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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

ISBN
978-0-309-10104-2

Office of Naval Research, National Research Council, Institute for Ocean


Technology, Newfoundland, Memorial University of Newfoundland

1192 pages
web only
2005

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on

NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS

Wave Hydrodynamics
Propulsor Hydrodynamics
Ships and Propulsion in Ice
Hydrodynamics of Fast or Unconventional Ships
Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics of Underwater Vehicles
Wake Dynamics
Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context
Cavitation and Bubbly Flows
Nonlinear Wave-Induced Motions and Loads
Frontier Experimental Techniques
Maneuvering
Hydrodynamics in Ship Design and Optimization
Hydrostructural Acoustics

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on

NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS

Wave Hydrodynamics
Propulsor Hydrodynamics
Ships and Propulsion in Ice
Hydrodynamics of Fast or Unconventional Ships
Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics of Underwater Vehicles
Wake Dynamics
Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context
Cavitation and Bubbly Flows
Nonlinear Wave-Induced Motions and Loads
Frontier Experimental Techniques
Maneuvering
Hydrodynamics in Ship Design and Optimization
Hydrostructural Acoustics

Sponsored Jointly by
Office of Naval Research
National Research Council, Institute for Ocean Technology, Newfoundland
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Naval Studies Board

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS


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Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Attendees at the Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, St. Johns, Newfoundland, August 8-13, 2004.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Naval Studies Board


JOHN F. EGAN, Nashua, New Hampshire, Chair
MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories, Vice Chair
ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
JOHN D. CHRISTIE, LMI
ANTONIO L. ELIAS, Orbital Sciences Corporation
BRIG CHIP ELLIOTT, BBN Technologies
KERRIE L. HOLLEY, IBM Global Services
JOHN W. HUTCHINSON, Harvard University
HARRY W. JENKINS, JR., ITT Industries
DAVID V. KALBAUGH, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia
THOMAS V. McNAMARA, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
L. DAVID MONTAGUE, Menlo Park, California
WILLIAM B. MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland
JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International
JOHN S. QUILTY, Oakton, Virginia
NILS R. SANDELL, JR., BAE Systems
WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania
JOHN P. STENBIT, Oakton, Virginia
RICHARD L. WADE, Risk Management Sciences
DAVID A. WHELAN, The Boeing Company
CINDY WILLIAMS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
ELIHU ZIMET, National Defense University
Navy Liaison Representatives
RADM SAMUEL J. LOCKLEAR III, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81
RADM JAY M. COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N091
Marine Corps Liaison Representative
LTGEN JAMES N. MATTIS, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat
Development Command
Staff
CHARLES F. DRAPER, Acting Director (as of July 12, 2003)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

MAURIZIO LANDRINI
March 2, 1963June 26, 2003
Dr. Maurizio Landrini was tragically killed in a motorcycle accident in Rome, Italy, on June 26, 2003. He is
survived by his wife Sara and son Lorenzo, who was born after the accident. Dr. Landrini was an outstanding
marine hydrodynamics researcher who had been selected as the 2003 Georg Weinblum Lecturer. He was born on
March 2, 1963, and earned his Ph.D. degree in theoretical and applied mechanics at the University of Rome. Except
for short periods as a visiting researcher at the Ocean Engineering Laboratory, University of California, Santa
Barbara, and at the Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, he
worked his entire career at INSEAN, the Italian Ship Model Basin. Dr. Landrini had deep knowledge in numerical
and experimental techniques for free-surface waves, fluid-structure interactions, and ship hydrodynamics. He was
manager of the towing tank activities at INSEAN. He was a member of the International Ship and Offshore
Structures Congress Committee on Loads and of the International Towing Tank Conference Maneuvering
Committee. He authored or co-authored over 80 journal articles and conference papers. An enthusiastic and

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

innovative researcher, he was a personal friend to many in the field. He will be greatly missed in the marine
hydrodynamics community.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Foreword

The Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval


Hydrodynamics was held in St. Johns,
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, from August 8
to 13, 2004. This international symposium was
organized jointly by the Office of Naval Research
(Mechanics and Energy Conversion S&T Division),
the National Research Council of the National
Academies (Naval Studies Board), the National
Research Council, Canada, and Memorial University
of Newfoundland. This biennial symposium
promotes the technical exchange of naval
hydrodynamics research developments of common
interest to all the countries of the world. The forum
encourages both formal and informal discussion of
the presented papers, and the occasion provides an
opportunity for direct communication between
international peers.
Some 165 participants from 21 countries attended
the symposium. The attendees represented a mix of
experience and expertise, from students to
established researchers of international renown. The
breadth of the presentations also permitted the
attendees to learn of the latest developments in fields
of naval hydrodynamics outside those of their own
expertise. Seventy-six papers were presented in
fourteen topical areas, including wave
hydrodynamics, propulsor hydrodynamics, ships and
propulsion in ice, hydrodynamics of fast or
unconventional ships, viscous ship hydrodynamics,
hydrodynamics of underwater vehicles, wake
dynamics, fluid dynamics in the naval context,
cavitation and bubbly flows, nonlinear wave-induced
motions and loads, frontier experimental techniques,
maneuvering, hydro-dynamics in ship design and
optimization, and hydrostructural acoustics. These
topical areas were chosen for this meeting because of
the recent advances made in them and their
importance to the overall field of naval
hydrodynamics. Significant advances presented in
the papers included the continuing increases in
fidelity and resolution in viscous computations from
steady RANS, time-dependent RANS, and detachededdy and large-eddy simulation; increased detail in
the computation of the free surface around ships,
including wave breaking, bubble, and droplet
formation; impressive modeling

of ships in ice; new optics-based instrumentation at


both model and full-scale application; simulation of
bubble dynamics in vortical flow and resulting sound
pressure; a trend toward surface-capturing techniques
such as VOF and level set; and more mature and
realistic shape optimization. These examples
illustrate the timeliness and quality of the work
presented and its importance to the field of naval
hydrodynamics.
The symposium featured invited lectures each
morning. These lectures were presented by S. Jones,
G. Chahine, K. Kijima, and R. Leighton, who
covered, respectively, topics of ships and propulsion
in ice, cavitation, maneuvering in shallow water, and
ship wavebreaking. These presentations by
prominent experts set the pace for the sessions that
followed them.
The success of this symposium is the result of hard
work on the part of many people. There was, of
course, the Organizing and Paper Selection
Committee consisting of Dr. Ki-Han Kim, Dr.
Ronald Joslin, and myself (Office of Naval
Research), Dr. Charles Draper (Naval Studies
Board), Dr. Emilio Campana (INSEAN), Dr. Arthur
Reed (David Taylor Model Basin), Prof. Robert Beck
(Journal of Ship Research), Prof. Choung-Mook Lee
(Pohang University), and Mr. David Murdey
(National Research Council of Canada). The
contribution of this committee was certainly the
cornerstone for the success of the symposium.
However, the administrative preparation and
execution, and the production of these proceedings,
would not have been possible without the support of
Ms. Susan Campbell and the staff of the Naval
Studies Board of the National Research Council and
of Ms. Joanne Harris of Memorial University, who
was instrumental in all of the detailed organizing in
St. Johns. Special appreciation is extended to Ms.
Jennifer McDonald from my office for handling the
abstract collection, the Organizing Committee
meetings and minutes, numerous requests for
information, and the compilation of the discussion
sections.
L. Patrick Purtell
Office of Naval Research

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Contents
OPENING REMARKS
John Leggat, CEO Defense Research and Development Canada
Stephen Lubard, Technical Director, Office of Naval Research
Axel Meisen, President and Vice Chancellor, Memorial University of Newfoundland
William Morgan, Naval Studies Board, National Research Council of the United States
Michael Reymont, National Research Council, Canada
KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Wave Breaking
R. Leighton (General Dynamics-AIS, USA), paper not available
Ships in IceA Review
S. Jones (Institute for Ocean Technology, National Research Council, Canada)
Nuclei Effects on Cavitation Inception and Noise
G. Chahine (Dynaflow, Inc., USA)
Ship Maneuverability in Shallow Water
K. Kijima (Kyushu University, Japan)
TECHNICAL SESSIONS
Wave Hydrodynamics
Numerical Simulations of Breaking Waves Around an Advancing Ship by an Unstructured NS Solver
T. Hino (National Maritime Research Institute, Japan)
Numerical Simulations of Breaking Wave Around a Wedge
R. Broglia, A. Di Mascio, and R. Muscari (INSEAN, Italian Ship Model Basin, Italy)
A BEM-Level Set Domain Decomposition for Violent Two-Phase Flows in Ship Hydrodynamics
G. Colicchio and M. Greco (INSEAN, Italian Ship Model Basin, Italy) and
O. Faltinsen (Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Norway)
The Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves Using Cartesian Grid Methods with Adaptive Mesh Refinement
D. Dommermuth,1 M. Sussman,2 R. Beck,3 T. OShea,1 D. Wyatt,1 K. Olson,4 and P. MacNeice5 (1Science
Applications International Corporation, 2Florida State University, 3University of Michigan, 4University of
Maryland at Baltimore County, 5Drexel University, USA)
Experimental Measurements of the Surface of a Breaking Bow Wave
A. Karion, T. Fu, J. Rice, D. Walker, and D. Furey (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
Experimental Study of the Bow Wave of the R/V Athena I
T. Fu, A. Karion, J. Rice, and D. Walker (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
An Experimental Investigation of Breaking Bow Waves Simulated with a 2D+T Technique
M. Shakeri, X. Liu, S. Goll, and J. Duncan (University of Maryland, USA)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Field Measurements of Bow Spray Droplets


T. Sur and K. Chevalier (Science Applications International Corporation, USA)
Propulsor Hydrodynamics
Computational Design of Trans-Cavitating Propellers and Experimental Evaluation of Their Performance
Y. Ukon, T. Kudo, and J. Fujisawa (National Maritime Research Institute, Japan) and
N. Sasaki (Sumitomo Heavy Industry, Japan)
A Vorticity-Based Propulsor Turbulent Inflow Model
S. Huyer and D. Beal (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport Division, USA)
Toward High-Fidelity Prediction of Tip-Vortex Around Lifting SurfacesWhat Does It Take?
S.-E. Kim and S.H. Rhee (Fluent Incorporated, USA)
Advanced Design, Analysis, and Testing of Waterjet Pumps
T. Michael and C. Chesnakas (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
Propeller Performance at Extreme Off Design Conditions
S. Jessup, C. Chesnakas, D. Fry, M. Donnelly, S. Black, and J. Park (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
Division, USA)
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Hub Vortex Flow of a Marine Propeller
M. Abdel-Maksoud (Duisburg-Essen University, Germany), K. Hellwig (Potsdam Model Basin, Germany), and
J. Blaurock (Consultant, Hamburg, Germany)
A B-Spline Based Higher Order Panel Method for Analysis of Steady Flow Around Marine Propellers
C.-S. Lee and G.-D. Kim (Chungnam National University, Korea), and J. Kerwin (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, USA)
Prediction of Performance of Ducted and Podded Propellers
S. Kinnas, H. Lee, H. Gu, and A. Gupta (The University of Texas at Austin, USA)
Ships and Propulsion in Ice
Experimental Uncertainty Analysis for Ship Model Testing in the Ice Tank
A. Derradji-Aouat (National Research Council, Institute for Ocean Technology, Canada)
Preliminary Modeling of Ship Maneuvering in Ice
M. Lau and A. Derradji-Aouat (Institute for Ocean Technology, National Research Council, Canada)
Hydrodynamics of Fast or Unconventional Ships
Experimental and Numerical Study of Semi-Displacement Mono-Hull and Catamaran in Calm Water and Incident
Waves
C. Lugni, A. Colagrossi, and M. Landrini (Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale,
Italy) and O. Faltinsen (Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway)
Environmental Wave Generation of High-Speed Marine Vessels
L. Doctors (The University of New South Wales, Australia) and G. Zilman (Tel-Aviv University, Israel)
An Effective Scaling Device for Model Testing of Air Cushion Vehicles in a Laboratory
K. Thiagarajan (The University of Western Australia, Australia)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics


Large Eddy Simulation of the Viscous Flow Around a Ship Hull Including the Free-Surface
E. Lillberg and U. Svennberg (The Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Sweden)
Computation of Free-Surface Viscous Flows at Model and Full Scale by a Steady Iterative Approach
H. Raven, A. van der Ploeg, and B. Starke (Maritime Research Institute, The Netherlands)
The Use of Detached-Eddy Simulation in Ship Hydrodynamics
R. Pattenden, S. Turnock, and N. Bressloff (University of Southampton, United Kingdom)
Numerical Study on Turbulent Flow Around Ship Models Using a Large-Eddy Simulation Technique
H.-H. Chun, J.-C. Park, H.-J. Choi, H.-S. Yoon, and D.-H. Kang (Pusan National University, Korea)
An Investigation of Propeller Inflow for Naval Surface Combatants
J. Gorski, R. Miller, and R. Coleman (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
The Wakes of Idealized Propeller Shafts with Cross-Flow and Rotation
D. Hally (Defence R&D CanadaAtlantic, Canada)
Complementary RANS Equations for Viscous Flow Computations
K. Kim, A. Sirviente, and R. Beck (University of Michigan, USA)
Experimental Study of the Flow Field Around a Rolling Ship Model
M. Felli, F. Di Felice, and C. Lugni (INSEAN, Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura
Navale, Italy)
An Investigation of Viscous Roll Damping Through the Application of Particle-Image Velocimetry
R. Bishop, P. Atsavapranee, S. Percival, J. Shan, and A. Engle (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
Division, USA)
Towing-Tank Tests for Surface Combatant for Free Roll Decay and Coupled Pitch and Heave Motions
M. Irvine, J. Longo, and F. Stern (University of Iowa, USA)
Viscous Flow Simulation Past a Ship in Waves Using the SWENSE Approach
R. Luquet, L. Gentaz, P. Ferrant, and B. Alessandrini (Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France)
Computation of Three-Dimensional Free-Surface Flows with an Automatic Adaptive Mesh Refinement and
Coarsening Strategy
A. Hay, P. Queutey, and M. Visonneau (Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France)
Hydrodynamics of Underwater Vehicles
Experimental Measurements for CFD Validation of the Flow About a Submarine Model (ONR Body-1)
P. Atsavapranee, T. Forlini, D. Furey, J. Hamilton, S. Percival, and C.-H. Sung (Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Carderock Division, USA)
Investigation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow on a Microfilament Towed Array
D. Furey,1 K. Cipolla,2 and P. Atsavapranee1 (1Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA, 2Naval
Undersea Warfare Center, Newport Division, USA)
Internal Wave Generation by a Horizontally Moving Sphere at Low Froude Number
J. Rottman (Science Applications International Corporation, USA), D. Broutman (Computational Physics, Inc.,
USA), and G. Spedding and P. Meunier (University of Southern California, USA)

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Large Eddy Simulation of the Viscous Flow Around Submarine Hulls


R. Bensow,1 T. Persson,1 C. Fureby,1,2 U. Svennberg,2 and N. Alin2 (1Chalmers University of Technology,
Sweden, 2Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Sweden)
Improvements to AUV Control Surface Hydrodynamic Modeling for Use in Control
P. Ostafichuk, S. Calisal, and D. Cherchas (University of British Columbia, Canada)
Submarine Rising Stability: Quasi-Steady Theory and Unsteady Effects
G. Watt (Defence Research and Development Canada Atlantic, Canada) and H.-J. Bohlmann
(Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft, Germany)
Wake Dynamics
Validation of a Quasi-Potential Flow Model for the Analysis of Marine Propellers Wake
L. Greco, F. Salvatore, and F. Di Felice (INSEAN, Italian Ship Model Basin, Italy)
Experimental Analysis of the Wake From a Dynamic Positioning Thruster
S. El Lababidy and N. Bose (Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada),
P. Liu (National Research Council, Institute for Ocean Technology, Canada), and
F. Di Felice, M. Felli, and F. Pereira (Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale, Italy)
LDA Measurements in the Wake of the Propelled KCS Model and Its Use to Validate CFD Calculations
L. Lbke and K.-P. Mach (Potsdam Model Basin, Germany)
Comparison of Detailed Simulations of a Turbulent Ship Wake on a Straight and Circular Track
I. Yavuz, Z. Cehreli, and I. Celik (West Virginia University, USA)
Hydrodynamic Wakes of Surface Penetrating Structures
A. Brandt, S. Scorpio, E. Ericson, and C. Schemm (The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory,
USA)
Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context
A Pseudo-Spectral Method for Non-Linear Wave Hydrodynamics
W. Choi and C. Kent (University of Michigan, USA)
A Theoretical Framework for Marine Applications of Fluid Dynamics
J. Pawlowski (TRDC Inc., Canada)
Air Entrainment Induced by the Impact of a Planar Translating Jet on a Flat Free Surface
A. Iafrati and E. Campana (Italian Ship Model Basin, Italy) and
R. Gomez Ledesma, K. Kiger, and J. Duncan (University of Maryland, USA)
Cavitation and Bubbly Flows
Experimental Investigation of a Cavitating Propeller in Non-Uniform Inflow
F. Pereira and F. Di Felice (INSEAN Propulsion and Cavitation Group, Italy) and M. Soave (CEIMMItalian
Navy Cavitation Tunnel, Italy)
Cavitation Inception in Co-Flow Nozzles
R. Meyer, F. Zajaczkowski, W. Straka, and E. Paterson (Pennsylvania State University, USA)
Numerical Study of Cavitation Inception Due to Vortex/Vortex Interaction in a Ducted Propulsor
C.-T. Hsiao and G. Chahine (Dynaflow, Inc., USA)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Bubble Drag Reduction at Large Scales and High Reynolds Numbers


W. Sanders,1 J. Cho,1 E. Winkel,1 E. Ivy,1 R. Etter,2 D. Dowling,1 M. Perlin,1 and S. Ceccio1 (1University of
Michigan, USA, 2Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception Study Using the Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP) Model Combined with a Bubble
Splitting Model
J.-K. Choi, C.-T. Hsiao, and G. Chahine (Dynaflow, Inc., USA)
Hydroelastic Modeling for Surface-Piercing Propellers
Y. Young (Princeton University, USA)
Effect of Operational Conditions on the Cavitation Inception Speed of Naval Propellers
T. van Terwisga,1,2 D. Noble,3 R. vant Veer,1 F. Assenberg,1 B. McNeice,4 and P.van Terwisga5 (1Maritime
Research Institute, The Netherlands, 2Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 3Defence R&D Canada
Atlantic, Canada, 4Royal Australian Navy, Australia, 5Royal Netherlands Navy, The Netherlands)
Nonlinear Wave-Induced Motions and Loads
Roll Motion in a Nonlinear Pseudo-Spectral Ship Motion Model
R.-Q. Lin and B. Campbell (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
Validation of Ship Motion Predictions with Sea Trials Data for a Naval Destroyer in Multidirectional Seas
K. McTaggart and D. Stredulinsky (Defence R&D Canada Atlantic, Canada)
A Single-Phase Level Set Method with Application to Breaking Waves and Forward Speed Diffraction Problem
R. Wilson,1 P. Carrica,1, M. Hyman,2 and F. Stern1 (1University of Iowa, USA, 2Naval Surface Warfare
Center, Coastal Systems Station, USA)
A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Diffraction Loads on Floating Bodies Due to Extreme Transient Waves
J. Kim (American Bureau of Shipping, USA), J. Kyoung (Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean
Engineering, Korea), K. Bai (Seoul National University, Korea), and R. Ertekin (University of Hawaii at
Manoa, USA)
Prediction of Slamming Loads for Ship Structural Design Using Potential Flow and RANSE Codes
O. el Moctar, A. Brehm, and T. Schellin (Germanischer Lloyd, Germany)
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Bow Flare Slamming on a Ro-Ro Vessel in Oblique Waves
O. Hermundstad and T. Moan (Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway)
On the Estimation of Torsional Loads Acting on a Large-Container Ship
R. Miyake, T. Zhu, and A. Kumano (Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, Japan)
H2O: Hierarchical Hydrodynamic Optimization
C. Yang and R. Lhner (George Mason University, USA)
Frontier Experimental Techniques
Quantitative Characterization of the Free-Surface Around Surface Ships
J. Rice, D. Walker, T. Fu, A. Karion, and T. Ratcliffe (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Maneuvering
Unsteady RANS Simulation of a Maneuvering Ship Hull
A. Di Mascio, R. Broglia, and R. Muscari (Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale,
Italy) and R. Dattola (Italian Navy General Staff, Italy)
Validation of Forces, Moments and Stability Derivatives of a Maneuvering Series-58 Bare Hull
C.-H. Sung, B. Rhee, and I.-Y. Koh (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
Hydrodynamics in Ship Design and Optimization
Comparison and Validation of CFD Based Local Optimization Methods for Surface Combatant Bow
E. Campana and D. Peri (INSEAN, Italian Ship Model Basin), Y. Tahara (Osaka Prefecture University, Japan),
and F. Stern (University of Iowa, USA)
Parametric Optimization of SWAT-Hull Forms by a Viscous-Inviscid Free Surface Method Driven by a Differential
Evolution Algorithm
S. Brizzolara (University of Genova, Italy)
Theoretical Hull Form Optimization for Fine Higher-Speed Ships
K.-S. Min Hyundai (Heavy Industries, Korea) and Y.-S. Lee, S.-H. Kang, and B.-W. Han (Hyundai Maritime
Research Institute, Korea)
Hull Form Optimization Using a Free Surface RANSE Solver
E. Jacquin, Q. Derbanne, D. Bellvre, and S. Cordier (Bassin dessais des carnes, France), B. Alessandrini,
(Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France), and Y. Roux (K-Epsilon, France)
Hydrostructural Acoustics
A Physics-Based Simulation Methodology for Predicting Hydrofoil Singing
E. Paterson, J. Poremba, L. Peltier, and S. Hambric (Pennsylvania State University, USA)
Characterizing and Attenuating the Large-Scale Oscillations Downstream of Shallow Cavities Covered by a
Perforated-Lid
S. Jordan (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport Division, USA)
Hull Excitation by Fluctuating and Rotating Acoustic Sources at the Propeller
O. Spivack,1 R. Kinns,2 and N. Peake1 (1University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2RKAcoustics, Scotland)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

List of Attendees
M. Islam
Memorial University of Newfoundland

AUSTRALIA
L.J. Doctors
University of New South Wales
K. Thiagarajan
University of Western Australia
J. Xia
Australian Maritime College

J. Kennedy
Defence Research Development Canada (Atlantic)
V. Klaptocz
University of British Columbia
M. Lau
Institute for Ocean Technology, NRCC

AUSTRIA
G. Strasser
Vienna Model Basin

F. Lin
Martec Limited
P.-I. Liu
Institute for Ocean Technology, NRCC

BRAZIL
J. Sales, Jr.
Cidade Universitaria

C. Moores
Department of National Defence
D.C. Murdey
National Research Council, Canada

BULGARIA
K.Yossifov
Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Centre

D.J. Noble
Defence Research Development Canada (Atlantic)
B. Parsons
Institute for Ocean Technology, NRCC

CANADA
N. Bose
Memorial University of Newfoundland
S. Calisal
University of British Columbia
A. Derradji-Aouat
Institute for Ocean Technology, NRCC
S. El Lababidy
Memorial University of Newfoundland
D. Hally
Defence Research Development Canada (Atlantic)
M. He
Memorial University of Newfoundland
T.C. Humphrey
Consultant

S. Jones
Institute for Ocean Technology, NRCC

J. Pawlowski
TRDC, Inc.
W. Qiu
Memorial University of Newfoundland
S. Sarkar
Memorial University of Newfoundland
D. Spencer
Oceanic Consulting Corporation
R. Taylor
Memorial University of Newfoundland
D. Vyselaar
University of British Columbia
D. Walker
Oceanic Consulting Corporation

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

J. Wang
Memorial University of Newfoundland

L. Lubke
Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt Potsdam

G. Watt
Defence Research Development Canada (Atlantic)

M. Mehmel
Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt Potsdam

CHINA

ISRAEL

Y.-S. Wu
China Ship Scientific Research Center

G. Zilman
Tel-Aviv University

K. Yan
China Ship Scientific Research Center

ITALY

FINLAND

G. Caprino
CETENA

T. Kukkanen
VTT Industrial Systems

S. Brizzolara
University of Genova

FRANCE

R. Broglia
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

B. Alessandrini
Ecole Centrale de Nantes

U.P. Bulgarelli
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

S. Cordier
Bassin dEssais des Carnes

E. Campana
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

P. Ferrant
Ecole Centrale de Nantes

G. Colicchio
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

E. Jacquin
Bassin dEssais des Carnes
R. Luquet
Ecole Centrale de Nantes

R. Dattola
Italian Navy

M. Visonneau
Ecole Centrale de Nantes

F. Di Felice
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

GERMANY
A. Di Mascio
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

M. Abdel-Maksoud
University of Duisburg

M. Felli
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

J. Blaurock
Consultant
O. el Moctar
Germanischer Lloyd
J. Friesch
Hamburgische Shiffbau-Versuchsanstalt

A. Iafrati
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

C. Lugni
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

KOREA
B.J. Chang
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.

F.J. Pereira
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

H.-H. Chun
Pusan National University

G. Pisi
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

C.-G. Kang
Korean Research Institute of Ships and Ocean
Engineering

F. Pistani
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale

C.-S. Lee
Chungham National University

F. Salvatore
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale
M. Soave
Centro Esperienze Idrodinamiche Marina Militare

Y.-S. Lee
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
J.-C. Park
Pusan National University
W.G. Park
Pusan National University
D.-J. Yum
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.

JAPAN
T. Hino
National Maritime Research Institute

THE NETHERLANDS
K. Kijima
Kyushu University

H.C. Raven
Maritime Research Institute

Y. Kodama
National Maritime Research Institute
A. Masuko
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.

A. van der Ploeg


Maritime Research Institute
T. Van Terwisga
Maritime Research Institute

R. Miyake
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
NORWAY
H. Miyazaki
National Maritime Research Institute
H. Narita
Office of Naval Research, Asia

O.A. Hermundstad
Marintek
K. Holden
Marintek

Y. Tahara
Osaka Prefecture University
POLAND
N. Toki
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

L. Wilczynski
Centrum Techniki Okretowej

Y. Ukon
National Maritime Research Institute

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

D. Broutman
Computational Physics, Inc.

RUSSIA
A. Pustoshny
Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute

B. Campbell
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
S.L. Ceccio
University of Michigan

SWEDEN
R. Bensow
Chalmers University of Technology
M. Liefvendahl
Swedish Defence Research Agency
T. Persson
Chalmers University of Technology
W. van Berlekom
SSPA Sweden AB

I.B. Celik
University of West Virginia
G.L. Chahine
Dynaflow, Inc.
C. Chesnakas
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
J.-K. Choi
Dynaflow, Inc.
D. Cusanelli
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

TAIWAN
S.-K. Chou
United Ship Design and Development Center

F. DeBord
BMT Scientific Marine Services
D. Dommermuth
Science Applications International Corporation

UNITED KINGDOM
M. Atlar
University of Newcastle

J. Dreyer
Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University

C. Jennings
DST International

J. Duncan
University of Maryland

R. Kinns
RKAcoustics
M. Renilson
QinetiQ

J. Eaton
Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University

UNITED STATES

A. Engle
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

P. Atsavapranee
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

R. Etter
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

R.F. Beck
University of Michigan

T. Fu
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

R. Bishop
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

D.A. Furey
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

A. Brandt
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins
University

J.J. Gorski
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

C.-T. Hsiao
Dynaflow, Inc.

