Design Of A 95% Glass Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy.

Tania Valencia Juarez Ortiz 4250680 Delft, The Netherlands
For obtaining the Degree of Master in Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Building Technology Track
Delft University of Technology
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Design Of A 95% Glass Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy.
Tania Valencia Juarez Ortiz 4250680 Delft, The Netherlands
For obtaining the Degree of Master in Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Building Technology Track
Delft University of Technology

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Fig. 1.1
Eye level View of the Canopy n Context.
3dmax Render
Morphing Glass Canopy

Preface and Acknowledgements
There are many people to thank for. First of all I’d like to thank my family, specially my mother, without whom
this would not be possible, for their support and for making me feel close even though we’re so far away.
I would like to thank my tutors for their patience and support, and for all the knowledge they so kindly gave me
which is the most important thing I’m taking with me.
I would like to mention specially Professor Fred Veer who was the teacher of the first lecture I attended to in
TU Delft , from whom I have learned a lot, not only about glass but also about material science, and about the
art of glass breaking. For research, of course. I want to mention also Professor Andrew Borgart who also was
my teacher since the first year of the Masters, and helped me see that Structural Mechanics and modelling in
IDiana is not such a hard theme. And last but not least, Professor Tillmann Klein who made this team of tutors
so complete with his accurate advise.
It’s not easy to be in a foreign country, but it’s an incredible experience, and what makes the experience so
amazing is the people you meet. I was lucky enough to make very good friends, which I will never forget, and
without them I could never have finished this. And of course, my friends in Mexico with whom I have kept in
touch.
I would also like to mention Arq. José Moyao, Arq. Miguel García Etchegaray, Ing. Antonio Ojeda, Arq. Jaime
Ruiz Alvarez, Ing Antonio Vieyra and Arq. Heliodoro Monterrubio and Lic. Leticia Malvaez who helped me
during this process.

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Contents Purpose and Organization 7 Introduction Objective Scope of the study Limitations and delimitations Organization of the document Research design Summary Review of the Related Material 14 Introduction Why? History Case Studies Unresolved Issues Summary Results of the Investigation 18 Introduction Structural Glass Deployable Structures Summary Project Design 32 Introduction Site Design Evolution Modeling Model for FEM/Diana Final Model Construction Purpose and Results of the Experiment Summary Conclusions and Implications 60 Introduction Conclusions Reflection References Appendix A 66 5 .

benefits Glass Deployable Structures market 6 . problem production Design Of A 95% Glass Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy.Building’s Energy Demand. Material and Mechanical Technology. idea Energy Saving Interior Comfort.

which led me to research about building with plastics and ETFE. or reused for new necessities. I can see glass very differently. and reusing it. thinking that it will be preserved through history. through receiving energy from the earth. Designing a building should no longer be about creating an emblem. I found out that ETFE and polycarbonate have many limitations if compared to glass. and I wanted to do something about it. The green house effect can be transformed into energy used to heat or cool buildings. But glass can be very sustainable if it is designed correctly. therefore a very good cladding material. And it behaves better than concrete. It is waterproof and transparent. and to find new materials that applied to facades could solve buildings’ energy demand. I wanted to learn how to design buildings that could create the energy they used.Cover: Eye level View of the Canopy closing 3dmax Render Morphing Glass Canopy Detailed mages on previous page from: TU Delft Corporate Presentation Example www. At the end of this great adventure. A building should be designed as a living entity that provides shelter and comfort.biz www. and is 100% recyclable.com London Eye Own picture Purpose and Organization Introduction I came to The Netherlands to try to make a difference. A building should be able to adapt and be relocated.writeanadgetpaid. Glass exists in big amounts in the earth. recycled. where I learned that the way we use and reuse energy is what makes a difference. Glass is often considered as not sustainable because it is related to the greenhouse effect. The love and admiration I had for this material is even bigger. It can be considered as the transparent concrete of the future. 7 . I followed the next courses of Building technology. I was aware of the big problems in which our planet is. I started searching for a better material to glass.shipaglass.

Research Connection Design Final product 8 . Deployable Structures Structural and Mechanical Technology. idea Glass Engineering Technology.Design Of A 95% Glass Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy.

Glass Eye level Render of the openned Canopy 3dmax Render What is the correct Glass Engineering Technology Design Approach? When designing with glass which are the Basic Design Rules? What are the characteristics of structural glass? What kind of glass should I use? What kind of Glass Connections shall I use? In terms of Mechanics .hobberman.Deployable Structures How do they work? How are they designed? Structural Research How are they Calculated? Eye level Render of the clossed Canopy 3dmax Render mages on previous page from: ETFE facade Hamburg FRP Zaha Hadid’s Stand Paris Glass Munich Olympic Stadium Glass Temperature Experiment TU Delft www.com TED.Motion Structures 9 .com Jeremy Kasdin Zhong You.2012.Objective The objective of this research is to find the answer to the following Research Question: Is it possible to design a dismountable morphing Canopy with 95% Glass? To be able to answer the research question I will have to answer the following Sub-questions: In terms of Material Technology .

The door for further research on this kind of structures will be open to creating bigger structures using this mechanism. This research will not focus on Climate since it is part of an open canopy.Scope of the study The two main subjects on this research will be: Deployable Structures Glass Engineering Technology The project will be developed along the research through the following steps: Modeling Sketching total project 3d modeling Model for FEM/Diana Glass Model Experiment’s proposal HDF Model 1:05 Structural Calculations Model for FEM/Diana Calculations report Final Report Limitations and delimitations The results of this research will give information about the possibility of creating structural glass deployable structures. and using glass as a structural and cladding element. the design of connections and the use of glue instead of holes in glass connections. 10 .

Deployable Structures Research and Glass Engineering Technology Research. 11 . Project Design. will start with an introduction to the site. significance and limitations of this research. I will finish with a proposal for the Design. Result of the Investigation. and the results of modeling for i-Diana. will be dedicated to the results of the investigation. followed by the evolution of the project. Chapter 2 The Review of Related Material will show an overview of this research and explain the historical evolution of glass and deployable structures. It will show the structural assumptions. I will report the experiment’s proposal and evolution. the structural calculations. reporting the final glass model construction and the results of the experiment. Chapter 3. Conclusions and Implications. It is divided in the two main fields of this research. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. I will show the benefits of this structures and mention previous investigations on this topic.Organization of the document This document starts with an introductory overview of the purpose. will show the conclusions and recommendations of this report.

