Sie sind auf Seite 1von 65
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Chap 11 AC Power Analysis
Outline • Instantaneous and Average Power • Maximum Average Power Transfer • Effective or RMS

Outline

Instantaneous and Average Power

Maximum Average Power Transfer

Effective or RMS Value

Apparent Power and Power Factor

Conservation of AC Power

Power Factor Correction

Instantaneous Power The instantaneous power (in watts) is the power at any instant of time.

Instantaneous Power

The instantaneous power (in watts) is the power at any instant of time.

p(t) v(t)i(t)

( )

v t

( )

i t

V

m

I

m

cos(

cos(

v

i

)

t

t

)

Power Provider

v i )   t  t   ) Power Provider Power Consumer p

Power Consumer

p t

( )

(

v t

) (

i t

)

V

m

I

cos(

t

v

)cos(

t

i

)

m

t ) V m I cos(  t    v )cos( t  

1

2

V

m

I

m

c os(

v

i

)

1 V

m
2

I

m

cos(2

t

v

i

)

 

cos

cos

 

1

2

cos(

 

)

c os (

 

)

Frequency

doubled!

Illustration of Instantaneous Power ( ) p t  1 2 V m I m

Illustration of Instantaneous Power

( )

p t

1

2

V

m

I

m

1

cos(

V I

v

i

)

2

m

m

cos

(

2

t

v

i

)

p(t) is periodic but with frequency

The power is transferred from the circuit to the source.

(Because of the storage elements such as capacitors and

inductors in the circuit)

source . (Because of the storage elements such as capacitors and inductors in the circuit) Chap
An Example of Instantaneous Power p t ( )  1 2 cos(  4

An Example of Instantaneous Power

p t

( )

1

2

cos(

4

)

1

2

co

s(2

2

60

t

4

)

Power p t ( )  1 2 cos(  4 )  1 2 co
Average Power The average power (in watts) is the average of the instantaneous power over

Average Power

The average power (in watts) is the average of the instantaneous power over one period.

P

1

T

1

T

1

2

1

2

T

0

T

0

p t dt

( )

V

m

I

m

cos(

t

v

)cos(

t

i

) dt

( ) V m I m cos( t    v )cos( t  

V

m

I

m

cos(

v

i

)

*

*  ;  VI  V I   m m 
*
;
VI
 V
I
m
m

Re

VI

v

i

v t

( )

( )

i t

V

m

I

m

cos(

t

cos(

t

v

)

i

)

i  v t   ( ) ( ) i t   V m
Two Special Cases of Average Power P  1 V 2 m I m cos

Two Special Cases of Average Power

P

1 V

2 m

I

m

cos (

)

v

i

Purely resistive circuit:

   v i 1 P  I 2
 
v
i
1
P 
I
2

2
R

eq

Purely reactive circui t :

v

P

i

1

2

9

0

V

m

I

m

cos 90

0

The resistive load (R) absorbs power at all times, while a

reactive load (L or C) absorbs zero average power.

The resistive load ( R ) absorbs power at all times, while a reactive load (
The resistive load ( R ) absorbs power at all times, while a reactive load (
The resistive load ( R ) absorbs power at all times, while a reactive load (
The resistive load ( R ) absorbs power at all times, while a reactive load (
Examples of Special Cases Z  R Z  Z  j L  1

Examples of Special Cases

Z

R

Z

Z

j

L

1

j

C

:

:

:

P

1

 

2

P

1

 

2

P

1

 

2

V

m

V

m

V

m

I

I

I

m

m

m

0

1

P  1   2 V m V m V m I I I m m

2

| I

90

  2 V m V m V m I I I m m m  0

0

|

2

9 0

m V m I I I m m m  0 1  2 | I

0

R

|

V

|

2

2 R

Phasor Domain Interpretation I + V Z - V  ZI  1 P 

Phasor Domain Interpretation

I

Phasor Domain Interpretation I + V Z - V  ZI  1 P  Re
+ V Z - V  ZI  1 P  Re   2
+
V
Z
-
V
ZI
1
P 
Re
2