W. Morgan
Rockville, Maryland

S. Huyer
Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport

T. Nguyen
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City

M. Hyman
Coastal Systems Station, Panama City

E. Paterson
Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University

M. Irvine
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
S. Jessup
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
S. Jordan
Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport
R.D. Joslin
Office of Naval Research

L. Patrick Purtell
Office of Naval Research
A.M. Reed
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
J. Rice
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
J. Rottman
Science Applications International Corporation

A. Karion
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
J. Kim
American Bureau of Shipping

C. Schemm
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins
University

K.-H. Kim
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

S. Scorpio
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins
University

S.-E. Kim
Fluent, Inc.

J. Shan
Rutgers University

S. Kinnas
University of Texas at Austin

A. Sirviente
University of Michigan

I.-Y. Koh
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

J. Slutsky
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

R. Lahey
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

F. Stern
University of Iowa

R. Leighton
General Dynamics

C.-H. Sung
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

R.-Q. Lin
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

T. Sur
Science Applications International Corporation

W.M. Lin
Science Applications International Corporation

G. Wilkie
Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors

S. Lubard
Office of Naval Research

R. Wilson
University of Iowa

T. Michael
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock

D. Wyatt
Science Applications International Corporation

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

C. Yang
George Mason University
S. Yim
Oregon State University
Y.L. Young
Princeton University

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DRDC Hydrodynamics Research


Past to Present
Dr. John Leggat
CEO Defence Research and Development Canada

Defence Research and


Development Canada

Recherche et dveloppement
pour la dfense Canada

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Canada

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Propeller Hydrodynamics
Navies have always had a requirement for high performance
propellers, and since the 1940s they have also been been
concerned with quiet propellers:
DRDC started with the hardest problems first - developing
supercavitating propellers for hydrofoil ships (1970s)

Defence R&D Canada Atlantic R & D pour la dfense Canada Atlantique

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

This work led to novel methods for understanding


propeller cavitation

Defence R&D Canada Atlantic R & D pour la dfense Canada Atlantique

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

and on to todays methods of Computational Fluid


Dynamics and computer visualization

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Ship Hydrodynamics
Navy ships have a requirement to operate effectively and efficiently in
extreme sea conditions
This has led to continuous improvement of methods to predict motions and
loads
2D strip theory codes have been around for decades and are still used today
Technology has moved on to 3D panel methods and time domain codes
including nonlinear effects

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Hydrodynamic prediction codes have been supported


through extensive validation via model tests and
full scale trials

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Hydrodynamics codes are now being used for real


time modeling and simulation applications with
DRDCs Virtual Ship

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Submarine Hydrodynamics
As with surface ships, requirements are for submarines to
achieve effective hydrodynamic performance and
establish safe maneuvering limitation diagrams
Unlike ships, most of this effort has been undertaken by
navies
Work in this area is a complex mix of analytical and
experimental development

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Wind tunnel testing at


NRC Institute for
Aerospace Research in
Ottawa

Marine Dynamic Test Facility


at NRC Institute for Ocean
Technology in St. Johns
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

where flow
characteristics
representative of
extreme maneuvers
are obtained.

These are useful for


validating our CFD
capability
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Our CFD methods can predict the complex flow


around submarines for moderate flow incidence.
Extreme incidence and unsteady flows are the future
challenge.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Future Technology Challenges


Continued validation of numerical predictions with model
tests and full-scale trials
Generation of effective computational models and meshes
with minimal required labour (e.g., CFD and FE meshes)
Simulations capable of running faster than real time
Interoperable simulation components (e.g., propeller CFD
coupled with ship motion)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

From the U.S. Office of Naval Research

Welcome
To the 25th

Symposium on
Naval Hydrodynamics
Dr. Stephen Lubard
Technical Director

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The world has changed

Wakes

and naval needs have changed.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Evolution of Naval
Requirements

New
Configurations

Expanded Range
Of Ship Size

USVs

Intratheater

Broad Impact on
Science and Technology Needs
New
Operating Ranges

Unprecedented
Performance

High
Speeds

Reduced
Detection

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New
Technologies

Materials,
Efficiency,
Electric Ship

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Smaller Craft
Unmanned Surface Vessels
High speed response craft

Challenge: Overcome seastate limits


Stability in waves
Ride control

High Speed Craft

Unmanned Surface Vessel

Deep-V Hull with Lifting Bodies

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Larger Craft / Small Ships


Multihulls for stability
Reduce Drag for efficiency and speed:
-Air cavities
-Evaluate friction drag reduction
SeaFlyer

Challenge: Achieve higher speeds

X-Craft Experimental Platform

SeaCoaster with Air Cavities

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Large Ships / Sealift


Minimize wave resistance
Reduce Friction Drag

Challenge: Achieve high speed, long range, large payload

Trimaran Sealift Concept

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Advanced Technology: Lifting Bodies for Craft and Smaller Ships


Combine buoyant and
dynamic lift
Reduce waterplane area
Provide ride control

Lifting Body Close-up

Hybrid Deep-V Hull with Lifting Bodies

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Advanced Technology: Electric Ship


Propulsors new possibilities
Superconducting Motors

Ducted Propulsor

Podded Propulsor (CFD)

Superconducting Motor

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Advanced Technology: Explosion Resistance


Shock-absorbing surface treatments

Protective Blister (Schematic)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Enabling Technologies
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Fluid Structure Simulations
Microbubble and polymer drag reduction
Materials Science

40 micron
Sintered
Metal

Flow

MICROBUBBLES

AIR

Photo of Microbubbles
CFD of Propulsor/Hull Interaction
CFD of Lifting Body Pressures

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Education
Goals:
Near Term: Strengthen the
Ocean Engineering, Naval
Architecture and Marine
Engineering departments
Far Term: Recruit the
students to ensure a
strong naval engineering
community for the future

Government

National Naval
Responsibility for
Naval Engineering
Academia

Industry

Ensure the presence of a strong Naval


Engineering discipline in the U. S. to maintain
the U. S. Navys maritime capability

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The seas have changed, and we are altering course!


We must build on the traditional strengths of Naval
Architecture such as:
Total system engineering
Reliability and safety
but adapt new technologies and methods.
Some examples have been shown here which, hopefully,
will inspire further advances within this community!
Lets plunge ahead!

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

BACKUPS

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

High Speed Craft Technical Issues


NAVY
3,000 tons
50 kts

Overarching Need Maintain useful payload


fraction and range while increasing speed

ARMY
10,000 tons
70 kts

Propulsion
Metrics:

Hull Forms
Metrics:

Hull Materials
Metrics:

Ride Control
Metrics:

Power Density
Efficiency

Minimize drag
(friction, form, and
wavemaking)

Stable, smooth
Controllable /
adjustable

Technologies:
Engine / Drivetrain
Mechnical drive vs.
electric drive
Propulsor choice

Technologies:
Optimize hull form
Control emersion
(dynamic lift)
Fluid drag reduction

Strength vs. weight


Cost
Corrosion resistance
Maintainability

Technologies:

High strength steel


Aluminum
Composites
Coatings

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Technologies:
Environmental
sensing
Algorithms
Control surfaces and
actuators

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Memorial University of
Newfoundland
Axel Meisen, Ph.D., P.Eng,
President and Vice-Chancellor

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns NL, Canada
9th August 2004

Ref: AM/HYDR0808.PPT (2004)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Newfoundland and Labrador

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Area and Population

Newfoundland
and Labrador
Canada
USA
Great Britain

Area
(k km2)

People
(M)

People per
km2

404

0.5

10,000

31.0

9,600

293.0

30

244

60.3

247

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Main Industries

Traditional:
Fishing
Forestry
Iron ore mining

New:
Oil and gas
Nickel
Tourism
Knowledge

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

St. Johns Campus

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Marine Institute
St. Johns

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Sir Wilfred Grenfell College


Corner Brook

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Harlow Campus
England

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Enrollments

Students
Memorial University

17,000

Stanford University, USA

18,300

University of Cambridge, UK

17,300

University of Western Australia

17,000

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Academic Programs
Arts
Business
Education
Engineering
Fine Arts
Human Kinetics
Maritime Studies

Medicine
Music
Nursing
Pharmacy
Science
Social Work
Technology

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Newfoundland and Labradors


Petroleum Industry
Hibernia,
200,000 bbd

Terra Nova
150,000 bbd

Proven Reserves:
Oil: 2.1 B bbl Gas: 9.8 TCF
NGL: 0.4 B bbl
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Whiterose
100,000 bbd

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Very Large Flume Tank

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Institute for Ocean Technology (NRC)


Ice Tank

Wave Tank
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Harsh Environment Bridge Simulator


(US$7 million)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Marine Transportation of
Compressed Natural Gas

Trans Ocean Gas


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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

3D Visualization (US$15 million)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Bonne Bay Marine Station

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Some Memorial Researchers in


Hydrodynamics
Don
Bass

Serpil
Kocabiyik

Claude
Daley
Neil Bose
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Design Evaluation

Dan Walker
Oceanic

2003 Americas
Cup Winner
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Inco Innovation Centre


(US$13 million)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Petro-Canada Hall (US$1.4)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Tuition Fees for International


Undergraduate Students (US$)
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000

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W
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us
tr
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am

br
id

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St
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M
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$0

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Memorial University

Partner in Ocean Excellence

Outstanding facilities and people


Commitment to innovation
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Opening Remarks
William B. Morgan, Dr. Eng. Retired
Former Head of Ship Hydromechanics Directorate
David Taylor Model Basin
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division
Good morning, it is an honor for me to make a few opening remarks at this 25th
ONR Naval Hydrodynamics Symposium. In addition, it is always a pleasure to come to
St. Johns and visit friends at IMD (now called IOT) and Memorial University. I should,
particularly, mention Chairman David Murdey whom I first met at the 10th ITTC in
1963.
Since this is the Silver anniversary of the ONR Symposium, I thought it would
be appropriate to spend a little time looking back. About 400 scientists and engineers
attended the first symposium in 1956, which was dedicated in honor of Captain Harold E.
Saunders who was the U.S. Navy captain in charge of building the David Taylor Model
Basin. From the beginning, the US National Academy of Sciences through its National
Research Council, represented today by the Naval Studies Board, were partners with
ONR in these biennial symposia. The first two symposia were held in Washington, D.
C., but starting in 1960 the present rotation of venue was developed with the third
symposium being held in The Netherlands. From that time, the Symposium has
alternated location between the American continent and overseas.
The concept of such a symposium, I believe, was the brainchild of Marshall Tulin
who went from the David Taylor Model Basin to ONR with Phil Eisenberg in the mid1950's. Marshall formulated and developed the technical program of invited papers
which contained critical, timely surveys of various aspects of Naval Hydrodynamics.
The presenters of the surveys whom Marshall assembled were the Who's Who of that
day in hydrodynamics. Some of the presenters were: Louis Milne-Thomson, Sir James
Lighthill, Walter Munk, Georg Weinblum, John Wehausen, Herman Lerbs, Garrett
Birkhoff, John Parkinson, Murray Strasberg, Milton Plesset, Stanley Corrsin, George
Batchelor, among others. Fittingly, over the years the Symposium has evolved into
papers on research topics as proposed by the authors with the Keynote Lectures
becoming the survey papers. This symposium has carried on over the years as the
premier symposium on naval hydrodynamics in the world.
So what has changed over the years - not much as far as the general topics go.
There are participants from more countries today and papers on specific research
dominate. The big change has been the change in technology. Of particular note is the
use of computers for numerical calculations and development of laser-based, nonintrusive instrumentation, e.g. holography, LDV, PDV, etc. In 1956, there was only a
brief mention in one paper and in discussions of five papers of electronic computer
calculations. The only electronic computer data shown was by Stoker in a discussion
of Lighthill's paper entitled River Waves where the observed flood stages of a river
was compared to calculations performed using the UNIVAC. Also in regard to
electronic computer calculations, Saunders said in a discussion of Niedermair's paper
entitled Hydrodynamic Barriers in Ship Design, There has been a lot of talk about
electronic computers, but don't let us forget that, in general, in order to work an electronic

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

computer we have to have some mathematical formulas. In order to derive the


mathematical formulas we must know the physical processes. Have things really
changed? With regard to instrumentation, high-speed photography was available and
stereophotography but the non-intrusive instrumentation that we consider commonplace
today had not been invented. Of course, much of this progress depended on computer
development from the huge room-filled computers to the laptop.
For many years, there has been a steady increase in the number of computer-based
papers and detailed measurements of the flow with non-intrusive instrumentation. This
essentially leveled off a few years ago with few, if any, theoretical papers today. The
concentration is now more on numerical techniques rather than theoretical techniques and
detailed measurements of the flow. There has also been an increase movement from
linear to nonlinear solutions. Another change has been the increase in large-physical
model facilities with more sophisticated instrumentation. This has led to many more
studies of scale effects of the flow and to detailed uncertainty analysis of the
experimental data. This uncertainly analysis is being extended to numerical calculations
as noted by the work of the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC).
In a cursory review of the ONR Naval Hydrodynamics Symposia over the years, I
found the first paper to give meaningful digital computer calculations for ship-type
flows was at the Second Symposium in 1958 in a paper entitled The Design and
Estimated Performance of a Series of Supercavitating Propellers by A. J. Tachmindji
and W. B. Morgan. The first paper on numerical calculations of viscous flows, which
was based on the Marker-and-Cell technique, was at the Seventh Symposium in 1968
entitled The Numerical Simulation of Viscous Incompressible Fluid Flows by C. W.
Hirt. How many are there today?
The first paper discussing detailed measurements of the flow with non-intrusive
instrumentation was in 1974 at the 10th ONR Symposium where S. J. Barker presented a
paper entitled Laser-Doppler Measurements of Trailing Vortices in a Water Tunnel. J.
H. J. van der Meulen followed in 1978 with a paper on holography at the 12th ONR
Symposium entitled A Holographic Study of the Influence of Boundary Layer and
Surface Characteristics on Incipient and Developed Cavitation on Axisymmetric Bodies.
I am a little hesitant of making future predictions as my crystal ball sometimes
is quite cloudy, but I feel that there will be continued emphasis on viscous flows and on
nonlinear codes. There will be continued coupling of numerical calculations and
experiments. I would think the RANS codes have about run out, as far as theoretical
development. What I mean is that there most likely will not be any major improvements
in the development of RANS codes because of the inherit assumptions in these codes.
RANS codes will continue to be used as a practical tool for design, for the foreseeable
future, and we will develop a better understanding of their limitation and application.
Where will LES go? I am uncertain about LES, per se, and have my doubts. I think for
the time being, until we can handle the full Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds
number, some combination of methods, such as, RANS and LES, or similar, will come to
the forefront in the future. Hopefully, sometime in the future, we will be faced with the
question of whether or not the full Navier-Stokes equations are useful to describe the
complicated flow around a ship.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

It is very obvious that the digital computer and non-intrusive flow-measurement


instrumentation have both had a major impact on the quality of the papers at this
symposium and on our understanding of the flow around ships. However, the problems
are far from solved. It seems that inventors will always be able to come up with
concepts with little merit. And there is always the problem with meaningless
calculations and flawed experiments. Therefore, we must always be aware of the many
pitfalls. From my long experience, I am one who has doubts about any calculation and
has distrust of any measurement. I remember years ago, in 1953, I was given the task of
designing the first supercavitating propeller based on the SC section work of Marshall
Tulin. The calculations were by hand with no experimental data for the SC section
performance. When the test data came, I was amazed, as well as everyone else, at how
well the propeller met the design conditions. In back analyzing and rechecking the
hand calculations, I found a grievous error. I had misread the design conditions as
given to me by Dr. Lerbs. I had mistaken a 4 for a 7. Dr. Lerbs writing in his
German style had confused me. In those days, I didn't have sense enough to check and
recheck everything. I don't remember the details but certainly remember the lesson and
the importance of dumb luck. There is certainly a big difference between 7000 and
4000. If I had designed using the 4000 instead of the 7000, the propeller would not have
worked and our work on supercavitating propellers would have come to a screeching halt.
An example of flawed experiments is a design I made many years ago of a set
of contrarotating propellers. The experimental data did not match well with my
calculations. Being young and brash, I said there had to be something wrong with the
experiments. This caused quite a turmoil with the experimenters but they agreed to retest
and double check all the measurements. I was lucky, an error in one of the simplest
measurements was found. The new rpm instrumentation was in error.
Another example, is the importance of intuition? In designing a supercavitating
propeller for a Canadian hydrofoil boat, I felt that the blades were coming out very thin
toward the blades leading edges. At that time, the blade strength was based on the
section modulus. I went to my boss and said I felt the blade leading edges were too thin
even though all the calculations indicate that the propeller would be strong enough. After
substantial debate, we decided to build a second propeller with twice the thickness at the
quarter chord point solely based on gut feeling. What happened? We sent the thinbladed propeller to the Canadians for testing for us and proceeded to build a thicker
propeller. Shortly after, we received a frantic call from the Canadians that they had bent
our propeller in their first run in Bedford Basin. My boss calmly said, Don't worry
about it. We were concerned the propeller might not be strong enough and have built a
second stronger one and we will bring it to you. These antidotes are given to indicate
the importance of dumb luck and your gut feeling in spite of all the tools you have.
In conclusion, I would like to leave you with the following thoughts:
1.

The early theoretical work has been the basis for the advancement in numerical
techniques and our understanding of fluid mechanics.

2.

Progress in computers has led to both improved numerical procedures and flow
measurements.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

3.

There will always be a critical need to look at both numerical and experimental
data. Do they make physical sense?

4.

All the problems are not solved. Hydrodynamics is still the key to the advances in
future ships. The future is still ahead.

Thank you all for making this 25th ONR Naval Hydrodynamic Symposium a crowning
success.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

National Research
Council Canada

Conseil national
de recherches Canada

25th Symposium on Naval


Hydrodynamics

St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador


Fairmont Newfoundland Hotel

Michael Raymont

9 August 2004

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (9 August 2004) 2

Thank you very much, and good morning everyone.


It is a pleasure to be here.
Indeed, it is always a pleasure to visit St. Johns a unique and
beautiful seaport with both much history and an exciting future.
As Acting President of Canadas National Research Council I also
have the honour of reflecting the pride that all of us at NRC feel for
our Institute of Ocean Technology and our NRC-IRAP staff here in
Newfoundland.
I hope that you are already beginning to feel that you made a wise
and appropriate choice in selecting St. Johns as the site for this
symposium - the first to be held in Canada.
This venue gives you a chance to visit not only our extensive facilities
at the NRC Institute for Ocean Technology, but those at Memorial
University and at other organizations working with us to develop a
world-class cluster of ocean engineering and technology expertise
and facilities in this city.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (9 August 2004) 3

And while these are certainly important attractions, there is another


reason that this city makes for an excellent venue for the
25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics.
This city has for many years, indeed for centuries, been both a
product of, and a contributor to, our understandings of the science of
the seas.
Over five hundred years ago, the emergence of the nation-states, ,
the Renaissance, the accompanying scientific revolution, and the
overseas expansion of European states, all had significant influence
on the development of naval technologies.
As we all know, settlement of North America, principally by
Europeans, became possible after advances in naval technology
opened up the ocean routes to Western navigators.
Seaworthy, manoeuvrable ships which could deal effectively with
adverse sea and wind conditions, gave European adventurers access
to new horizons. It was in the early days of great advances in naval
design and construction that the Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto,
perhaps better known by his Anglicized name, John Cabot, reached
this island in 1497 while sailing under the English flag.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (9 August 2004) 4

I have to confess to being fascinated also by theories that the North


American continent may have been visited, prior to the 15th century
visits of Europeans, by Chinese seafarers. Since, I arrived here this
morning at past 3 a.m. direct from Beijing, I am glad to know that
today its possible to cover such distances more quickly than those
intrepid seafarers whether from Europe or the Orient.
Cabot's enthusiastic reports attracted international attention, and
English, French, Basque, and Portuguese ships were drawn to fish in
the surrounding waters in the centuries the followed.
For generations, this island and region were regarded by Britain as its
nursery for navies, a training ground for the crews that were to
maintain England's maritime superiority into the distant future.
So, we are standing on land that has a special place in both the
history and the future of naval technology and hydrodynamics.
Today, of course, you are gathered to think about the future. And, of
course, in spite of centuries of advances in naval technologies, there
remains huge potential for future developments in naval design,
construction and ocean exploitation, your work this week is focused
more on the power of partnerships and collaboration sharing
knowledge and building bridges between disciplines.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (9 August 2004) 5

One of the biggest stumbling blocks to developing new ideas and


technologies lies in the silos that the various disciplines and groups
build around themselves whether from industry, technology, or basic
research. This is the mindset we are challenging with our ocean
engineering cluster.
So, I am very pleased to be among a group of people who are not
shackled by this kind of silo thinking.
Naval hydrodynamics is a field that is I understand - a union of
physics, mathematics, and the practical study of the oceans.
At this symposium, you are clearly looking at new opportunities
which, for example, are coming from interactions with the field of fluid
mechanics and from new international partnerships. With NRC-IOT
and its partners we are also looking at industrial applications and new
business opportunities.
We are proud that you have chosen Canada and specifically
St. Johns for this event and very proud to join the University and our
friends from the United States: the National Academy of Sciences
and the US Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research, in
staging this Symposium.
Best wishes in your deliberations and again welcome to Canada and
St. Johns.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Ships In Ice - A Review


Stephen J. Jones
(Institute for Ocean Technology, National Research Council, Canada)

ABSTRACT
A historical review of the literature on the
performance of ships in ice is given from 1888 to
2004.
INTRODUCTION
The object of this paper is to provide an up-to-date
(2004) review of the scientific literature on ship
performance in ice. This forms an updated version of
my previous review (Jones 1989), now 15 years old.
It considers only unclassified work in the open
literature and, unfortunately, probably gives too much
emphasis to those papers written in English. It was
not the intention to deal with the construction of, or
strength of, icebreaking ships, nor is the science of
modelling discussed in any detail.
HISTORICAL REVIEW
To 1900
Runeberg (1888/89) published the first scientific
paper on icebreakers with particular reference to the
Baltic. He discussed both continuous icebreaking
and charging and derived expressions for the
vertical pressure at the bow, the thickness of ice
broken, and the total elevation at the fore-end
calculated from ship geometry for the case of
continuous icebreaking. He claimed that the results
agreed, tolerably well with the actual performance
of six ships. He recognized the importance of hullice friction on resistance, taking, without any
apparent justification, a coefficient of friction of 0.05,
as well as the role of the stem angle of the bow:
the vertical component should be as large as
possible. This is effected by making the bow very
sloping at the waterline. This is still true today.
Nothing else was published in the 19th Century.
1900 1945
Kari (1921) gave, in a brief note, some empirical
equations for determining the required power,
displacement, length, and draught of an icebreaking

ship but no derivation or justification for them was


given. He, also, recognized the importance of low
stem angle to provide a downward force. Simonson
(1936), in what would appear to be the first
contribution from North America, was the first to
recognize the importance of the strength of the ice
and, referring to some experiments at the University
of Illinois (Beach et al. 1895) gave a tensile strength
of freshwater ice as 102-256 psi (0.7-1.8 MPa) for
temperatures of 19.4o to 23o F (-7o to 5o C). He also
showed that the stem angle was important and
derived a simple equation for stem angle as a
function of thrust, vertical force, and trim angle. He
concluded the maximum thickness of ice that can be
broken by a given ship without stalling depends upon
the limiting angle that can be built into the bow, and
he added the frame sections, they should show a
marked flare at the waterline to relieve the crushing
force of the ice.
The only other pre-World War II paper was
a detailed analysis by Shimanskii (1938) who
employed a semi-empirical method for investigating
continuous mode icebreaking resistance.
He
developed several parameters for icebreakers, which
he termed conditional ice quality standards, i.e. the
form of the equation was developed but certain
coefficients in the equation had to be determined
from full-scale data.
This paper must have
influenced the design of the seven large icebreakers
built by the Soviet Union at the end of the 1930s.
During the war an unconventional use of
ships in ice was explored, namely to build aircraft
carriers out of ice. The Habbakuk project (Gold,
1993) has now been well documented and while it led
to much Canadian research on ice properties, no such
carrier was ever built.
1945 - 1960
After World War II, Johnson (1946) described the
U.S. Coast Guards icebreaking vessels and
experience in considerable detail. His comprehensive
paper was more concerned with their strength and
design rather than their performance. He described
the Wind-class icebreakers in detail, which had

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

operated around Greenland and the Russian Arctic


during the war. Vinogradov (1946) described some
of the Russian experience as well as giving an
equation for the downward icebreaking force
developed.
A significant contribution to the literature
was made by Jansson (1956[a] and 1956[b]) with a
major review article. He discussed in detail the
history of icebreaking from what he considered the
earliest true icebreaker, Eisbrecher 1, which operated
between Hamburg and Cuxhafen and was built in
1871, their bow shapes and propellers, to 1956. He
described the history of the bow propellers, which
originated with ships operating on the Great Lakes
where pack ice was a major problem. There, vessels
that got into difficulties were able to force their way
through by backing into the ice. The natural
consequence was that ships were built with bow
propellers. Thus, in 1888, the ferryboat St. Ignace
was built, with a stern propeller driven by 2000 hp,
and fore propeller by 1000 hp. The primary action of
the fore propeller is to wash away water and broken
ice from the fore end of the ship and thus reduce
friction between the ice and the bow sides of the ship.
As mentioned previously, towards the end of the
1930s the Soviet ice breaking fleet had been
augmented by 7 large icebreakers, designed for work
in Arctic waters with three stern propellers, as it
would be useless to try and break the hard polar ice
with fore propellers. Seven Wind-class ships were
built in U.S.A. during and after the 2nd world war, as
well as the Mackinaw, all diesel electric with one fore
propeller and two stern. For operations in the Arctic,
the fore-propeller could be removed and all the power
(10,000 HP) could be split between the two stern
propellers. A major advance after the war was the
first icebreakers equipped with two bow propellers.
This idea originated with the Abegweit, a diesel
electric ferry built in Canada in 1947 for operations
in the Northumberland Straits. The Finnish Voima,
built in 1953, was the first real icebreaker to be
equipped with two bow propellers and two stern.
However, the interest in Arctic type icebreakers
without bow propellers also increased in the midfifties, particularly in Canada.
Jansson (1956[a] and 1956[b]) also
discussed the science of icebreaking. He quoted,
without reference, values for the physical properties
of freshwater ice, apparently at 3oC, as:Elastic Modulus = 70,000 kg/cm2 (6,900 MPa)
Tensile and bending strength = 15 kg/cm2 (1.5 MPa)
Compressive strength = 30 kg/cm2 (2.9 MPa)
Shear strength = 7 kg/cm2 (0.7 MPa)

and said he had failed to find any reliable values for


sea ice. He said that the strength increased with
lower temperatures and even followed a rule that
ultimate strength is approximately proportional
to the square root of the number of degrees below
freezing point. No details were given about these
experiments, which is unfortunate. He also quoted
values of the coefficient of friction between ice and
metal as 0.10 to 0.15 for fresh, or Baltic, ice and 0.20
for salt water and polar ice. He gave a simple
formula for the total ice resistance as:R ice = (C1h + C 2 hv 2 ) B

(1)

where C1 and C2 are experimental constants, h is ice


thickness, v is vessel speed and B is breadth of vessel
at waterline.
In December 1957 the Lenin was launched
in Leningrad (St. Petersburg). It was the first atomic
or nuclear powered icebreaker and represented a
major technological achievement (Alexandrov et al.
1959). It claimed to have a cruising speed of 2 knot
in ice 2.4 m (8 ft) thick, and could remain at sea for
one year.
At a Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers (SNAME) Spring Meeting held to
celebrate the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway,
German (1959) and Watson (1959[a][b]) both
reviewed the Canadian experience and described the
icebreakers then in service and those planned for the
Canadian Department of Transport. Thiele (1959)
described the technical aspects of icebreaking
operation stressing four problems including friction,
and Ferris (1959) discussed the proportions and
forms of icebreakers.
1960 1985
The vast majority of the literature has been published
since 1960. The Manhattan voyage in 1969, and the
dramatic rise in oil prices in 1973 and again in 1979,
which led to a promise of extensive Arctic
development, contributed to the importance of
icebreaker design and to a corresponding interest in
structures for use in ice-covered waters. The advent
of model tests, ice tanks, analytical and numerical
techniques has meant a more scientific approach to
the subject. One of the first model tests was
described by Corlett and Snaith (1964), who used a
wax-like substance for their ice, for the Perkun, a
small Baltic icebreaker.
Kashteljan et al. (1968) are usually credited
with the first detailed attempt to analyze level ice
resistance by breaking it down into components.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

They gave an equation for the total ice resistance,


RTOT,
R TOT = R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4

(2)

where:R1 = resistance due to breaking the ice


R2 = resistance due to forces connected with weight
(i.e. submersion of broken ice, turning of broken ice,
change of position of icebreaker, and dry friction
resistance)
R3 = resistance due to passage through broken ice
R4 = water friction and wavemaking resistance
Their equation is (without R4)
1 k4 k5
B v (3)
2
where is ice strength, B is ship beam, h is ice
thickness, v is ship speed, and i is the density of ice.
R TOT = k 1 o Bh + k 2 o B i h 2 + k 3

o and 2 are related to Shimanskys ice cutting


parameters and k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, are coefficients
experimentally determined (0.004, 3.6, 0.25, 1.65,
and 1.0 respectively). This equation was developed
from model and full-scale tests of the Ermak.
Lewis and Edwards (1970) gave a good
review of previous work and derived the equation
R im = C o h 2 + C1 i gBh 2 + C 2 iBhv 2

with C0=0.146, C1=8.840, and C2=5.905. They went


on to analyse the Wind-class data more thoroughly in
a similar non-dimensional way, and showed best-fit
curves between the full-scale Wind-class data and
their semi-empirical equation utilising (a) all data and
(b) just model data. Their model data, however,
predicted a v2 term, which was not found in the fullscale data. They included a snow cover term in their
regression analysis of the full-scale data, which gave
an added resistance of about 2 long tons/inch
(8kN/cm) for the Wind-class icebreaker.
White (1970) gave a purely analytical
method for calculating bow performance. His major
contribution was to identify those qualities of a bow
that would be desirable for (a) improved continuous
icebreaking, (b) improved ramming and (c) improved
extraction ability. He concluded that there were only
three qualities that would improve all three
capabilities simultaneously namely;
(a) decrease of spread angle complement (i.e. a
blunter bow)
(b) decrease of the coefficient of friction
(c) increase of thrust.
He proposed a bow form, shown in Fig. 1, which
incorporated these features. This form was used on
the Manhattan for its voyage in the Arctic.