Research design The research’s objective is to answer the research question. Both subjects will be studied together and at the same time as the design evolves. Deployable Structures and Glass Engineering Technology that will help me create and solve the design. The study of deployable structures will focus on the following themes: Kinematic Chains Scissor Hinges Tensegrity Mouri Foldable Hobberman Calatrava Stadiums The study of Glass Engineering Technology will focus on the following themes: Characteristics (Tests) Improvements Float glass and heat strengthened glass Laminated PVB and Sentry Glass Glass sizes Water jet cutting Steel reinforced glass Glass inserts used for connections Glass gluing The design will be done at the same time as the research and will be reported through the following phases: Project Development Modeling Structural analysis Final Model Construction Conclusions 12 . which will follow a path established by the set of sub-questions in two main subjects.

Next Page Pictures: Santiago Calatrava’s Liege Train Station Peter Rice’s connections TGV Station at L’aeroport Charles de Gaulle Glass Sunshading at L’aeroport Charles de Gaulle Theo Jansen’s Bestes ETFE Double Facade in Hamburg Own picures. and we can use water-jet cutting to make holes in glass. Through innovations in glass technology.Summary This thesis is the result of my search for new ways of building with a deep concern in the environment using technology and material science. 13 . avoiding through this the failure and strength lost by fracture when cutting glass. we can now use float glass that increases the tensile stress of 20N/ mm2 for normal glass to 145N/mm2 and breaks into hundreds of small fragments. Above Picture: A perfect transparent morphing structure in Nature Jellyfish As Inspiration Own Picture Currently there is the need for a new code for building with glass and it is very necessary to continue the investigation through tests to get a better understanding of this material. gluing several layers so if one breaks the other will still carry the loads. we can order 12m long glass from China. We can improve the structural safety of glass by laminating it.

Chapter II Review of Related Material 14 .

A small crack or imperfection within it can make the material collapse.Glass Engineering Technology Material Properties Composition and Chemical Properties “Amorphous silica is the basis of almost all glasses. It is for this reason that the structure itself is called glassy. It is responsible for the little gaps in the material allowing light (photons) to pass but also responsible for the quick cracking of glass. 2003) “The basic molecule of glass: SIO4.” * (Smith Anthony 2005. and with B2O5 to make borosilicate glasses. Rob. Glass is a brittle material. Notice the negative outside of the pyramid. Notice the negative outside of the pyramid. but in reality its usable strength is governed by fracture mechanics and is determined by the presence of microscopic cracks in the glass surface. soda and chalk. It is responsible for the little gaps in the material allowing light (photons) to pass but also responsible for the quick cracking of glass.” (Nijsse. Rob. and is 100% recycled.”(Ashby et al. it is mixed with Na2O to make soda glass. It behaves better than concrete at compression and can be reinforced as concrete. The correct Glass Engineering Technology design approach depends on the knowledge of the material’s properties and of the elements that we can use to overcome its restrictions and take advantage of its qualities. a term interchangeable with amorphous. glass has been improved through many technological advances that have made it possible for us to use it as a load bearing material. The analysis design and testing of an asymmetric bolted glass roof panel).”(Nijsse. 2007) “The basic molecule of glass: SIO4. The main technological advances that have led us to be able to use glass structurally are: Innovations in Glass Engineering Technology Tempered glass and heat strengthened glass Laminated PVB and Sentry Glass Glass sizes Water jet cutting Steel reinforced glass Glass inserts used for connections Glass gluing 15 . Materials that exist in big amounts in Earth. In the past few years. In theory “glass is an homogeneous and isotropic solid material displaying ideal. 2003) Glass is made of sand. perfectly elastic behavior up to very high stresses. but it is the silica that gives the structure.

Scissor hinges Scissor hinges are a very simple mechanism that can deploy long distances. Foldable Origami Or Miura-Ouri. 16 . (Allegra) Tensegrity Tensegrity structures are structures formed of rigid posts and tensors. The design of the hinges is basic to be able to create doubly curved structures. When we connect these basic elements into a closed linkage we create a mechanism. or constructed in space. Tensegrity structures can also be deployed. and each can move in different basic ways. The movement can also be modified and controlled by changing the length of the pieces. Mechanisms Deployable structures preform through a mechanism. But there are studies and they can be simplified into one kind of hinge for every function. have a single degree of mobility. therefore my first approach to this theme is the way any mechanism performs. The minimum mechanism that can be created is the Bennett linkage that consists of four revolute joints that combined together. This particular study is to create a climate adaptive structure but movement can be used for many other functions as for structures that need to be deployed in space. They have been exploited by Hoberman into the creation of spheres that move magically from a very small position to a very big one. Santiago Calatrava made a study of the basic deployments of these structures. They are formed from basic geometric elements that can be combined into al possibilities. one when closed and another when opened. or need a different structure to hold the cladding. These structures are mainly combined with membranes for cladding. Cladding with pantographs or scissor hinges have been done by Hoberman in his arch and basically is done by transforming the scissor hinge into the cladding element. could be a way to construct and improve buildings. These foldable structures follow the patterns of folded paper.Deployable Structures and Classification Deployable structures are structures that can move for several reasons. for flexibility of performance as it is in stadiums and in the future.Origami Other forms of creating a foldable cladding with a rigid element is by using the rigid foldable origami or Miura-ouri. They are structures made of two layers and their stability relies on the tension of the elements. They can form strong structures that have two stable positions. or “joints” form a mechanism. The deployment can be achieved through the combination of basic forms that can fold. There are basic elements or “kinematic joints” that connected to rigid members. Study Models Scissor hinges can be modified to vary the movement into any kind of movement by just adjusting the length of the links.

Case Studies Apple Stores The Apple Stores have been a big improvement to the use of glass as a structural element for several reasons: The use of bigger glass plates Sentry Glass The invention of titanium insert connections In this research I will use them as an important case study. An interesting improvement could be using doubly curved glass panels. as well as technical support. Unresolved Issues There are many possibilities to continue this research. It explains why the research is based on this particular subjects. The hinges design proposed could be studied further for improvement. It opens a new research theme by combining two different existing mechanisms and providing the opportunity to use circular overlapping plates. Glass Canopies As a reference on the way Glass Engineering Technology has been used in canopies. As a variation of the mechanism used I could propose a folding round stair. Hoberman’s patents and projects have been an important source to this research. I have studied three main projects: The DZ Bank in Berlin’s Glass canopies The Lincoln Center Canopies Cantilevered Bolted roof of The “Gallerie Beyeler” in Basel. Summary This chapter introduces the focus of this research and the basic topics that will be explained more deeply in the next chapter. I made an analysis of the way these structures work and many study models. Switzerland Hoberman As inspiration. and with further study can also be improved. 17 . and how they affect the project. The mechanism of the structure I propose can be continued into a much bigger structure.

com/cn/retail/store/galleries/pudong/images/pudong_gallery_image5.apple.Chapter III Glass Engineering Technology http://images.jpg 18 .

