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Daniel Oshiro

Professor Xaio
SOCY-321
4 April 2016
Chapter 8 Homework
4.
a.

error:
rejected.

3a. Type I error: where the null hypothesis is correct and there is no difference in
average household income of residents in my state, yet is rejected. Type II
null hypothesis is false but the experimental data is such that it cannot be

they
attend more

3b. Type I error: There is no difference between the amount of parties students at
liberal arts colleges attend and the national average, but you still believe
attend more parties. Type II error: people in small liberal arts colleges
parties than average but your experiment doesnt show it.

differ

3c. Type I error: The income of elderly men and elderly women are the same yet
you still find that the incomes differ. Type II error: The incomes actually
but you find it is the same.
3d. Type I error: The study time between students who study on and off campus is
the same yet you find that it differs. Type II error: The time spent studying
between the two groups of students differs but you find it the same.

3e. Type I error: The scores for students enrolled in the accelerated reading
program is higher yet you find that theyre the same. Type II error: The
scores for
students enrolled in the accelerated reading program is actually the
same, but you
find the scores to be higher.
3f. Type I error: Stress for adults who own dogs is less than those who do not own
dogs, yet you find stress levels to be the same. Type II error: Stress for adults who
own dogs is the same as those who do not own dogs, yet you find it to differ.
b. When making a Type I error you relegate that there is a statistically significant effect
going on between the two variables when there in reality isnt one. The opposite is
true
for a Type II error where you find that there is no effect on either variables when
there really is one.
c. If we thought of it in terms of a murder trial, it would come down to what you value
most. You may want to minimize type I errors if you believe in preserving
personal
liberty, because if you didnt minimize type I error they could find an innocent

person guilty. You may want to minimize type II error if you believe in living in a world where
all those who are guilty are found guilty, regardless of the cost.
8.
Research hypothesis: men use the internet more than women.
Null hypothesis: there is no difference between how much men and women use the internet.
Decided on a two tailed test
Alpha: .01
Df: (118+157) 2 = 273
Confidence interval is 2.567
Calculate SE: =((((118-1)*(11.71^2)+(157-1)*(12.26^2))/((118+157)-2))^0.5)*(((118+157)/
(118*157))^0.5)12.
SE=1.465
Calculate T statistic: =(10.17-9.08)/1.465
= .744
T score fell within the interval (-2.567, 2.567) which is expected when assuming NH is true. No
evidence against NH, fail to reject. No statistical significance that the difference in internet use
between male and female GSS respondents.
12. Since the significance of F is .000 < .05 we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the
variances are unequal. The obtained t we will use is 8.424 and the significance is .000, less than .
05. We reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the two groups. On average
males have their first child 3.361 years after women.
14.
a. Alpha .05
SE =((((.43(1-.43))/899)+(((.5(1-.5))/351))))^.5
= .031
Z = (.43-.5)/.031
Z = -2.25
The probability of -2.25 for a two-tailed test is less than our alpha level of .05 (.024<.05)
Thus, we reject the null hypothesis of no difference and conclude that there is a
significant difference in the proportion of homeowners between first- and secondgeneration Hispanic Americans.

b. Alpha .01
SE =((((0.58*(1-0.58))/2684)+(((0.51*(1-0.51))/466))))^0.5
= .025
Z = (.58-.51)/.025
Z = 2.8
The probability off 2.8 for a two-tailed test is less than our alpha level of .01 (.0052<.01)
Thus we reject the null hypothesis of no difference and conclude that there is a significant
difference in the proportion of homeowners between first- and second-generation
Asian Americans.