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Russia Power 2012, Moscow

SGT5-2000E Gas Turbine - reliable, safe, and flexible power generation


Frank Richter, Siemens AG
Dr. Alexander Lebedev, Siemens Gas Turbine Technology
Gerhard Bohrenkmper, Siemens AG
Dr. Nils Herzog, Siemens AG
Frank Schneider, Siemens AG
0. Abstract
Customers expectations are characterized by an increasing demand for
operational flexibility and the requirement to lower power generation costs.
To accommodate these requirements a gas turbine has to be robust, flexible and
cost effective. An engine with a proven and reliable design should operate under
varying fuel parameters and different specific conditions.
Siemens Fossil Power Generation incorporates decades of operating experience
with heavy-duty gas turbines based on proven technology. Application of the
accumulated know-how is being implemented for reliable, efficient, flexible and
save operation.
Due do the robust design, the Siemens SGT-2000E Gas Turbine series operates
at high levels of reliability and availability even under challenging conditions.
This paper is focusing on the broad range of SGT-2000E applications with
emphasis on the Oil & Gas industry and the operation under cold ambient
conditions.
These applications require solutions with respect to safety, reliability availability
and serviceability. Conformity to dedicated industry regulations is essential as
well.
Siemens offers specifically tailored packages that cover demands of a wide
range of exploitation fields either by supporting direct mechanical drive or an allelectrical drive solution.
Another feature, highlighted in this paper is the capability of the 2000E frame to
operate in an ambient temperature range far below minus 15C.

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

1.

2.

Introduction SGT5-2000E ..................................................................................3


1.1.

Maturity...................................................................................................3

1.2.

Design Features .....................................................................................4

1.3.

Current Applications..............................................................................6

Oil and Gas.........................................................................................................7


2.1.

Market .....................................................................................................7

2.2.

SGT5-2000E Oil and Gas Specific Capabilities ....................................8


2.2.1. Operational Capability................................................................9
2.2.1.1.

Start up time ....................................................................9

2.2.1.2.

Black Start Capability ...................................................10

2.2.2. Fuel Capability ..........................................................................10


2.2.3. Service Concept .......................................................................11
3.

Cold Ambient ...................................................................................................11


3.1.

Market and requirements.....................................................................11

3.2.

SGT5-2000E Standard Capabilities ....................................................12

3.3.

Power Limit Increase of the SGT5-2000E ...........................................12

3.4.

SGT5-2000E Optimizations for Cold Ambient temperatures down to 40C .......................................................................................................14

3.5.

SGT5-2000E Optimizations for Cold Ambient Temperatures below 40C .......................................................................................................16

4.

Lookout ............................................................................................................16

5.

Takeaways........................................................................................................16

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

1.

Introduction SGT5-2000E

1.1. Maturity

271

253

81

81

81

78

76

76

73

161
73

148
68

130
58

129
55

120
53

104
48

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

31

1996

24

1995

17

1994

51

100

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84

75
56
13

1993

43
9

1992

33
5

1991

31
2

1990

27
2

1989

1988

1987

1986

177

207

229

SGT6-2000E

18

14

12

1985

1984

1983

1982

1981

261

Installations Worldwide
SGT5-2000E

279

The SGT5-2000E is the E class working horse of Siemens. It has been available
for more than 30 years. During these years the SGT5-2000E has satisfied
demands of different markets as Power Generation, and Industrial- as well as Oil
and Gas- applications.
Key factors for this success are the continuous design improvements resulting in
a unique engine maturity and the ability to respond to a broad range of specific
requirements.
The SGT5-2000E proved an availability of 95%. The reliability is even higher and
achieves 99%.
These world class figures are based on a deployment of far more than 300
engines with around 20Mio Total EOH (Equivalent Operating Hours) in the 50Hz
and 60Hz market.
The SGT5-2000E is appreciated for its light-weight design enabling a broad
range of operational modes. The engine serves in continuous duty as well as in
cyclic duty covering peak loads, providing an excellent start up capability.
The SGT5-2000E proves that it is possible to reconcile ambitious economic and
environmental targets. Despite its high flexibility in terms of operation and fuels,
the NOx and CO2 emissions of a SGT5-2000E are minimized.