Results of the Investigation
Introduction

Glass Engineering Technology

Characteristics (Tests)
“Glass can be very strong, much stronger than structural steel. However, because glass has a relatively low
fracture toughness, such strengths can only be achieved when it’s virtually out of defects, as a freshly drawn a
glass fiber can be.” (RICE, PETER 1995. Glass Engineering Technology)

Glass Production

Above Pictures.
New materials as fiber reinforced polymers are
using glass fiber, which provides a translucid,
semi-transparent strong polymer. An example of
this material comined in a facade with curved glass
laminate can be seen in the Elbphilharmonie Hamburg. Horseshoe shaped cut out glass balconies
made of glass fiber reinforced polymer GRP for
the doubly curved laminated triple glazing at
the Elbphilharmonie Hammburg.
Klaus Lother. Glass tuning forks and curved
glass panes, Intelligent Glass Solutions Magazine.

Glass is normally produced by the float process. The product obtained is annealed or float glass. This can be
toughened to two different kinds of glass, fully toughened, or heat strengthened.
“Glass is toughened by heating it to about 700 degrees centigrade, then carefully cooling it using air blowers
to cool the surfaces rapidly while the center is still viscous. The surfaces are then put into compression as the
center cools and contracts. The high surface compressive stresses are equilibrated by smaller tensile stresses
acting over a greater proportion of the cross sectional area.”(Rice, Peter. 1995)
Depending on speed at which glass is cooled down the resulting stresses within the glass will vary from heat
strenghtened (cooled slowly) to fully tempered (cooled fast).
It is because of the technical advances that we can use glass structurally. But it is important to know how to
use them. In my search for the correct Glass Engineering Technology design approach a new sub-question appeared: When shall I use float glass and when to use heat strengthened glass?

Fully Tempered Glass
“During the thermal tempering process, float glass is heated to approximately 620−675 _C (approximately
100_C above the transformation temperature) in a furnace and then quenched (cooled rapidly) by jets of
cold air.” (Haldimann, M., 2006) “The typical residual compressive surface stress varies between 80MPa and
150MPa for fully tempered soda lime silica glass.”
Float glass’ high tensile strength and it’s characteristic of failing into millions of small pieces made it the safest option when constructing anything above people’s heads. But “If the glass panels fail at too high a failure
stress, so many cracks form simultaneously that the stress cannot go from one layer to another layer.”(Veer,
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F.A. 2005) Therefore; Laminated Heat Strengthened Glass can provide the safest option in my particular case,
but this depends on the needs and the characteristics of the design.

Heat strengthened glass
“Heat strengthened glass is produced using the same process as for fully tempered glass, but with a lower cooling rate. The residual stress and therefore the tensile strength is lower. The fracture pattern of heat strengthened glass is similar to annealed glass, with much bigger fragments than for fully tempered glass. Used in
laminated glass elements, this large fracture pattern results in a significant post-breakage structural capacity.
As the stress gradient depends on the glass thickness and the glass must be cooled down slowly, thick glasses
(> 12mm) cannot be heat strengthened using the normal tempering process.” (Haldimann, M., 2006) “Heat
strengthened glass has a bending strength of around 80 Mpa.” (Veer, F.A. 2013, AR105 TU Delft)

Laminated PVB and Sentry Glass
A laminate is made of 2 or more glass planes (annealed, heat strengthened or floated) welded together with a
sheet of PVB or Sentry Glass or a resin. Sentry Glass is resistant to higher temperatures than PVB. If the glass
will be where the temperatures are higher than 30 degrees Celsius Sentry Glass is recommended. The combination for thicknesses can be any kind, according to the design and availability.
There is the possibility to apply IR or temperature coatings between the laminates to provide with less solar
absorption or fire resistance.

Lamination process

Architectural Record Magazine June 2014

“Laminated glass is of major interest in structural applications. Even though tempering reduces the time dependence of the strength and improves the structural capacity of glass, it is still a brittle material. Lamination
of a transparent plastic film between two or more flat glass panes enables a significant improvement of the
post breakage behavior: after breakage, the glass fragments adhere to the film so that a certain remaining
structural capacity is obtained as the glass fragments ‘arch’ or lock in place. This capacity depends on the
fragmentation of the glass and increases with increasing fragment size (Figure 2.12). Therefore, laminated
glass elements achieve a particularly high remaining structural capacity when made from annealed or heat
strengthened glass that breaks into large fragments. The post-breakage behavior furthermore depends on the
interlayer material.” (Haldimann, M., 2006)
In practice better results can be obtained when combining heat strengthened layers with tempered layers.

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shrinks
compression
tension
compression

tension
compression
Cracks cannot open
due to the stresses

Glass
Advantages
Excellent Compression
Greenhouse Effect (misconception)
Abundant on Earth
Recyclable Transparent Concrete

Technology

temp 250 ºC

temp 250 ºC

PVB

Toughening of Glass
Laminated Glass
Reinforced Glass

PVB
polyvinylbutilate
polyvinylbutilate

press
press
mechanical evenly distributed

mechanical evenly distributed

Design

resin

resin

Disadvantages

hardens after application

hardens after application

Brittle
Breaks

Bending forces
in the glass

Pilkington Planar System

Bending forces
in the support

Articulated Bolt

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http://www.apple.com/retail/fifthavenue/

Glass sizes

3.21m. x 6.00m
3.30m x 8-10-17m
bigger spans relying in the strength provided by using no joints.