P

| I

|

2

I V 1 * Re  VI    2 2 1  |
I
V
1
*
Re 
VI
2
2
1
| V |
Z

Re
2
Z
*
Example 11.1 Q: Given that v ( t )=120cos(377 t +45 o )V, i (

Example 11.1

Q: Given that v(t)=120cos(377t+45 o )V, i(t)=10cos(377t- 10 o )A, find the instantaneous power and the average power absorbed by the passive linear network.

the average power absorbed by the passive linear network. p  P  i v 1

p

P

i v

1

2

1200cos(377 t

600

cos(754 t

45 )cos (377

t

35 )

 

cos55

344.2

600cos(754 t

35 ) W

10 )

V

m

I

m

cos(

v

i

)

1

2

1200cos 45

  

(

10 )

600cos55

 34 4 .2 W

Example 11.2 Q: Calculate the average power absorbed by an impedance Z = 30 –

Example 11.2

Q: Calculate the average power absorbed by an

impedance Z = 30 j70 Ω when a voltage V = 1200 ° is applied across it.

I

P

V

Z

1

2

1

2

120

 

0

76.16



66.8

V

m

I

cos(

v

i

)

m

(120)(1.576)cos( 0

1.576

66.8 A

66.8 )

3 7.24 W

Example 11.3 Q: For the circuit, find the average power supplied by the source and

Example 11.3

Q: For the circuit, find the average power supplied by

the source and the average power absorbed by the resistor.

the average power supplied by the source and the average power absorbed by the resistor. Chap
Example 11.3 ( cont. ) 5  30  5  30  I 

Example 11.3 ( cont. )

5

30

5

30

I

P

1.

11 8

56.57

A

4

j

2

1 Re

2

1

4.472



26.57

VI *

 

5

1.118cos(30



5 6.57 )

2

2. 5 W

I

R

V

R

 

I

1.118

I

R

56.57

A

4

1

2

4.472

56.57

V

P

R

4.472

W

1.118

2.5

Example 11.4 Q: Determine the average power generated by each source and the average power

Example 11.4

Q: Determine the average power generated by each

source and the average power absorbed by each passive element in circuit (a).

by each source and the average power absorbed by each passive element in circuit (a). Chap
Example 11.4 ( cont. ) For mesh 1: I  4 A 1 V (

Example 11.4 ( cont. )

For mesh 1: I

4 A
1

V ( a )
V
(
a
)

KCL for mesh

2 :

j 10

j

5

I

2

j

10

I

1

60

 

30

0

( b )
(
b
)

By

(

a

)

and

(

b

)

I

2

12

 

6 0

 

8

10.58

79.1

A

For the vol tage sourc e :

P

V

1

2

Re   VI  

*

2

1

2

60

10.58

cos(30



79.1 )

207 .8 W

P

V

0. Hence, this average power is absorbed by the source.

Example 11.4 ( cont. ) For the current source: V 1   20 I

Example 11.4 ( cont. )

For the current source:

V

1

20 I

1

j

10(

I

1

I

2

184.984

6.21

V

)

80

j

10(4

 

2

j

10.39)

P

I



1

2

Re

V I

1

*

1

367.8 W

1

2

  

184.984

4cos(6.21



0)

P 0. Hence, this current source supplies power to the circuit.

I

F or the resis or

t

:

I

1

4

 

0

V

2

20 I

1

A

80

 

0

P

R

1 Re

2

V I

2

*

1

V



1  80  4  160 W
1
80
4
 160 W

2

Example 11.4 ( cont. ) For the capacitor: I 2 V C   10

Example 11.4 ( cont. )

For the capacitor:

I

2

V

C

10 58

.