(4)

Rim = mean resistance excluding water


g = acceleration due to gravity
Co, C1, C2 are non-dimensional coefficients to be
determined experimentally.
The first term represents ice breaking and
friction, the second accounts for all resistance forces
attributable to ice buoyancy, and the third accounts
for all resistance forces attributable to momentum
interchange between the ship and the broken ice.
They then non-dimensionalized the equation by
where

dividing by h to get
R ' = C o + C1B ' N + C 2 B ' NI

(5)

where R ' = R im h 2 , non-dimensional mean ice


resistance
B' = B h , non-dimensional beam
N = i gh , volumetric number
NI = i v 2 , inertial number

Fig. 1 Whites (1969) recommended bow form for


a polar icebreaker, as used in the design of the
Manhattan.
Crago et al. (1971) described a set of model
tests in wax-type ice on 11 icebreakers. By
considering a simple bow geometry and the vertical
force acting on the ice sheet, they derived a
theoretical equation for the ice thickness, h, broken:-

and then obtained a best fit with full-scale and modelscale tests of Wind-class, Raritan, M-9 and M-15

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

h
T

1.53

(6)

tan(i + )

where = ice tensile strength, T= thrust, i = stem


angle and = tan-1f, where f is the coefficient of
friction.
They then plotted
(1

(h

T)

Finncarrier, and Jelppari, and was able to compare


his results with limited full-scale data from all three.
From a combination of analytical work, dimensional
analysis, and a few assumptions, he derived a semiempirical equation for ice resistance based on three
terms:RTOT = C1 Bh + C2 BhT g + C3 Bhi v2 (8)

against

tan(i + ) ) , as shown in Fig. 2, and obtained

good correlation between equation (5) and their


model tests. They also had one full-scale data point
from the CCGS Wolfe. While the model data did fit
their equation quite well, but not with a slope of 1.53,
it seriously over-predicted the ice thickness broken
for a given thrust, compared to the one full-scale
point.

Fig. 2. Showing the relationship by Crago et al.


(1971) between their model data, one full-scale point,
and one new model ice result and their equation for
thrust.
However, they pointed out that the one model test in
new model ice was in good agreement with the
full-scale point, as shown in Fig. 2. It is, perhaps, not
surprising that the agreement with the full-scale data
was poor, since they considered only a simple
breaking term in their equation and neglected all
others, such as submersion of ice pieces, as had been
considered by Kashteljan et al. (1968). Crago et al.
(1971) also measured the friction of a dry, unpainted,
steel plate toboggan against a dry crusty snow cover.
They obtained mean values of static, fs, and kinetic
frictions, fk, of:(7)
fs = 0.30 0.35
fk = 0.07 0.23
Enkvist (1972) made a major addition to the literature
of ship performance in level ice. He conducted
model tests for three ships; Moskva-class,

where

T = draft of ship
w = density of water and = w - i .
By doing model tests at low speed (v=0) as well
as normal speeds he was able to isolate the velocity
dependent term, and by doing tests in pre-sawn ice
( = 0 ) he was able to isolate the submergence term.
He was able, therefore, to determine the relative
importance of the three terms in his equation.
Enkvist (1972) also conducted detailed tests on the
strength of his model ice, described strength tests on
natural ice, and carried out a considerable number of
friction tests on his model ice and on natural ice
surfaces using a towed sled the first person to
describe such tests in any detail. In a later study,
Enkvist (1983) applied his model-scale technique of
doing tests in pre-sawn ice and creeping speeds, to 16
full-scale tests. From these tests he obtained the
result that the breaking term at full-scale was greater
than he had previously estimated, between 40 and
80% of the total zero speed resistance, with the larger
figure applying to smaller ships. This is probably
still the most reliable published estimate of the
importance of the breaking term at full-scale. At
model scale, Poznak and Ionov (1981) showed that
for a medium size icebreaker the breaking term was
about 40% of the total ice resistance, and the friction
term about 30%.
Johansson and Mkinen (1973) applied
Enkvists method of analysis to model tests of a
parametric series of nine bulk carrier models. Their
results showed that
1. A reduction of bow angle from 82o to 20o
reduced the ice resistance by about 60%.
2. an increase in length of 38% increased the
ice resistance by about 30%. A decrease in
length of 38% decreased the ice resistance
by 10%.
3. An increase in beam of 33% increased the
ice resistance by about 40%. A decrease in
beam of 27% reduced the ice resistance by
about 36%.
They later (Virtanen et al., 1975) investigated the
effect of draft and found no effect on resistance,
within the errors of their experiment.
Edwards et al. (1972) conducted an extensive
set of full-scale and model-scale tests on a Great
Lakes icebreaker, the USCGC Mackinaw. Their full-

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

scale resistance was, however, determined


indirectly as the sum of the estimated thrust in each
of the three propeller shafts (two aft, one forward)
determined almost exclusively from electrical
readings of current, voltage, and r.p.m.
Milano (1973) made a significant advance in
the purely theoretical prediction of ship performance
in ice. He considered the energy needed for a ship to
move through level ice, which varied somewhat with
ice thickness. For example, for very thick ice the
ship moves through the ice-filled channel (E1),
impacts the various bow and cusp wedges causing
local crushing (E2), climbs onto the ice (E3) until
sufficient force is generated to cause fracture, at
which time the ship falls (E4), and moves forward,
forcing the ice downward (E5). The total energy loss
due to ship motion is then written as

E T = E1 + E 2 + E 3 + E 4 + E 5

dependence, at least in thick ice, is interesting


because of its complexity (Fig. 4) and shows what
has become known as a Milano hump. His
explanation for this hump is related to the different
mechanisms involved in the energy equation. Some
experimental evidence for such a hump has been
found by Tatinclaux (1984), Schwarz (1977) and
Narita and Yamaguchi (1981). Milano (1975) then
varied numerous ship and ice parameters and showed
how this affected his calculated resistance. His plots
showed the trend in resistance to be expected by
varying ship parameters such as beam, block
coefficient, waterplane coefficient, length, etc., and
also what would happen if ice properties such as
friction, tensile strength and compressive strength
were altered.

(9)

Then he derived explicit analytical expressions for


each of these terms and compared his predictions
with the data obtained on the Mackinaw, discussed
above, (Edwards et al., 1972) the Wind-class vessel
Staten Island, and the Raritan. He obtained good
correlation, as shown in Fig. 3, although this
correlation was dependent on the value of ice flexural
strength and friction coefficient used. He, also, used
a non-dimensional approach, following Lewis and
Edwards, and developed a design chart for

Fig. 4. Milanos (1975) plot of total energy lost


versus ship speed showing component energy terms
for Mackinaw in ice two feet thick, and showing the
development of a hump.
Fig 3. Plot of ship resistance versus speed for
USCGC Mackinaw as a function of ice thickness,
showing correlation with full-scale tests (Milano,
1973)
predicting total resistance for all icebreakers in
general and large polar-type icebreakers in
particular, a somewhat ambitious exercise! In later
papers Milano (1975, 1980, 1982) investigated in
detail the effect on his analytical model of varying
various ship or ice parameters. His proposed speed

Carter (1983) has also attempted an


analytical approach to ship resistance in ice. He
derived a relatively simple equation for the maximum
resistance to ship motion. He neglected inertial
forces and buoyancy forces entirely on the grounds
that the effect of upturning and submerging the ice
pieces was small and could be ignored. The net total
energy lost was set, in his theory, equal to that
absorbed in icebreaking by bending, buckling, or
crushing. However, model tests by Enkvist (1972)
and others, do not bear out this assumption. Despite

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

this, Carter (1983) obtained reasonable agreement


between his theory and data for six icebreakers.
Scarton (1975) investigated the role of
friction in icebreaking and specifically studied
theoretically the direction of the frictional force. He
derived a relationship between bow angles and the
coefficient of friction such that a ship would not get
stuck in the ice. Mkinen et al. (1975) showed
clearly the importance of friction in the most direct
way. By attaching stainless steel plates, which had a
friction coefficient of about half the remainder of the
hull, to the Jelppari, they showed that the resistance
dropped significantly, particularly at low speeds.
They also compared two full-scale ships with
different surface finishes as well as observing model
scale effects. All showed a significant drop in
resistance with reduced friction coefficient. They
described tests with the Murtaja using different
coatings at different places on the hull and found a
solvent free epoxy (INERTA 160) was the best in
terms of reducing friction and staying attached to the
hull.
Vance (1975) obtained an optimum
regression equation from five sets of model and fullscale data, of the Mackinaw (same data as used by
Edwards et al., 1972), Moskza, Finncarrier, Staten
Island, and Ermak. His equation was :R(ice) = CSgBh2 + CBBh+ CVi v2Lh0.65 B 0.35

(10)

They quote hull-ice friction coefficients varying from


0.08 to 0.48 but did not explain how these were
obtained.

Fig. 5. Vance (1975) analysis of Mackinaw data.


MSR is the model-scale regression curve (i.e.
obtained from model tests) and FSR is the full-scale
regression curve (i.e. obtained form full-scale tests).
FS is the actual full-scale data. All for three different
ice thicknesses, 0.3, 0.9, and 1.6 ft (9, 27 and 49 cm).

where R (ice) is the resistance due to ice, L is length of


vessel, and CS, CB, CV are empirically determined
values. The first term is a submergence term, the
second a breaking term, and the third term is a
velocity dependent resistance.
An example of a fit to his equation is shown
in Fig. 5, in which the Mackinaw full-scale data
(labeled FS) are shown fitted to his equation above
(labeled FSR) and a model-scale regression to his
equation (MSR) is also shown. Good agreement is
found between the model and full-scale results.
Edwards et al. (1976) presented full-scale
data for the Louis S. St. Laurent collected by
analyzing ramming type tests using a nondimensional equation:
R
v
= 4.24 + 0.05
+ 8. 9
(11)
2
w gh
w gBh
gh
which is linear in velocity. Their results are shown in
Fig. 6 in which the five lines are obtained from their
regression above using the values of and h
appropriate to the course. They compared these
results to two sets of saline ice model data, one
collected at a scale of 1:36 and one at a scale of 1:48.

Fig. 6. Edwards et al (1976) regression of full-scale


data from the Louis S. St. Laurent using values of
and h appropriate to the course.
They also conducted a parametric series of tests on
nine different models. They concluded that level ice
resistance was

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

(a) directly proportional to beam


(b) independent of length
(c) proportional to block coefficient, and
(d) proportional to draft.
These results are somewhat surprising, and in some
disagreement with the earlier work of Johannson and
Mkinen (1973).
Particularly surprising is the
independence of length, since Edwards et al. (1976)
had earlier shown the importance of a frictional term,
which one might expect to be a function of length.
They also conducted manoeuvring tests.
In a related series of experiments, Kitagawa
et al., (1982, 1983, 1986) investigated the effect of
parallel mid-body length, and beam, on an Arctic
tanker model

Fig. 7. Resistance per unit displacement for three


Arctic tanker models of different lengths as shown,
scaled-up to a ship of length 360 m (Kitagawa et al.,
1982)
They found a clear increase in resistance with
increase in length, using three models of lengths 3.75
m, 5.0 m, and 6.4 m. They plotted their results as
resistance per unit displacement against speed at both
model scale and scaled up to a 360 m long, 280,900
m3 displacement, vessel. This involved different
scaling factors for the three models, and therefore
ignored differences in model ice strength, which was
probably not insignificant (Kloppenburg, 1975).
Their results, both at model and full-scale, indicated
an optimum parallel mid-body as shown for example
in Fig. 7 in which the data are scaled up to a 360 m
long ship. Model B-003 has the least resistance per
unit displacement and is the 5.0 m long model i.e. the
middle length of the three tested, with a Lparallel/Lmodel
of 0.4. Correcting for model ice strength would have
the effect of increasing the resistance of B-004 even
more and reducing B-005 slightly. They concluded,
therefore, that for this particular hull form, the
maximum length of parallel body should be 0.4 LPP.
In a corresponding series of self-propulsion tests,

they concluded that a minimum parallel body of 0.25


LPP was needed top avoid excessive propeller-ice
interaction. When they varied the beam of the model
for a fixed draught, using values of L/B=8 and 6, they
found an increase in resistance with increase in beam.
However, the wider ship had a significantly lower
resistance per unit displacement.
They also
investigated the effect of an 8o side flare to the
parallel mid-body. While this increased the level ice
resistance somewhat, it had certain advantages; the
open-water channel width was slightly wider, and no
asymmetrical roll was observed, as had been seen
with the vertical sided model. They also observed
that a 5o rise of floor in the parallel body had a
significant beneficial effect in allowing broken ice
pieces to rise to the surface before reaching the
propellers.
In 1981, a STAR symposium held in Ottawa
published a number of model tests and some fullscale data. Narita and Yamaguchi (1981) published a
very detailed account of model tests, which had led to
the building of the Shirase. First, they tested three
model bows and showed that a cylindrical bow with a
low stem angle of 22.5o had less resistance than the
other two, because it avoided crushing at the bow.
They went on to test a triple-screw ship in resistance
and self-propulsion. They also showed, at modelscale, that the resistance almost doubled as the hullice friction coefficient doubled from 0.1 to 0.2.
Schwarz et al. (1981) published model tests of the
Polarstern, and Juurmaa and Segercrantz (1981)
stressed the importance of propulsion efficiency in
ice, rather than just resistance, pointing out that while
different models might have the same resistance, they
could have very different efficiencies due to
ice/propeller interaction.
They showed that a
propeller with a nozzle could have very low
efficiency if it became blocked with ice.
Full-scale data for the Canadian R-class
icebreakers were also presented at this conference
(Edwards et al., 1981; Michailidis and Murdey,
1981), as well as a set of parametric variation model
tests, which examined different bow forms based on
the R-Class as parent (Noble and Bulat, 1981).
Resistance tests only were conducted, and these,
again, showed the superiority of rounded bows with
low stem angle in breaking ice, but since no selfpropulsion tests were conducted it is impossible to
judge the overall performance of the different ships.
Vance (1980) and Vance et al. (1981) conducted fullscale tests of the 140 ft (43 m) Great Lakes
icebreaker, Katmai Bay. He analysed his results
somewhat differently from other workers, plotting
Propulsive Coefficient (PC) against velocity, where

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

models. Tatinclauxs (1984) tests in level and broken


ice allowed ice resistance to be divided into a
submergence-inertia component and an ice-breaking
component. The ice-breaking component was found
to be proportional to the Cauchy Number ( w h) ,
as expected, but was influenced by Froude Number
(v

gh ) . In particular a rapid change in the ice-

breaking resistance was found to occur at a Froude


Number of 0.4-0.5, as shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 8. PC versus velocity for Katmai Bay in level
ice with no bubblers operating. Clearwater value, not
shown, was 0.565 (Vance, 1980).
PC = EHP/SHP
(12)
and EHP = Effective horsepower, SHP = Shaft
horsepower. EHP was calculated from
EHP = Resistance X Velocity

(13)

and resistance, R, was determined from


R = T(1-t)

(14)

where T was the thrust measured on the shaft, and t


was a thrust deduction factor, taken as 0.2. SHP was
calculated from
SHP = Measured torque X R.P.M.

(15)

He found that PC in level ice was always lower


(0.12-0.45) than in clearwater (0.565) as shown in
Fig. 8, and he suggested several reasons for this loss
in efficiency, namely:1.
2.
3.
4.

increase in t
decrease in w (ice-free wake fraction)
decrease in relative rotative efficiency by
disturbances to flow pattern by ice blocks
decrease in propeller efficiency for other
reasons, as discussed in the paper.

Tatinclaux (1984) performed resistance tests on two


models of the Katmai Bay, 1:10 scale and 1:24 scale,
in level and brash ice.
He found that the
dimensionless ice resistance in level ice was
essentially the same for both models i.e. no scale
effect. Newbury and Williams (1986) did find a scale
effect when testing 1:40 and 1:20 scale models of the
R-Class icebreakers, but they attributed it to
differences in the friction coefficient between the

Fig. 9. Plot of (Rbk Bhi ) as a function of Froude


number, Fn (dimensionless quantities) for Katmai Bay
model tests (Tatinclaux, 1984).
This behaviour was attributed to corresponding
observed changes in the amplitude of pitching and
heaving motions of the models, and may correspond
to a Milano Hump as discussed earlier.
Comparison with full-scale data (Vance, 1980)
indicated that the model resistance was significantly
larger, when scaled up, than the full-scale data, and
several possible reasons were suggested. A further
set of self-propelled model tests (Tatinclaux, 1985)
showed reasonable agreement with full-scale but
several possible sources of error were identified; the
Froude Number was not the same for model and fullscale tests, a stock propeller was used in the model
tests which might not have been as efficient the real
propeller, and the model friction coefficient may have
been higher than the full-scale value.
Bulat (1982) investigated the effect of snow
cover on level ice resistance. He used published data
from five full-scale trials (Radisson, Franklin, Staten
Island, Mackinaw, Wolfe) and plotted the percentage
increase in resistance against non-dimensional snow
cover, as shown in Fig. 10.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

R S ,R Sf = normal and frictional resistance


due to submerging broken ice floes.

Fig. 10. Plot of actual data points from full-scale


trials to show the influence of snow cover on ice
resistance (Bulat, 1982).
This was done by comparing full-scale data points
with and without snow cover, but in similar ice
conditions. He concluded that there was no evidence
that the actual hull shape influenced ship
performance in snow covered ice (at least within the
range of hull forms tested) and that the relative
resistance increased with decrease of speed, increase
of snow cover, and decrease of ice thickness.
Lewis et al (1982) re-analysed earlier data in
a different manner, the major improvement being the
inclusion of a thrust deduction factor applied to their
full-scale measurements. They assumed that t i = t p ,
the thrust deduction factor in open water tests, which
they used to convert the thrust measured during ice
breaking trials to resistance which could be compared
to model-scale resistance measurements. This they
did for the Mackinaw, Katmai Bay, and Radisson,
plotting model-test resistance against full-scale
resistance and found reasonable agreement.
Kotras et al. (1983), in a paper based on
Nagles thesis (Nagle, unpublished) describe yet
another semi-empirical approach in which the total
ice resistance is given by
R ice = R B + R Bf + R T + R Tf + R S + R Sf

where

R ice

(16)

= total ship-ice resistance

R B ,R Bf = normal and frictional resistance


due to breaking of level ice
R T ,R Tf = normal and frictional resistance
due to turning broken ice floes.

The resulting equation contained four empirical


coefficients these were determined from best fits to
some of the data from Katmai Bay, Mackinaw,
Radisson, Staten Island, and Manhattan.
The
remainder of the data, plus that used to optimize the
coefficients was then plotted as measured ice
resistance against the ice resistance predicted from
their equation. The measured ice resistance had
been obtained from the full-scale measurements by
applying a thrust deduction factor as discussed by
Lewis et al. (1982). 72% of the data fell between
25% of the perfect correlation line, which they
claimed was a significant improvement over the
equation given by Lewis et al. (1982).
1985-2004
This modern period has seen the development of new
icebreaking forms, and a more scientific approach to
the modeling of ships in ice with extensive model
testing and, most recently, numerical methods.
Canadian Arctic oil exploration and development led
to new designs such as the Kigoriak, and Terry Fox,
while other activities led to the Oden, double acting
tankers (DAT) with Azipods, FPSOs in ice, and
research ships such as the Nathaniel B. Palmer,
USCGC Healy, and the converted CCGS Franklin
now called CCGS Amundsen.
Baker and Nishizaki (1986) described a new
bow form for an Arctic tanker and compared model
tests done by several laboratories. The results were
somewhat disappointing scientifically because the
full-scale predictions by the three laboratories
differed widely as shown in Fig. 11. Reasons for this
were suggested by the authors as differences in ice
modeling and analysis procedures, as well as a lack
of understanding of friction and thrust deduction
effects. Similar comparison work by the ITTC, Fig.
12, on a model of the R-Class icebreaker, has also
shown a certain lack of agreement, but closer than the
Baker and Nishizaka (1986) comparison. This
disagreement is attributed to the different model ices
and analysis procedures used by the tanks. However,
Takekuma and Kayo (1988) apparently obtained
quite good agreement in two ice tanks with both
structure and ship models.
A study of the dynamics of continuous mode
icebreaking (Ettema et al., 1987) using 1:48 scale
model of the Polar-class icebreaker, showed that a
free hull (free in pitch, heave, and roll) experienced
larger values of mean resistance than did a fixed hull.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The 1980s saw the design and construction


of icebreakers with unconventional bow forms all of
which have low stem angles of approximately 20o
and are different from the classical wedge-shaped
bow. These are the spoon-shaped bows of the
Canmar Kigoriak, Robert LeMeur, and other similar
designs, and the Thyssen-Waas bow form of the
modified Max Waldeck and the converted Mudyuq.
Fig 13 shows these types of bow at model scale, in

Fig. 11. Comparison of full-scale thrust predictions


from three laboratories, ACL, HSVA and WARC, for
the old bow of the MV Arctic. Ice strength = 500
kPa. Considerable differences in predicted thrust are
apparent (Baker and Nishizaki, 1986).

Fig. 13. Models of typical icebreaking bows showing


from L-R, the original bow of a CCG Navaids tender
Bernier, an R-Class bow, a Beaufort Sea type bow,
and a Thyssen-Waaas bow (Glen et al. 1998).

Fig. 12. Comparison of resistance tests conducted by


different ice tanks on a model of the R-Class
icebreaker (18th ITTC Proceedings).
The dominant frequency of ice resistance and hull
motions experienced by the free hull occurred either
at integer fractions of icebreaking frequency, b , or
at the hulls natural frequency of coupled pitch and
heave, n . The fixed hull experienced cycles of
resistance predominantly at frequency, b . Further
experiments such as these to study the dynamics of
icebreaking, should help us to understand more
clearly what is happening in the icebreaking process.

which the bow forms of four ships are compared: an


original bow of the Bernier a CCG Navaids vessel, an
R-Class bow, a Beaufort Sea bow typical of the
Kigoriak, and a Thyssen-Waas type bow.
The general design and operation of these
ships has been published (Churcher et al., 1984;
Ghonheim et al., 1984; Freitas and Nishizaki, 1986;
Schwarz, 1986[a]; German, 1983; Tronin et al., 1984;
Johansson and Revill, 1986) but little in the way of
full-scale trials or even detailed model tests.
Hellmann (1982) described model and full-scale tests
with the Max Waldeck before and after conversion to
a Thyssen-Waas bow form.
He showed an
approximate 25% drop in resistance model tests, and
100% increase in speed, for the same power, in
propulsion tests. Full-scale data gave reasonable
agreement. Enkvist and Mustamki (1986) have
published results of model and full-scale tests of a
bow, which was derived from tests of a circular and
square bow form. They showed, first of all, that ice
crushing at the stem of two small ships accounted for
20-40% of the total low-speed resistance. By cutting

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

slots in the ice ahead of the stem and removing the


ice, the resistance was reduced by this amount.
Clearly this is the major advantage of low stem angle,
non wedge-shaped bows.
Their model tests
compared a circular bow, a square bow, and the
original Mudyuq bow, and showed that the circular
bow had the lowest resistance. They then selected an
experimental bow for further testing and analysis and
after model testing, made a full-scale bow to attach to
the Protector. Their full-scale results showed a
considerable improvement in the Protectors
performance in level ice although they admitted that
the original Protector was not particularly efficient.
They measured full-scale friction using two panels
installed on the bow of the Protector and obtained
somewhat scattered results as shown below:Low pressure panel, f = 0.16-0.26
High pressure panel, f = 0.05-0.13
Similar panels were installed on the
Polarstern (Schwarz et al., 1986), and results
(Schwarz, 1986[b]; Hoffmann, 1985) also show a
decrease in friction coefficient with increasing
normal force. Good correlation with model data, of
the performance of the new Protector bow, was
obtained with a model friction coefficient of 0.05 as
against the measured full-scale values shown above.
A major disadvantage of the bow was higher
slamming pressures. A similar disadvantage was
noted by Freitas and Nishizaki (1986) who tested an
ice class bulk carrier model with a Thyssen/Waas
bow, which otherwise showed considerable
improvement in icebreaking ability. This bow form
was fitted to the Mudyuq and results showed that in
snow-free ice, hull speed increased 50 to 100%
without the aid of the Jastram hull lubrication plant
(Varges, 1987, 1988). Improvements in turning
circle and in clearing of ice from a broken channel
were also reported, as well as agreement with model
tests. A series of comparison tests by Glen et al.
(1998) on four bows, one of which was a ThyssenWaas form, showed that while it was superior in
breaking level ice, this had little real significance on
the overall performance of a Navaids vessel in
service with the Canadian Coast Guard, which spent
a lot of its time in open water. For such a vessel a
conventional R-Class type bow was superior overall.
An interesting development in the mid-80s
was a full-scale towed resistance trial of the Mobile
Bay in uniform level ice (Zhan et al., 1987). In
principle, this parallels the open water trials of the
Greyhound (Froude, 1874) and Lucy Ashton (Denny,
1951). While such tests are clearly difficult to
perform, in theory they provide a direct measurement
of full-scale resistance. They also conducted full-

scale propulsion tests. They found the best fit to their


towed resistance results was with the equation (one of
15 equations that they analyzed):Ri
w gBh 2

where

= C o + C1

v2
gB

L
h

(17)

Co = 4.25
C1 = 3.96 X 10-5

Which implies a v2 dependence of resistance on


speed, as well as an h2 dependence. From their
propulsion data they determined a thrust deduction
fraction as a function of ice thickness, but as I have
commented in a discussion to their paper, their range
of thickness (and strengths) was so small, and the
normal errors associated with thrust and torque
measurements so large, that such a relationship is
difficult to justify. However, it is a valuable addition
to the literature and, hopefully, could be repeated in
the future with significantly different ice conditions,
for comparison.
Since 1990 the major development has
undoubtedly been that of using podded propellers in
ice with double acting tankers (DAT), which has
taken place principally in Finland (Juurmaa et al.,
2001) and appropriate for the Baltic Sea. Starting in
1990 with a 1.3 MW buoy tender, MV Seili, podded
propellers have been used in conjunction with
designs which allow the ship to go astern in heavy ice
and forward in open water and light ice. Full power
can be applied in either direction by rotating the
Azipod. Fig 14 shows the stern of the Seili with an
Azipod fitted.