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After it has been tempered of heat strengthened it can’t be cut. The best option is water jet cutting.00m. x 6. If glass holes are cut by drilling. Through this invention glass can be cut without creating too much damage to the glass surface. since there were no factories with a bigger size of autoclave. one is laser cutting. “If the drill bits are not perfectly coaxial the hole will have a shoulder. it has to be drilled simultaneously from both sides.30m x 8-10m. Nowadays you can order special glass sizes up to 3.12m. This gives the opportunity to design bigger spans relying in the strength provided by using no joints. 1995) The diagrams show a typical drilling sequence and how this problem can be eliminated. therefore the glass must be toughened in a horizontal oven. but this is not a very good option since laser heats the glass. Peter. Glass cutting Glass cutting Glass has to be cut before processing it. and provides a sanded finish at the same time. If the glass is toughened in a vertical oven the holes will be inaccurate. Steel reinforced glas At Tu Delft several tests have been performed incorporating a steel reinforcement at the top and bottom of laminated glass beams. Glass has to be cut before processing it. The latest test was done with an eight meter long beam consisting of two panels of 2*12 mm heat strengthened pvb laminated glass.Glass sizes After its production annealed glass is cut to a typical size of 3. Until the creation of the Apple Stores this was the biggest size for glass. There are two new inventions for drilling glass.”(Rice. cut by drilling simultaneously from both sides laser cutting laser heats the glass. Water jet cutting Water jet cutting for glass consists on a machine that cuts glass through applying at the same time an abrasive element as sand with a very high pressure of water. with a 20 mm square hollow stainless steel profile at the edges in between. 23 . The best option is water jet cutting.

and the steel will take the tension forces of the cantilever.Pictures in this page: Heat strengthened glass 8m Steel reinforced Beam TU Delft Before the test at 220 KN 11 days after breaking This particular beam was tested under load and presented the first cracks at 220 kN and finally broke at 430 KN. The beams proposed in my design will be steel reinforced. A week afterwards it was still standing carrying its own weight. This technology will be used in the design. This particular way of reinforcing glass increases the safety of the beam through a very slender reinforcement. and will also form the slidding hinge connections and the cantilever rotating hinge. 24 .

25 . and the site’s characteristics. Due to the brittle characteristic fo glass. making holes in the glass for the connections is not the best solution. The kind and strenght of the bonding that glue can provide is a much better solution. Glass Glueing Above Picture: Insert connectors Apple Store Amsterdam.Glass Inserts used for Connections Glass connections are the fundamental design part because they must gently transmitt the forces to the glass. Recent development of titanium inserts embebbed in the laminated glass have proved to be a better soluton to making holes in the glass since in case of failure only one of the interlayers will break. This apparently magical solution has been designed for the Apple stores. The design of the connection is also of great importance. Special care must be taken in the selection of the glue. Comparative Charts of the most commonly used transparent glues in the market. according to the design requirements.

jpg 26 .com/live/media/site122/2013/0604/20130604__hoberman%20arch%20go.Deployable Structures Hoberman’s Arch. http://extras.mnginteractive.

therefore a different kind of hinge is needed. There are several methods to study the kinematical linkages but this research will only focus on the particular linkage of the project. a planar over-constrained linkage. This research will focus on the rigid deployable structures. Mechanisms A mechanism consists of an assembly of rigid members joined by kinematic joints. It is called over-constrained because it has mobility due to special geometry conditions. These were studied and published by Reuleaux (1875) A kinematic chain of elements connected only by lower pair joints is called a linkage.com Jeremy Kasdin Flower Petal Star Shade CIT 2014 Mechanisms are categorized according to the degrees of freedom that they have. mechanical and physical properties for a specific use at any time. There are only 6 fundamental kinds of kinematic joints called lower pairs. and are able to carry loads. Therefore we can say there are two basic kinds of mechanisms. Southampton. and an infinite number of higher pairs. C. TED. See figure a four bar linkage and a planar over-constrained linkage.Deployable Structures “Deployable structures are characterized by their rapid erection and easy disassembly for reuse” (GANTES. Deployable structures are structures that have a transformation from a closed compact configuration to an open expanded configuration. planar and spherical. 27 . A planar mechanism is that where all trajectories are parallel to a plane. WIT Press).J. The rigid deployable structures’ movement depends on a mechanism. but they can be simplified in order to study them. inflatable and rigid. Boston. The premise for this kind of linkages to have mobility is that their elements are parallelograms. In the particular case of the variation used in this project the links are not parallel but radial. 2000. UK. There are two categories of deployable structures. Deployable Structures: Analysis And Design. and a spherical mechanism is that where all links or rigid elements are constrained to rotate along the same fixed point in space. In general they all are three dimensional. The kinematic joints perform a movement and are categorized by the degrees of freedom of the movement they perform. They can adapt their shape.

The trick is to rotate the scissor hinges and to adjust the width of the elements to the desired final shape.Example of the violation of Kutzbach’s criterion Constricted Double Link on which the second stage desing is based.com Scissor Hinges Study Model This variation allows using the structure also as a cladding element. Hobberman’s Arch Patent www.googlepatents. this leads to a more economical cleaner design.hobberman. Deployable Explanade Project www.com 28 .

in 1961. which are not distorted by the transformation because the top and bottom of the cube are not triangulated. René MOTRO. Boston. Deployable Structures: Analysis And Design. this leads to a more economical cleaner design. WIT Press). Deployable Structures: Analysis And Design. The term “tensegrity” was coined from the phrase “tensional integrity” by Fuher. Southampton. Scissor hinges assembled to form a circle make a planar double chain. and they can be assembled in several combinations providing the ability to transform. (GANTES. who began constructing structures in 1948 and showed them to Bucloninster Fuller. using the principle of the pantograph.2006.Scissor Hinges Panthographs. This particular sphere has four basic different kinds of hinges. forming 8 basic triangles.Motion Structures Spanish architect Emilio Perez Pinero was the first to build. J. This variation allows using the structure also as a cladding element. 2000. C. called The Hoberman’s Sphere. WIT Press). This research focused on a doubly-curved tensegrity system proposed where the main element is a cube formed by four rigid elements and twelve tensors. There is a special variation of the scissor hinges also invented by Hoberman and exemplified in Hoberman’s Arch. Tensegrity “The concept of tensegrity was first realized by the sculptor Kenneth Snelson. C. Scissor hinges can be modified to vary the movement into any kind of movement by just adjusting the length of the links. Tensegrity Basic module study for doubly curved deployable structures. The most known scissor hinges are the toys invented by Hoberman. actually such a deployable structure in his modem sense. Iass Tensegrity structures separate the tensile and compressive forces into its two basic elements. Their folding process has no limitations since the tension of the cables can be adjusted. UK. This toy is made of several scissor hinges or pantograph assembled together to obtain only one degree of freedom. Ali SMAILI1. and can expand several times its package size. Southampton. Foldable / Unfoldable Curved Tensegrity Systems By Finite Mechanism Activation.2012. Zhong You. 2000. The trick is to rotate the scissor hinges and to adjust the width of the elements to the desired final shape. The minimum combination of 4 cubes will have stability. and the sphere is made by a combination of three main planar double chains connected by three secondary planar double chains.J. 29 . Boston. or scissor hinge.” (GANTES.J. or scissor hinges. who proposed that the method could be apphed to large architectural domes. UK. They can generate curved or straight double-layered structures. They can be used to provide any shape desired. resulting into a more transparent light weigh structure.