79 1 ,

.



j 5

I

2

(5



P

C

1

2

Re

V I

C

*

2

For the inductor:

90 )(10.58

79.1 )

 

52.9

(79.1

1

2

(52.9)(10.58)cos( 90 )

 

0

I

L

V

L

I

1

I

j 10(

2

I

 

2

1

I

2

)

j

10.39

10.58



79.1

10.58

 

(

79.1

 

90 )

P

L

1

2

Re

V I

L

*

L

Finally,

P

V

P

I

P

R

 367.8

P

C

160

1

2

(105.8)(10.58)cos90  0

P

L

0

 

0

207.8

0



90 )

V

L

I

L

V

C

Maximum Average Power Transfer For maximum average power transfer , the load impedance Z L

Maximum Average Power Transfer

For maximum average power transfer, the load impedance Z L must be equal to the complex conjugate of the Thevenin impedance Z Th .

complex conjugate of the Thevenin impedance Z T h . Z L  Z * Th

Z L

Z

*

Th

P max

2 V Th
2
V
Th

8 R

Th

impedance Z T h . Z L  Z * Th P max  2 V
impedance Z T h . Z L  Z * Th P max  2 V
Derivation of Maximum Average Power Transfer Z  R  jX ; Z  R

Derivation of Maximum Average Power

Derivation of Maximum Average Power Transfer Z  R  jX ; Z  R 

Transfer

Z  R  jX ; Z  R  jX Th Th Th L
Z
R
jX
;
Z
R
jX
Th
Th
Th
L
L
L
V
V
Th
Th
I 
Z
Z
(
R
R
)
j
(
X
 X
)
Th
L
Th
L
Th
L
2
1
1
1
1
V
R
2
*
*
Th
L
P 
Re
V I

Re
Z II

I
R
L
L
L
2
2
2
2
2
2 (
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
Th
L
Th
L
To find the condition with maximum power,
2
P
V
R
(
X
X
)
Th
L
Th
L

 0
2
2
2
X
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
L
Th
L
Th
L
2
2
2
V
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
2
R
(
R
R
)
P
Th
Th
L
Th
L
L
Th
L

 0
2
2
2
R
2
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
L
Th
L
Th
L
 0 2 2 2  R 2  ( R  R )  (
 0 2 2 2  R 2  ( R  R )  (
Derivation of Maximum Average Power Transfer V Th 2 R L  X Th 

Derivation of Maximum Average Power Transfer

Derivation of Maximum Average Power Transfer V Th 2 R L  X Th  X
V Th 2 R L  X Th  X L 

V Th

2

R

L

X

Th

X

L

P

X

0



L

X

2 2 2 ( R  R )  ( X  X ) 
2
2
2
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
Th
L
Th
L

X
L
Th
2
2
2
V
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
2
R
(
R
R
)
Th
T h
L
Th
L
L
Th
L
 0
2
2
2
2
(
R
R
)
(
X
X
)
Th
L
Th
L
2
2
R
R
X
 X
th
th
L
R
;
X
-X
Th
T h
L
X
 0
*
L
Z
j X
Z
L
Th
Th
Th
2
2
R
R
(X
X
)
2
L
Th
Th
L
V
Th
2
2
R
R
X
Z
L
T h
T
h
T
h
8 R
Th



P

R

L

L

  R

P

max

Example 11.5 Q: Determine the load impedance Z L that maximizes the average power drawn

Example 11.5

Q: Determine the load impedance Z L that maximizes the average power drawn from the circuit. What is the maximum average power?

maximizes the average power drawn from the circuit. What is the maximum average power? Chap 11
Example 11.5 ( cont. ) 4(8  j 6) From Fig. (a), Z  j

Example 11.5 ( cont. )

4(8

j

6)

From Fig. (a),

Z

j

5

4

(8

 

8

j

6

 
 
 

4

8

j

6

j

6)

j

5

2.933

j

4 .467

Th

4

8

j

6

From Fig (b), V

(10)