Fig. 14. MV Seili, the first ship to be fitted with an


Azipod
The development has now progressed to a 16 MW
tanker with one Azipod unit, two of which were
recently (2003) delivered to Fortum Shipping by
Sumitomo Heavy Industries, for use in the Baltic.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The idea was to design an efficient icebreaking stern


for the vessel, while keeping an efficient open water
bow. Fig. 15 shows one of the ships going astern in
ice during its ice trials.

Fig. 17. Stern model of the DAT in Fig. 15.


The most recent new icebreakers in North
America are the Nathaniel B. Palmer (1991)and the
USCGC Healy (2000) designed principally to be
Antarctic and Arctic research/supply ships. The
Healy is shown in Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. USCGC Healy entering St. Johns harbour.
Fig. 15. A 106,000-dwt Masa-Yards-developed DAT
crude carriers built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries in
2003.

Fig. 16. Bow form of the DAT in Fig. 15.


When entering a ridge field at slow or moderate
speed, a DAT vessel lets its pulling propeller chew
up the ridge and slowly pull the vessel through,
without any need for ramming. Whether this would
work on a massive arctic ridge without damage to the
propulsion unit seems unlikely, but the vessels are
well suited to Baltic ice conditions.

It has a conventional bow form with two


conventional propellers. A complete set of trials in
ice was conducted with this ship in 2000 with the
results published in the literature (POAC 2001). The
design icebreaking capability of the Healy was for
continuous icebreaking at 3 knots through 4.5 ft (1.37
m) of ice of 100 psi (690 kPa) strength. The fullscale trials were conducted in ice half this strength,
but by extrapolation from model-scale tests (Jones
and Moores, 2002) the ship was shown to meet this
requirement.
An icebreaker for the Great Lakes, GLIB, to
be named USCGC Mackinaw and scheduled for
delivery in October 2005 will have two Azipod units
of 3.3 MW each. The ship, shown in Fig. 19, is

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

icebergs are towed away by support ships, as shown


in Fig. 21.

Fig. 19. Profile of the GLIB to be delivered in 2005.


designed to break 32(0.82 m) of ice at 3 knots ahead
and 2 knots astern. In addition it should be very
maneuverable with the Azipod units, which can turn
360o. Full-scale trials of that ship will also be
conducted.

Fig. 21. Towing a medium sized iceberg off


Newfoundland
The oil is transported to market in ice strengthened
tankers. At IOT we have been conducting a major
research program into the impact of a ship with a
small iceberg, or bergy bit. The results remain
confidential for a little longer but Cumming et al.
(2001) has described the extensive model and fullscale experiments including full-scale impact tests
with the Terry Fox, shown in Fig. 22.

Fig. 22. The Terry Fox impacting a bergy bit.

Fig. 20. The Terra-Nova FPSO off Newfoundland


With the advent of the offshore oil industry
in Newfoundland two FPSOs have been built for the
ice infested waters, the Terra-Nova FPSO, shown in
Fig. 20, and the Sea Rose. These ships are not
icebreakers but are ice strengthened and can
withstand pack ice forces. They are designed to
disconnect if threatened by a large iceberg. Smaller

The last twenty years has seen advances in


ship-ice modeling techniques both experimental and
numerical. Jones et al (1989) has described the
different model ices in use throughout the world. In
short, large ice tanks have allowed model scales of
around 1:20 and at that scale the model ice properties
of strength, stiffness and brittleness are reproduced
remarkably well. Different tanks have used different
chemical dopants to give the best ice properties at
model scale, and at IOT we have always used a
combination of Ethylene Glycol (EG, 0.39%)
aliphatic detergent (AD, 0.036%) and sugar (S,
0.04%), thus giving us EGADS model ice. The
glycol acts like the salt in real sea ice forming brine,

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

or glycol, pockets on freezing, the detergent reduces


the surface tension at the growing interface allowing
more dopant to be included in the model ice, and the
sugar acts as a long chain molecule to keep the grain
size small as the ice grows. The resultant model ice
and its properties have been described by Timco
(1986) who concluded that it was a significant
improvement in model ice technology.
Another other major advance in the last
twenty years has been in numerical methods to
predict resistance in ice.
Valanto (2001) has
developed a 3-D numerical model of the icebreaking
process on the ship waterline, which predicts the
forces on the waterline. These were compared with
load panel measurements on the MS Uisko with good
agreement. He then calculated the resistance in ice
for several ships using his numerical model,
combined with a semi-empirical model of Lindqvist
(1989) for the underwater components of resistance,
and obtained good agreement with measured values,
as shown in Fig 22.

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Baker, D., and Nishizaki, R., 1986. The MV Arctic
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Fig. 22. Measured and computed resistance values in


level ice for the Otso-class icebreakers (Valanto,
2001).
In future, further developments in numerical methods
will continue to take place
SUMMARY
Enormous technological progress has been made in
the last 100 years from Eisbrecher I to Double Acting
Tankers. Ice will continue to be important factor for
oil exploration and production in certain offshore
areas as well as for marine transportation. Increased
tourist, as well as commercial, traffic in the Arctic
and Antarctic will bring demands for safer and more
efficient travel in such areas.
Modelling will
continue to improve with emphasis on numerical
simulations as well as physical modeling.

Crago, W.A., Dix, P.J., and German, J.G., 1971.


Model icebreaking experiments and their correlation
with full-scale data. Trans. RINA, Vol. 113, p. 83108.
Cumming, D., Gagnon, R.E., Derradji, A., and Jones,
S.J., 2001. Overview of research underway at the
institute for marine dynamics related to the
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structures and bergy bits. Proc. 6th Can. Marine
Hydrodynamics
and
Structures
Conference,
Vancouver.
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measurements. Trans. RINA, Vol. 93, International
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Engineers, p. 40-57.
Edwards, R.Y. Jr., et al., 1972. Full-scale and model
tests of a Great Lakes icebreaker. Trans. SNAME,
Vol. 80, p. 170-207.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Edwards, R.Y. Jr., et al., 1976. Influence of major


characteristics of icebreaker hulls on their powering
requirements and maneuverability in ice. Trans.
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Edwards, R.Y. Jr., Dunne, M.A., and Johnson, B.,


1981. Results of full-scale trials in ice of CCGS
Pierre Radisson. Proc. 6th STAR Symposium,
Ottawa, 17-19 June 1981, SNAME, New York, p.
291-310.

Hellmann, J-H., 1982. Model and full-scale tests in


ice with the icebreaker Max Waldeck.
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Juurmaa, K., Mattson, T., and Wilkman, G., 2001.


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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Larry J. Doctors, The University of New South
Wales, Australia
Can you please clarify what property or
properties of the ice affect the size of the pieces that
break off? How does one control the creation of the
model ice to achieve the desired result?
AUTHORS REPLY
The piece size broken by a ship in model ice
has long been debated, but there are very few data.
Research done at our institute has suggested
(Newbury, 1989) that the piece size is indeed 3-5
times larger than it should be when compared with
limited full-scale data that is available. However,
some of this discrepancy might be due to the fact that
a 5 cm piece at full-scale would be measured, while
the same piece at a model scale of 1:20 might be
ignored, thus skewing the statistics of the piece size.
Undoubtedly the brittleness of the model ice
has a big effect on the piece size, and most model
ices are not as brittle as they should be at model
scale.
The only variables we can adjust are
temperature, and the chemical content of the water.
The EG/AD/S model ice, which we use at IOT, and
was mentioned in my talk, is more brittle than most
other ices, but even so it is less brittle than it should
be. Ice is a remarkably brittle substance considering
how close to its melting point it exists on earth and so
finding a perfect model ice will probably remain
impossible. We have reviewed the properties of the
different model ices in Jones et al (1989).

REFERENCES
Newbury, S.N., 1989. A preliminary investigation of
model ice failure pattern and piece size generated by
an icebreaker bow form. NRC/IMD Report LM1989-11, 4pp.
Jones, S.J., Timco, G.W., Frederking, R., 1989. A
current view on sea ice modelling. Proceedings 22nd
ATTC, St. John's, Newfoundland, August 8-11, 1989,
National Research Council Canada, p. 114-120.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Nuclei Effects on Cavitation Inception and Noise


Georges L. Chahine
(DYNAFLOW, INC., U.S.A.)
community, but much more importantly to the
perceived impracticality of using the methods
developed with the existing design resources. This
has made the use of bubble dynamics seem
inconceivable but by experts.
Recently,
however,
there
have
been
tremendous advances in available computing
resources placed at the reach of non-experts.
Personal computers with phenomenal speed,
memory, and storage size, when compared to what
existed a decade ago, are now in the hands of most
engineers at a small fraction of the cost of an entry
computer a decade ago. This computer revolution
has definitely affected the operating procedures of
the designers. For instance, while a few years ago,
use of CFD viscous solvers by designers was out of
reach and only very simplified codes were used to
design and model rotating machinery, it is now
common to use repeatedly in-house or commercial
Navier Stokes solver CFD codes to seek better
solutions [11-13]. The challenge is thus presently
for the cavitation community to bring its techniques
to par with the single phase CFD progress. It is this
challenge that is been undertaken here and to
which we wish to significantly contribute.
In this paper, we discuss first the various
definitions of cavitation because of their significant
implications on modelling and then describe the
analytical and numerical tools that have become
available. We will try to convey the need to include
the presence of nuclei and nuclei dynamics in the
predictive tools for advanced designs. Some of
these tools are at the reach of all users and should
be adopted by the design community in
conjunction with the CFD tools presently used for
advanced design.

ABSTRACT
Cavitation is a problem of interaction between nuclei
and local pressure field variations including turbulent
oscillations and large scale pressure variations.
Various types of behaviors fundamentally depend on
the relative sizes of the nuclei and the length scales of
the pressure variations as well as the relative
importance of the bubble natural period of oscillation
and the characteristic time of the field pressure
variations. Ignoring this observation and basing
cavitation inception predictions on pressure
coefficients of the flow of the pure liquid, without
account for bubble dynamics could result in significant
errors in predictions. We present here a practical
method using a multi-bubble Surface Averaged
Pressure (DF-Multi-SAP) to simulate cavitation
inception and scaling, and connect this with more
precise 3D simulations.
INTRODUCTION
Cavitation and bubble dynamics have been the
subject of extensive research since the early works
of Besant in 1859 [1] and Lord Rayleigh in 1917 [2].
Thousands of papers and articles and several books
[e.g., 3-10] have been devoted to the subject.
Various aspects of the bubble dynamics have been
considered at length under various assumptions
and each contribution included one or several
physical phenomena such as inertia, interface
dynamics, gas diffusion, heat transfer, bubble
deformation, bubble-bubble interaction, electrical
charge effects, magnetic field effects, etc.
Unfortunately, very little of the resulting
knowledge has succeeded in crossing from the
fundamental research world to the applications
world, and it is uncommon to see bubble dynamics
analysis made or bubble dynamics computations
conducted for cavitation avoidance by the
hydrodynamics marine designer community, such
as propeller designers. This is due in part to the
failure of the scientific community to frame the
advances made in a format usable by the design

Definition(s) of Cavitation

Liquid phase only: Engineering definition


In the phase diagram of a substance the
curve which separates the liquid phase from the

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

through separation of the liquid molecules [3]. In


fact researchers agree that cavitation initiates at
weak spots of the liquid or nuclei. These are very
small microscopic bubbles or particles with gas
trapped in crevices in suspension in the liquid.
Several techniques have been used to measure
these nuclei distributions both in the ocean and in
laboratory cavitation channels. These include
Coulter counter, holography, light scattering
methods, cavitation susceptibility meters, and
acoustic methods [15-21]. Figure 1 shows typical
nuclei size distribution curves in cavitation water
tunnels and in the ocean [14, 22, 23]. The figure
shows the number density distribution, n, in m-4 ,
as a function of the bubble size, R. n(Rn) is the
number of nuclei bubbles in the range Rn to
Rn+dR. Distributions of the shape n( R) Rn4 are
usually reported.
Therefore, any fundamental analysis of
cavitation inception has to start from the
observation that, any real liquid contains nuclei
which when subjected to variations in the local
ambient pressure will respond dynamically by
oscillating and eventually growing explosively (i.e.
cavitating).

vapour phase defines the liquid vapour pressure


values at different temperatures. Any process
that raises the temperature or reduces the
pressure will result in a phase change from liquid
to vapour. Conventionally, boiling is defined as
the phase change resulting from raising the
temperature at ambient pressure, while cavitation
is the process inducing phase change at ambient
temperature through a pressure drop. This has
provided the following traditional cavitation
engineering definition: a liquid flow experiences
cavitation if the local pressure drops below the liquid
vapour pressure, Pv.
One root of the technology transfer problem
discussed above stems from this accepted
engineering definition of cavitation. Even though
this definition has allowed significant progress in
practical cavitation studies and design work, it is
responsible for a lack of further advance of the
technology, since it has been used at many
decision points to ignore bubble dynamics effects.
Indeed this definition assumes that the process
occurs in the regime where heat transfer is
negligible and where a large free surface is
present.
This over-simplification serves the
purpose in most engineering cases but could lead
to erroneous conclusions if used to explain or
model new complex problem areas. The
dangerous implication of this definition is that
understanding of the liquid one-phase flow only
is sufficient to predict and therefore avoid
cavitation.
We discuss in the following more advanced
definitions, which can help us to better
understand the scaling of the cavitating results
between laboratory and full scale. They should
also help cavitation test results comparison
between different testing facilities, and enable
making more accurate cavitation predictions.

Presence of cavitation nuclei

Figure 1. Nuclei Size distribution as measured in the


ocean and in the laboratory (from [22].

The above definition of cavitation inception


is only true in static conditions when the liquid is
in contact with its vapour through the presence of
a large free surface. For the more common
condition of a liquid in a flow, or in a rotating
machine, liquid vaporization can only occur
through the presence of micro free surfaces or
microbubbles, also called cavitation nuclei.
Indeed, a pure liquid free of nuclei can sustain
very large tensions, measured in the hundreds of
atmospheres, before a cavity can be generated

Cavitation inception in fact appears under


several forms, such as:
a. Explosive growth of individual travelling
bubbles,
b. Sudden appearance of transient cavities
or flashes on boundaries,
c. Sudden appearance of attached partial
cavities, or sheet cavities,

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

d. Appearance, growth, and collapse of


bubble clouds, behind attached cavities or
a vibrating surface.
e. Sudden appearance of cavitating rotating
filaments, or vortex cavitation.
Upon further analysis, all these forms can be
related initially to the explosive growth of preexisting cavities or nuclei in the liquid when
subjected to pressure drops generated by various
forms of local pressure disturbances1. These are
either imposed pressure variations, uniform
pressure drops due to local liquid accelerations, or
strongly non-uniform pressure fields due to
streamwise or transverse large vortical structures.
The presence of nuclei or weak spots in the liquid is
therefore essential for cavitation inception to occur
when the local pressure in the liquid drops below
some critical value, Pc , which we address next.

a gas partial pressure which varies with the bubble


volume. For quasi-steady equilibrium, Pg, as
considered in this section, the gas follows an
isothermal compression law, and is related to the
initial or reference values, Pgo , R0, and to the new
bubble radius R through:
3

R
Pg = PgO o .
(2)
R
The balance of pressures at the bubble wall
becomes:
3

R 2
L ( R ) =v +go o - ,
(3)
R R
where the notation PL(R) is meant to associate the
liquid pressure, PL to the bubble radius, R. An
understanding of the bubble static equilibrium can
be obtained by considering the curve; PL(R). As
illustrated in Figure 2, this curve has a minimum
below which there is no equilibrium bubble radius.
Only the left side branch of the curve corresponds
to a stable equilibrium.

Bubble Static Equilibrium


A first correction to the common engineering
definition of cavitation inception is based on
consideration of the static equilibrium of a bubble
nucleus. The nucleus is assumed to be spherical
and to contain non condensable gas of partial
pressure, Pg, and vapor of the liquid of partial
pressure, Pv. Therefore, at the bubble surface, the
balance between the internal pressure, the liquid
pressure, and surface tension can be written:
2
,
PL = Pv + Pg
(1)
R
where PL is the pressure in the liquid, is the
surface tension parameter, and R is the radius of
the bubble.
If the liquid ambient pressure changes very
slowly, the bubble radius will change accordingly
to adapt to the new balance. This is accompanied
with a modification of the pressure inside the
bubble. The vaporization of the liquid at the
bubble-liquid interface occurs very fast relative to
the time scale of the bubble dynamics, so that the
liquid and the vapor can be considered in
equilibrium at every instant, and the partial
pressure of the vapor in the bubble remains
constant. On the other hand, gas diffusion occurs at
a much longer time scale, so that the amount of gas
inside the bubble remains constant2. This results in

1.E+05
P= Pv
Ro=1 mic
Ro=2 mic
Ro=5 mic
Ro=10 mic
Critical Values

8.E+04
6.E+04

A m b ie n t P r e s s u r e , P a .

Stable
4.E+04
2.E+04
0.E+00
-2.E+04
-4.E+04

Unstable
-6.E+04
-8.E+04
-1.E+05
1

10

100

1000

Bubble Radius, m

Figure 2. Static equilibrium curves of spherical


bubbles and definition of critical curves. Example
given for bubbles of 1, 2, 5, and 10m initially at
equilibrium at a pressure of 1 atmosphere.
Solving for the minimum of PL(R) using
Equation (3) provides the values of the critical
pressure, Pc, and corresponding critical radius, rc,:
4
Pc = Pv
,
3rc
(4)
1
2.
3R03
2
rc =
PLo Pv +
.
Ro
2

This could be followed by extreme bubble deformation and


merger to result in the various cavitation forms.
2
More generally, both gas diffusion and vaporization can be
modeled and taken into account
3

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

addition to the temporal) strongly couple with the


actual bubble motion (i.e. position vs time) to
result in a driving force that depends on the
resonator reaction. This makes such a case much
more complex than what occurs for a travelling
bubble about a foil where, relatively speaking, the
position of the bubble is less coupled to its
dynamics.
The flow field pressure fluctuations have
various time scales: e.g. relatively long for
travelling cavitation bubbles over a blade or
captured in a vortical region flow, or very short
for cavitation in turbulent strongly sheared flow
regions. The amplitudes of these fluctuations and
the relationship between the various characteristic
times determine the potential for cavitation
inception.

If the pressure in the flow field drops below


the critical pressure an explosive bubble growth,
i.e. cavitation, is provoked. This provides an
improved definition for cavitation inception: a
liquid flow experiences cavitation if the local pressure
drops below the critical pressure, Pc.. The reason such
a definition has not been adopted is that the critical
pressure is not a liquid only definition and a
different value is obtained for each nucleus size. To
use it, one requires knowledge of the nuclei size
distribution in the liquid (which is ultimately
needed for any serious scale up study of
cavitation.) Expression (4) illustrates the fact that
the critical pressures are always lower than the
vapor pressure. Pc is close to Pv only for very
large initial nuclei sizes. This probably explains
why such a criterion has been ignored by the
practicians, the reasoning being that using Pv is on
the safe side. This reasoning, however, results in
large margins of safety. In addition, this cannot be
used to scale up experimental small scale tests,
since cavitation would occur when bubbles actually
grow explosively in the laboratory experiments and
not when p  Pv , but the scaling would assume
p = Pv .
Cavitation inception cannot be defined
accurately independent of the liquid bubble
population (sometimes characterized by liquid
strength [24]) and independent of the means of
cavitation detection. The cavitation inception is in
fact a complex dynamic interaction between the
nuclei and their surrounding pressure and velocity
fields; interaction that can be different between
small and large scales.
In addition, the
experimental means to detect and decide cavitation
inception (practical threshold used by the
experimentalists) will affect the results and could
be different between a laboratory experiment and
full scale.

Spherical Bubble Dynamics


The first improvement to the static
equilibrium analysis of a bubble nucleus is to
consider the nucleus dynamics when it is assumed
to conserve a spherical shape during its motion.
This has been extensively studied following the
original works of Rayleigh [1] and Plesset [25]. For
instance, if we limit the phenomena to be modelled
to inertia, small compressibility of the liquid,
compressibility of the bubble content, we obtain the
Gilmore [26] differential equation for the bubble
radius R(t). We modified this equation to account
for a slip velocity between the bubble and the host
liquid, and for the non-uniform pressure field
along the bubble surface [27]. The resulting
Surface-Averaged Pressure (SAP) equation applied
to Gilmores equation[ 27-28] becomes:
(1

R  3
R
1
R R d
) RR + (1 ) R = (1 + +
)

c
2
3c
c c dt

2
R ( u ub )

+
p
p
p
4
,
g
encounter
v

R
R
4

Dynamical Effects
When the pressure variations to which the
bubble is subjected are not slow compared to the
bubble response time, the nuclei cannot
instantaneously adapt to the new pressure, inertia
effects become important, and thus one needs to
consider the bubble dynamics equation. This is
the case for nuclei travelling through a rotating
machinery. The nuclei /bubbles then act as
resonators excited by the flow field temporal and
spatial variations. In the case of a vortical flow
field the strong spatial pressure gradients (in

(5)

where c is the sound speed, is the liquid


viscosity, u is the liquid convection velocity and u b
is the bubble travel velocity.
Equation (5) degenerates to the classical
Rayleigh-Plesset [10] equation for negligible
compressibility effects. If in addition, gas diffusion
effects are neglected and a polytropic law of gas
compression is assumed, the resulting modified
SAP equation becomes:

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

deformation, elongation, splitting, coalescence,


and non-spherical sound generation.
One such refinement, important for
propulsor studies, consists of considering the case
of bubbles captured on a vortex axis. The bubble
then elongates along the axis and may split into
two or more sub-bubbles, and/or form jets on the
axis. In order to investigate this behavior the
commercial
boundary
element
method
axisymmetric bubble dynamics code 2DYNAFS
[33-38] was exercised and was able to simulate
bubble dynamics through reentrant jet formation,
jet break through, and bubble splitting. The code
can handle as input vortex flow fields obtained
from CFD viscous computations or from
experimental measurements.
p

3k

3 2 1
R0

RR + R = pv + pg 0 Pencounter +


2
R

(6)
2

1 2 4 R ( u ub )
,

+
+
R
4
R
where k is the polytropic compression law
constant.
In the Surface-Averaged Pressure (SAP)
bubble dynamics equation, we have accounted for
a slip velocity between the bubble and the host
liquid, and for a non-uniform pressure field along
the bubble surface. In this SAP method the
definition of Pencounter as the average of the liquid
pressures over the bubble surface results in a
major improvement over the classical spherical
bubble model which uses the pressure at the
bubble center in its absence [27-29]. For instance,
a bubble does not always continuously grow once
it is captured by a vortex. Instead, it is subjected
to an increase in the average pressure once it
grows and this leads to a more realistic bubble
dynamics. In general, the gas pressure, pg, is
obtained from the solution of the gas diffusion
problem and the assumption that the gas is an
ideal gas [30].
The bubble trajectory is obtained using the
following motion equation [32]
du b 3
3
= P + C D ( u u b ) u u b

4
dt
(7)
3
+CL ( u u b ) u ub + ( u ub ) R ,
R
where the drag coefficient CD is given by an
empirical equation such as that of Haberman and
Morton [31]:
24
1.38
(1 + 0.197 Reb0.63 + 2.6 104 Reb
);
CD =
Reb
(8)
2 R u ub
Reb =
.

100

10-1

P acoustic / P amb

10-2

10

-3

10-4

10-5

10-6
0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1.05

/ -Cpmin

Figure 3: Illustration of the acoustic pressure emitted


by a bubble in a vortex field as a function of the
cavitation number. Note that the bubble behaviour
near and above the cavitation inception is quasispherical [35].
By simulating the dynamics behavior of a
bubble captured on a vortex axis under a
significant number of conditions using the
2DYNAFS, the followings conclusions illustrated
in Figure 3 were found [35,41]:

If the bubble is captured by the vortex far


upstream from the minimum pressure, it
remains spherical while oscillating at its natural
frequency.

When the bubble reaches the axis just


upstream of the minimum pressure, it develops
an axial jet on its downstream side which shoots
through the bubble moving in the upstream
direction. Even at this stage, the spherical
model provides a very good approximation
because the bubble is more or less spherical
until a thin jet develops on the axis.

Non-spherical Bubble Dynamics: Axisymmetry


Spherical bubble models, as briefly described
above, can be efficient tools for studying
cavitation inception, scaling, bubble entrainment,
and cavitation noise. They can become more
powerful if they are provided with further
intelligence based on more precise nonspherical models which account for bubble
behavior near boundaries, in pressure gradients,
and in high shear regions, resulting in bubble

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

jets formed after the splitting.


This is an
important conclusion that has been preliminarily
confirmed experimentally [35,38].

The bubble behavior becomes highly nonspherical once it passes the minimum pressure
location. It elongates significantly and can
reach a length to radius ratio that can exceed 10.
The bubble then splits into two or more
daughter bubbles emitting a strong pressure
spike followed later by other strong pressure
signals when daughter bubbles collapse. Two
axial jets originating from the split and a strong
pressure signal during the formation of the jets
are observed.

Three types of tests were conducted and are


still on-going: spark generated bubbles, laser
generated bubbles, and electrolysis bubbles
injected in vortex lines. Figure 4 shows high speed
photography and acoustic signals of bubble
splitting between two rigid walls. A small but
distinct pressure spikes is formed at splitting
followed but a more significant spike during the
collapse of the sub-bubbles. The second set of
experiments was conducted in a vortex tube,
where bubbles generated by electrolysis were
injected and observed once captured by the vortex
line.
Figure 5 shows the elongated bubble
dynamics and the corresponding signals
measured by a hydrophone [38]. The third set of
experiments was conducted at the University of
Michigan [39] using laser induced bubbles (in the
vortex and far upstream) and the flow field of a
tip vortex behind a foil. Comparisons between the
observations and the 2DYNAFS simulations
showed very good correspondence as shown in
Figure 6.

Signal from
the collapse

10

Pressure Signal (mV)

-5

-10
0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

Time (sec)

Figure 4. High speed photos of spark-generated


bubble collapsing between two solid walls, and
resulting acoustic signal indicating peak
signal at splitting and subsequent sub-bubbles
collapse [35]

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

Figure 6. Bubble behaviour in a vortex flow field:


Rc = 4.51mm , = 0.2123 m 2 /s , = 1.72;

2.75

-2000
-4000
-6000

U = 10 m/s; R0 = 750 m . Three-dimensional


view of the bubble just before splitting predicted
by 2DYNAFS and observed at University of
Michigan using laser-induced bubbles at
the center of the vortex [39].

t (m s)

Figure 5. High speed photos of an electrolysis


bubble captured in a line vortex, and resulting
acoustic
signal
indicating
peak
signals
at splitting and collapse [40].