Development and Design of a Glass Folded Plate Structure. clamped and with an insert on the glass laminate. The analysis of a simple structure was done in FEM using a simple door hinge conection with two variants.Origami Miura-Ouri Foldable. It relies on the stability gained by paper by folding. Mathias Krupna. JIASS.Origami Stefan Trometer. The following research done at the University of Applied Design in Munich Consists of the development of a Glass Folded Plate Structure. Their design can be originated by folding paper. 2006.Miura-Ouri Foldable. The characteristic of foldable structures is that 2D panels connected with a hinge along their common joint line form them. 30 .

www. Applied to this particular research. Wembley Stadium The two lateral structures of the cover slide to open and close.wembleystadium. Guidelines for Structural Design of Retractable Roof Structures. the most interesting feature about stadiums are the guidelines for performance. as well as a maintenance plan.Stadiums Stadiums are the most common used depliable structures and a very good design source but at a very big scale. 31 .com Architectural Considerations. Load Wind Load Seismic effects Snow Load Dynamic effects Thermal effects Skew effect Water proofing Mechanism Driving Mechanism There must be a Disaster Prevention Plan. which can be used with some adaptations to the design of any depliable structure. Safety in conversion Degree of openness Speed Flexibility of space Effect of wind on retracted roof Occupancy environment Fire safety Consideration of building type Economic efficiency Operability management Cost Structural Design Considerations.

Chapter IV The Design Eye level Render of the clossed Canopy 3dmax Render 32 .

Museum located outside the archaeological site’s walls.sun and the Sea. 33 .C. . .Late Post-Classic Mayan Period 1200-1521 A.Surrounded by a 5m tall wall & Coral Reef .The city of Tulum .

www. but will be able to fold when it’s too hot. The city was abandoned after the Spanish invasion and covered by the jungle. WWW. The canopy will protect form the rain and wind.C. Servicio Meteorológico del Estado de Quintana Roo. It is rare. Next Page Images: Temperature and rain annual reports for Quintana Roo.com Aerial View of the Ancient Ruins of Tulum Concurso Internacional Arquine 2008. and not interfere with it’s beauty.com Project Design Introduction The site chosen for this project was at the entrance of an archeological museum in the ancient ruins of Tulum. 34 .googlemaps. in Quintana Roo. and to take advantage of the transparent property of glass to respect the ruins. and was probably still inhabited during the Spanish invasion. Although The Caribean is a hurricane region this area is protected by Cozumel Island and Cancún Island. México. It was surrounded by a 5m tall wall on three sides and by the second largest Coral Reef in the Caribbean Sea on the fourth side.com Topographc Map of the city of Tulúm. Concurso Internacional Arquine 2008. The main building called the Castle was built in a cliff and in line with the sun and the Sea. but possible to have hurricanes in Tulúm. Site The city of Tulum belongs to the Late Post-Classic Mayan Period (1200-1521 A. It is 1 hour drive away from Cancún along the coast of the Caribean Sea.arquine. which doesn’t have a museum.). México. Now it is an important archeological site. Nowadays it is an important turistic site. located outside the archeological site’s walls. www.Previous Page Images: Satelite Image of Quintana Roo. This project will be a part of the museum. México. The reason for choosing this particular site was to deal with the challenge of a sustainable glass structure in a very hot place.arquine.

Challenge: • A glass structure in a hot and humid place • Respect the ruins • Protect from the rain and wind 35 .

The cantilevered hinge had to be designed. Second Stage 2 Main Beams Lessons Learned The second beam had to supported. Third Stage 2 Main Rotating Beams Lessons Learned The cantilever was solved by clamping the rotating beams and using a ball bearing.First Stage Cantilevered Scissor hinge Lessons Learned The tensors had to be adjusted The scissor hinge woks better as a self supported structure. 36 .

Second Stage 3D Top Views The movement was induced by an actuator paralel to the main beam on the middle glass plate connector. There was no problem with the mechanism in this version. The only flaw in this stage is that the whole structure remains cantilevered. The main beam remains steady while the movement rotates around each of the principal hinges of this beam. Second Stage Sequence of the animation 37 .

but two columns replac e the main beam. This solution was working but resulted too complicated for the material. and the mechanism remains the same. 38 . to which the overlapping panels were connected. Therefore I tried to simplify it. and the two secondary beams provide the movement. Sketching total project First Approach The first approach was to combine a series of hinges along a circular beam with a scissor hinge hanging from cables that would create the intended folding rotation of the panels. Modeling This research followed two types of modeling: Computer generated modeling. the scissor hinge resulted to be a bad solution for this material. The final design is the solution to these problems by changing the position of the supports and balancing the cantilevered beams with a mirrored structure. Therefore the second step was to simplify it. and hand made scale models that prove the proposed mechanisms would work. But there was an important issue to solve. This option simplified the design because the scissor hinge was substituted by a series of sliding hinges in the second beam.Design Evolution The design first started as a combination of linear over-constrained link with a scissor hinge that provided the possibility to create a curved structure. and this generated several problems on the cantilevered structure. As I studied the model for solving this idea with Glass Engineering Technology. the main beam had to rotate on its support to provide the movement. and the tensors were no longer needed. The canopy would be supported by a main curved beam and a series of tensors connecting the second beam to the scissor hinge. and were carried by a main beam. The second approach was to use two secondary beams. The first idea is respected.

Models Modified Scissor hinge Three beams Needed to be restricted An external beam 39 . a sliding hinge along a second beam. Two versions were made to have a simply sliding cantilevered glass plate. Sliding Cantilever Cantilevered Scissor hinge Simplification The cantilever was still not solved since the forces generated on the secondary beams were too strong for a moving structure. Further study of the movement need on the scissor hinge led to a final solution.Simplification A series of study models were done to understand the intended movement and how to solve it.

