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INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION

IFR Navigation Charts


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COMM UNICATION FREQUENCIES


irHE\ER PAC CABLE 26.7 SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY MO\ TOED

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IN UNCONTRCLLEJ AIRSPACE AND WHE\ VF \ CONROLLED ARSPACE


UNLESS ANOHER REQUENCY IS NICRE A P PRO P RIATE.
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AREA CONTROL C.E\TRES and TERMINAL C.O\R0 U\S


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There are three types ofTFR Charts: 1) Terminal Charts, which provide radio navigation data for some of the
busier airports (quite similar to VTAs; 2) Ei2route Tow Altitude Charts, which provide radio navigation data
for the en route portion of flights, up to, but not including 18000' ASL, and. 3) .Enroute High Altitude
Chaf -ts. which provide similar data for the airspace at FLI 80 and above.
LE Charts are Lambert Conformal Conic Projection charts, and are similar to VNC Charts in that a straight
line on an LE represent a great circle route.
Communication
On backpage of the LE are two blocks ofiniormalion, the lirsi concerning the VHF Ircqacncics assigicd to
each oldie n'ijor airports on the chart with control towers (including .\TIS, Tower and Ground Frequencies),
and the second concerning the ,rca Control Centre and Terminal Control VHF frcquencies including
peripheral station radio Jequencies
On the chart itsell the name oitbe applicable Area Control Centres as well is the PAL ftequencs, are
dentified using a boxed RrmaL The PAL box on the right shows that Vancouver Centre can be conlac Led On
1340MFE'., aswell38l.4MHz, (UHF).

PAL
VAN COUVFR
134.0
381..

Scale
The scale of the LB Charts varyin the above example, tbr instance, the upper let and right corners of the
back page show that LO 2 provides a scale of 18 NM per U', while LO us scaled at 20 NM to 1". This
variation in scale, however, is of little consequence, since all distances along airways between navigation aids
and betweei intersections are published on the chart. In tho case that a n'asuremeiit is reqniredfor exaniple
between a navigatioii aid aixi an airporta scale bar that appears at the top and bottom of the chart can be
used. Simply mark the distance on the edge of a scrap piece of paper and then position the paper next to the
scale to read the distance.
Airspace

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Note carelii]ly the Legend that appears or LE charts Or the hottoiii tight-hand corner oFthe Legendtinder
fVhsTcellaneouswe are told that all green-shaded dT&(1S oI'the Chart indic
uncontrolled airspace below
18000' ASL, while the white areas indicate coiitrolkd airspace below tfiL-6 altitude, including Low Level
Airways. arid Transition Areas. The Chart ftirLher dehneles areas where coiiLrolled airspace exists above
12500' AST, (Low Level Airways and Control Area Rxinsions)aU green areas pattened with white
square (with green shade) /iatdng. Finally, iiote under this section is the description of isogonic lines
(darker green and (lashed). Note also the Area Minimum Altitudes (AMAs), which provides 2000'
clearance over the obstacle within the quadrantat(establislied by degrees longitude and latitude).
MOCA and MEA
Perhaps the most important information on the bE for the 11R pilot is the MOCA (Minimum Obstruct ion
(1earance Al/it ude'i), which is marked with an asterisk, and MEA (Minimum En Route Altitudes), which lack
an asterisk (sec depiction below).

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MOCA
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depictions for
airways B12
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The MOCA provides on altitude above sea level in ejiecl between radio fixes on low level afrwavs or air
routes that meet the JFk obsruciion clearwe
w requirement /r the route segrneni.j Importantly, tI

11'R. obstruction clearance rcquircniit varies with whctlr or not an airway or air route is located inside or
outside a Designated Mountainous Area (DMA). Outside the DMAs, the MOCA provides 1000'
clearance over the highest obstacle within 5 NM of the aircraft; inside DMAs 2, 3, and 4, this clearance
increases to 1500', and in DMAs 1 and 5 this clearance increases to 2000.
In contrast, the IvthA provides an altitude above sea level between specified fixes on aThvays or air
routes that assures acceptable navigational coverage, and which meets the liY? obstruction clearance
requirernents. Accordingly. MI.A will always be higher than MOCA.
Also note that VHF/UHF airways are depicted in black ink, while L1/MI' airways are in green. You will not
have difficulty determining the proper odd/even altitude to fly as the even altitude direction associated with an
airway is indicated by the pointed end olihc airway identilicatioti box.
The Following show the relationship between MEA and MOCA as they are applied to airway segtmnts:

MEA and MOCA based ort


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Note that each of the Fixes depicted above will actually appear as an intersection on the LE chart, including the
means by which the intersection is determinedi.e., DME, a radial or hearing from a neighbouring radio aid.