Bubble splitting criteria

Experimental Verification

A large series of computer simulations of


axisymmetric bubbles captured in a vortex
indicated some definite trends, which can be used
in a predictive model [34-38]:

This behavior supports the hypothesis that


the noise at the inception of the vortex cavitation
may originate from bubble splitting and/or the

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

An explosively growing bubble splits into


two sub-bubbles after it reaches its maximum
volume, (equivalent radius, Rmax) and then drops
to 0.95 Rmax.
The two resulting sub-bubbles have the
following equivalent radii: 0.90 Rmax and 0.52 Rmax.
The locations of the two sub-bubbles after
the splitting are at -0.95 Rmax and 4.18 Rmax.
The pressure generated by the subsequent
formation of reentrant jets in the sub-bubbles can
be approximated by a function of [41]:
Since the noise associated with the jet
formation appears to be much higher than the
pressure signal from the collapse of a spherical
bubble, it is desirable to include the splitting and
the associated jet noise in simulations with
multiple bubble nuclei.

various stages of the interaction between a bubble


and a tip vortex flow.

Validation of the SAP model


In order to evaluate the various models, we
combined the SAP spherical model and the twoway interaction non-spherical bubble dynamics
model to predict tip vortex cavitation inception
for a tip vortex flow generated by a finite-span
elliptic hydrofoil [28].

Re=2.88x106
R0=50m
=2.56
Re=2.88x106
R0=50m
=2.50

Fully Non-spherical Bubble Dynamics


In order to study the full 3D interaction
between a bubble and a complex flow field, two
methods were developed. The first, using the
commercial boundary element code, 3DYNAFS
[42], enables study of full bubble deformations
during capture but neglects the effects that the
bubble may have on the underlying flow field.
The second method accounts for the full two-way
bubble/flow field interaction, and considers
viscous interaction. This model is embedded in an
Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes
code, DF-UNCLE3, with appropriate free surface
boundary conditions and a moving Chimera grid
scheme [28,42]. This full two-way interaction nonspherical bubble dynamics model has been
successfully validated in simple cases by
comparing the results with reference results
obtained from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and
3DYNAFS for bubble dynamics in an infinite
medium both with and without gravity [43].
As an illustration Figure 7 shows results of a
bubble interacting with the tip vortex of an
elliptical foil. The bubble elongates once it is
captured, and depending on the cavitation
number, either forms a reentrant jet directed
upstream or splits into two sub-bubbles. When
two-way interaction is taken into account further
smoothing of the bubble surface is exerted by
viscosity resulting in a more distorted but overall
more rounded bubble. Figure 8 illustrates the

One-Way
Interaction

Re=2.88x106
R0=50m
=2.50

Two-Way
Interaction

Figure 7. Bubble behavior in a vortex flow field [28].

s.
re s
r P
.
n te re s s
P
cou
E n u s ti c
o
Ac

Figure 8. Sketch of the successive phases of a


bubble behavior in a vortex flow field.
The flow field was obtained by a RANS
computation and provided the velocity and
pressure fields for all compared models: the
classical spherical model; the SAP model, the oneway interaction model where the bubble
deformed and evolved in the vortex field but did
not modify it, and finally the fully coupled 3D

DF_UNCLE is a DYNAFLOW modified version of UNCLE


developed by Mississippi State University
7

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

model due to the interaction between the


bubble and the vortex flow field.

model in which unsteady viscous computations


included modification of the flow field by the
presence of the bubbles.
R e = 2 .8 8 x 1 0 6 R 0 = 5 0 m = 2 .5

S p h e r ic a l
S p h e r ic a l
O ne -W a y
T w o -W a y

0 .0 0 7

Conventional
Spherical

0 .0 0 6

Differences between the one-way and two


interaction models exist but are not major.
Using the Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP)
scheme significantly improves the prediction
of bubble volume variations and cavitation
inception. SAP appears to offer a very good
approximation of the full two-way
interaction model.

M odel N o S AP
M o d e l W it h S A P
N o n - S p h e ric a l M o d e l
N o n - S p h e r ic a l M o d e l

R (m)

0 .0 0 5
0 .0 0 4
0 .0 0 3

1-Way 3D

0 .0 0 2

2-Way 3D
0 .0 0 1

SAP Spherical
0 .0 4

0 .0 5

0 .0 6

0 .0 7

0 .0 8

Nuclei Distribution

0 .0 9

0 .1

T im e ( s e c )

Release
Area

Figure 9. Comparison of the bubble radius versus time


for the spherical models (the conventional and the SAP
model) and the 3D 1-way and 2-way UnRANS
computations [28].

Re=2.88x10

l = U t
t Investigation time

R 0=50m C 0 =1m

0.008
0.007

Conventional
Spherical

Spherical Model No SAP


Spherical Model With SAP
One-Way Non-Spherical Model
Two-way Non-Spherical Model

R0 = 5-50 micron Total nuclei=568


Void Fraction = 3.4x10

0.005

-8

250

1-Way 3D
200

0.004
0.003

Number of Nuclei (N/m^3)

Rmax(m)

0.006

2-Way 3D
SAP Spherical

0.002
0.001
0
2.4

2.5

2.6

Bubble Released

150

100

50

2.7

Cavitation no.
0
5

10

15

20

30

40

50

Nucleus Size (micron)

Figure 10. Comparison of the maximum bubble radius


vs. cavitation number between the spherical models
(the conventional and the SAP model) and the 3D 1way and 2-way UnRANS computations [28].

Figure 11. Illustration of the fictitious volume feeding


the inlet to the nuclei tracking computational domain
(or release area) and example of resulting nuclei size
distribution satisfying a given nuclei density
distribution function.

Comparisons between the various models


of the resulting bubble dynamics history, and of
the cavitation inception values obtained from
many tested conditions, reveal the following
conclusions, illustrated in Figures 9 and 10:

Modelling of a Real Nuclei field

In order to simulate the water conditions with a


known distribution of nuclei of various sizes, as
illustrated in Figure 11. the nuclei are considered
to be distributed randomly in a fictitious supply
volume feeding the inlet surface or release area of
the computational domain. The fictitious volume
size is determined by the sought physical

The bubble volume variations obtained from


the full two-way interaction model deviate
significantly from the classical spherical

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

affect bubble dynamics in a way as to explain the


above observations.
To address this issue we exercised the
methods described above to study the effect of
vortex/vortex interaction on bubble dynamics
and cavitation noise [45,46]. The liquid phase
flow was solved by direct numerical simulation of
the Navier-Stokes equations and was coupled
with the SAP spherical bubble dynamics model to
track the evolution of the bubbles at each time
step.

duration of the simulation and the characteristic


velocity in the release area as illustrated in Figure
11. The liquid considered has a known nuclei size
density distribution function, n(R), which can be
obtained from experimental measurements [1621] and can be expressed as a discrete distribution
of M selected nuclei sizes. Thus, the total void
fraction, , in the liquid can be obtained by
M
4 Ri3
= Ni
,
(10)
3
i =1
where Ni is the discrete number of nuclei of
radius Ri used in the computations. The position
and thus timing of nuclei released in the flow
field are obtained using random distribution
functions, always ensuring that the local and
overall void fraction satisfy the nuclei size
distribution function.

Vortex/Vortex Interaction and Inception

Tip Leakage
Vortex

Recent experiments on ducted propellers


[44] have shown a cavitation inception value and
a cavitation inception location which were very
different than those predicted by several state of
the art CFD RANS codes. The most disturbing
conclusion made from this comparison was that
cavitation inception does not occur in the
minimum pressure region, which would
contradict our understanding of cavitation
inception as the explosive growth of nuclei in low
pressure regions.
One hypothesis for explaining this
doubtful conclusion was that in both the
experiments and the simulations unsteady effects
were not accounted for, with the RANS solutions
smearing out the computed fluctuations and the
experimental measurement techniques filtering
them through time averaging. The reason this
effect was enhanced in the concerned experiment
is that the flow field was inherently unsteady and
thus significantly affected bubble dynamics in a
complex fashion. Indeed, in the considered
ducted propeller there is strong interaction
between a tip-leakage vortex and a trailing-edge
vortex as illustrated in Figure 12 at a low
cavitation
number,
showing
cavitation
development and interaction between the two
structures. This evolving vorticity may cause
early cavitation wherever the two vortices
strongly interact. We therefore set out to analyze
whether unsteady vortex/vortex interactions

Trailing Edge
Vortex

Figure 12. Advanced cavitation on Propeller 5206


visualizing both the tip leakage vortex and the trailing
edge vortex (taken from [44])
Canonical problem
A canonical problem was considered first.
Bubble dynamics in the flow field of two-unequal
co-rotating vortices with different configurations
was considered and resulted in the following
conclusions [45].
A stronger interaction between the two
vortices was observed when the strengths of the
two vortices were closer.
The minimum pressure value and
location is strongly affected by the two-vortices
interaction. It could occur at, before, or after the
two vortices have completely merged depending
on the relative strength of the two vortices (see
Figure 13).
The pressure reaches its minimum when
the vorticity of the weaker vortex is spread and
sucked into the stronger vortex. This also results
in an acceleration of the flow and leads to a
maximum streamwise velocity at the vortex center.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

minimum of the pressure is also seen at 0.5 chord


length and has value of -10.8.

The shape, size and location of study of


the window of opportunity, i.e. area in the inlet
to the computational domain from which emitted
nuclei are captured in the vortices, are highly
dependent on the relative strength of the two
vortices and on the nuclei sizes. A large size of
window of opportunity was found for the
stronger interaction case and for larger nuclei.
The unsteady flow resulting from the
interaction of the two vortices may results in
some nuclei initially starting to be entrapped by
one vortex to be ejected by the other during the
merging process (see Figure 13).

2=1/3

~ 0.6 C0

2=1/2.5

Propulsor study
The same approach as discussed above was
applied to the David Taylor Propeller 5206 [44]
shown in Figure 12. Three RANS codes have been
used by three groups to simulate numerically
cavitation inception on this propulsor [46-49]. All
three codes followed the simple engineering
criterion for cavitation inception, i = c p , and
min

~ 0.3 C0

2=1/2

Figure 13. Effect of the strength of two vortices on the


location and intensity of the minimum pressure [45].

gave close inception values: 6.5 < < 8, at a


location 0.1 chord length downstream of the trailing
edge of the blade. The experiments however,
showed a much higher inception value,  11,
and, more disturbing, at a location much further
downstream, 0.5 chord length!, much far away for
the c p location.
min

To improve the numerical solution from


these RANS computations, we considered a
reduced computational domain behind the
trailing edge of the propulsor blade that
encompassed only the region of interaction of the
two vortices. The RANS solution of Yang [49]
provided the initial conditions for the grid points
of the reduced domain, and the boundary
conditions everywhere but at the downstream
end of the domain, where an extrapolation
scheme was used [46]. As in the previous section,
a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier
Stokes equations was performed, for a set of
increasingly finer grids.
Figure 15 shows a comparison of the
resulting pressure coefficient, Cp, along the vortex
center line between the RANS computation [49]
and the DNS computations for three different
grids. As the gridding is refined, Cpmin converge
to about -11 at a location 0.34 chord length
downstream from the tip trailing edge. Another

Figure 14. Interaction between two vortices resulting


in ejection of initially trapped nuclei out of the main
vortex [45].
The two co-rotating vortices periodically
approach each other during the vortex merger. As
they move closer, the flow in the axial direction is
accelerated and results in a decreased pressure in
the vortex center. Figure 16 indicates that this
pressure drop is directly connected to the
enhancement of the axial velocity to a maximum
value by the merger.
A bubble population was allowed to
propagate through the propeller flow field and
the resulting dynamic cavitation inception was
studied using both 3D bubble dynamics and SAP
[46]. Figure 17 illustrate where the cavitation
event occurs in the flow field, the bubble
trajectory and size variations are plotted with the

10

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

propulsor blade and iso-pressure surface. It is


seen that the cavitation event occurs at a location
very close to the experimental observation, since
the bubble grow to their maximum size near a
location 0.5 chord length downstream of the tip
trailing edge.

R0=20m, =10.75

R0=20m, =10.85

s/C=0

s/C=0

Cp=-5.6

Pressure coefficient along vortex center

Cp=-10.9

Cp=-5.6

-4

s/C=0.5
DNS 61x61 grid
DNS121x121 grid
DNS 181x181 grid
RANS

Cp

-6

blow up

-8

s/C=0.5

blow up

Figure 17. Bubble trajectories and size variations


during bubble capture by the two-vortex system [46].

-10

0.1

0.2

0.3

s/C

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Figure 15. Pressure coefficient at various distances


from the propeller blade as computed by RANS and by
the direct Navier Stokes solution with an increasing
number of grids [46].

3.5

-8

Cp
Axial velocity

-9

3.3

Vs

Cp

3.4

3.2

-10

3.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

s/C

0.5

0.6

0.7

Figure 16. Pressure coefficient and axial velocity at


various downstream distances from the
propeller blade [46].

Figure 18. Results of SAP simulation of cavitation


with gas diffusion on the Prop5168 propeller. The
bubbles in Section A are to scale. The bubbles
upstream and downstream were magnified by 5 to
become visible.

Conclusions
Difficulties in considering real fluid effects
have led the user community to select a liquid
only simple engineering definition of cavitation
inception as the basis for cavitation predictions
and scaling. While this has served the community
very well for decades, advances in silencing and
detection has made such a definition unsuitable
for advanced designs.

One has then to resort to the more basic


definition of cavitation as that of the explosive
growth of initially microscopic nuclei in a liquid,
resulting in visible bubbles (optical criterion) or
in detectable emitted sound signals (sub-visual
cavitation and acoustical criterion). The required
simulations of the nuclei behavior in complex
flow fields and turbulent structures were
previously out of reach of the community and

11

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

3.

thus were out the question. However, with the


advent of desktop high speed computers and with
the development of advanced computational
techniques, this is now within the reach of
designers who are increasingly using CFD (such
as RANS) to select their designs. In this
communication, we have proposed a practical
method to actually conduct bubble dynamics
numerical experiments as in the real flow field.
This allows actual nuclei fields to interact with the
computed flow field. This method, which we
have successfully used with RANS solvers, a DNS
solver, could be used with experimentally
measured flow fields and become a design tool
for cavitation avoidance.
We have shown some simulations in the
body of the communication for cavitation
inception. In fact, the method has also been use
more recently to simulate advanced cavitation
such as shown in Figure 18 and could prove with
further development to be a powerful design and
scaling tool. One of its major strengths is that it
allows the engineer to reproduce and mimic the
actual experimental procedures. For instance,
both acoustical and optical criteria of cavitation
inception could be measured. Concerning the
acoustical criteria, the technique provides in
addition to amplitude of measured signals, the
number of events per second, and the spectra of
the sound generated, which both could be used to
simulate detection. The engineer could therefore
utilize the same criteria and tools as used in the
real life experiments to conduct the predictions.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

11.

12.

Acknowledgment

13.

This work could not have been done


without the sustained support of ONR, Dr. KiHan Kim monitor, and the significant
contribution of many DF colleagues, most
particularly Dr. Chao-Tsung Hsiao and Dr. JinKeun Choi who developed and conducted most
of the numerical simulations presented here.

14.

15.

References
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12

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

28. Hsiao, C.-T., Chahine, G. L., Prediction of


Vortex Cavitation Inception Using Coupled
Spherical and Non-Spherical Models and
Navier-Stokes Computations, Journal of
Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No.
3, pp. 99-108, 2004.
29. Hsiao, C.-T., Chahine, G. L., Scaling of Tip
Vortex Cavitation Inception Noise with a
Statistic
Bubble
Dynamics
Model
Accounting for Nuclei Size Distribution, to
appear ASME Journal of Fluid Engineering
2005.
30. G.L. Chahine and K.M. Kalumuck, The
Influence of Gas Diffusion on the Growth of
a Bubble Cloud, ASME Cavitation and
Multiphase Flow Forum, Cincinnati, Ohio,
Vol. 50, pp. 17-21, June 1987.
31. Haberman, W.L., Morton, R.K., An
Experimental Investigation of the Drag and
Shape of Air Bubbles Rising in Various
Liquids, Report 802, DTMB, 1953.
32. Johnson V.E., Hsieh, T., The Influence of the
Trajectories of Gas Nuclei on Cavitation
Inception, Sixth Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, pp. 163-179, 1966.
33. Chahine, G.L., Choi. J.-K., 2DYNAFSTMAxisymmetric Boundary Element Method
for
Bubble
and
Free
Surface
Dynamics, DYNAFLOW, INC. User Manual
7-026, February 2004.
34. Choi, J.-K and Chahine, G. L., Non-Spherical
Bubble Behavior in Vortex Flow Fields,
Computational Mechanics, Vol. 32, No. 4-6,
pp.281-290, December 2003 (also in IABEM
2002 Conference, Univ. of Texas at Austin,
TX, May 2002).
35. Choi, J.-K and Chahine, G. L., Noise due to
Extreme Bubble Deformation near Inception
of Tip Vortex Cavitation, FEDSM03,
International Symposium on Cavitation
Inception, 4th ASME/JSME Joint Fluids
Eng. Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, July
2003.
36. Choi, J.-K and Chahine, G. L., A Numerical
Study on the Bubble Noise and the Tip
Vortex Cavitation Inception, Eighth
International Conference on Numerical
Ship Hydrodynamics, Busan, Korea,
September 2003.
37. Choi, J.-K, Chahine, G. L., and Hsiao C.-T.,
Characteristics of Bubble Splitting in a Tip
Vortex Flow Fifth International Symposium

17. M. L. Billet, Cavitation nuclei measurements


a review, ASME Cavitation and
Multiphase Flow Forum, FED-vol 23, June
1985.
18. N. Breitz and H. Medwin, Instrumentation
for in situ acoustical measurements of
bubble spectra under breaking waves, J.
Acoust. Soc. Am., 86, 739-743, 1989.
19. R. Duraiswami, S. Prabhukumar and G.L.
Chahine, Bubble Counting Using an
Inverse Acoustic Scattering Method,
Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America, Vol. 105, No. 5, November 1998.
20. Chahine, G.L., Kalumuck, K.M., Cheng, L.-Y.,
and G. Frederick, 2001, Validation of
Bubble Distribution Measurements of the
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer with
High Speed Video Photography, 4th
International Symposium on Cavitation,
California
Institute
of
Technology,
Pasadena, CA.
21. Chahine, G.L. and Kalumuck, K.M.,
Development of a Near Real-Time
Instrument for Nuclear Measurement: The
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer, 4th
ASME-JSME Joint Fluids Engineering
Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 6-10/2003
22. Franklin, R.E., 1992, A note on the Radius
Distribution Function for Microbubbles of
Gas in Water, ASME Cavitation and
Mutliphase Flow Forum, FED-Vol. 135,
pp.77-85.
23. Katz, J. and Acosta, A. Observations of
nuclei in cavitating flows, in Mechanics
and Physics of Bubbles in Liquids, L. van
Wijngaarden, editor, Martinus Nijhoff
Publishers, pp. 123-133, 1982.
24. Arndt, R.E., Keller, A.P., Water Quality
Effects on Cavitation Inception in a Trailing
Vortex,
ASME
Journal
of
Fluid
Engineering, Vol. 114, pp. 430-438, 1992.
25. Plesset, M. S., Dynamics of Cavitation
Bubbles, Journal of Applied Mechanics,
Vol. 16, 1948, pp. 228-231, 1948.
26. Gilmore, F. R., The growth and collapse of a
spherical bubble in a viscous compressible
liquid, California Institute of Technology,
Hydro. Lab. Rep, 26-4, 1952.
27. Hsiao, C.-T., Chahine, G. L., Liu, H.-L.,
Scaling Effects on Prediction of Cavitation
Inception in a Line Vortex Flow, Journal of
Fluid Engineering, Vol. 125, pp.53-60, 2003.

13

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47. Brewer, W.H., Marcum, D.L., Jessup, S.D.,


Chesnakas, C., Hyams, D.G., Sreenivas, K.,
An Unstructured RANS Study of TipLeakage Vortex Cavitation Inception,
Proceedings of the ASME Symposium on
Cavitation Inception, FEDSM2003-45311,
Honolulu, Hawaii, July 6-10, 2003.
48. Kim, J., Sub-Visual Cavitation and Acoustic
Modeling for Ducted Marine Propulsor,
Ph.D. Thesis, 2002, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, The University of
Iowa, Adviser F. Stern.
49. Yang, C.I., Jiang, M., Chesnakas, C.J., and
Jessup, S.D., 2003, "Numerical Simulation of
Tip Vortices of Ducted-Rotor", NSWCCD50-TR-2003/46

on Cavitation, CAV2003, Osaka, Japan,


November 2003.
Choi, J.-K., Chahine, G.L., Noise due to
Extreme Bubble Deformation near Inception
of Tip Vortex Cavitation, Physics of Fluids,
Vol.16, No.7, July 2004.
Rebow, M., Choi, J., Choi, J.-K., Chahine, G.L.,
and Ceccio, S.L., Experimental Validation
of BEM Code Analysis of Bubble Splitting
in a Tip Vortex Flow, 11th International
Symposium on Flow Visualization, Notre
Dame, Indiana, Aug. 9-12, 2004.
Chahine, G.L., Hsiao, C.-T., and Delfino, C.
Cavitation Inception and Noise Scaling
Using Measured Bubble Size Distribution,
Dynaflow Technical Report. 2M2014-1DTRC, July, 2004.
Choi, J.-K., Hsiao, C.-T., and Chahine, G.L.,
Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception Study
Using the Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP)
Model Combined with a Bubble Splitting
Model, 25th Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, St. Johns, Newfoundland
and Labrador, Canada, Aug. 8-13, 2004.
Chahine, G.L., Hsiao, C.-T., 3DYNAFSTM - A
Three dimensional Free Surface and Bubble
Dynamic Code, DYNAFLOW, INC. User
Manual 7-038, October 2004
Hsiao, C.-T., Chahine, G.L., Numerical
Simulation of Bubble Dynamics in a Vortex
Flow Using Navier-Stokes Computations
and Moving Chimera Grid Scheme, 4th
International Symposium on Cavitation
CAV2001, Pasadena, CA, June 20-23, 2001.
Chesnakas, C. J., Jessup, S. D., Tip-Vortex
Induced Cavitation on a Ducted Propulsor,
Fifth
International
Symposium
on
Cavitation
CAV2003,
Osaka,
Japan,
November 1-4, 2003.
Hsiao, C.-T. and Chahine, G. L., Effect of
Vortex/Vortex Interaction on Bubble
Dynamics and Cavitation Noise, Fifth
International Symposium on Cavitation
CAV2003, Osaka, Japan, November 1-4,
2003.
Hsiao, C.-T., Chahine, G. L., Numerical
Study of Cavitation Inception due to
Vortex/Vortex Interaction in a Ducted
Propulsor, 25th Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, St. John, Newfoundland
and Labrador, Canada, August 8-13, 2004.

14

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Martin Renilson
QinetiQ, United Kingdom
Thank you for a very interesting paper. Can
you please explain what influences the frequency of
oscillation of the spherical bubble, and how this
scales?
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you for your comment.
The
frequency of the spherical bubble is proportional to
the inverse of its radius and the square root of the
local pressure. Simplified scaling would follow from
the previous sentence. However, difficulties arise
when one has to select, in a dynamic environment,
the appropriate bubble radius, and the appropriate
pressure. The maximum bubble radius is appropriate
for one part of the spectrum, while the minimum
bubble radius is more appropriate for the collapse
phase.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Yin Lu Young
Princeton University, USA
Excellent work and presentation!
questions:

I have two

1) Have you investigated which effect is more


important in the modification of the R-P
equation? The averages of the pressure along the
surface of the bubble or the slip velocity?
2) I assume the bubbles are not interacting with
each other. Do you prescribe some criteria to
ensure the bubbles do not collide with each
other?
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you for your compliments and
questions. Yes, we have investigated the importance
of the two corrections. In the flow field of a vortex
and for bubbles captured by the vortex averaging is
the predominant factor and affects both quantitative
and qualitative results. Inclusion of the pressure
correction due to the slip velocity brings in a
quantitative correction to the results.
Since we were originally concerned with
cavitation inception, bubble interactions were not
included and are not expected to play any role. The
void fractions due to initial nuclei distribution are in
the 10-7 to 10-6 range. Now that we feel the method
applicable to a larger range of applications, we will
implement a model for interaction, where necessary,
following our previous approach in [a, b]. Probably,
as you suggested we will use some distance criterion
to determine coalescence.
[a] A Singular Perturbation Theory of the
Growth of a Bubble Cluster in a Superheated
Liquid, G.L. Chahine and H.L. Liu, Journal of Fluid
Mechanics, Vol. 156, pp. 257-279, July 1985.
[b] Cloud Cavitation: Theory, G.L.
Chahine, Proceedings, 14th Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, Ann Arbor, Michigan, National
Academy Press, pp. 165-195, Washington, D.C.,
1983.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Ship Maneuverability in Shallow Water


Katsuro Kijima (Kyushu University, Japan)
ABSTRACT
 


On a ship maneuvering performance, there are some


published papers dealing with the hydrodynamic forces
acting on a ship in shallow water. Ship maneuverability
will basically depend on the hydrodynamic forces acting
on a ship. Especially, its force in shallow water will be
several times of the forces in deep water in certain case.
The ship maneuvering characteristics in shallow water
will remarkably be different with it in deep water.
However, as there are few papers dealing with the
maneuvering characteristics in shallow water, this paper
investigates the maneuvering characteristics in its water.
This paper shows some examples on a ship maneuvering motion in shallow water by numerical simulation
and by measured results due to the model test. As first
stage on this investigation, the relationship between ship
maneuvering characteristics and its forces has shown as
one example.


 !" #

XCYZ[\ZL]6^7_4`

FCGHIJHLKMON P

_a

NEQ

R4FTSVU
N PWS1F

bcXCd a
_deZ`fgX
uCv:u1wx
yzwx{wLu6|7v }
$
%'&'()+* %-,
3

8:9;<=

$
%/.102

>?<@ACBED

*4%5(".6(7*4%
hCijkmljLn6o7p q

pEr

osq-rcklh
q tTh

Figure 1 Total evaluation of ship maneuverability

INTRODUCTION

papers have dealt with its hydrodynamic force or estimation method for the force by using strip theory, slender
body theory or CFD etc.
But there is little published paper on relating with
the detail investigation for ship maneuvering characteristics in shallow water. This paper, therefore, deals with
the detail maneuvering characteristics in shallow water.
Consequently, the results based on this investigation will
be useful for ship operation and ship handling in shallow water for preventing marine disaster and for safety
of navigation.

There are still so many marine disasters in restricted


water such as harbor, bay or canal. In these restricted
water, the maneuvering motion of a ship are affected by
the water depth or bank wall.
Generally speaking on the analyzing for marine disaster, we can pick up the following items shown in Figure 1 as most important factor.
On the prevention of marine disaster, we have to investigate the inherent ship maneuverability, human factor and environment condition such as wind, wave and
water depth for analyzing the disaster. The relationship
between the inherent ship maneuverability and human
factor correspond to evaluate of response, environmental
condition and human factor correspond to evaluate its influence, and inherent ship maneuverability and environmental condition correspond to evaluate of performance.
Finally, we have to consider the total evaluation included
the above each evaluations. Therefore, of course it is indispensable to take into consideration both environmental condition and human factor in the inherent ship maneuverability.
When a ship is running in shallow water, the water depth will give some influence to the maneuvering
characteristics. The main factor on this will be hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship. Then so many published

HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES IN SHALLOW WATER


Hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship will change
remarkably depending on the water depth. For instance,
lateral force, YH0 , and yawing moment, NH0 , which acting on a ship hull as function of drift angle, , and nondimensional yaw rate, r0 , when water depth / draft ratio
H/d (H : water depth, d : draft) is equal to 1.2 and 1.5 are
shown in Figure 2. Each symbol in the figure indicates
measured hydrodynamic force. The gradient of lateral
force and yawing moment over and r0 is different for
each water depth condition. It means that maneuvering
characteristic of a ship will be changed because ship mo-

1
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

tion is dominated by these hydrodynamic forces. Then it


is very important to understand the characteristics of the
hydrodynamic forces precisely.

