecoach. Train journeys cost one penny a kilometre and trains travelled at 30
km/h. Railways made coastal areas more accessible than ever. As a result there was an
accelerated growth in the popularity of English seaside resorts.
First-class cars were lit by oil lamps and had comportable accomodations. Second-class
coaches had roofs but no sides, while third-class passengers rode in open cars. Early trains

had unreliable brakes. The rails were also untrustworthy, spikes often came loose causing the
rail to buckle. Rail spikes could pierce the car, injuring or killing passengers.
The first common carrier railway in America was opened in 1826. American rail travel was
different from that in England because of the long distances covered. American rail companies
had to begin accommodating the needs of long distance travellers.
From the 1860s food was served on American trains. A common salon car menu would
include buffalo, elk, beefsteak and mutton with each costing $1. In 1864, George Pullman
invented the Pullman sleeping car. The overnight car was developed to be a sleeping carriage
that the middle classes could afford. A stay in a Pullman cars was $2 a night.
The American model of long distance rail travel provided inspiration for mainland Europe.
The Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (International Sleeping-Car Company) was
founded in 1862 and pioneered overnight travel in Europe. Their routes included the famous
Orient Express, which ran from 1883 to 2009.
By the early 20th century a private railroad car was a sign of prestige in the USA. However,
these became very uncommon following the stock market crash of 1929. Today, some private
rail cars have been restored to their former glory and are now used for special tours.
Rail was the most popular form of transport for approximately 100 years, from the 1830s to
the 1930s. Following this, competition from cars, buses and air travel ensured a steady decline
in travel by train. For the past few decades most rail lines in the United States have been used
primarily for hauling freight. Since freight trains are long, heavy, and slow there has been no
need to update the major railways in the USA. Rather, these railways are simply maintained.
Although not as popular as it once was, a demand for trail travel has remained in Europe and
Asia where modern railway systems are capable of supporting high speed trains. This is
especially true in Japan where shinkansen or bullet trains reach a speed of 320 km/h.

Water Travel
Water travel had existed for thousands of years before the invention of railways. However, the
advent of the ocean liner in the early 19 th century was the first time that ships could be used to
travel long distances in a short amount of time. The first regular and reliable ocean liner
service was the RMS Britannia. The ship had its maiden voyage in 1840 and travelled from
Britain to the United States in 12 days. By the 1890s ocean liners could cross the Atlantic in 6
days.
As with the rail travel, air travel led to a dramatic fall in the number of people using ocean
liners. In 1957 over one million passengers crossed the Atlantic Ocean on liners. The
following year more people crossed the Atlantic by plane than ship. Between 1960 and 1975,
passenger departures from New York fell from 500,000 a year to 50,000. Since the mid-20 th
century most ocean liners have been retired or refitted to become cruise ships. At present
there is only one transatlantic ocean liner operating, the RMS Queen Mary 2.
Henry Fords Model T of 1908 started a revolutionin American tourism. Until the point,
tourist destintions developed only in locations accessible by forms of mass transit. Posting
houses, railroad hotels and seasides resorts all developed along transport routes.

As cars as became affordable, tourist destinations became more dispersed, rather than being
concentrated in a few places. The economic benefits of tourism were now available to much
more places than before. As well as opening up new areas to tourists, automobiles also
allowed people to travel on their own schedule.
Like the forms of transport that proceded it, new forms of accommodation were created to
cater to people travelling by car. In the 1950s and 60s motor hotels or motels were
extremely popular in the United States. Motels were overnight accommodation designed with
motorists in mind. They were cheap, accessible and situated by major road routes. In the
1970s chain hotel groups began to create budget roadside hotels for motorists. Today, over
90% of all pleasure trips in the United States are taken by automobile.

Air Travel
Following World War II, a revolution in passenger air travel took place. Large bomber
aircrafts began to be converted to commercial planes. In 1956, the USSRs Aeroflot became
the first airline to offer regular jetliner services. The introduction of transatlantic jet travel in
1958 reduced the travel time from Britain to the USA to 8 hours. Air travel was initially
expensive and it became associated with the wealthy. The term jet-set was created to
describe people who would travel internationally for social events.
Since the late 1970s, air travel has become increasingly affordable. In 1978 the US
government de-regulated the airline industry; this reduced the barriers to establishing a new
airline. As a result, a large number of budget airlines were created, making air travel more
inexpensive than ever. In Europe, the deregulation of European Union aerospace in 1993 has
also led to the rise of budget airlines.