Minimum Reception Altitude


The TvThumurn Reception Altitude (MRA) should not get confiised with the MOCA and the MEA, While the
latter provides obstruction clearance data, the MRA only provides reception altitude guidance for published

intersections. Specifically, the MRA is provided for specific Vi 11'/Li 11' intersections and specifics the lowest
altitude above sea level at which acceptable navigational signal coverage is received to determine the
intersection.
Two intersections arc depicted Mow-1(onch and Kanoo Intersections. Ihey share the saiir IVII(A (14000'
ASL). N ote that the co-ordinates for the intcrscctioiis are provided, as is the radial, idcnthicr, and frequency
for the VU R used to establish the positions.

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Radio Aids, Distance and Course Data


All radio AidsLe., NDB, VOR, VORTACare orientated to magnetic north in the Southern Domestic
Airspace, and true north in the Northern Domestic Airspace. While the azimuths are correctly positioned,
other navigation aid symbols may be positioned for sake of clarity.
lhc radio aid, distance and course data for the airway Vi 12 between Calgary VORI'AC and Cranbrook
VOR is examined in detail below. Note that the actual distances between sinboLs arc only approxinttcd for
the sake of clarity.

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Navigation and Communication Data Boxes


The radio aid data boxes are virtually identical to the pattern wed on VFR charts. A heavy line around the
navigation aid dal.a box indicates the fciLl.y is co-located willi FSS. Tn the case a thin-lined box, FSS is not
co-located with the iciliiy. Remote FSS communication equipment is established at rrrany radio aid sites, and
these are indicated by the appearance of a sub-box below the navigation aid data box.
Standard frequencies-126.7, 121.5, and 243 :tvHlzare available for contacting FSS where FSS is cclocated at the radio aid facility (heavy lird data boxes), unless otherwise noted. Additional frequencies used
by FSS will be published above the data box, but note that the standard frequencies will not appear here
instead, it is implied that they are usable. If any of the standard frcqucncies are not available, they will be
shown with a line through them. N ote that the standard frequencies do not apply to thin-lined data boxes
showing reniote I'S S communication; in these cases, only the frequencies published above the data boxes can
be used,
Below appear three varieties.

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Airport Data

The Aerodrome and Aerodromc Data depiction on LFR charts are conventional, arid do not vary substantially
for VFRcliart relrences. Importantly, however, airports with published Inst rurneiu approach procedures
are displayed in black ink.

Changeover Points
Nomially the radio aid uscd for tracking an airway is changed between the anchoring facilities at the half-way
,mrk. Where this changeover point is diffcrcnt, it is niarkcd as indicated bckw.. En route from VOR A to
VOR B, the VOR A is selected until the 102-NM mark is reached, and then VUR B is selected,

ADF, VOR, and GPS Navigation Procedures

The CPS Waypoint quacrants for the 010 Track, as


viewed frrm a properly orienLed aircraft
on

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Homing and Tracking


To "home" to a VOR station or GPS waypoini:
tune and identify the VOR station or (}PS waypoint;
centre the CDT with ()BS that provide a "to" indication;
fly a heading to rnahii.ain the trackif theCDI migrates icli, you are to the right of track; if the CDI
migrates right, you are to the ic ft o ['track.
To ilitercepi apre-determined track using VOR or GPS waypaint
tune and identify the VOR station or GPS vvaypoint;
scicct the track desired using the ORS;
orient the aircraft so iliat the desired track to or Iorn the VOR or GPS waypont is the same as the
airTa1ts beading (paralleling the track);
note whether the VOR or GPS waypoint is ahead oll-he lal.eral axis o['the aireralt (indicated by a "to"
indica(ion), or behind the lateral axis (indiealed by a 'lrom" indica(ion);
ilibe CDI is on the right oientre, add the desired wilercepl angle to the current onentaicd heading and
fly the intercept; if the CDI is on left, subtract the desired intercept ang1;
when the CDI centres during the intercept, alter course to im, intainthe desired track.