Year of Initial Operation

Figure 1 SGT5-2000E market

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In 2001 Power Machines and Siemens AG have concluded a License Agreement


with the right to produce and sell GTE-160 gas turbine with rated power of 157
MW under documentation of V94.2 which was a previous naming for the SGT
2000E . As a result, the first power plant of Kalinigradskaya CHP-2 with CCP-450
was accepted for commercial operation. As for scheme and equipment
composition, this plant was identical to North-West CHP plant, only instead of
94.2 there were applied GTE-160 gas turbines, manufactured by LMZ under
License from Siemens. Validation tests conducted in May, 2006, have confirmed
the GT performances specified.
Now the fleet of GTE-160, produced by OJSC Power Machines and assembled
by Interturbo, accounts for 35 units (included 5 V94.2):
 in operation - 13 GTE-160 and 5 V94.2;
 in stage of erection at power plants - 8 GTE-160;
 in stage of manufacturing - 7 GTE-160, including 2 GTE-145.
1.2. Design Features
Siemens 2000E series gas turbines are single-shaft machines. They are suitable
both, as prime movers for industrial machines and for driving generators at
constant speed in base load and peak load operation. These machines can be
used stand alone for peaking duty or in combined cycles and district heat
applications. They are suitable for operation with gaseous or liquid fuels.
The main design characteristics of SGTx-2000E Series turbine to ease
maintenance are described below.
1) Casing: Horizontally split turbine outer casings with separate vane and turbine
carriers, free to expand with temperature
2) Rotor: Single shaft disc-type rotor with radial Hirth-serrations and one central
tie rod
3) Compressor: 16 (50Hz) / 17 (60 Hz) stage compressor (with 0th row variablepitch IGV vanes, fast acting for grid frequency stabilization)
4) Combustion system: Two large external silo-type combustors 2 x 8 (2 x 6 for
60 Hz) hybrid burners for 50 / 60 Hz; ceramic and metallic lining of the flame
tubes
5) Turbine: Four stage turbine, Si3D (Siemens innovative 3D design) for new
apparatus and service modernizations
6) Welded design for hot gas casings
7) Axial exhaust for ease of combined cycle
8) Two bearings only: Combined thrust and journal bearing at compressor end
(8a) and Journal bearing at turbine end (8b)
9) Cold end drive

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

4
6
7
6

8
5

6
5
3
4

2
8

Figure 2 SGT5-2000E Design

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1.3. Current Applications

GT
Version

Operation
Mode

Typical
Fuels

Application

Customer
Segment

The SGT5-2000E is characterized by large volume-combustion with moderate


turbine inlet temperatures. The result is a very robust engine with a simple hot
gas path design that allows a broad range of application.
The standard fuel gas operation for the fossil power generation covers the
majority of the operating fleet.
Beyond this Fossil Power Generation the SGT5-2000E even supports fast
growing non standard applications that require low BTU (British Thermal Unit)
fuels. The engine has to cover problems like Lean Blow Out (LBO) and flame
stabilization.
The SGT 5-2000E proved within an IGCC-application (Integrated Gasification
Combined Cycle) in China the ability to handle challenges as e.g. safe ignition
and the flashback risk
With liquid fuels the engine is faced to different challenges. The less the fuel is
refined, the more it is necessary to treat the fuel with respect to viscosity and
contamination. Some contaminations as sodium and potassium can be washed
out of the fuel. Some other contaminations as vanadium or lead remain within the
fuel and have to be treated with inhibitors. This inhibition causes ash. The engine
has to be able to deal with the ash.
An increasing fleet of engines that are running the Crude Oil application proves
that Siemens has the ability to guarantee the habitual high standards with
respect to reliability and availability.
Standard Fossil Power Generation
Standard
Power Generation
 Simple Cycle

CO / HFO
Operators

IGCC
 IGCC Plant

 Simple Cycle
(CO / HFO)