Accomodation
Early Inns: From the middle ages until the 17th century, travellers would be invited into
peoples home as they made long journeys. People felt an obligation to house travellers and
treated them well. As the numbers of travellers increased with modes of mass transport,
specific buildings were erected to house travellers.
The first hostelries, called ordinaries, began appearing in mid-17 th century colonial America.
They later evolved into inns. An ordinary usually consisted of two small rooms. One room
had a bar and was used for eating and drinking; the other room was reserved for the landlord
and his family. Travellers slept on the floor of the bar and dining room.
As the amount of travellers grew, so did the demand for accommodation. Inns offered
sleeping quarters for overnight guests while taverns specialized in food, drink and
conviviality. It was accepted practice for travellers of the same gender to share both rooms
and beds.

Grand Hotels

In the Victorian era two remarkable institutions were created: the railway station and the
grand hotel. The Grand Hotel ensured the overnight accommodation was no longer a painful
necessity. It was in the United States that the first grand hotel was developed. The City Hotel
in New York City opened at the end of the 18th century, it consisted of 73 rooms on five
floors.
The Tremont House opened in Boston in 1829 and is generally regarded as the first modern
hotel in America. Then the largest hotel in the world, it had 170 rooms and a dining rooms
capable of seating 200 people. The Tremont broke with the traditional inn in several ways: It
had both single and double rooms, numerous public rooms and there was no signboard outside
The Tremont also offered several features that were novel for the times: eight baths with cold
running water in the basement, a row of eight water closets on the ground floor, gas lights in
the public rooms and free soap (then regarded as an extravagance).
As America grew, each town sought to have its own Tremont House to symbolise how
succesfull and prosperous it was. By the 20 th century, as more people travelled, the nature of
the hotel industry changed. In 1907, the opening of the Hotel Statler in Buffolo, New York
signalled the beginning of the commercial hotel concept. The hotels slogan was a room and
a bath for a dollar and a half . However, the Great Depression brought the travel industry to a
virtual halt until after World War II.

Motels
The post-war prosperity of America saw a huge increase in the demand for automobiles.
Business people began to travel by car rather than train and families began taking weekend
road trips. As the number of motorists grew a new class of motor hotel or motel, sprang up to
cater to their needs. However, motels were mostly family owned businesses with hugely
varying degrees of quality.
In 1952 Kemmons Wilson opened the first Holiday Inn. Wilson wanted his business to be an
antidote to the inferior motels found across America. In his experience, motels had cramped,
uncomfortable rooms, extra charges for children and less than adequate restaurants. The
Holiday Inn had a swimming pool, air conditioning, a restaurant on the premises, a telephone
in every room, free ice, dog kennels, free parking and baby sitters available. By the end of the
1960s Holiday Inn had become a chain of motels with locations all over America. In the
1950s and 60s hotel occupancy suffered in America due to the popularity of motels.

Hotels Today
The 1970s saw a decline in the popularity of motels and resurgence in the popularity of hotels.
As the Holiday Inn added features to its properties it gradually became a chain of hotels rather
than motels. Following the Holiday Inn model, a variety of budget hotel chains became
opening across America. These chains were aimed at travellers en route to a destination rather
than people taking vacations. They offered clean, comfortable rooms without any frills.
As the worldwide economy improved in the 1980s, wealthy tourists began looking for
indulgent vacation experiences. This led to a rise in luxury hotels. Luxury hotels included

suites, exceptional food and excellent service. They were destination in themselves and
offered an experience that greatly contrasted with budget hotels.
Today, chains dominate the hotel industry. Furthermore, the marketplace is segmented more
than ever before. Properties are being built for specific groups of people: the upscale, the
middle market, and the value conscious. Most chains have separate divisions competing in
each segment of the marketplace.

Travel Considerations
There are many things a person need to consider before deciding to take a holiday. This unit
will explain the three most important factors in peoples decision to take a vacation. These
factors are as follows:
1. Time
2. Money
3. Motivation
Time
People spend their time in one of three ways: at work, engaged in necessary tasks or at leisure.
Prior to the industrial revolution people lived in rural areas and worked on the land. The way
in which they spent their free time was primarily influenced by the weather. During the
industrial revolution, more and more people moved to the cities for work.
Factory owners insisted that employees work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. Their only day
off was the Sabbath day. People were so tired and paid so little that they had neither the
energy nor the money to do much with their leisure time. Furthermore, people at this time still
believed that one should not be overly active on the Sabbath day.