7.454

1 0.3

V

Th

j 6 From Fig (b), V (10) 7.454  1 0.3  V   Th
* Z  Z  2.933  j 4. 467  L TH 2 2
*
Z
Z
 2.933
j 4. 467
L
TH
2
2
V
T H
(7.454)
P
ma x
 2.368 W
8 R
8(2.933 )
T H
467  L TH 2 2 V T H (7.454) P ma x   
467  L TH 2 2 V T H (7.454) P ma x   
467  L TH 2 2 V T H (7.454) P ma x   
Example 11.6 Q: In the circuit, find the value of R L that will absorb

Example 11.6

Q: In the circuit, find the value of R L that will absorb the maximum average power. Calculate the power.

the value of R L that will absorb the maximum average power. Calculate the power. Chap
Z Th  V  Th Example 11.6 ( cont. ) (40  j 30)

Z

Th

V

Th

Example 11.6 ( cont. )

(40

j

30)

j 20(40  j 30) j 20  j 20  40  j 30
j
20(40
j
30)
j
20
j
20
40
j
30

9.412

j 20

j

20

40

j

30

(150

30 )

 

72.76

134

V

j

22.35

R

L

Z

Th

9.412 2  22.35 2

9.412

2

22.35

2

24 . 25

V Th I  Z  R Th L 1 P max  I 2
V
Th
I 
Z 
R
Th
L
1
P
max
I
2
R
2

L

72.76

134

3 3.66

j

22.35

1 (1.8) (24 .25)
2

1.8

100.42

39. 29 W

A

22.35  1 (1.8) (24 .25) 2  1.8  100.42   39. 29 W
R L
R L
Effective or RMS Value The effect value of a period current is the dc current

Effective or RMS Value

The effect value of a period current is the dc current that delivers the same average power to a resistor as

the period current.

dc current that delivers the same average power to a resistor as the period current. Chap
dc current that delivers the same average power to a resistor as the period current. Chap
dc current that delivers the same average power to a resistor as the period current. Chap
Effective or RMS Value ( cont. ) P R  1  T i Rdt

Effective or RMS Value ( cont. )

P

R

1  T i Rdt 2  I 2 R eff T 0 1 
1
 T
i Rdt
2
I
2
R
eff
T
0
1
 I
 T
i dt  I
2
eff
T
0

rms

1 T 2 Simi larly, V   v dt V eff rms T 0
1
T
2
Simi larly, V
v dt
V
eff
rms
T
0
The
root - mean - square rms
(
) value of a periodic signal
x t
( )
1
2
X
 T
x dt
rms
T
0
square rms ( ) value of a periodic signal x t ( ) 1 2 X
square rms ( ) value of a periodic signal x t ( ) 1 2 X
square rms ( ) value of a periodic signal x t ( ) 1 2 X
Effective or RMS Value ( cont. ) The effect value of a period signal is

Effective or RMS Value ( cont. )

The effect value of a period signal is its root-mean-square (rms) value.

rms

V

2

R

P

I

2 R

rms

For the sinusoid ( )

i t

I

cos
m

t

1 2 2 I rms  I cos  tdt  T m 0 T
1
2
2
I
rms
I
cos
tdt
 T
m
0
T
Similarly, for
v t
( )
 V
cos
 t
m
V
m
V
rms
2

,

, the rms valus is

2 I 1 m  1  cos 2  t  dt  T
2
I
1
m
1
cos 2
t
dt
 T
0
T
2

I

m

2
2
Example 11.7 Q: Determine the rms value of the current waveform. If the current is

Example 11.7

Q: Determine the rms value of the current waveform. If

the current is passed through a 2-Ω resistor, find the average power absorbed by the resistor.

is passed through a 2- Ω resistor, find the average power absorbed by the resistor. Chap
Example 11.7 ( cont .) • The period of the waveform is T = 4,

Example 11.7 ( cont .)