 Combined Cycle

 Combined
Cycle (HFO
only)
 Standard Natural
Gas, Natural
Gas

 SynGas

Oil & Gas Business Applications


Direct Mechanical
Drives
 LNG, GTL, LPG
 Pumping of oil, gas and
other liquids and gaseous
media

Industrial
Applications

All Electric Drive


 Power Generation for Oil
& Gas Applications

 Standard Power
Generation (SC, CC) and
Poly-Generation for Steel
and Chemical Plants

 Refinery applications

 Crude Oil, HFO

 Standard, LowBTU,
SynGas

 Standard, LowBTU,
SynGas

 Standard, LowBTU,
SynGas;

 Base, Cycling
mode

 Compressor Drive
mode.

 Base load, Part load,


Intermediate Cycling

 Base load, Part load,


Intermediate Cycling

 LowBTU

 Light Fuel Oil


 Base, Cycling,
Peaking mode
 Dual fuel
operation

 Base-, Part- load,


Intermed. Cycling
with no- or partialair side
integration
 Dual fuel operat.

SGTx-2000E

SGTx-2000E (CO)

SGT5-2000E (LC)

SGTx-2000E (CD) - as
Compressor Drive

 SGTx-2000E (CD) - as
Geno-Drive
 SGT5-2000E (LC)

 SGTx-2000E
 SGTx-2000E (CD)
 SGT5-2000E (LC)
 SGTx-2000E (CO)

Figure 3 SGT5-2000E applications

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2. Oil and Gas

2.1. Market
The Oil and Gas market is being segmented into
 exploration and production (Upstream)
 supply, transport and storage (Midstream)
 refinery / petrochemical (Downstream)
The growing potential especially in the up- and midstream area appears
significant due to the fact that O&G companies are expanding their values chain
vertically.
The change from a deployed mechanical driven compressor infrastructure to an
all electrical approach bears for the Oil and Gas companies the potential to
decrease operational costs by increasing the availability. In some areas even the
availability of an own independent power supply becomes more and more
crucial. The larger the exploration fields are, the more an all electrical approach
becomes obvious. This development leads to the expectation of a growing Heavy
Duty Gas Turbine market within the O&G business.
The key success factor for Oil and Gas companies is a proven design that
guarantees availability, reliability and safety operation.
The gas turbine package shall be optimized to fulfill the following requirements:

selected API- (American Petroleum Institute) codes,

flexible application of different fuels,

application of H2S rich gases increased reliability and starting reliability,

extended maintenance concept,

pre-packed solution for fast erection and service

island operation

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2.2. SGT5-2000E Oil and Gas Specific Capabilities


The specific capabilities, described within the following chapter, cover dedicated
requirements of the Oil and Gas industry. However one of the most important
assets to become successful in this market is the outstanding maturity,
availability and reliability and the extensive field experience of the SGT5-2000E
fleet.
Oil and Gas applications are often faced to challenging climate conditions and
difficult EHS- (Environment Health and Safety) requirements as e.g. a toxic
ambient atmosphere. Even the transport infrastructure and accessibility of the
exploration fields are usually rather limited
The gas turbine package is provided as pre-packaged solution, aiming to be
installed, commissioned and serviced on the site in very short interval.

Figure 4 Prepackaged SGT5-2000E for the Oil&Gas industry

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2.2.1. Operational Capability


Since most of the O&G applications are distant from existing grids or no stable
grid is available, it is necessary to optimize the package for island operation.
Once there is a demand change on power from local grid, the gas turbine has to
provide the corresponding need instantaneously such that the local grid can
maintain its frequency. This is, besides the constant and reliable power supply a
very typical requirement within the Oil and Gas environment.
The standard speed range allows operation between 47.5 Hz and 51.5 Hz. The
operation below or above these boundaries is limited to 20s maximum time and
30 min accumulated operation time in the upper frequency range from 51.5
52Hz and in the lower frequency range from 47Hz to 47.5Hz.