Open Final Proposal View of the Complex. Final Proposal Final Proposal View of the Plaza View of one module Final Proposal View of the Complex.Closed 40 .Final Solution Further study on the movement and the options to balance the cantilever led to a final solution.

Final Proposal View of the Complex Sequence of the animation 41 .

as would be in real life if this were cut by water-jet cutting. and need to be very precise that are the reason why they were made by lassercutting. This will serve as patterns to cut the real glass. Very precise drawing of each mold were drawn in autocad from the 3d model in real shape and magnitude. and sent to laser-cutting.3d modeling The last part of the modeling will be to create a scale glass model therefore a scale MDF model was made. 42 .

9mm 12mm . 6mm . 2% slope 2. 3cm glass plate + Fourth layer added for redundancy. At higher temperature levels strength and stiffness of the interlayer decrease. High Reflectance Coating 90% 4.9mm 12mm . Above 30 C Sentry Glass Interlayer 5.9mm 6mm 1 2 3 4 5 43 .Environmental Considerations Heat and moisture 1. Vindico Glass Coating 3.

being non-porous. and a beam or column is drawn as a line.bk. www. Generally in Mexico the codes for Miami are taken since they have the same conditions. Float glass. really having properties like an extreme ultra high performance concrete. weak in tension and strong in compression. layer in between. to continue with the design process. leaving two equal layers of 8mm. The predominant winds in Tulum are from the southeast. with a 12mm. The main forces are the wind forces in case of a hurricane. 44 . Model for FEM/Diana Diana Calculations The approach to the structural design with glass can be very similar to the design with concrete. F. of the top and bottom layers.A.tudelft. From this thickness a third layer is added for redundancy. The result was a 3cm glass plate. 10 Years of ZAPPI Research Delft University of Technology.” (Veer. if necessary. 2005. The design of the middle layer will be reinforced in the areas around the circular titanium insert connections and the edges. and will be water jet cut with a pattern to lower the weight of the glass.zappi. This way we can vary the sections of the beams or columns after the calculations.nl) Preliminary Structural Design Structural Assumptions The first approach to the analysis is to do some hand calculations to determine the approximate thickness required for the glass plates. which in the case of the circular structure are considered negative in the z axis. A volume is drawn as a surface.Model for FEM/Diana The model done for FEM calculations has to be a 3d simplified drawing of the 3d model itself. “These materials are brittle. The middle layer is always the thicker. in case any of the other layers breaks. These were done following the codes for building in the Caribbean.

physical properties and forces. specifying materials. The beams are steel reinforced on the top and bottom layers for safety and to take in the mechanism.FEM Input Mesh Creating A simplified version of the model is created for the analysis. FEM Input Physical Properties The physical properties are specified for every different set of elements created. 45 . The figure shows the mesh created with the materials applied.

for the glass plates as well as for the reinforced circular glass beams. middle. middle. buttom sufaces) Distributed forces Shear forces Bending moment 46 . middle.For the iDiana FEM calculations a 3cm glass thickness is considered. The dimensioning of the beams was with the rule of thumb as with dimensioning with concrete 1/10 of the length and the beam relation 1:2. LC2 Wind The glass beams will consist of a top and bottom u section steel reinforcement that will hold the mechanism of the sliding hinges. Tension                   Compression       Forces             Moment FEM i Diana Results LC1 Gravity The analysis is made with three different load-cases: Load-case 1: dead weight Load-case 2: wind load Load-case 3: dead weight + wind load The Results are analyzed and obtained for the following forces: Nodal (Global) Element (Local) Displacements global Support reactions global Normal stresses (top. and will hold the glass structure in case of failure. buttom sufaces) Principal stresses (top. buttom sufaces) Shear stresses (top.

FEM Results Peaks S1 max = 104 MPa Tension Stress Principal Stress Annealed HS FT Tension Tension Compression + S1 20 40 80 + S2 6 40 80 S3 200 200 200 Top S1 max = 5.61 MPa Middle S1 max = 4.92 MPa Bottom S1 max = 11.3 MPa 47 .

72 MPa prstresses Case  1 top S1 principal  stresses  1* glass  plate  1 S2 principal  stresses  2 glass  plate  1 mid Case2 buttom top mid Case3 buttom top principal  stresses  3** glass  plate  1 buttom 16 2 7 104 52 66 104 52 66 min 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 max 38 7 41 min 0 0 0 max 7 0 0 7 3 11 14 3 11 min 0 0 -­‐7 -­‐14 -­‐4 -­‐7 -­‐14 -­‐4 -­‐14 14 1 2 max min S3 mid max -­‐2 0 -­‐14 max 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 min -­‐7 -­‐2 -­‐16 -­‐65 -­‐148 -­‐117 -­‐65 -­‐148 -­‐116 max 0 0 0 min -­‐39 -­‐6 -­‐37 Bottom S1 max = 40.Top S1 max = 37.5 MPa 48 .5 MPa Middle S1 max = 6.

49 .Tension Stress In this figure we can see that the behavior of the stresses is very low and within the parameters. The maximum stresses for Heat strengthened glass should be 40 MPa.

and in the case of the stresses they are obtained for top. For each idiana result please refer to Appendix A. Nodal Displacements global displa Case 1 DTX displacements global x-direction DTY displacements global y-direction DTZ displacements global z-direction RESDTX resullting displacements max min max min max min max min top 0 0 0 0 0 -1 1 0 mid Case2 buttom top 0 -8 22 0 5 -49 53 0 mid Case3 buttom top 0 -8 22 0 4 -49 53 0 mid buttom 50 . A special data is obtained for the critical glass plate 1 located on top of the columns. middle and bottom layers on the surfaces.Maximum displacement: 53 mm The results are compared in a ghaph and reported in a chart for the three cases.