The period of the waveform is T = 4,

I rms

P

R 2

 5 , t 0  t  2 i t ( )  
5 ,
t
0
 t
2
i t
( )
10,
2
 
t
4
1
1
2
2
2
i dt
(5 )
t
dt
(
10)
dt
 T
 2
 4
0
0
2
T
4
(  10) dt   T  2  4 0 0 2 T 4
2  3  1 t 4  25  100 t   2
2
3
1
t
4
25
 100 t
 
2
4
3
0
1  200   200   4 3  
1
200
200
4
3

8.165 A

I

2 R

rm s

2

(8.165) (2)

133.3 W

Example 11.8 Q: The waveform is a half-wave rectified sine wave. Find the rms value

Example 11.8

Q: The waveform is a half-wave rectified sine wave.

Find the rms value and the amount of average power dissipated in a 10-Ω resistor.

wave. Find the rms value and the amount of average power dissipated in a 10- Ω
Example 11.8 ( cont. ) • The period of the waveform is T = 2

Example 11.8 ( cont. )

The period of the waveform is T = 2,

( )

v t

10sin ,

0,

t

0

t

t

2

V

2

rms

1

T

1

2

π

T

0

2

t dt

( )

v

100

2

(

1

π

0

1

2

0

(10sin )

t

2

dt

2

0

2

dt

cos 2

t)dt

50

2

 sin 2     2 t  ; sin t  
sin 2
2
t
;
sin
t
2
0

50

2

1

2

sin 2

0

25

V

rms

5V

P

R 10

V

2

rms

5

2

R 10

2.5 W

1

2

(1

cos 2 )

t

RMS of Sinusoidal Signal For the sinusoid ( ) i t  I cos 

RMS of Sinusoidal Signal

For the sinusoid ( )

i t  I cos   t    m i 1 2
i t
I
cos
t
m
i
1
2
2
I
cos
t
dt
 T
m
i
0
T
v t
( )
V
cos
t
,
m
v

I

rms

Similarly, for

V

r

ms

V m 2
V
m
2

, the rms valus is

2 I 1 m  1  cos  2  t  2 
2
I
1
m
1
cos
2
t
2

dt
 T
i
0
T
2

I

m

2
2
Power Representation Via RMS Values Given ( ) i t  I m cos 

Power Representation Via RMS

Values

Given

( )

i t

I

m

cos

t

The average power

P

i

and

1

V

m
2

I

( )

v t

V

m

cos

m

cos(

v

i

)

t

v

1

2

Re[

V

Represented b y RMS: P

V m 2
V
m
2

I

m

2
2

cos(

v

Denot e phasors: V

rms

V  , I  rm s 2
V
, I
rm s
2

I

2
2

P

1

2

Re[ V I

*

] Re[ V

rms

I

*

rms

]

For resistive load:

P

V

rms

I

rms

I

v

i

2

rms

R

L

V

2

rms

R

L

i

)

V

rms

I

rms

I

*

]

cos (

v

i

)

Complex Power Complex power S (in volt-amperes or VA) is the product of the rms

Complex Power

Complex power S (in volt-amperes or VA) is the product of the rms voltage phasor and the complex conjugate of

the rms current phasor. Its real part is real power P and its

imaginary part is reactive power Q.

S

S

|

S

S

V

rms

I

rms

I

*

rms

|

2

Z

V

  | S  S  V rms I rms I * rms | 2

|

V

rms

* I 2 2 |
*
I
2
2
|

Z

*

S

e

j

 

S

S

c

o

s

P

j

Q

P

j

P t a n

1

2

S V

rms

I

VI

*

j

S sin

1

2

|

I

|

2

Z

*

rms

|

V

|

2

2

Z

*

  S  V rms I VI *  j S sin 1 2 
Summary of Terminologies Terminology Unit Form 1 S  P  jQ  VI *

Summary of Terminologies

Terminology Unit Form 1 S  P  jQ  VI * Complex Power VA
Terminology
Unit
Form
1
S 
P
jQ
VI *
Complex Power
VA
2
V
I
(
)
rms
rms
v
i
2
2
Apparent Power
VA
S
S
V
I
P
Q
rms
rms
Real Power
Watt
P
Re(
S
)
S
cos(
)
v
i
Reactive Power
VAR
Q 
Im(
S
)
S
sin(
)
v
i
P
Power Factor
pf
cos(
)
v
i
S
Summary of Terminologies ( cont. ) • S is called the complex power consumed by

Summary of Terminologies ( cont. )

S is called the complex power consumed by

the load Z

P is the average or real power.