2.2.1.1. Start up time


A warm start up time in less than 20 minutes to base load can be fulfilled with the
standard load gradient of 11MW/min or 15 MW/min.
A Starting Frequency Converter is used to assist the start-up and operates the
generator in synchronous start-up as a synchronous motor. When selecting the
converter, the required generator together with its excitation system is aligned
with the applicable Starting Frequency Converter. During start-up with the set
point for the static excitation equipment of the generator is defined by the Starting
Frequency Converter. During normal operation the generator can be used as
helper to drive the compressor as well as supply electricity to the grid, in case of
grid sustaining for example.
If a start-up time of maximal 10 minutes from turning mode to full load operation
is demanded, than this requirement can be fulfilled for temperatures above 15C. For very low temperatures a rotor preheating might become necessary and
can be implemented for cold ambient projects, as an option.
The start-up time below 10 minutes can be reached with the higher load
gradients of 30MW/min. For this scenario 9:46 min from turning mode (120rpm)
to base load operation are feasible within the ambient temperature range from 15C to 40C:

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

2.2.1.2. Black Start Capability


To insure the capability to operate several engines in an island grid it is
necessary to insure the black start capability. The main task is to determine the
minimum value of the active power rate limit (typically designated as PGF)
enabling black start of the gas turbine generators with respect to gradual
increase in load.
The most demanding scenario is single-generator island mode operation. Due to
limited rotating mass in the island, switching of 10MW and 20MW load blocks is
easily challenging for system stability and maintaining operational frequency
within the normal tolerance band. The black start of the SGT5-2000E in this
configuration is possible if active power rate limit is at least 2%, for switching of
10MW loads, and 4%, for switching of 20MW loads.
Black start and loading of the SGT5-2000E with 10MW and 20MW load blocks in
network configurations involving more than one generator is not as critical with
proper controller settings. More generators provide more spinning reserve and in
case of switching loads the expected frequency drop is not as severe. Our
studies prove that switching of load blocks 20MW in size in two-, three- and fourgenerator configuration is stable, thus possible, if active power rate limit of SGT52000E is 2% or greater, whereas it can be 1% for switching of 10MW loads.
Our experience leads to the conclusion that stable system operation under
scenarios and network configurations considered is ensured if the active power
rate limit is, in all cases, set to 4%. At this value, the frequency is maintained
within the frequency tolerance band (typically between -2.5Hz and +1.5Hz) and
sufficiently away from the relay trip settings.

2.2.2. Fuel Capability


The fuel flexibility of the SGT5-2000E was already mentioned in chapter 1.3
above. As a typical Oil and Gas application requirement an increased H2S
content of the fuel gas has to be considered.
The SGT5-2000E can handle H2S contents of up to 10.000ppm H2S without a
decrease in performance and life time.
However some modifications have to be taken into consideration as e.g.the
interconnecting piping for fuel gas.

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2.2.3. Service Concept


The most probable service concept is based on replacement of key components
using the Roll-Out/Roll-In concept to keep outage times as short as possible.
Minor inspection must be executed every 16 kEOH (Equivalent Operating
Hours). During each minor inspection, the combustion chambers are exchanged
completely. Inspection of the turbine/compressor is performed according to a
respective checklist.
A Major Overhaul after 48 kEOH covers the key components of the gas turbine
as, the complete rotor with inner casing, turbine guide vane assembly,
compressor and combustion system. These components will be replaced onsite
and refurbished later on.

3.

Cold Ambient

3.1. Market and requirements


One of the most critical issues for the operation of a gas turbine under cold
ambient conditions of course is the behavior of the materials that are in touch
with low temperatures. The degree of mechanical strengths referred to the
temperature change declines significantly faster in the cold ambient range
compared to hot temperatures. As a result the embrittlement increases and the
risk of damages, caused by fatigue of the material, is immanent. Improved
materials or heating measures are covering these risks.
The increased mass flow due to colder ambient conditions has to be considered
as well. This effect actually is positive with respect to power output. However the
whole configuration has to be able to cover an increased power output as well as
occurring effects like vibrations, stresses and axial thrust.
A significant part of the gas turbines provided by OJSC Power Machines and
assembled by Interturbo has been supplied to regions with extremely subzero
ambient air temperatures in winter periods. For example, Novy Urengoi (up to -60
), Novo-Bogoslovsk (up to -50), Perm (up to -50), Izhevsk (up to -50),
Vladimir (up to -45), Kirovo-Chepetsk (up to -45), Chelyabinsk (up to -48)
and others.
Due to this reason many GTE-160 customers submit increased requirements to
ensure gas turbine reliable operation at ambient air temperatures below -15.