There are some studies about prediction of hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship hull in shallow water theoretically or experimentally. The prediction method of
hydrodynamic forces in shallow water based on slender
body theory was proposed by Nonaka et al. (Nonaka et
al., 1997). As examples of experimental study, there are
papers by Hirano et al. (Hirano et al., 1985) or Kijima
et al. (Kijima et al., 1985). Recently application of CFD
for prediction of hydrodynamic forces in shallow water
was done by Ohmori (Ohmori, 1998).
From the practical point of view, simple prediction
method is required at the initial design stage of a ship.
Therefore the author had proposed approximate formulae to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives in deep water
(Kijima and Nakiri, 1999). The approximate formulae
consist of the principal particulars and some parameters
which represents hull shape as follows,



1

Y0 = k + 1.9257 Cb B/L a ,

0
0
0
0

Yr = k + 0.052ea 0.457 + m + m x ,

Y = 1.199Cb a + 1.05,




0
0
(1)

Yrr = 0.225 dCb /B ea 0.12,

n 
 o

Yrr
= 7.1256 d 1 Cb /B ,

hn 
 o i2

0
0

Yr = 10.443 d 1 Cb /B ea

n 
 o

9.374 d 1 C /B e + 1.227,

; r = 0.0
; r = 0.3125
; r = 0.50

YH
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
5

10
(deg)

10
(deg)

NH
0.2

0.0

0.2
5

(a) H/d = 1.2

; r = 0.0
; r = 0.3125


n 
o2

N0 = k 150.668 d 1 Cb /B e0a K

n 

o
23.819 d 1 Cb /B e0a K + 1.802 ,

; r = 0.50
; r = 0.70

YH
0.5

Nr0 = 0.54k + k2 0.0477e0a K + 0.0368,


n 
o2

0
N
= 43.857 d 1 Cb /B e0a K
n 
o

3.671 d 1 Cb /B e0a K + 0.086,

0.0

0.5
5

10
(deg)

0
Nrr
= 0.15K 0.068,
0
Nrr
= 0.4086Cb + 0.27,
n 
 o
0
Nr = 0.826 d 1 Cb /B e0a 0.026,

NH
0.2

(2)

0.0

where,
0.2
5

L
B
d
Cb
k
m
mx

10
(deg)

(b) H/d = 1.5


Figure 2 Comparison between measured and estimated hydrodynamic forces

:
:
:
:
:
:
:

ship length,
ship breadth,
draft,
block coefficient,
2d/L,
ship mass,
longitudinal component of added
mass.

2
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

PREDICTION OF SHIP MANEUVERING MOTION

ea , e0a , a and K are coefficients defined as follows. They


express characteristics of aft hull shape.

ea = (1 C pa ),

B e

a
0

,
ea = q

1
1

4
(B/d)2
(3)

1 Cwa

a , =

1 C pa

1.5
1

0.33 (0.95a + 0.40).


K= 0 +

ea L/B

Generally maneuvering characteristics changes considerably depending on the depth of water. Figure 3
shows turning circles for different water depth. These
lines in this figure were obtained by the numerical simulation by using the proposed approximate formulae, and
also they agreed completely well with measured results
in model test as shown in reference (Kijima and Nakiri,
2003). It is observed that turning circle becomes larger if
the depth of water shallows. Therefore the effect of water
depth upon precise hydrodynamic coefficients should be
taken into account when we estimate maneuvering performance by numerical simulations.

As described above, hydrodynamics forces and moment acting on a ship hull will change remarkably depending on water depth. The author had proposed the
extended formulae to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives
in shallow water based on that in deep water (Kijima and
Nakiri, 2003). When hydrodynamic derivatives in deep
water and shallow water are noted with D0 () and D0 (h)
(h = d/H : draft / water depth ratio, d : draft, H : water
depth) respectively, there are following correlation between them.
0
1) for Y0 , N0 and Yrr
)
(
1
h f (h) D()
D(h) =
(1 h)a

(4)

2) for Yr0
D(h) = (1 + a1 h + a2 h2 + a3 h3 )


 

D() m0 + m0x () + m0 + m0x (h)

Figure 3 Turning trajectories depending on water


depth in Esso Osaka

(5)
0
0
0
0
3) for Nr0 , Y
, Yrr0 , Yr
, Nrr0 , Nr
and Nrr

D(h) = (1 + a1 h + a2 h2 + a3 h3 ) D()
4) for

(6)

x0

0
N

x, X

D(h) = (1 + a1 h + a2 h2 + a3 h3 ) f (h) D()


(7)
G

a1 , a2 and a3 are constants and f (h) is a function of h.


They take different value and form which change with
the kind of derivatives. Detailed expressions for these
constants and functions are shown in reference (Kijima
and Nakiri, 2003).
Comparison between measured and estimated lateral
force and yawing moment for H/d = 1.2 and 1.5 is
shown in Figure 2. Each symbol in the figures indicates
measured value and each line represents estimated value
using equations (1) to (7). There are a few discrepancies
in lateral force when yaw rate is big, estimated results
almost agree with measured results.

r, N
y, Y

y0

Figure 4 Coordinate systems

3
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

XH0 , YH0 and NH0 , are expressed as follows,

The equations for surging, swaying and yawing motion of ship can be written in the following form using
coordinate systems in Figure 4 (Kijima et al, 1990),
!
  L  U
cos sin
U U


+ m0 + m0y r0 sin = X 0 ,
!

  L  U
0
0

sin + cos
m + my
U U

+ m0 + m0x r0 cos = Y 0 ,
!

  L 2 U
U 0
0
0
0
r + r
= N0.
Izz + izz
U
L
L
m0 + m0x

(8)

0
0
Xuu
is resistance coefficient and Xr
can be estimated
by Hasegawas chart (Hasegawa, 1980). Hydrodynamic
derivatives for YH0 and NH0 can be estimated using equations (1) to (6).
Mathematical model for thrust produced by propeller
is expressed using thrust coefficient KT defined as function advance coefficient JP :

The superscript 0 in the equations refers to the nondimensional quantities defined by:
m

, m0x , m0y

m, m x , my
1
2
2 L d

X, Y
X ,Y = 1
,
2
2 LdU
rL
,
r0 =
U
0

Izz0 , i0zz

Izz , izz
1
2
2
2 L dU

N
N = 1
,
2
2
2 L dU
0

 1
XP0 = (1 tP0 )n2 D4P KT JP / LdU 2 ,
2

KT JP = C1 + C2 JP + C3 JP2 ,


JP = U cos 1 wP / nDP ,
wP = wP0 exp(4.00P 2 ),
0P = x0P r0 ,
x0P ' 0.5,

(9)

where,
L, d
m
m x , my

:
:
:

Izz , izz

U,
r
X, Y

:
:
:

:
:

ship length and draft,


ship mass,
x and y-axis components of added
mass of a ship,
moment and added moment of inertia
of a ship,
ship speed and drift angle,
angular velocity,
x and y-axis components of external
force acting on a ship,
yaw moment acting on a ship,
the density of fluid.

(12)

(13)

where,

The non-dimensional external forces X 0 & Y 0 and


moments N 0 can be expressed assuming that they consist of hull, propeller and rudder components noted with
subscripts H , P and R ,
X 0 = XH0 + XP0 + XR0 ,
Y 0 = YH0 + YR0 ,
N 0 = NH0 + NR0 .

(11)

0 0
0
XH0 = Xr
r sin + Xuu
cos2 ,

0
YH0 = Y0 + Yr0 r0 + Y
|| + Yrr0 r0 r0


0
0
+ Yr
+ Yrr
r0 r0 ,

0
NH0 = N0 + Nr0 r0 + N
|| + Nrr0 r0 r0


0
0
+ Nr
+ Nrr
r0 r0 ,

tP
tP0

:
:

n
DP
C1 , C2 , C3
wP

:
:
:
:

wP0

thrust reduction coefficient,


thrust reduction coefficient in straight
forward motion,
propeller revolution,
propeller diameter,
constants,
effective wake fraction coefficient at
propeller location,
effective wake fraction coefficient at
propeller location in straight forward
motion.

Mathematical models for terms on rudder forces are


assumed as:

XR0 = (1 tR )F N0 sin ,

0
0
(14)
YR = (1 + aH )F N cos ,

0
0
0
0
NR = (xR + aH xH )F N cos ,

(10)

where,

There are many kinds of mathematical models for


each component in equation (10). Hereafter the mathematical model which proposed by the author is shown
as an example.
Hydrodynamic forces and moment acting on a hull,

tR
aH
x0H

:
:
:

coefficient for additional drag,


ratio of additional lateral force,
non-dimensional distance between
the center of gravity of ship and
the center of additional lateral force
(x0H = xH /L),

4
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

xR0

non-dimensional longitudinal distance between the center of gravity


of ship and the center of lateral force
(xR0 = xR /L),
rudder angle.

2 y/L
6

wR0

P
0

1 , 2

:
:
:
:

; r
;

; U/U0
;

(deg)
60

r, U/U0

=35

Time history

(deg)

1.0
40

400

20

200

0.5

0.0

0
100 time(sec)

50

Figure 5 Comparison of trajectories and time histories (Cargo ship, H/d = 1.2, = 35 )

where,

wR

Symbol; measured
Line; calculated

:
:
:
:
:
:

x/L

Following expressions are assumed for the normal


force acting on rudder F N0 with normal force coefficient
CN :

F N0 = AR /Ld C N UR02 sin R ,
(15)

C N = 6.13KR /(KR + 2.25),

2

02

UR = 1 wR {1 + Cg(s)} ,

g(s) = K{2 (2 K) s}/ (1 s) ,

= DP /hR ,




K = (1 0.6 |sin |) 1 wP / 1 wR ,

(16)


s = 1.0 1 wP U cos /nP,

n
o

wR = wR0 exp 4.0 + r0 /2 2 2

R = + 0 1 R ,

0
0
0

R = 2xR r ,

x ' 0.5,

AR
hR
KR
UR
R
C

Trajectory

=35

rudder area,
rudder height,
aspect ratio of rudder,
effective rudder inflow speed,
effective rudder inflow angle,
coefficient for starboard and port rudder,
effective wake fraction coefficient at
rudder location,
effective wake fraction coefficient at
rudder location in straight forward
motion,
propeller pitch,
toe angle of offset rudder,
flow straightening coefficient,
functions which express effect of
rudder angle on and wR0 .

x/L
Trajectory

=35

Symbol; measured
Line; calculated

2
0
2
0

; r
;

r, U/U0
Time history

6 y/L
; U/U0
;

(deg)
60

=35

(deg)

1.0
40

400

20

200

0.5

Solving equation (8) with consideration of the influence of water depth on the hydrodynamic coefficients,
ship maneuvering motion can be estimated.
Figure 5 and 6 show turning trajectory and time histories of non-dimensional yaw rate, r0 , speed reduction
ratio, U/U0 (U0 : initial speed), drift angle, , and heading angle, for a cargo ship and a coal carrier at H/d =
1.2 respectively. Each line indicate simulation result the
symbols indicate measured values. It can be said from
these comparison between numerical simulation and measured results that this approximate formulae have enough

0.0

50

0
100 time(sec)

Figure 6 Comparison of trajectories and time histories (Coal carrier, H/d = 1.2, = 35 )

5
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

; H/d=6.0

x/L

; H/d=6.0

; H/d=1.5

x/L

; H/d=1.2

; H/d=1.5
; H/d=1.2

2
5

y/L

Figure 7 Change of turning trajectory depending on


water depth (Coal carrier)

y/L

Figure 8 Change of turning trajectory depending on


water depth (Chemical tanker)

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

; H/d=6.0
; H/d=1.5

; H/d=6.0

; H/d=1.2

; H/d=1.5
; H/d=1.2

1.0

40

1.0

20

20

40

40

(deg)

Figure 9 Change of r0 curve depending on water


depth (Coal carrier)

20

20

40

(deg)

Figure 10 Change of r0 curve depending on water


depth (Chemical tanker)

r0 for both ships.


There is a difference on the transition of advance and
tactical diameter for both ships. On Figure 7, both advance and tactical diameter becomes bigger evenly as the
depth of water shallow. On the other hand, advances for
three different water depth have almost same value and
only tactical diameter becomes bigger on the Figure 8.
Figure 11 indicates transition of advance, AD , transfer, T r , and tactical diameter, DT for three kinds of ship
as function of draft / water depth ratio, d/h. It is observed that each ship has inherent tendency on change of

accuracy to estimate maneuvering motion in shallow water.


Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the change of turning
trajectory for a coal carrier and a chemical tanker depending on the depth of water. As water depth becomes
shallower, namely H/d becomes smaller, the radius of
turning circle becomes bigger on both figures. It is well
known that course stability is stabilized generally as the
water depth becomes shallower. It can be understood
from Figure 9 and Figure 10 which represent correlation
between rudder angle, and non-dimensional yaw rate,
6

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

tively. Therefore it means that course stability is stable


if `r0 is bigger than ` .
Figure 12 shows the transition of `r0 and ` for the
change of water depth. Shallow water effect appears
conspicuously on a container ship shown in Figure 12
(a). The course stability of the ship is stable when d/H
is equal to 1/1.2. As for the rest ships, the sign of `r0 `
is always negative, namely course stability is unstable
regardless of water depth. However the shape of `r0 `
curve is each different for these four ships.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Ship maneuvering characteristics in shallow water will
be remarkably different with it in deep water. The most
important factor on its deference will be hydrodynamic
forces acting on ship, especially it seems the deference
depend on the position of the acting point of yaw damping force and sway damping force. These forces mostly
depend on ships form such as body plan or flame line of
the hull body.
REFERENCE
Hasegawa, K., On a Performance Criterion of Autopilot Navigation, Journal of the Kansai Society of Naval
Architects, Japan, Vol.178, 1980, pp.93104.

Figure 11 Change of advance, transfer and tactical diameter depending on water depth

Hirano, M., Takashina, J., Moriya, S. and Nakamura,


Y., An Experimental Study on Maneuvering Hydrodynamic Forces in Shallow Water, Transaction of the
West-Japan Society of Naval Architects, No.69, 1985,
pp.101110.

these parameters.
As shown in the above, a turning advance and tactical
diameter will change as function of water depth and in
ship type in spite of same rudder execution.

Kijima, K., Katsuno, T., Nakiri, Y. and Furukawa, Y.,


On the Manoeuvring Performance of a Ship with
the Parameter of Loading Condition, Journal of the
Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.168, 1990,
pp.141148.

CORRELATION BETWEEN HYDRODYNAMICS


FORCES AND MANOEUVRING CHARACTERISTICS

Kijima, K., Murakami, M., Katsuno, T. and Nakiri, Y.,


A Study on the Ship Manoeuvring Characteristics in
Shallow Water, Transaction of the West-Japan Society
of Naval Architects, No.69, 1985, pp.111122.

It is well known that the linear terms of hydrodynamic derivatives are important parameters to evaluate
the course stability of a ship. If the linear terms of hydrodynamic derivatives satisfy the following equation, the
course stability is stable.


Y0 Nr0 + N Yr0 m0 + m0x > 0
(17)

Kijima, K. and Nakiri, Y., Approximate Expression


for Hydrodynamic Derivatives of Ship Manoeuvring
Motion taking into account of the Effect of Stern
Shape, Transaction of the West-Japan Society of
Naval Architects, No.98, 1999, pp.6777.

Equation (17) can be rewritten as follows,


N0
Nr0
 0 = `r0 `0 > 0,
Yr0 m0 + m0x
Y

Kijima, K. and Nakiri, Y., On the Practical Prediction


Method for Ship Manoeuvrability in Restricted Water, Transaction of the West-Japan Society of Naval
Architects, No.107, 2003, pp.3754.

(18)

where `r0 and `0 indicate the position of the acting point


of yaw damping force and sway damping force respec7

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

lr

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

0.5

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

lr l

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

0.5
lr l

0.5

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

1
0

0.5
lr l

1
h(=d/H)

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

1
0
1

lr l

0.5

(d) Coal carrier

1
h(=d/H)

1
h(=d/H)

0.5

1
h(=d/H)

(c) Chemical tanker

1
0

0.5
lr l

lr

1
0
1

1
0

1
0

1
0

1
h(=d/H)

(b) Cargo ship

1
h(=d/H)

1
0

1
h(=d/H)

(a) Container ship


lr

0.5
l

5
0

1
0
1

1
0
1

1
h(=d/H)

5
0

lr

1
0
1

5
0
5

lr

1
0

(e) VLCC
Figure 12 Change of `r0 and `0 depending on water depth

Nonaka, N., Haraguchi, T., Nimura, T., Ueno, M., Fujiwara, T., Makino, M., Kodama, Y. and Yoshino, Y.,
Research on Flow Field around a Ship in Manoeuvring
Motion, Papers of Ship Research Institute, Vol.34,
No.5, 1997, pp.168.
Ohmori, T., A Study on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Maneuvering Ship in Shallow Water by a
Finite-Volume Method, Proceeding of International
Symposium and Workshop on Force Acting on a
Maneuvering Vessel (MAN98), 1998, pp.15-38.

8
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Martin Renilson
QinetiQ, United Kingdom
I wonder if the author could comment on
scale effects in shallow water. Perhaps these would
be more severe than in deep water, and may be the
cause of some of the unusual results.
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you for your question. On scale
effects of ship maneuvering motion in shallow water,
it seems it will be very difficult to investigate it,
especially in the full scales ship. Because, we have no
data for comparing the estimated results with
measured results in full scales ship in shallow water.
We know only a few published paper relating with
the data of full scales ship maneuvering
characteristics in shallow water.
We need to collect the data of its in shallow
water.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Jinzhu Xia
Australian Maritime College, Australia
It would be interesting if Prof. Kijima could
provide some discussion on wave effects and the
assessment of wave effects on maneuvering and
maneuvering in shallow water.
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you very much for your discussion.
In this paper, the wave effects was not discussed, but
if you use our mathematical model, you can estimate
and consider the wave effect in ship maneuvering
motion by adding the wave force coefficients in the
mathematical model. Of course, you have to estimate
the wave drift force and wave exciting force acting
on ship hull.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Numerical Simulations of Breaking Wave


Around a Wedge
R. Broglia, A. Di Mascio and R. Muscari
(INSEAN, Italian Ship Model Basin, Italy)
breaking are responsible for both air entrainment
and downstream convection of air bubbles.
The numerical algorithm adopted is based on
the general pseudocompressible formulation of the
Reynolds Avereged Navier Stokes equations. In order to overcome the difficulties connected with gravity waves in breaking regimes, the solver has been
coupled with a non standard single phase levelset
approach (Di Mascio et al., 2004). In this approach
only the liquid phase is simulated, and the level set
function is used as a tracking device to locate the
intersection of the free surface with the grid lines.
A single fluid being computed, there is no transition zone across which the fluid properties vary, and
consequently no uncertainty is related to interface
smoothing. In addition, the algorithm is such that
the level set function satisfies the free surface kinematic boundary condition only on the free surface
itself, whereas it turns out to be a distance function
at any other point, which guarantees mass conservation properties.
The paper is organized as follows: in the next
section, the physical problem is defined, and the
conservation equations governing the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid are briefly recalled. Then,
the numerical algorithm used for the simulation of
the bulk flow and the free surface will be summarized, and the singlephase level set approach recalled. The second last section is dedicated to the
description of the numerical results, and to the comparisons with available experimental data in terms
of both wave profiles and cross sections of the free
surface; moreover, analysis of the vorticity field in
the water jet formation and in the impact regions
will be shown. Conclusions will be drawn in the last
section.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a numerical study of the
flow around a sharp wedge in both breaking and
nonbreaking regimes. The wedge is fixed on a free
slip bottom. In the numerical simulations two bow
angles and three water depths are considered; the
simulations correspond to some experimental tests
carried out by Waniewski et al. (2002) with which
comparisons are made. Froude number, based on
water depth and free stream velocity, ranges from
2.57 to 3.29, whereas Reynolds number is around
1.86 106 . The numerical method used is a solver for
steady incompressible free surface flows based on the
pseudocompressible formulation of the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANSE); free surface is handled by a singlephase level set approach
(Di Mascio et al., 2004).
INTRODUCTION
This paper deals with numerical simulations of
the flow around a wedge, fixed to a free slip bottom. This kind of flow is taken as a prototype of the
flow around the bow of a ship hull moving through
the water: the main characteristic of this flow is the
presence of a surface wave which, under some circumstances, can break. Bow wave breaking is one
of the main source of air entrainment and of the so
called whitewater wake phenomena; moreover, the
dispersion of bubbles in water can have strong negative effects in terms of, for example, signature of
the ship and propeller efficiency.
Objectives of this work are the study of the bow
wave in breaking condition and the analysis of the
vorticity production due to the formation of the
water jet and to the breaking phenomena. Attention must be devoted to this aspect, as coherent
structures like the streamwise vortices produced by

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

GOVERNING EQUATIONS

is a material surface, and allows to determine its unknown configuration:

The turbulent motion of an incompressible (constant density) viscous fluid can be described by the
Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations:
uj
=0
xj
ui
uj ui
p
ij
+
+
=
t
xj
xi
xj

D F (x, y, z, t)
=0
Dt

Initial conditions have to be specified for the velocity


field and for the free surface configuration.

(1)
i = 1, 2, 3.

NUMERICAL METHOD
In this section the numerical method used is recalled; for a complete description of the algorithm
the reader is referred to Di Mascio et al. (2001,
2004). When only the average steady state has to
be computed, the system of equations (1) can be
conveniently replaced by the pseudocompressible
formulation (Chorin, 1967), that reads, in integral
form:
Z
I

p dV +
ui ni dS = 0
t V
S(V)
Z

(4)
ui dV +
t V
I
[ui uj nj + pni ij nj ] dS = 0

A reference length l and velocity U have been chosen to make the equations nondimensional. In the
previous equations, ui is the ith Cartesian component of the velocity vector (in the following, the
Cartesian components of the velocity will be also
denoted with u, v, and w); p is a variable related
to the pressure P and the acceleration of gravity g
(parallel to the vertical axis z,downward oriented)
by p = P + z/F n2 , F n = U / gl being the Froude
number. Finally, ij = t (ui,j + uj,i ) is the stress
tensor, t = 1/Rn+T is the global kinematic viscosity, with Rn = U l/ the Reynolds number, the
kinematic viscosity and T the turbulent viscosity.
In the present work, the turbulent viscosity was calculated by means of the Spalart and Allmaras one
equation model (Spalart and Allmaras, 1994). In
what follows, the water depth d and the free stream
velocity U are used as reference quantities.
The problem is closed by enforcing appropriate
conditions at physical and computational boundaries. On solid walls, velocity is set to zero (whereas
no condition on the pressure is required); at the (fictitious) inflow boundary, velocity is set to the undisturbed flow value, and the pressure is extrapolated
from inside; on the contrary, the pressure is set to
zero at the outflow, whereas velocity is extrapolated
from inner points.
At the free surface, whose location is one of the
unknowns of the problem, the dynamic boundary
condition requires continuity of stresses across the
surface; if the presence of the air is neglected, the
dynamic boundary condition reads:
p = ij ni nj +
ij ni t1j = 0

+
We F n2

(3)

S(V)

where is the pseudocompressibility factor, V a


control volume, S(V) its boundary, and ~n the outward unit normal. The previous system of equations
is approximated by a finite volume technique, with
pressure and velocity colocated at the cell center;
the residual on each control volume is computed as
flux balance at the cell interfaces:
Z
6 Z
X

~q dV +
(F~sc F~sd ) dS = 0
(5)
t Vijk
S
s
s=1
where ~q = (p, u, v, w)T is the state variables vector
for pseudocompressible flows, and F~sc and F~sd are
the convective (inviscid and pressure) and diffusive
normal fluxes at the sth interface Ss of the finite
volume Vijk . In order to obtain second order accuracy in space, convective and viscous fluxes are
computed by means of the trapezoidal rule.
The computation of the viscous fluxes requires
the value of the stress tensor at cell interfaces; for
instance, at the interface i + 12 , j, k :


um
ul
lm |i+ 1 ,j,k = i+ 21 ,j,k
+
(6)
2
xl
xm i+ 1 ,j,k

(2)

ij ni t2j = 0

2
where We = U
l/ is the Weber number ( being
the density of the fluid and the surface tension
coefficient) and the surface curvature; ~n, ~t1 and ~t2
are the surface normal and two tangential unit vectors, respectively. In this work surface tension effects have been neglected. The kinematic boundary
condition states that the free surface F (x, y, z, t) = 0

Velocity gradients are computed by means of a standard second order centered finite volume approximation.
2

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

set function remains unchanged at material points.


In classical twophase level set approaches, the density and the molecular viscosity of the fluid are then
assumed to depend on the sign of the level set function; to avoid numerical difficulties related to sharp
discontinuities, density and viscosity have a smooth
transition around the zero level (x, y, z, t) (Sussman et al., 1994).
In order to maintain the thickness of the interface constant in time and avoid mass loss (Sussman et al., 1994), level set function has to remain
a distance function for t > 0. In the socalled re
initialization step, the level set function (x, y, z, t)
is replaced, at each time step, by a new function
y, z, t) with the same zero level, but again rep(x,
resenting the distance from the interface; the func y, z, t) is computed at each physical time
tion (x,
step as the asymptotic (steady state) solution, with
respect to the pseudotime , of the equation:

For the inviscid part, a second order Essentially


Non Oscillatory (ENO) scheme (Harten et al., 1987)
has been adopted; convective fluxes are computed
as the solution of a Riemann problem at the cell
interface:
c
~ c qi+ 1 ,j,k ) = F~ c (~ql , ~qr )
F~i+
1
,j,k = F (~
2

(7)

whose left and right states are given by:


~ql = ~qi,j,k +

minmod( ~q|i1/2 , ~q|i+1/2 )

~qr = ~qi+1,j,k

2
minmod( ~q|i+1/2 , ~q|i+3/2 )
2

(8)

where:
~q|i+1/2 = ~qi+1,j,k ~qi,j,k

(9)

and minmod(x, y) is a function (to be applied to


each vector component) defined as:

0
xy 0
minmod(x, y) =
sign(x)(min |x|, |y|) xy > 0
(10)
Time integration of the discrete model is achieved
by means of an implicit Euler scheme; the resulting
discrete system of equations is solved in delta form
as in the Beam and Warmings scheme (1978)
Convergence to steady state is accelerated by local time stepping and a multigrid algorithm (for
more details and performances of this technique applied to time marching ENO schemes, see Favini
et al. (1996)).


1) = 0
+ sign()(||

(12)

where sign is the sign function (Rouy and Tourin,


1992).

SINGLEPHASE LEVEL SET


In level set approaches (see for example (Osher
and Sethian, 1988) and (Sussman et al., 1994)), a
smooth function (x, y, z, t), whose zero level coincides for t = 0 with the free surface, is defined in
the whole physical domain (i.e. in both liquid and
air phases); the kinematic boundary condition (3) is
extended to all the points in the domain, yielding a
transport equation for the level set function:
(x, y, z, t)
+ ~u (x, y, z, t) = 0
t
(x, y, z, 0) = d(x, y, z)

Figure 1: Computational domain. Squares: nodes in the


liquid phase; circles: nodes in the gas phase. Full symbols:
nodes where the kinematic condition (15) is enforced.