The power delivered to the load

The actual power dissipated by the load

Q is the reactive or quadrature power.

Unit: volt-ampere reactive (VAR)

A measure of the energy exchange between the source and the reactive part of the load.

Summary of Terminologies ( cont. ) • S is called the apparent power which denotes

Summary of Terminologies ( cont. )

S is called the apparent power which denotes

the power the provider provides.

pf: is the power factor in [0,1]. The power

factor is an index of the load reaching the

satisfaction of the provider; the larger the power is, the happier the provider is.

Power and Impedance Triangles S  S  | V rms I rms I *

Power and Impedance Triangles

S

S

|

V

rms

I

rms

I

*

rms

|

2

Z

1

VI

*

1

2 2

|

V

rms

|

2

Z

*

|

I

|

2

Z

|

V

|

2

2 Z

*

V

V

rms

V rms

 

I

I

rms

I

rms

Z

(

v

i

Z      ( v i )
Z      ( v i )

)

S

S e

j

 

S

S c os

jS

i

s n

S

P

jQ

P  jP ta n 
P 
jP ta n

Power triangle

 jS i s n  S  P jQ P  jP ta n 

Impedance triangle

Z  R  R   0 (1) Z 
Z
R
R  
0
(1)
Z 

Passive Load

jX

|

(

Z

v

|

(

i

R

  0 :

v

)

[

i

)

90 ,90 ]

Resistive load

(2) X   

0

0:

Inductive load

;

S in the

(3)

f irst

quadrant and the curr ent is

laggi ng the voltage by

X   

0

0 :

C apacit ive loa d ;

S in the

f our

th quadrant and the current is

leading the voltage by

Power Triangle ( cont. ) Inductive load Resistive load Capacitive load Chap 11 AC Power

Power Triangle ( cont. )

Power Triangle ( cont. ) Inductive load Resistive load Capacitive load Chap 11 AC Power Analysis

Inductive load

Resistive load

Capacitive load

Example 11.9 Q: A series-connected load draws a current i ( t ) = 4

Example 11.9

Q: A series-connected load draws a current i(t) = 4

cos(100t + 10 °) A when the applied voltage is v(t) = 120 cos(100t - 20 °) V. Find the apparent power and the power factor of the load. Determine the element values that form the series-connected load.

Sol:

apparent power:

powe r factor: pf

S

V

rms

I

cos(

v

rms

i

)

120 2
120
2
4 2
4
2

240 VA

cos( 20

 

10 )

 

0.866

Example 11.9 ( cont. ) The power factor can also be obtained from Z 

Example 11.9 ( cont. )

The power factor can also be obtained from

Z

pf

V

120



20

 

 

 

I

4

 

10

cos(

30 )

 

0.866

30



30



25.98

j

15

The load impedance Z can be modeled by a 25.98-Ω resistor in series with a capacitor with

X

C

C



15



1

C

1

15

1

15

1 00

2 12. 2

F

Example 11.10 Q: Determine the power factor of the entire circuit as seen by the

Example 11.10

Q: Determine the power factor of the entire circuit as

seen by the source. Calculate the average power delivered by the source.

entire circuit as seen by the source. Calculate the average power delivered by the source. Chap
Z   6 4 eq
Z
 
6
4
eq

Example 11.10 ( cont. )

(  j
(
j

2)

 

6

j 2

4

4

j

2

6.8

j 1.6



7