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

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3.2. SGT5-2000E Standard Capabilities


The most recent version of the SGT5-2000E provides in simple cycle operation a
power output of 170 MW with an efficiency of 35.3.
Typical 2x1 Combined Cycle operation is capable for more than 500MW.
Main lever of the power and efficiency improvements in comparison to previous
versions is the introduction of the Siemens-Innovative-3-Dimensional Turbine
Blades & Vanes (Si3D). The Si3D technology supports an optimized airfoil
design and a significant reduction of parasitic losses.
Various SGT5-2000E gas turbines are in operation after implementing Si3D
blades and vanes for turbine stages 1 & 2 (e.g. 2x in Argentina, 4x Belgium,3x
United Arab Emirates,2x United Kingdom). The first power plant that became
equipped with this technology for even stage 3 and 4 was Townsville (Australia)
in 2009.
The Hydraulic Clearance Optimization is a further feature that improves the
power output by more than 1 MW. It enables the engine to reduce the clearances
during the operation by hydraulic rotor shift, using pistons behind the axial
compressor bearing. The HCO was introduced in 2009 in Marib (Yemen) and has
proven more than 60000 EOH (Equivalent Operating Hours) worldwide.
3.3. Power Limit Increase of the SGT5-2000E
The SGT5-2000E is currently limited at a maximum power output of 170 MW.
The main goal of the power limit increase (PLI) program is to further extend this
limit.

P after PLI

Power Output

P before PLI

Compressor Inlet Temperature

Figure 5 Influence of the power limit increase on the power output

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

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The benefit in power output for cold ambient temperatures is also shown in the
figure above. Assuming the measurements are successful, the extra power due
to the PLI is remarkable
The additional power results in a higher stage load for each stage in the turbine.
Apart from minor validation efforts for other components the most critical
components to be regarded if the power limit is increased are the last turbine
blade rows. To evaluate these essential components measurements have to be
carried out to analyze the frequency behavior under higher loads.
For the Power Limit Increase blade vibration measurements of the Turbine
blades have to be carried out. As strain gauge measurements pose the
disadvantage that the measurements can only be successful in the first weeks
after commissioning, non intrusive NSMS (Non Intrusive Stress Measurement)
measurements were chosen as the best option for the flexible validation at
adequate ambient conditions. Therefore the turbine blades rows have to be
prepared for instrumentation. In each stage several probes have to be placed
and therefore it was checked, if probe positions under the gas turbine are
accessible for the instrumentation and collision has to be avoided. The probes
were placed in accessible positions as shown in the figure below.

Figure 6 SGT5-2000E with NSMS probes

The probes can be placed when cold weather conditions occur and therewith
high power output is guaranteed. After the measurement the probes can be
removed and no further exchange of casing components or rotor disks is
necessary. The optical sensors can be easily replaced if a defect is detected.
After a successful validation and evaluation of the data a higher load for the
affected turbine blade rows can be released and therewith the higher power limit
can be confirmed.

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3.4. SGT5-2000E Optimizations for Cold Ambient temperatures down to 40C


The target of the cold ambient program for the SGT5-2000E was to extend the
operation limit from -15C to down to -40C. Within this program all components
were regarded and critical components were identified, such as the cold
compressor and casing parts of the engine. Moreover all operation conditions
were analyzed and the influence of the very cold ambient conditions on the
combustion regulation, rotor clearances and the secondary air system.
As an example, a whole core engine thermal analysis was conducted to ensure
that the expected temperature differences will cause no material stresses beyond
a certain point. The figure below shows the temperature distribution in the
compressor vane carrier as a result of the 2 dimensional analyses.