Maximum support reaction: 13700 N Minimum support reaction: -13700 N Support reactions global supreac Case 1 FBX support reactions global x-direction FBY support reactions global y-direction FBZ support reactions global z-direction RESFBX resullting support reactions max min max min max min max min top 6 -6 0 0 -762 -2540 2540 762 mid Case2 buttom top 113 -113 643 -643 -10400 -11200 11200 10400 mid Case3 buttom top 108 -108 642 -642 -11100 -13700 13700 11200 mid buttom 51 .

middle. buttom sufaces) Maximum Shear Stress: 23 N Minimum Shear Stress: -20 N stresses Case 1 SXX normal stresses x-plane glass plate 1 SYY normal stresses y-plane glass plate 1 SXY shear stresses x/y-plane glass plate 1 SXZ shear stresses x/z-plane glass plate 1 SYZ shear stresses y/z-plane glass plate 1 max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min top 15 -6 mid Case2 1 -2 buttom 6 -15 top 93 -63 mid Case3 48 -145 buttom 61 -113 7 0 0 0 0 -7 31 -41 6 -20 25 -31 3 -3 0 0 3 -3 20 -22 13 -12 22 -20 1 -2 1 -2 1 -2 8 -34 4 -30 7 -26 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 6 -6 6 -6 6 -6 top 93 -63 30 -16 31 -41 21 -15 20 -23 10 -23 8 -34 3 -4 6 -6 4 -6 mid 48 -145 1 0 6 -20 0 0 13 -12 0 0 4 -30 3 -4 6 -6 4 -6 buttom 52 61 -113 17 -29 25 -31 16 -21 23 -20 23 -10 7 -26 3 -4 6 -6 4 -6 .Maximum Normal Stress: 61 N Minimum Normal Stress: -113 N Normal and shear stresses (top.

Maximum Shear Force: 125 N Minimum Shear Force: -185 N Distributed and shear forces Maximum Distributed Force: 186 N Minimum Distributed Force: -611 N forces) Case 1 NXX distributed forces x-plane NYY distributed forces y-plane NXY distributed forces x/y-plane QXZ shear forces x-plane QYZ shear forces y-plane max min max min max min max min max min top 2 -2 7 -7 2 -2 32 -57 32 -33 mid Case2 buttom top 130 -129 182 -604 97 -203 125 -158 172 -183 mid Case3 buttom top 131 -130 186 -611 99 -203 125 -158 172 -185 mid buttom 53 .

Maximum Bending Moment: 4360 N Minimum Bending Moment: -5300 N Bending and torcional moments Maximum Torcional Moment: 4620 N Minimum Torcional Moment: -4460 N moments Case 1 MXX bending moment x-plane MYY bending moment x-plane MXY torsional moment x-plane max min max min max min top 2180 -904 446 -463 1100 -8 mid Case2 buttom top 3960 -5300 3030 -3330 4620 -4460 mid Case3 buttom top 4360 -5300 3030 -3430 4620 -4460 mid buttom 54 .

and any mechanism. The solution tried in the model was to counterbalance the cantilever with a mirrored beam and to clamp them together. the hinged connections with the glass plates had to be glued. If the MDF model proved to work. Many small-scale models were made to understand the movement and the mechanism itself. but the movement I was searching had to use a hinge in the x/y axis. or in the case of a triangle. and this process also helped design the connections. There are very few examples of this kind of cantilevered hinge. with three 55 . but there are some bridges that work with this system. The model had to be very accurate. as should be any structure built with glass. this guided the design of the insert. then the structure could ne done in glass.Final Model Construction The Experiment. This assumption is based in the characteristics of both materials. where it is helpful to avoid moments. The Design of the Cantilevered Hinge Cantilevered Hinge One of the most troublesome parts of the design was the cantilevered hinge. Any glass plane must be held at least in four points. Most cantilevers use a hinge in the z axis. When working with a glass structure it is highly recommended to make a test model at the biggest scale possible for safety measures. therefore all the MDF parts were lassercut. The joints and the design were made as they should be used in the real scale prototype. A 1:5 MDF model was made before trying to build a glass model. The Design of the Hinged Connections with the Glass Plates Hinged Connections with the Glass Plates Due to the characteristics of glass and to the resources available.

it must be within a millimeter smaller..The Glass Plates could be leveled with only two points just by tightening the bolts.The tubular form of the beams proved to be correct.The MDF beams didn’t fail. but it’s connections had to be very strong. but the mechanism only allowed a third point in the same line between the other two supports.points. Once the complete structure was assembled.The relationship between the size of the hole and the hinge is very important. This proved to be unstable and. the hinge will not rotate smoothly. therefore I decided to try how this would work. therefore the need for a third point was proved. if it is too tight. and the size of the circular insert proved to be able to support the glass plates. The small models proved to work better with only two support points. The clamps supporting the beams were clamped to a desk. The beams were assembled with bigger aluminum angles glued together with double face tape.. And. Results from the experiment The glass plates could be leveled. it proved to be rigid enough to hold it’s own weight. 2. 3. if it isn’t then the connection buckles. The glue and the angles used to assemble the beams were weak and the whole structure couldn’t take the force of it’s own weight. 56 . The first attempt was made and the whole structure proved to be very heavy for the clamps. the material proved to be stiff enough.. 1. The glass plates could be leveled. but there was a slight deformation. In real life the three points at least are necessary in case any of the other supports fail. The triangular shape of the glass plates asked for three points. The glue and the connections failed 4..

The cantilevered hinge had to include reinforcements between the sliding parts. 57 .. 3. The structure is still standing.The design of the mechanism and the sliding hinges must be checked.. 2. The sliding hinges didn’t slide.The connections of the parts of the beams had to be increased in number and redesigned. there were some external problems: The table to which it was clamped prevented one beam from cantilevering. The sliding hinges didn’t slide and the tension was transmitted to the beams. The beams could rotate but the glue failed immediately opening the beam at the connection with the hinge. Conclusions The design of the cantilevered hinge needed several adjustments: 1. Testing the Mechanism Vertical connections have to be improved.. 5. 4. and this obstructed the movement of the beam. The bolts were not cut precisely to the required height. but a smooth movement couldn’t be achieved.Once the model was finished..The beams had to be wider and the vertical elements had to be connected in between the horizontal elements providing more support and surface of adherence.A pair of ball bearings were added at the top and bottom areas of contact between the clamp and the beam to avoid friction..

Titanium connector inserted between laminates 4. 6mm HS Laminated Sentry Glass 2. White anodized aluminum 6/8” bolt 58 .5mm soft aluminum ring 5.Glass Plates Hinge Detail 1. Titanium 6/8” nut 6. Titanium 6/8” spacer 7. 2. 12mm HS Laminated Sentry Glass 3. 180mm diam.