(11)
In the singlephase algorithm adopted only the
liquid phase of the fluid is computed; the computational domain is formally decomposed in (see figure (1)):

~u being the velocity of the underlying flow, and


d(x, y, z) the signed distance from the free surface
at t = 0. The zero level of the function (x, y, z, t)
represents the free surface location for t > 0; moreover, initializing (x, y, z, t) as the signed distance
from the surface of discontinuity, the sign of the level

grid points close to the surface of discontinuity


(full circles and full squares in figure (1)): the
level set function is computed by means of the
3

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The interface values i+ 12 ,j,k is computed as:

evolution equation (11); velocity and pressure


in the liquid region (full squares) are computed
by means of the Navier Stokes and continuity
equations (5); pressure is evaluated by using
the dynamic boundary condition and the velocity is extrapolated at the points in the air
phase (full circles);

i+ 12 ,j,k = i,j,k +

i+ 12 ,j,k = i+1,j,k

minmod( |i+ 3 , |i+ 1 )


2

1
if Ui,j,k
0, and similarly for i 12 ,j,k . It has been
proved by Harten et al. (1987) that this procedure
yields a second order approximation to (11). Time
advancement of equation (15) is achieved by means
of a standard twolevel multistage second order
RungeKutta scheme (Jameson et al., 1981).
For the nodes in the water region which are not
close to the surface of discontinuity (empty squares
in figure (1)), the level set function is enforced to
represent the distance from the interface when the
steady solution is attained. To this aim, the constrain || = 1 is enforced by means of an iterative
marching ENO scheme with second order accuracy;
first, the above condition is rewritten as an evolution
equation for the level set function (x, y, z, t):



+ sign()
1 = 0
(17)
t
||

grid points in the air region (empty circles in


figure (1)): the level set function is computed
from equation (12) in order to get a distance
function, and an extension velocity is computed as done by Adalsteinsson and Sethian
(Adalsteinsson and Sethian, 1999).
It has to be noted that, in the singlephase formulation, the solution outside the water region is not
required; however, the extension of the velocity field
outside the water region ensures second order accuracy also close to the interface.
It was found convenient, when computing free
surface flows around complex geometries with curvilinear grids, to split the level set function as:

then, by using the definition (13), the previous equation is rewritten in term of (x, y, z, t) as:

(13)

where the function (x, y, z, t) is the solution (from


equation (11)) of:

+ ~u + w = 0
(14)
t
By doing so, it is easier to assign the boundary condition for the level set function at inflow, that reduces to (x, y, z, t) = 0.
An ENO technique (similar to the one used for
the bulk flow) is used to discretize equation (14); to
this end, the equation is first rewritten in terms of
curvilinear coordinates:

+ Um
+w =0
(15)
t
m

where:

+w
~ + b = 0
t

(18)

||


z
b = sign()
1
||

(19)

w
~ = sign()

This equation is solved with respect to (x, y, z, t)


with a scheme analogous to the one used to solve
the kinematic equation (14) at the points adjacent
to the free surface, with characteristic speed w.
~ The
same equation is used to update the level set function values in the air phase. It can be seen, that,
if the solution converges toward a steady state, it
provides a function (x, y, z, t) that satisfies equation (11) on the surface (x, y, z, t) = 0 and it is
a distance function at any other points. Note that
(x, y, z, t) is a distance function also at points close
to the free surface (full symbols in figure (1)) because of equation (25) (see later).
Once the function (x, y, z, t) is known throughout the whole domain, the free surface is located by

m
being the contravariant components
xi
of the velocity vector. The derivatives of the function (x, y, z, t) at cell center are approximated by
a second order finite difference formula; considering,
for instance, the (i, j, k)cell center, for the coordinate line 1 it reads:
U m = ui

= i+ 12 ,j,k i 12 ,j,k
1

1
if Ui,j,k
0, or:

grid points in the liquid phase region (empty


squares in figure (1)): the solution is computed by the numerical solution of the governing equations (5), and the level set function is
enforced to be a distance function by means of
equation (12);

(x, y, z, t) = (x, y, z, t) + z

minmod( |i+ 1 , |i 1 )

(16)
4

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

with

pi,j,k + pi1,j,k
(23)
2
where pF S is computed from the dynamic boundary
condition (2).
Once the pressure is known, the normal velocity
at (i + 12 , j, k) is computed by solving the Riemann
problem:




pi+ 12 ,j,k pw + un |i+ 12 ,j,k un |w = 0 (24)
pi 12 ,j,k =

i+1,j,k

FS

i,j,k

i+1/2

j+1/2

j1/2

p
being = u
n + u
2n + and where pw and un |w represent the known state on the water side, computed
as in (8). The tangential velocity is simply extrapolated along the normal to the free surface, given by
/||, as in the following equation (25). The remaining dynamic boundary conditions for the tangential stresses in (2) are explicitly enforced when
computing the viscous fluxes at the cell interface
i + 12 , j, k .
Outside the water region, extension velocities are
computed as:

i1/2

Figure 2: Free surface detection and extrapolation of pressure.

the surface (x, y, z, t) = (x, y, z, t) + z = 0. The


intersection of this surface with the underlying grid
line is computed as follows (see figure 2). Consider,
for instance, the coordinate line 1 ; when in two adjacent points (i, j, k) and (i + 1, j, k) the condition

ui = 0

i = 1, 2, 3

(25)

holds, it means that the free surface cuts the segment Pi,j,k Pi+1,j,k at some point PF S (Pi,j,k is the
position vector that locates the i, j, k point). Then,
the portion of the segment below the free surface is:

which guarantees that (x, y, z, t) evolves as a distance function also at the points adjacent to the
free surface (full circles in figure (1); see, for the
proof, Adalsteinsson and Sethian (1999)). Since the
steady state solution is the goal of the computation,
the previous relation is substituted by an evolution
equation for the velocity components ui :

|PF S Pi,j,k |
|i,j,k |
=
|Pi+1,j,k Pi,j,k |
|i+1,j,k i,j,k |

ui
+ ui = 0
t

i,j,k i+1,j,k 0

(20)

(21)

which is solved by a second order ENO scheme analogous to the one used to solve the kinematic equation (14) and equation (18), characteristic speed being . Note that the values of the velocity, pressure and turbulent viscosity in the air phase are useless when steady state is attained, and therefore they
do not affect the formal accuracy of the numerical
scheme. Nevertheless, their estimation is of great
importance during the iterative procedure at those
points that change their physical state from air to
water, for which an initial estimate is needed.

if i,j,k < 0, the level set function having been defined as the distance from the interface. A similar
relation holds for i+1,j,k < 0, with i and i + 1 interchanged.
The computation of the residuals for the RANS
equations at those points whose neighboring cells
are not all into the water region need some attention. In fact, in these cases the numerical convective
and viscous fluxes at interfaces that separate two
cells, of which one is in the air region (as the interface i + 12 , j, k in figure (2)), must be evaluated; in
these points the proper information to compute the
correct flux are needed to retain second order accuracy. To circumvent this difficulty, the following

procedure is applied. The pressure at i + 12 , j, k is
extrapolated as:
pi+ 12 ,j,k = pi 12 ,j,k +

1
2

1
(pF S pi 12 ,j,k )
+

(26)

RESULTS
Some numerical simulations of the flow around
an infinitely long wedge have been carried out; the
problem consists in a vertical piercing wedge fixed
on the bottom (in the simulations, the bottom plate
is treated as a free slip wall). Test conditions are
reported in table (1), where d represents the draft

(22)

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Run
L1
L2
L3
H1
H2
H3

13.4o
13.4o
13.4o
26.6o
26.6o
26.6o

d (cm)
6.66
7.55
9.21
6.45
7.62
9.32

U (m/s)
2.44
2.43
2.46
2.61
2.40
2.46

Fn
3.01
2.81
2.59
3.29
2.77
2.57

Table 1: Test conditions: is the wedge half angle, d is the


water depth, U is the incoming velocity and F n is the Froude
number

(which is equal to the water depth of the unperturbed flow), U is the free stream velocity, and is
the bow half angle; two different wedge angles and
three different water depths were analyzed. In the
same table, the values of the Froude number, based
on the free stream velocity and the water depth,
are reported for each conditions. The geometry and
flow field conditions under investigation correspond
to the large flume experiments made by Waniewski
et al. (2002) (tests 1l to 6l).
The physical domain is discretized by means of a
single block grid with CH topology (see figure (3)),
with a total of 144 128 128 volumes, for the
simulations with = 26.6o and 72 64 64 volumes, for = 13.4o , along streamwise, normal to
the wedge side wall, and vertical directions, respectively; points are clustered toward both the leading edge and the side wall of the wedge, whereas
an uniform distribution has been adopted along the
vertical direction. At least four grid levels were used
for multigrid acceleration. A uniform velocity field
(equal to the upstream value), zero pressure field
and a flat free surface have been considered as initial conditions. As boundary conditions, free stream

Figure 4: Wedge flow, = 26.6o d = 9.32 cm (run H3):


perspective view of the threedimensional flow field.

velocity is imposed at the inflow, free slip condition


are enforced at the bottom, and zero pressure and
velocity gradients are prescribed at the outflow.
Figure (4) shows a threedimensional view of the
flow field (test case H3) around the wedge (its side
wall is colored in red and the symmetry plane is
colored in blue): the presence of a strong three
dimensional breaking wave is evident. In figures (5)
and (6) perspective view of free surface sections (for
all test cases considered) perpendicular to the side
wall of the wedge are presented; sections are taken
from r = 0 cm to r = 150 cm every 10 cm, r being the distance from the leading edge.
From
these figures some features of the flow, already observed both theoretically and experimentally (see for
example (Noblesse et al., 1991; Dong et al., 1997;
Waniewski et al., 2002)) are highlighted. As the
flow impinges on the wedge a vertical component of
the velocity appears (the discontinuity in the free
surface elevation at the leading edge is clearly observable from the figures); this induces a flow which
rides up on the plate creating a liquid sheet along
the wall. Further downstream, the formation of a
water jet can be observed; due to gravity, this jet
plunges toward the free surface. After the impact
on the free surface, a splashup and a second jet are
clearly seen. In figures (5) and (6), it has also to be
noticed that in the splash region the resolution of
the grid is too coarse to resolve the flow adeguately
(see figure (3)).
Top views of the wave created by the wedge are
shown in figures (7) and (8) for all test cases considered; contour lines of free surface elevation are plotted. As it can be seen, for wedge angle = 13.4o
the wave does not break, whereas for wedge angle
= 26.6o wave jet profiles, impact line and splash
up are present.

250

y (cm)

200

150

100

50

0
-100

-50

50

100

x (cm)

150

200

250

Figure 3: Wedge flow, medium mesh (72 64 64) used for


largest wedge angle simulations.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Z
X

Z
X

Z
X

Figure 5: Wedge flow, = 13.4o : sections perpendicular to


the side wall of the wedge for L1 (top), L2 (middle) and L3
(bottom) runs.

Figure 6: Wedge flow, = 26.6o : sections perpendicular to


the side wall of the wedge for H1 (top), H2 (middle) and H3
(bottom) runs.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

175

175

10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0

125

75
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25
0

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175

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50

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x (cm)

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100
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x (cm)

100

150

x (cm)

150

75
50
25
0
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75 100 125 150


y (cm)

Figure 7: Wedge flow: top view of the waves for L1 (top), L2


(middle) and L3 (bottom) runs.

25

50

75 100 125 150


y (cm)

Figure 8: Wedge flow: top view of the waves for H1 (top),


H2 (middle) and H3 (bottom) runs.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25

20
144x128x128
72x64x64
36x32x32
18x16x16

15

15

z (cm)

z (cm)

20

10

144x128x128
72x64x64
36x32x32
18x16x16

10

0
20

0
25
z (cm)

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z (cm)

20
15

10

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0
20

5
15
z (cm)

z (cm)

25

10

20

15

10

15

20
y (cm)

25

30

35

40

10

Figure 10: Wedge flow: contact lines computed on four different grid levels, and for H1 (top), H2 (middle) and H3 (bottom) test cases.

5
0
-10

10

20

30
r (cm)

40

50

60

70

maximum wave elevation on the plate increases with


the wedge entrance angle; for = 13.4o the maximum increases with the draft (i.e. decreases with
the Froude number based on the water depth); for
the higher wave angle = 26.6o this dependence is
not clear. By comparison with experimental data
made by Waniewski et al. (2002), for the higher
wedge entrance angle the overall agreement is quite
good, even if maximum values are predicted a bit
downstream with respect to the measured data; for
the lower angle the agreement is only qualitative.
Such discrepancies could be due to viscous effects
on the bottom plate that were not taken into account; such viscous effects probably have a stronger
influence for the lower entrance angle, the wave elevation being much lower.
In figure (12) the comparison for the maximum
elevation of the wave profiles between present numerical results and experimental data is reported;
non dimensional free surface elevation is defined as

Figure 9: Wedge flow = 26.6o : plunging jet profiles at


impact on four different grid levels, and for H1 (top), H2
(middle) and H3 (bottom) test cases.

A grid convergence study is carried out for the


larger entrance angle and the three water depths;
in figures (9) and (10) contact lines (defined as the
wave profile on the wedge side wall) and plunging
jet profiles at impact, computed on four grid levels,
are compared. In these figures, the leading edge is
placed at r = 0, y is the distance from the side wall
and z = 0 is the location of the undisturbed free
surface; plunging jet sections are taken perpendicularly to the side wall at about r = 78 cm, r = 66 cm
and r = 67 cm, for the H1, H2 and H3 test case respectively. Convergence when refining the grid can
be clearly inferred.
Contact lines for all the simulations performed
are presented in figure (11); as it can be seen, the

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

30

L1
L2
L3

25

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H2
H3

10
x

+
+ ++ +

+
++

xxxxxx

z (cm)

z (cm)

20
15

++
x xx

xx

++++
++ +
x x
xx

0
20

2.2
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1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

10

20

30
r (cm)

40

50

60

70
z (cm)

15

Figure 11: Wedge flow: contact lines, vertical tiny line indicates the leading edge. Experimental data (Waniewski et al.,
2002): ( ) L1 run, ( ) L2 run, ( ) L3 run, ( + ) H1 run,
( ) H2 run and ( 4 ) H3 run.

10

0
20

15

z (cm)

2.5
2.0
Z*max

10

0
-10

1.5

+ ++

10

1.0
0.5
0.0

2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
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0.4
0.2
0.0

15

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20
y (cm)

25

30

35

40

2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Figure 13: Wedge flow = 26.6o : plunging jet profiles at


impact for H1 (top), H2 (middle) and H3 (bottom) test case.

Fr

case respectively. As it can be seen, the impact of


the plunging jet on the unperturbed free surface is
well captured and defined. The shape of the plunging jet for the = 26.6o looks very similar to the
experimental results obtained by Waniewski et al.
(2002) (see, for example, figure (11) in the cited
paper); moreover, the plunging jet thicknesses are
about 2 cm for H1 and H2 simulations and around
3 cm for the H3 test case, values in agreement with
the towed model experiment by Waniewski et al.
(2002). Impact velocities (which are around 2 m/s
for all cases, with a small increase with the water
depth) and angle of impingements (around 58o , 60o
and 52o for H1, H2 and H3 test cases) are in good
agreement with the value of 2.3 m/s for the impact
velocity and 58o for the angle of impingement provide by Waniewski et al. (2002).
In figures (14) and (15) cross sections of streamwise (xdirection) vorticity fields for all test cases
considered are presented. Sections are taken perpendicularly to the wedge side wall at different distances from the leading edge. The first series of
sections (figure (14)) are taken when the water jet
starts to separate from the side wall of the wedge,
i.e. where the wave profiles reach the maximum el-

Figure 12: Wedge flow: nondimensional maximum wave


height as a function of Froude number. Waniewski et al.
(2002): ( N ) small flume experiments = 13.4o , (  ) large
flume experiments = 26.8o and ( ) towing tank experiments = 26.0o ; Olgivie (1972) towing tank experiments
with = 15.0o : ( ) d = 10.2 cm, ( 4 ) d = 20.4 cm, (
)
d = 30.5 cm and ( + ) d = 40.6 cm. Present: (  ) = 13.4o
and (  ) = 26.6o and.

(see Waniewski (1999) and Olgivie (1972)):


90 Zmax
?
Zmax
=
F n1.5 d

(27)

The figure confirms that the large entrance angle


results are in a good agreement with experimental
data, at least for the two smaller Froude number,
whereas the maximum wave elevations for the small
entrance angle are somewhat underpredicted.
In figures (13) sections at the impact of the free
surface for the largest wedge angle and the three
water depth test cases considered are shown. Sections are taken around the first impact, perpendicular to the side wall of the wedge, which correspond
to a distance from the wedge leading edge of about
78 cm, 66 cm and 67 cm, for the H1, H2 and H3 test
10

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

15

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Figure 15: Wedge flow: vorticity fields at 100 cm from the


leading edge for the = 13.4o entrance angle case, and just
after water jet impact for the = 26.6o entrance angle case.

Figure 14: Wedge flow: vorticity fields at sections around


water jet formation.

11

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

evation (r = 35 cm for all cases). The second series


is taken at r = 100 cm for = 13.4o ; for = 26.6o
the sections are extracted just downstream the impact of the water jet. As shown in these figures, the
formation of the bow wave and the impact of the
plunging jet involve production of streamwise vorticity; the main features of these vorticity fields share
some similarities with the experimental observations
by Dong et al. (1997), who have studied the structure of mild and steep (depending on the Froude
number) bow waves around a ship model. In agreement with experimental observation by Dong et al.
(1997), at the formation of the water jet (for the
larger wedge angle, and further downstream for the
smaller entrance angle) negative vorticity is present
in the forward face of the wave, whereas the entire
wave crest region of the wave has positive vorticity;
this phenomena is more pronounced when increasing the Froude number. For the smaller angle of entrance, production of vorticity at the section where
the water jet starts (figure (14)) seems caused by
free surface curvature. At the impact section, for
the larger entrance angle, strong negative vorticity
due to the wave overturning can be clearly observed.

Dong et al. (1997), such as the presence of negative


vorticity on the forward face and a positive peak on
the crest have been clearly shown.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank Dr. Tricia Waniewski
Sur for the experimental data kindly provided.
References
Adalsteinsson, D. and Sethian, J. A. (1999). The
Fast Construction of Extension Velocities in Level
Set Methods. J. Comput. Phys., 148:222.
Beam, R. and Warming, R. (1978). An Implicit Factored Scheme for the Compressible Navier-Stokes
Equations. AIAA Journal, 16:393402.
Chorin, A. (1967).
A Numerical Method for
Solving Incompressible Viscous Flow Problems.
J. Comput. Phys., 2:1226.
Di Mascio, A., Broglia, R., and Favini, B. (2001).
A Second Order GodunovType Scheme for Naval Hydrodynamics, pages 253261. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

CONCLUSIONS

Di Mascio, A., Broglia, R., and Muscari, R. (2004).


A SinglePhase Level Set Method for Solving Incompressible Viscous Free Surface Flows. Submitted for publication.

A single phase level set approach for free surface viscous flows at high Reynolds number have
been used to study the flow around a sharp wedge.
Numerical simulations at two different entrance angles and three different water depths are carried out;
in agreement with available experimental data (see
(Waniewski et al., 2002) and (Waniewski, 1999)) the
waves generated by the presence of the wedge is in
breaking conditions at the higher half bow wedge angle. Threedimensional views of the breaking flow
clearly show the formation of a water jet, plunging
toward the free surface where it impacts; further
downstream a splashup region develops. Contact
lines (the profile of the wave on the wedge side wall)
compare well with experimental date for = 26.6o
and the three water depths, whereas, for = 13.4o ,
agreement is only qualitative. At present the reasons for such discrepancies are not clear; however,
the waves height being smaller for the second case,
viscous effects on the bottom could be important.
More investigation is needed in the future. Plunging jet shapes, angle and velocity of impact compare
well with experimental data provided by Waniewski
(1999). Cross sections of vorticity field at regions
where the water jet starts to form, and just after
the impact of water jet happened were presented;
similarities with experimental observation made by

Dong, R. R., Katz, J., and Huang, T. T. (1997).


On the Structure of Bow Waves on a Ship Model.
J. Fluid Mech., 347:77115.
Favini, B., Broglia, R., and Di Mascio, A. (1996).
Multigrid Acceleration of Second Order ENO
Schemes from Low Subsonic to High Supersonic
Flows. Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, 23:589606.
Harten, A., Engquist, B., Osher, S., and
Chakravarthy, S. R. (1987). Uniformly High
Order Accurate Essentially NonOscillatory
Schemes. J. Comput. Phys., 71:231303.
Jameson, A., Schmidt, W., and Turkel, E. (1981).
Numerical Solutions of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using RungeKutta Time
Stepping Schemes. AIAA paper, 811259.
Noblesse, D., Hendrix, D., and Kahn, L. (1991).
Nonlinear Local Analisys of Steady Flow About
a Ship. J. Ship Research, 35:288294.
Olgivie,
F. (1972).
The Wave
erated by a Fine Ship Bow.
9th Symposium of Naval Hydrodynamic.
12

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

GenIn

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Osher, S. and Sethian, J. A. (1988). Fronts Propagating with CurvatureDependant Speed: Algorithms Based on HamiltonJacobi Formulations.
J. Comput. Phys., 79:1240.
Rouy, E. and Tourin, A. (1992).
A Viscosity Solutions Approach to ShapefromShading.
SIAM. J. Numer. Analy., 29:867884.
Spalart, P. R. and Allmaras, S. R. (1994). A One
Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic
Flows. La Recherche Aerospatiale, 1:521.
Sussman, M., Smekerda, P., and Osher, S. J.
(1994). A Level Set Approach for Computing Solutions to Incompressible TwoPhase Flow.
J. Comput. Phys., 114:146159.
Waniewski, T. A. (1999). Air Entrainment by Bow
Waves. Doctoral Dissertation, California Institute
of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Waniewski, T. A., Brennen, C. E., and Raichlen, F.
(2002). Bow Wave Dynamics. J. Ship Research,
46(1):115.

13

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Larry J. Doctors
The University of New South Wales, Australia
I would like to congratulate the authors for
this very interesting paper. My question relates to
Table 1, listing the test conditions. Why werent
exactly the same values of the water depth and speed
chosen for the two different wedge half angles? It
would have been interesting to examine the linearity
(or otherwise) of the wedge-flow contact lines in
Figure 11 with respect to the wedge half angle. Since
the data is almost the same for the two angles of
13.4 and 26.6, one can see, at least approximately,
such a behavior in Figure 11.
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you for the comment. With regard to
the choice of flow parameters, the only reason why
the water depths were not exactly the same is that we
wanted to validated the simulations against the
experimental data collected by Waniewski et al.
(2002), and therefore we used the same values as in
their channel and towing tank tests. The investigation
on the behaviour of the maximum wave height on the
side wall with the dihedral angle will be the topic of
our future research activity on wave breaking. We
agree with Dr. Doctors as to the expected linearity for
the aforementioned function.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Canada, 8-13 August 2004

A BEM-Level set Domain Decomposition for


Violent Two-phase Flows in Ship Hydrodynamics
G. Colicchio , M. Greco , O.M. Faltinsen

( INSEAN, The Italian Ship Model Basin, Roma - Italy, Centre for Ships and
Ocean Structures, NTNU, Trondheim - Norway)
ABSTRACT
In many practical circumstances relevant in ship hydrodynamics, complex water flow evolutions occur, involving large deformations of the free-surface, breaking and fragmentation. The resulting water-ship interactions may lead to dangerous structural loads and they
can concern the safety and the stability of the vessel.
The analysis of such problems is challenging both in
terms of the capability to handle the physics involved,
and of the CPU time and memory space needed for sufficiently accurate investigations. The latter become crucial when three-dimensional effects are accounted for.
Here we present a numerical study to deal with
these types of phenomena, their occurrence, evolution
and possible structural effects. The used method is based
on the Domain Decomposition (DD) philosophy where
the problem is split into sub-problems, each one analyzed by the most efficient and suitable solver. In particular, a Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used in
the fluid regions where the air-water interface can be
modeled as a smooth surface and vorticity and viscosity effects are negligible. A Navier-Stokes (NS) solver,
coupled with a Level-set (LS) technique for capturing
the air-water interface, is applied in the fluid areas interested by breaking phenomena and vorticity generation.
Since the air evolution becomes relevant in case of air
entrainment, both liquid and gas phases are simulated
by the BEM and NS-LS solvers. The most important
feature of the DD method proposed here is the presence
of an air-water interface in the exchange region between
the different solvers.
In this paper, the features of the present domain-

decomposition strategy are described and the challenges


connected with the coupling are deeply discussed. The
numerical investigation highlighted the importance of a
proper rational study when CFD methods are considered. In the present case a crucial aspect is represented
by the domain composition (DC) step, where the information from one solver to the other have to be properly reconstructed and made consistent with the receiver
sub-domain. Such aspects are detailed analyzed by using the dam-breaking problem as test case.
INTRODUCTION
Many problems in ship hydrodynamics can be accurately and efficiently analyzed by assuming the water as
an inviscid and incompressible fluid in irrotational motion. On the other hand, several cases exist where the
potential flow theory may only partially help the physical investigation or where such model is not even able
to capture the fundamental mechanisms involved.
The water-on-deck problem is an example. In
this case one can use the potential flow theory to understand and predict the phenomenon, and to identify the
role played by many physical parameters. However the
most dangerous water-shipping events from the safety
and stability perspectives are connected with free-surface breaking, air cushioning and local water-structure
impacts. Only some of these phenomena can be handled
by a potential flow model. The whole water-on-deck
scenario is out of the BEM capabilities. For instance,
when a wave breaking event occurs circulation is created connected with the cavity closure caused by the
water-water impact. Non-zero circulation means that

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

vorticity is created. This occurs in the neighborhood of


the impact region. The vorticity originates due to the
different tangential velocities of the interacting portions
of water (see i.e. Dooley et al. 1997). Such vorticity
will be partially convected with the rotating cavity and
partially with the jet splash-up subsequent to the impact.
On a sufficiently long time scale, viscous effects will
matter. For a deeper understanding of the phenomenon,
two- and three-dimensional water-shipping experiments
have been recently performed by the authors (see i. e.
Greco 2001 and Barcellona et al. 2003). The tests highlighted the main features of the typical water on deck
phenomenon: (i) an initial plunging phase, quite localized in space and time, where the water enters the
ship in the form of a plunging jet hitting the deck; (ii) a
dam-breaking like behaviour, where no relevant breaking phenomena occur and the water propagates along
the deck similarly to the flow generated by a dam breaking; (iii) water-deck structures impacts, where the compact mass of water hits against obstacles on its way and
rises along them; (iv) a backward plunging phase, when
the raised liquid falls down under the gravity action
and forms a plunging jet hitting the underlying water;
and (v) the off-deck flow, where the water is eventually
pushed out from the deck and falls again into the sea.
The utility of a BEM solver for understanding some individual phenomena was confirmed. On the other hand,
the tests pushed toward a more general method able to
capture the complete water-on-deck picture. For a longtime investigation of the water shipping phenomena, a
rotational viscous two-phase (air and water) model has
to be considered. However, the regions where the potential flow theory cannot be applied are quite confined
near the ship. The vorticity created during the later
stages of the water-on-deck (i.e. due to the breaking of
a backward plunging jet) will be convected by the offdeck flow and eventually diffused going far from the
ship. This means its modeling becomes unimportant at
a sufficient distance from the vessel. From there on, the
flow evolution can be accurately described by an irrotational inviscid model.
Another example where the potential flow theory is not generally suitable is given by the roll motion
of a ship. This is a relevant problem for ship hydrodynamics and has been investigated both numerically
and experimentally. Extensive studies of the connected
phenomena have been carried out for instance by Yeung and coauthors (see i.e. Yeung et al. 1996 and Ye-

ung et al. 2000). In this case the potential theory could


be used in combination with an adequate model for the
vorticity shed during the motion. This implies some geometric assumptions and does not account for the viscous effects that eventually will appear. On the other
hand, the use of a Navier-Stokes (NS) solver to simulate
the roll motion of a ship in open water is challenging.
Some preliminary test cases have been performed asz
air
x

water

Potential flow

air

Potential flow

water

Potential flow

Figure 1: Roll motion of the section 3 of the DDG41


ship, scale factor 23.824. Top: mesh definition. Center: vorticity contour levels and enlarged view of the
velocity field near the lower tip of the cross-section
at a rotation angle
. Bottom: possible domain-decomposition strategy. Roll parameters: rotation
amplitude
and frequency
Hz.