Figure 7 Temperature analysis of compressor vane carrier

As another example the clearance limits especially during the warm up phase of
the engine were evaluated and the clearances tolerances were adapted
accordingly in order to avoid damages of the rotating equipment.
Some key features are the modified compressor inlet casing (CIC) and the
compressor blade 3. A material change became necessary for these
components, as they are exposed to the cold inlet air. Furthermore the bolt
materials for the CIS-supports and the CIC-struts were optimized in order to bear
the forces.

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

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The bolt material of the Compressor Inlet Guide Vans (IGV) was revised and
beyond this material change the preset value for the adjusting force was
increased by 40% as a more powerful IGV actuator is used.
The hardware changes go along with necessary validation efforts. Apart from all
calculations that were performed the final release of the SGT5-2000E for -40C is
associated to validation measurements.
The measurements described in the following may give an overview of some of
the validation procedures which are illustrated in Figure 8.
Before the measurements can begin, a tuning of the combustors has to take
place during. The combustion process has to be evaluated with respect to
ignition behavior, fuel gas mass flow, resulting resonance and humming
frequency and last but not least the emission limits that have to be kept.

Clearences at the flame tube


ceramic tile column

- Burner tuning during commissioning


- Combustion Chamber inspection after
commissioning and after 2.000 EOH
Pressures and temperatures at Compressor
Air Extractions

Non contact blade vibration (BSSM)

Adjustment forces of IGV


Cooling air temperatures and
pressures

Pressure at shaft seal of turbine bearing

Commissioning/ Inspection
Validation Measurement

Figure 8 Cold ambient validation efforts for the SGT5-2000E

The key measurements after or during commissioning are the non contact
compressor blade vibration measurements for Compressor Blades and the non
intrusive NSMS measurement with the cold temperature resistant blade material.
Additionally the temperature and pressure for the air extractions, the cooling air
temperatures in Turbine Vanes, the pressure at the shaft sealing of the turbine
bearing and the adjustment forces of the IGV have to be measured. After the first
2000 EOH an inspection of the combustion chamber has to be considered.
After this validation program of the SG5-2000E is accomplished, its reliable
operation can be insured also under very cold conditions down to -40 C.

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

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3.5. SGT5-2000E Optimizations for Cold Ambient Temperatures below 40C


One possible alternative to operate a gas turbine below -40C based on the
measures mentioned above is the use of an air pre-heater system.
These kinds of systems bear the necessity of heating large air masses of cycling
air in the air intake system, resulting in additional constant pressure losses on air
heater in the filter house. This causes power losses and a decrease in combined
cycle plant efficiency.
An alternative approach to the use of an air pre heater system is the further
development of components, impacted by very cold temperatures.
Further material substitutions especially for the compressor stages 1 - 4 and the
respective rotor components have to be foreseen. The material for the
compressor bearing casing as well as for the inlet duct has to be improved as
well.
Another measure is the front shaft heating which was already proven by an
operation down to an ambient temperature of -60C.

4.

Lookout

It is the distinct goal of the SGT5-2000 to serve an increasing amount of E-class


market.
However the SGT5-2000E has a tremendous potential to adapt further
requirements. Based on the maturity developed over the years and the world
class reliability and availability the design is open for a broad variety of
applications beyond the power generation market.

5.

Takeaways

The SGT2000E is a well proven gas turbine that proves its outstanding
capabilities with respect to availability, reliability, safety and operational flexibility
including start up behavior.
These advantages are appreciated not within the power generation market only,
but even within the Oil and Gas business.
The standard SGT2000E package operates down to -15 C ambient
temperature.
The operation down to -40 C ambient temperature ca n be achieved as well,
considering some dedicated adaptations as variations of materials for parts of the
engine that are exposed to or impacted by the very cold intake air.
For ambient temperatures below -40 C air-pre heati ng or further material
substitutions have to be taken into account.
The fleet of Siemens and his partners is able to gain experience from the gas
turbine operation even down to -60 C

SIEMENS AG, RUSSIA POWER 2012

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