The NDB quadrants for the 030 Track, as


viewed from a properly orientated aircraft
03

To "home" to a station using ADF:


tune, idcnti1 and test the NDB;
note the relative bcaring to the N DB and turn the aircrdi so that the rclativc bcariig is 360' (ic., the
magnetic heading of the aircraft equaLs the magnetic bearing to the 1\t)B);
fly to maintain a relative bearing of 360'.
To intercept a pre-deterinined track using ADE:
tune, idcntify, and test the N L)B;
orient the aircraft so that the dcsircd track to or from the NDB iq the same as the aircraft's heading
(paralleling the track);
note wlictlicr the bearing indicator (the needle) is indicating right or left of the 1ongtudinal axis of the
aircra Ii;
if the bearing indicator points to the right oflongii.udinal axis, add the desired intercept angle to the
current orientated heading and fly the intercept; if the bearing indicator points to the right oflongitudinal
axis, subtract the desired iiiercepi. ange;.
iFyou are intercepting a trackfrom the NDB, you slowly'pull the tail" o['the bearing indicator to nttc1i
the intercept anglewhen the tail "opens" to match your intercept angle, you are "on track" and should
now Lurn on course iF you are intercepting a Lrack to the NUB, you slowly "push the head" o[the
bearing indic(or to match the intercept anglewhen lie tail "opens" to rnaleh lie intercept angle, again
you are "on (Tack" trid should now turn on course.
The irfiereept angles used are the sanie (unless otherwise prescribed): a 45' angle is used when intercepting a
track ti-urn a sLa(ion (radio navigation aid), and a 900 angle is used when inlercepling a track to a slaLion.

OrientationParalleling the Track

The key to intercepting a desired track is first paralleling the track. When you get comfortable with
interceptions, you will start skipping this phase, but until you get proficient at it, always parallel the track before
you intercept it. By paralleling the track, you are ectivcFj orienting yourself and the aircraft to the ground
transmitter or waypoint. Is it located in front of or behind the airerafi2 is it located to the left or to the rir?
With a VOR or (IPS waypoint, once the track is paralleled, the hifomtioii derived from the instrument
display can be directly applied to your mental picture of your locationyou are looking for the "Fo" or
1rom" indication to determine if it is ahead or behind, and you look for the needle deflection to determine Wit
is right or left. Consider the depiction below:

Intercepts and Tracking


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Navigation Formula

Relative Bearing

Magnetic bearing, sontirncs shnply referred to as bearing, denotes the horizontal irngtictic direction to or

from any point. If the magnetic bearing (or hearing) to a station is 270, for example, this means that we are
directly east of the station similarly, if our bearing to a station is 1 80c , we are directly north.
Relative bearing is the position of an object relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircrafl. If an object
lies directly oft'the right wing of an aircraft, it would be considered to be at a relative bearing of 090'. If the
aircraft is eastbound and an object is directly to the north of the aircraft, the object still remains at a relative
bearing of 270, even though the inagnel it: bearing is 360.
An aircraft is flying on a tmgnctie heading of 270', An ADF indicator shows a relative hearing to a local NDB
as 010. To proceed directly to the NDB, what magnetic heading would he flown?
Here iF, the krnuh to he used:
Magnetic Bearing = Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing
or, MB=MH+RB

MB =270

I 010

MB = 280
10 fly to the N DB (or beacon), the pilot would fly 280
Now, what would happen if the niagn elk heading and relative hearing, added togethcr. equalled a value
greater than 360. The solution is straightlbnvards'imply take the sum and subtract 360. For example,
an aircraft is flying a heading of 2700 and the relative hearing to the station is 190'. What magnetic hearing
should the pilot fly to proceed directly to the station?
MB MH+RB
MB - 270 + ISO
MB 451)
MB (450 360)
MR = 090

10 fly to the 1'. JiB (or beacon), the pilot would fly 090O.
A similar variation on the formula can be encountered when determining the relative bearing. To establish
relative bearing by itself on one side of the equation, simply subtract Ml I from both sides:
MBMH+ RI)
MB-MH(MH+RB)-MH

1v1J3-M1I=RB or,
I1 II II II

On occasion you will find that the magnetic hearing Ls greater than the aircrafi .c magnetic heading. A
negative answer will not do, of course, but the solution is quite straight forwardcfinp1v add 36O' to the
magnetic hearing. Here is an example: The aircraft's magnetic heading is 27W, and the magnetic bearing to
an N DE3 is 1
What is the relative bearing to the N Dif?
RB - MB - MH
RP - 10-27()
RB - (180-360)-270
RB = 540-270
1113 = 270

So, let's see if this uxikcs sense. Thc aircraft is flying, westbound (i.c., from right to bft across your piece of
paper). '1he magnetic bearing to the station is 180', so that would put the station below the aircraft at the
bottom ofthc page (i.e., the south). What would be thc relative bearing of this station with respect to the nose
of the aircraflycs it would be directly off the left wing, or 2700 measured clockwise from the aircraft's
longitudinal axis!