200mm Duran Schott glass tube 8. Steel u profile beam reinforcement 6. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 8 9 3 4 11 12 13 59 . 180mm Duran Schott glass tube 9. 300mm & 304mm Duran Schott glass tube laminated column. 3. 180mm Titanium connector inserted between glass tube laminates 10. 4. Borosilicate Glass Cap White anodized aluminum 6” tube Stainless Steel clamp Stainless Steel Thrust 8”diam Ball Bearing 5. 6-12-12-6mm HS Laminated Sentry curved Glass 7.Rotating Beam Hinge Detail 1. Stainless Steel Thrust 8”diam Ball Bearing 11. 2. Soft aluminum cross spacer column connector 13. Soft aluminum ring glass column connector 12.

Conclusions The answer to the research question is yes. At the end of the design process. during the creation of the final amination I realized that the path of the sliding hinges was no longer a straight line as in the second stage model. when designing with glass which are the Basic Design Rules? The answer relies on teamwork between designers and industry. The beams were designed using steel reinforcement at the top and at the bottom. If we had built the model in glass. the glue would have been stronger. As we modify the characteristics of members in a mechanism. I would like to study other design possibilities. but there would have been important stresses due to the inaccuracy of the trayectories. and the results of the idiana calculations prove this. as I changed the supports and direction of the movement.Conclusions and Implications Introduction The model didn’t work properly but it showed all the important matters that have to be considered when building a real movable glass structure. it is possible to design a 95% glass climate adaptive curved canopy. Mathematica is an example of them. there is an infinite number of different movements that it can produce. also the paths changed. There are some softwares to analyze mechanisms. but as it is a crucial part of the structure. The design of a cantilevered hinge as the one analysed has many problems that can be solved with the ballbearing and the clamps. The connections are the most important feature to design in this kind of structures and building a model is very helpful to see the way the perform. but it would be possible to design the bottom with glass because they are taking the compression forces. I would recomend using those tools to be certain about the trayectory of the members. having a clear and analyzable load analysis of the design where 60 . That was the most important reazon why the model failed. To the sub question.

Safety Considerations Column Protection further study Trial on site construction further study Third Insert further study Maintenance Plan further study Mechanism further study 61 .

Some further safety considerations must be mentioned. using flexible and absorbing supports that can avoid any contact between the glass and glass or hard metals. A third support must be added to each glass pane. As part of my conclusions I propose several safety considerations for this paticular project: Safety Considerations. Some drawing have been done for this proposal. The glass columns must have a protection against collition. A study of the trayectory of the mechanism must be done with mechanica or a similar software. A maintenance plan should be strictly followed during operation. A trial version of the canopy must be tested in site to create a maintenance plan for all the parts. but require further study.the stressess in the glass can be predicted. 62 .

This solution was structurally too complicated to solve with glass elements therefore I analyzed other possibilities to simplify the design. because the design with Glass Engineering Technology has changed drastically the past 30 years. In the first part of the research the design solution was to combine a linear link with a scissor hinge that allowed the curve of the design. Quintana Roo. My intention in a social context is to provide a building that will only provide a service. The result was to create a planar linkage resting in two rotating beams. A very good example for this is the design of the connections and the beams. My intention is to use glass structurally and not just hang it from the structure.Reflection Product process planning Diagrams and sketches There is a very close Relationship between the research and the design in both aspects the structural and the material choice. and be reused or recycled. My choice of approach to the design of a deployable structure was to do research models of the possible structures. Transparency of glass will also play an important rail on the location. it was crucial to be informed of the latest advances achieved using this material. it is very important to research what has already been done before designing. 63 . Relationship between the methodological line of approach of the studio and the method chosen by the student Relationship between the project and the wider social context. Mexico. It respects the existing architecture and camouflages within it. It will be able to adapt. and analyze how different combination of parts give different mechanisms. But many of these mechanisms are already designed and have a patent. Relationship between the theme of studio and the case study chosen (location/object) The design will be situated in Tulum. The design also influenced my re search and enriched it with the solution to every challenge found along the way. It will protect from the weather but it will not interfere with the view of the jungle and the pyramid. therefore. Historic buildings already exist in the site and with its transparency it won’t interfere with the historical environment. The reason to chose this location was to address the climate conditions with an adaptable structure. Referring to the main topic of my thesis. Through this I could understand how each part of the mechanism work. The canopy can open and close depending on the climate conditions. Glass research.

2000.Bos 2011. Structural glass Peter Rice / by André Brown Author: Brown. 2006. Thèse No 3671. WIT Press GANTES. 2005.J. Southampton.. Netherlands. UK. Nijsse. www.com INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR SHELL AND SPATIAL STRUCTURES 2000. testing and design. M.bk. Towards an Integrated Approach TU Delft. Rob 2003.iass. Boston. C. PETER 1995.nl Smith..tudelft. F. WIT Press 64 .P.glassfiles.References Glass Engineering Technology: www. Glass in Structures RICE. Structural design of retractable roof structures. Anthony 2005.com Veer. Deployable Structures: Analysis And Design. Switzerland. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). Professor Fred Veer. Safety Concepts in Structural Glass Engineering. The Analysis Design And Testing Of An Asymmetric Bolted Glass Roof Panel. Southampton.A. 10 Years of ZAPPI Research Delft University of Technology. AR105 Technoledge Lectures TU Delft Deployable Structures IASS www. André Publish date: 2001 F. Boston. Fracture Strength of Structural Glass Elements – Analytical and numerical modeling.zappi. Haldimann. UK. 2009.

WILLIAM 1970.ZUK. De Grote Fantast 65 . Journal Of The International Association For Shell And Spatial Structures: J. Iass Jansen. René MOTRO. Philip Publish date: 2010 Motion structures : deployable structural assemblies of mechanisms Author: You. Theo 2007. Kinetic architecture Kinetic architectures and geotextile installations Author: Beesley. Zhong Publish date: 2012 Ali SMAILI1.2006. Foldable / Unfoldable Curved Tensegrity Systems By Finite Mechanism Activation.

001 018 030 075 102 117 125 141 .Apendix A FEM i Diana Results The analysis is made with three different load-cases: Load-case 1: dead weight Load-case 2: wind load Load-case 3: dead weight + wind load The Results are analyzed and obtained for the following forces: Nodal (Global) Element (Local) p.

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Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

135

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

136

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

137

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

138

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

139

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy
Appendix A FEM Results

140

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 141 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 142 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 143 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 144 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 145 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 146 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 147 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 148 .

Design of a Climate Adaptive Curved Canopy Appendix A FEM Results 149 .

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