Time and Distance to Station


There are two lrmulas to lie aware o[wliicli allow a pilot to determine the time or distance to an NDB or
YOR station. To use the lbrrnula, the pilot must first he tracking directly to the station in question; then the
aircraft is turned 90 frorri that heading to a perpendicular track. The pilot Lhen notes the changes in Lhe
bearing to the station and the amount of urne required produce the bearing change.
The two equations are as Ibilows:

Time (seconds) required for degrees or radials change


Time to Station (minutes) =
Number of degrees/radials changed

I'AS x Time to station in (minutes)


Distance to Station ([NM) =

60

Applying these formulas to VORs, for example, let us assume that an aircraft is tracking inbound on the 2700
Radial of a VOR. Fhc pilot wishes to know the aircraft's distance from the VOl? slatin. To do this, the
pilot then turns the aircraft to a heading of 360"', and starts tinning After two minutes the pilot notes that the
CDI has deflected I '/ dotsor what is three degrees. Here comes the math:

129
Time to Station (minutes) =

Time to Station (minutes) = 40

The arrali is 40 minutes from the VOR.


Assuming that the airerafi travels at 120 KTS lAS, the pilot then wishes to estimte the distance of the aircraft
fi-om the VOR. here we go:

120x 40
Distance to Station (NM)
60

Distance to Station (NM) = KU

Thc aircraft is 9 () NM from the VOR.


Now let ui apply tFese lhrwitilas to u.SC o['NDRs. Again the aircraft iF. tracking directly to an NDB and the
pilot wishes to determine the exact time and distance required Ir station passage Using a fixed card ADF the
pilot tLuns 900 Worn the course and notes that it takes 2 minutes lbr the relative hearing to the NDB to change
from 2700 to 262'. Again, here comes the nttb: 120 seconds divided by 8 eqwils 1 5the airerdit is
IhereJjre 15 minutes Worn the NDB. Tithe TA o[the aircraf is 150 KTS, 150 is multiplied by 1 5 Lo equal
2250, arKi 2250 is divded by 60 Lo equal 37.5--the aircraft is ihereR,re 37.5 NM from the NDB.

Track Measurement
Whericvcr it is required to produce a quick measurement of csdniatcd cii route along an airway with a dogleg,

or a series o ['airways with dilrcrcnt tracks, an effective way to do this is to "eyeball-estimate" an average
track. When the average track is dctcrinincd, the forecast winds can be applied to dctcrrninc the average
groundspccd and the total distance of the actual routing can be applied to the avcragc groundspced to
determine the total tinic on route.
Here are sonic examples of average tracks:

References:
AIM GLLN 5.1 (Glossary of Aeronautical Terms)
2 ibid.
3 Unlike a VOR, the NDB signal is tested every tint a new NDB is selected. If the APP is equipped with a
"test' hiaion, this is pressed and the bearing indicator will nioc to the 090'relative hearing position; ifthe
ADF does not have a lest lcatLirc, move the liinclion scicetor switch Worn the ADF position to the ANT
position (the ANT position removes the directional loop antenna" from the systern allowing only the nondirectional "sense antenna" to receive the signal), and again the 090 relative bearing will be received.
In lad, you do not add or subtract, but instead simply glance at the ADF rotating card and read the intercept
beadingpresui-ning, oftourse that you have "bugged" the orientttion heading. In the event ola Fixed card
ADF, simply transpose the bearing indication onto the heading indicator; as you turn to the intercept heading
you should see the desired track under either the 45'or 900 marker on the heading indicator.
. This is quite tricky business and you should spend titne on the ground re-viewing this tail pulling" and "head
pushing; on a scrap of paperbut of course it is best seen in the air.
"Mary Bar/ed a/er llarv Dad Roast IJeef or "Mary 1/ad Roast Bee/i4arv Bar/ed."