 



suming that the flow is laminar. To limit the code heaviness a stretching has to be introduced both in the horizontal and vertical directions. However the stretching
cannot be particularly strong, that is
,
max

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.



 

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics



 

being
the outer and inner discretizamax and
tions, respectively, and a number less than two. If a
larger stretching is used, numerical problems arise connected with the solution of the Poisson equation for the
pressure. As a result, two factors exist working against
each other: the need of a sufficiently high resolution to
capture the vorticity generated during the ship rolling
and the need to resolve with a similar accuracy both the
inner region around the ship and outer areas far from
the vessel. An example of feasible stretched grid is
given in the top of figure 1 for the roll motion of a ship
cross-section (black line). The geometry and the motion
data refer to two-dimensional model tests carried out recently at INSEAN. In particular, figure 1 is related to the
section 3 (American nomenclature) of the DDG41 ship
(scale factor 23.824). Despite the fact we want to study
open water conditions the domain has been truncated
for computational limits reasons. A uniform grid with
, being the cross-section
draft, is used in an inner region around the body and a
stretching
with
is introduced
elsewhere. The resulting mesh is fairly able to capture
the evolution of the vorticity shed from the ship (the
center plot of the figure gives a snapshot of the vorticity contours). But an enlarged view of the velocity field
near the lower tip of the cross section (see center plot of
figure 1) highlights the need of a much higher resolution
in the body neighbourhood. To meet this requirement
and to capture properly the behaviour of the boundary
layer we should at least consider an inner mesh with
. Due to the stretching
limits this would increase the memory space of a factor 16 and the CPU time of a factor 16x4 with respect
to the used grid. Obviously if three-dimensional effects
are accounted for, the computational cost becomes substantially more expensive. On the other hand this can be
conveniently reduced by using physical considerations.
During the roll motion, vorticity of opposite sign is created. This may cause vortex pairs with nearly opposite
strengths that will travel far from the ship. Once away
from it, their effect on the ship pressure loads is however not significant. This means, also in the case of the
roll motion the region interested by vorticity and viscous effects relevant for the ship is rather localized near
the vessel. From an adequate distance from the vessel
on, the vorticity leaving the ship can be conveniently
neglected (dissipated numerically) and a potential flow
theory can be used to simulate the flow evolution.

   !#" $   %  


&('*) +
 ,-   $

   .#"*    




In the aim of developing a suitable and efficient


method to attack such types of problems, we have developed a domain-decomposition strategy. With this approach, for instance, the roll motion could be investigated by applying a Navier-Stokes solver within a limited region around the body. A potential flow model
could be used instead to analyze the rest of the fluid
domain (see i.e. bottom plot of figure 1). As a consequence, it would be feasible to achieve a much higher
resolution where needed. The present approach is the
result of previous research efforts (see i.e. Greco et al.
2002) where different domain-decomposition strategies
have been investigated. The fluid domain is split in two
(many) sub-domains where the problem is attacked by
different solvers. The solvers will exchange information across the common boundary portions. In our case,
these are characterized by an overlapping area (transmission boundary) where the involved solvers are contemporary used to solve the problem. This brings additional free parameters into the problem, that are (i)
the position and (ii) the extension of the transmission
boundary. In Greco et al. (2002) the DD strategy was
based on the use of a BEM and a NS solver combined
with a VOF method to capture the air-water interface.
The latter technique follows the evolution of the water
volume fraction in the domain and from this information reconstructs the free-surface configuration at any
time instant. The investigation confirmed the capabilities of the approach but highlighted the limits of the
used field solver that was a single-phase solver accurate
to the first order in space and time. Here the DD strategy
is applied by coupling a BEM method with a NS solver
combined with a Level-set (LS) technique to track the
free surface. The latter method follows the evolution of
the distance from the air-water interface and from this
information reconstructs the free-surface configuration
as the surface with
at any time instant. Both potential and field solvers are accurate to the second order
in space and time and simulate both water and air evolutions so that their interaction during air entrainment
phenomena can be investigated.

/0

In this paper the developed domain decomposition strategy is detailed described, the main challenges
related with the substantial differences between the used
solvers are discussed and the proposed solutions are reported. This is made by using the two-dimensional problem of a dam breaking as test case. In fact this is indirectly related to the water-on-deck phenomenon (see

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

i.e. Greco 2001). Moreover it is a well know problem


extensively studied both analytically, numerically and
experimentally. Therefore many reference results are
available in literature.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL
The present method is based on a Domain Decomposition (DD) strategy. A Boundary Element Method (BEM)
is used in the fluid regions with no fragmentation of the
free surface and negligible vorticity generation and viscous effects. In the fluid areas where the latter phenomena become relevant a Navier-Stokes (NS) solver
is introduced. This is coupled with a Level-set (LS)
technique to capture the free-surface evolution. In the
potential and viscous domains, both air and water are
described but with different assumptions. The aim is to
built up a composite solver accurate and efficient. In
both sub-domains no surface tension is considered and
the air is assumed incompressible like the water. The
latter assumption is not correct when air cavities sufficiently small are entrapped. However this simplification has been used during the development phase of the
present domain decomposition due to the smaller computational effort required. The strategy has been applied
to two-dimensional cases, but no restrictions exist for
the extension of the method to treat three-dimensional
flows. The main features of the two solvers used within
the DD and the adopted strategy are described in the
following sections.

with linear shape functions both for the geometry and


for the boundary data and with collocation points at the
edges of each element. This is combined with a second order Runge-Kutta scheme for the time integration.
For more details refer to Greco (2001). By using the
Mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, at any time instant a Dirichlet-Neuman boundary value problem for
the velocity potential has to be solved in the water
domain. is known along the free surface while its normal derivative is constrained along the solid boundaries.
The continuity of the velocity potential is assumed at
the contact points between free surface and body. Once
the problem in water has been solved, the one in air
can be attacked. Enforcing the continuity of the normal
velocity and of the pressure across the air-water interface, the kinetic problem for is fully solved. This can
be successfully made in the case of exterior problems
(i.e. the water-on-deck problem). While, if an interior
problem has to be considered, the things become different (i.e. the dam-breaking problem inside an enclosed
tank). In this case, large pressure gradients occur in
reality near the air-water interface and they cannot be
recovered by enforcing explicitly the pressure continuity. Therefore a Neuman problem in the air domain has
to be settled. The pressure in the BEM sub-domain is
obtained from the Bernoulli equation. This requires the
time derivative of the velocity potential , evaluated in
the present study by solving a similar problem as for
(see i.e. Greco 2001).

132

NS-LS sub-domain
BEM sub-domain
Here a two-dimensional fluid is considered, evolving in
time according to the potential flow theory. The water is
assumed unaffected by the air. This is a reasonable approximation. In fact it is meant to be applied in fluid regions where air-cushioning does not occur and the free
surface can be modeled as a smooth simply-connected
surface. Therefore one can neglect the air-water coupling and assume that the heavier fluid (water) drives
the motion of the lighter one (air). This leads to a more
efficient and yet suitable method. In this sub-domain
the air-water interface is seen as a sharp surface across
which discontinuities of the tangential velocity component occur.
The problem is solved numerically by a BEM

Here a two-dimensional incompressible fluid is assumed


and turbulence effects are neglected. A Projection method is applied to the governing equations. This means
that the solution of the velocity field is the result of
a two-step procedure. In the first step, a guess solution guess is evaluated from the Navier-Stokes equations. In the second one, a correction corr is obtained
by enforcing that the total velocity
guess
corr
is divergence free. This leads to a Poisson equation
for the pressure, which represents the new governing
equation. The problem is solved numerically by a finite difference scheme combined with a a second order
predictor-corrector method for the time integration. A
Level-set technique is combined with the field method
to capture the air-water interface. Therefore the freesurface configuration is reconstructed in time by means

54

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

54

54
5 4 6
54

7 54

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

of a scalar function, Level-set function, representing the


local normal distance (with sign) from the interface. For
the details of the used method refer to Colicchio et al.
(2003). Within the LS technique the fluid variables (velocity, pressure and density) are smoothed in a narrow
(see sketch
region across the interface, say
in figure 2). To recover the sharp behavior of the air-

/98(:<;>= ?@=*A

smoothing

air
variables

air

wate

r int

erfa

ce

water
variables

Figure 2: Level-set technique.


Sketch of the
iso-contours delimiting the region across the air-water
interface where the smoothing is applied.

water interface should be very small. However it cannot be smaller than a threshold value, otherwise numerical instabilities arise. Typically
is a good
compromise. Special care has to be paid for the proper
smoothing of the variables inside the transition area.
This is because they are linked with each other nonlinearly through the governing equations and inconsistent smoothing can result in unphysical solutions. From
what has been said, inside the NS-LS sub-domain the
air-water interface is seen as a layer with finite thickness. Across it the variables slightly pass from their
definitions in water to the ones in air.

=CBEDF

To be consistent BEM and NS-LS solvers have


been chosen accurate to the same (second) order both in
space and in time. The main challenges of the present
domain decomposition strategy are related to the profound differences between the BEM and NS-LS freesurface definitions. To overcome such difficulties, the
Domain Decomposition (DD) step has to be accompanied by a proper Domain Composition (DC) step. In
the former the fluid domain is split into two (many)
sub-domains solved either by the BEM or by the NSLS solvers. They must interact with each other through
the common boundaries. In the latter step the information exchanged from one sub-domain to the other
must be properly converted to be consistent with the receiver solver. Since this aspect is a crucial element of
the present approach, we named our strategy DomainDecomposition Domain-Composition (DDDC) method.

To built up an efficient solution algorithm, the domaindecomposition strategy is applied both in time and in
space. The related details are described in the following
sections.
Spatial coupling
As far as the BEM can be used to study the problem
of interest, it will be applied. When applicable, this is
indeed the most efficient and accurate method to treat
free-surface flows. Let us assume a threshold time
as the time when it becomes useful to introduce the
domain decomposition strategy (for instance when the
air-water interface is going to break). From this time
instant on the domain is spatially split into two (many)
sub-domains. The problem in one of these is still solved
by the BEM, while the flow evolution in the other is described by the NS-LS solver (see sketch in figure 3). At
time the solution in the NS-LS sub-domain needs to
be initialized by the BEM. Once this is accomplished
the two methods will attack the problem in the corresponding sub-domains and will transmit each other
the required information through the overlapping region
(domain decomposition). The NS-LS solver gives to the

G

GH

Figure 3: Domain Decomposition Domain Composition method. Definition of the transmission region as
an overlapping area through which pressure and velocity data are exchanged. This coupling procedure has
been referred to as procedure b in Greco et al. (2002).

BEM both pressure and velocity components needed to


update and its normal derivative along the transmission boundary. There, also the new free-surface level
becomes available from the NS-LS solver. Similarly,
the NS-LS gets from the BEM pressure and velocity
components, together with the air-water interface level
and its local normal vector. Different sizes of the overlapping area have been tested. Its extension should be as

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

small as possible to reduce the code size but sufficiently


large to avoid that small errors close to the overlapping
region could amplify causing the instability of the couhas been found a
pling. Typically an extent of
good compromise. In this context, it is important that
the boundary and field solvers have similar discretizations near the transmission boundary.

%  

The pressure and velocity data cannot be given


directly from one solver to the other but must be properly converted according to the features of the receiver
solver (domain composition). This reconstruction has
to be applied both at time everywhere in the NS-LS
sub-domain and at any time
near the transmission boundary.

GH

GJIKGH

BEM composition step The only requirement for the


BEM is to recover (i) the interface as a zero-thickness
surface with (ii) sharp variation of the physical variables from one fluid to the other. The first request is
satisfied by taking as free-surface (at the transmission
boundary) the zero Level-set function (
). The

/K.

u,v,p
LSNS

with

5 4 065 4 7 5 4
N Q  N 7 N
Q!R
S NUT MVWV QZR 5U[3\^]
X Y 4
5 4 T @V@V E;`_badjcfehgig
BEM

corr

BEM

corr

(1)

has to be introduced for the velocity and pressure fields,


by applying a technique similar to the one used within
the Projection method. In this way the velocity field
used by the NS-LS solver is divergence free. (iv)
The smoothing process cannot be introduced symmetrically across the interface, as one would think consistent
with the smoothing of the density (see sketch 2). It has
to be consistent with the smoothing of the
function across the interface. This variable is quite relevant
for the robustness and validity of the numerical results
since it appears as a coefficient in the pressure Poisson
equation. Three different
smoothing are given in
figure 5. In all cases the largest
gradients are in the

54 

X

X X


BEM

water

by using the BEM information about the free-surface


configuration and its local normal vector. (ii) The sharp
BEM variables must be smoothed across the interface
consistently with the LS technique. (iii) The velocity
field has to be divergence free not only in the two separate fluid phases but also across the free surface. This
is not ensured by the BEM solution since it does not account for the air-water coupling. Therefore a correction
in the form

air

Figure 4: BEM composition step. Extrapolation procedure for the generic NS-LS variable (velocity compoand pressure ).
nents

5 ?ML

5 ?@L

X

second one is accomplished by sharpening the smooth


Navier-Stokes variables (velocity components
and
pressure ) through an extrapolation procedure in the
neighborhood of the interface (see example in figure 4).

Figure 5: Examples of
smoothing across the
air-water interface that could be used within Level-set
techniques. In the present study the smoothing corresponding to the dashed line has been applied.

NS-LS composition step The NS-LS requirements


can be listed as follows: (i) the Level-set function has
to be properly initialized everywhere at the time and
near the transmission boundary at any
. This will
allow to recover the air-water interface as a transition
layer with finite thickness. Such aim can be achieved

air region. This implies that, to be consistent with the


NS-LS solution, the smoothing of the BEM variables
has not to be enforced symmetrically across the interface. The smoothing area must be shifted toward the air
domain. In the present study we used the curve corresponding to the dashed line in figure 5 as
smoothing. This required a shift of
for the smoothing area.

GOIPG 

G

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

 =

X

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The relevance of the composition step will be


described later in the paper by using the dam-breaking
problem as a test case.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDIES

Temporal coupling

The DDDC method has been tested by studying the water evolution subsequent to the breaking of a dam. This
is a well known problem, extensively studied for its
relevance in environmental and safety contexts. Moreover it is an interesting problem for ship hydrodynamics. The related flow is similar to the one developing
onto the ship deck during the most common type of
water shipping, as described above. To mimic the impact of the water against deck superstructures, a vertical
rigid wall is introduced downstream the initial dam and
the water-wall interactions during the impact are analyzed. This study is relevant to check the method capabilities in handling the green-water loading.

The exchange of data from one sub-domain to the other


is accomplished in time by means of a real coupling between the two solvers. The related algorithm is given
, the evolution
in figure 6. At any time instant

GlkmIZG 

t n> t0

BEM
tn

t n+1/2

first substep of the


RungeKutta scheme

DD
NSLS

DC
tn
DD

r

t n+1

second substep of the


RungeKutta scheme

DD
DC
DD

t n+1

corrector step

DC
t n= t

z
initial
water level

n+1

Figure 6: Domain Decomposition Domain Composition method. Time coupling algorithm.

Glk Glkn^o

from
to
is achieved by performing two intermediate time integration steps with both solvers. First,
the BEM evolves from
to
and makes available the required variables at the transmission boundary.
These are properly reconstructed (domain composition)
and given to the NS-LS solver. Then, the latter performs a trial time integration from
to
(predictor step) and makes available the information needed by
the potential solver. Once these have been adequately
converted (domain composition), the BEM can make its
time evolution from to
and release the final data
required by the NS-LS solver. These are reconstructed
(domain composition) and used by the field solver that
can perform the final time evolution from
to
(corrector step). At this stage everything is known at
both in terms of fluid variables and geometry. One
can then perform a new integration step where the BEM
uses the data (once reconstructed) given by the NS-LS
solver at the end of the previous time step.

G k G kn^oMpWq

Glk Glk
n3o

Glk Glkn3o

Glkn3o

  r

 D 
 r

NSLS
tn

st

The problem we analyzed is sketched in the left


plot of figure 7. A reservoir of water, high and
long, is protected by a rigid wall on one side (left)
and by a dam on the other one (right). Moreover it
is contained in a rectangular rigid tank high
and
long
. The potential solver is used to analyze the

DC

BEM
tn

t n+1

predictor step

Dam-breaking problem: DDDC features

Glk Glk
n3o

dam

vertical wall

BEM

NSLS

h
x

Figure 7: Dam breaking followed by the impact with


a vertical wall. Left: sketch of the studied problem.
Right: definition of BEM and NS-LS regions. The
free-surface configuration shown is the BEM solution
at
. This solution has been used to initialize the DDDC approach.

Sxw

Gvu  r Y   %

Syw

GH u  r Y   %

problem until
after the dam release.
Then the DDDC strategy is introduced, as shown in the
right plot of figure 7. The BEM sub-domain is conveniently restricted to the left side of the tank, while the
NS-LS solver is applied to study the right sub-domain.
In the simulations the viscosity has been set equal to
zero. Within the dam-breaking problem such parameter
matters for the local details of the flow but it is not relevant from the global point of view. Due to the chosen
value for the free surface is not steep when the DDDC
is initiated. Despite this fact the related flow conditions
imply a high sensitivity of the solution to the numerical
choices. The transmission boundary has been placed

GH

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

  rz    %

from the left tank wall. As a result, a thin


tongue of water enters the NS-LS sub-domain. Its dimensions are comparable with the thickness ( ) of the
smoothing region across the air-water interface. This
means we are treating a challenging coupling between
the two solvers.

=

If one applies naively the domain-decomposition


approach many numerical problems arise. Some will
destroy the solution, others will introduce localized errors more difficult to detect but relevant from phenomenological and dynamic points of view. To avoid such
errors a domain composition step is necessary. If the ve-

G u  r{  %

Figure 8: NS-LS Composition step. Enlarged view of


the air-water velocity field at
, when the
DDDC is started. The plotted flow area corresponds to
the dashed rectangular in the right plot of figure 7. Top:
solution given by the BEM. Also the streamlines are
shown. Center: solution after the symmetric smoothing
across the interface. Also the streamlines are shown.
Bottom: solution after an asymmetric smoothing across
the interface performed inside the two dashed lines.

locity field obtained by the BEM is directly given to the

NS-LS (top plot of figure 8), numerical errors are introduced related to the discrete representation of the velocity. These grow up in time and lead to unbounded oscillations. They are avoided once the velocity field given
by the BEM is smoothed across the interface (center
plot of figure 8). However the flow evolution highlights
the occurrence of small oscillations of the air-water interface and above all an unphysical behavior of the pressure field in a region close to the water tip front (top plot
of figure 9). The latter is a memory effect of the initial
pressure given by the BEM and can be avoided by enforcing divergence free velocities across the interface,
center plot of figure 9. The oscillatory behavior of the
air-water interface nearly detectable from the solution
can be finally eliminated by shifting the smoothing area
toward the air domain (bottom plot of figure 8). In this

G u  r|  } ~

Figure 9: NS-LS Composition step. Water-pressure


contour levels and air-water interface at
.
Top: unphysical pressure contours due to fictitious compressibility at the air-water interface. Also an oscillatory behavior of the free surface can be identified. Center: unphysical oscillatory behavior of the free-surface
due to a non proper smoothing at the air-water interface.
Bottom: final solution once the proper composition step
has been accomplished.

way the velocity field in the water region of the NSLS domain is more consistent with the one given by the
BEM solver. Moreover pressure and free-surface evo-

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

lutions recover the physical behaviors, bottom plot of


figure 9.

  rK#"  r  




The results here shown have been obtained with


. Sima NS-LS discretization
ilar resolution was used for the BEM elements. This
mesh corresponds almost to a convergent solution. Only
locally sensitivity of the chosen grid can be identified,
as discussed later. During the DDDC application the
time step was taken fixed and chosen equal to
, as imposed by the field method stability requirements. No special stability conditions have been introduced to account for the large free surface deformations
in the later flow evolution. However the numerical solution did not show any unstable behavior during such
stages.

Gvu  r|

 


Dam-breaking problem: results


Figure 10 shows the free-surface evolution after the dam
breaking. The DDDC method (dashed lines) is compared with the full NS-LS (solid lines) and with the full
BEM (circles) solutions. To be consistent with the potential solver, the viscosity has been set equal to zero in
the field methods simulations. From the sequence, the
results agree well during the whole flow evolution: before and after the water impact against the vertical wall,
during the water rise-up along the structure and its later
run-down, when a backward plunging is formed eventually hitting the underlying water. The further flow
evolution cannot be handled by the BEM. Differently
both the full NS-LS and the DDDC methods are able
to follow the breaking and splash-up phases. Figure 11
shows the free-surface snapshot at
. The
global agreement is still satisfactory although some local discrepancies can be detected. More in detail in the
shape of the splash-up jet, due to the closeness of the
transmission boundary in the DDDC method. Although
the latter should be just a virtual boundary we cannot
expect it to be perfectly transparent. Some differences
are also visible in the length of the thin layer of water
along the wall and in the shape of the cavity. These
local disagreements may be due to non-perfectly identical discretizations. On the other hand, the discrepancies connected with the film of water along the wall
are unimportant from the structural perspective since
inside the thin layer the pressure is practically atmospheric. Further, the discrepancies related to the cavity
are quite small and result just in slight differences in the

G u  r0 ~

r

s

D D

w Fr   
Gvu  r  ?  ? %  ? 

Figure 10: Dam-Breaking problem (


) and impact
with a vertical wall at
from the dam. Free surface configurations at
and
. Time increases from top to bottom. DDDC solution (dashed lines) is compared with full NS-LS (solid
lines) and full BEM (circles) results. To have consistent
solvers the viscosity has been set equal to zero in the
simulations.

 

structural loads. To the purpose, top plot of figure 12


gives the pressure evolution as evaluated along the vertical wall by the DDDC (squares) and the full NS-LS
(solid line) methods. The pressure has been recorded
at a location
from the bottom. It shows a

  }
}
}Fr

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

p(gh)

-1

NS-LS
DDDC
Zhou exp.

0.5

r
s


D D
  r w
vG u r   ~

Figure 11: Dam-Breaking problem (


) and impact
with a vertical wall at
far from the dam. Free
surface configuration at
. DDDC results
(dashed line) are compared with the full NS-LS solution
(solid line).
first sudden rise during the initial water-wall impact and
a second one during the water run-down phase. The
two results are in satisfactory agreement despite some
tiny differences during the air-cushioning phenomenon
(later stage of the pressure evolution). In the same plot
the experimental pressure by Zhou et al. (1999) is superimposed. In the tests a circular pressure gauge, with
above the bota diameter of mm, centered at
tom and with lowest area point , was used. The reasons for comparing the numerical results with experimental data centered at a different location can be found
i.e. in Greco (2001). Because no information was available about the exact timing of the experimental results,
they have been shifted in time to have the first pick coincident with the numerical one. The experiments are
consistent with the numerical ones although a different
post-breaking behavior can be detected. At this stage
the results are very sensitive to the shape of the air cavity and to the occurrence of three-dimensional effects
during the experiments. The horizontal force acting on
the vertical wall during the water-structure interaction
is given in the bottom of the same figure. The load
reaches a first peak during the initial water-wall impact
(
). After a short time the force starts
to rise again until the occurrence of another substantial
peak, due to the backward plunging hitting the underlying water (
). A secondary intermediate
peak can also be identified. This is due to the water impact with the tank roof. The DDDC and NS-LS methods predict the same magnitudes and durations of the
peaks and agree globally well with each other. A slight
delay in the roof impact can be detected for the DDDC
method, due to a different length in the water layer rising the wall. Moreover, similar small differences as for
the pressure are visible during the air cushioning.

w

&G B  D  u r 

w

GOB u r 

  
  r


0
1

t(gh)

1/2

s   r
D D
  r
  } }
} r

Figure 12: Dam-Breaking problem (


) and impact with a vertical wall at
from the dam. Top:
pressure evolution at a location
from the
tank bottom as obtained by DDDC (squares) and full
NS-LS (solid line) methods. The triangles give the pressure time history measured by Zhou et al. (1999) at
from the bottom
a pressure gauge centered at
and having
as lowest area point. Bottom: horizontal force evolution on the vertical wall as obtained by
DDDC (squares) and full NS-LS (solid line) methods.

  

Fr

Present investigation supplies the use of the DDDC strategy for handling complex free-surface flows involving breaking, air cushioning and impact phenomena. The efficiency properties of the method are also
confirmed. The DDDC results have been obtained by
reducing the CPU time of a factor two and the memory
space of a similar factor with respect to the full NS-LS
method.
CONCLUSIONS
A Domain Decomposition Domain Composition method
has been developed to study flows with large free-surface
deformations and breaking, leading to water-water and
water-structure impacts and air entrainment. The method
can also handle regions with vorticity generation and
viscous effects. It is based on the use of a BEM and a

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

NS solvers, the latter is combined with a LS method


to capture the free surface. The two solvers are accurate to the second order both in space and in time
and are fully coupled consistently with the related time
marching schemes. The resulting composite solver is
governed by the stability properties of the field method
and proved to be convergent under free-surface and grid
refinements. The main challenges connected with the
coupling of two quite different methods have been discussed and the proposed solutions have been described.
The effectiveness of the strategy both in terms of time
saving and of solution convergence has been studied
through the dam-breaking problem. Except for some
local discrepancies, the air-water evolution agreed with
full NS-LS solution during the whole phenomenon from
the dam release until the formation of a splash-up phenomenon, and with the full-BEM solution until the impact of the backward plunging jet with the underlying
water. The local and global structural loads evaluated
along a vertical wall downstream the initial dam are also
satisfactorily predicted. These represent a crucial factor
when CFD methods are considered. The results suggest
that the present DDDC strategy is a promising approach
to investigate complex problems in ship hydrodynamics.
As a next step we plan to include the effects of
air compressibility. These become relevant when air is
entrapped in cavities sufficiently small and should be
properly accounted for. To keep the idea of developing

N  X 
,-  %

valid for ideal gases during adiabatic processes will be


and
are reference values
applied. In equation (2)
for pressure and density (i.e. atmospheric pressure and
normal air density) and
.
Other important research that we plan to perform
is the development of an adequate and efficient dynamic
spotting of the domain-decomposition strategy. This
means to identify proper parameters and related threshold values to guide the initiation of the domain decomposition. Figure 14 shows two examples. In the first

Figure 14: Strategy to perform an efficient dynamic


spotting.
case (left), the key parameter is represented by the freesurface steepness. The DD can be switched on when
the curvature exceeds locally a threshold value. In the
second case (right), the key factor is the vicinity of the
air-water interface to a structure enclosing a cavity. The
DD can be switched on when the distance of the free
surface from the wall (excluding the water-wall intersection point) becomes smaller than a threshold value.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

p = f( )

D /D t = 0

Present research activity is partially supported by the


Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, NTNU, Trondheim, within the Green Water Events and Related Structural Loads project, and partially done within the framework of the Programma di Ricerca sulla Sicurezza
funded by Ministero Infrastrutture e Trasporti.

Figure 13: Strategy to account for the air compressibility in an efficient manner.
REFERENCES
an efficient and suitable method, we plan to model the
air compressibility only where necessary, that is inside
enclosed cavities (see figure 13). Elsewhere the air will
be treated still as an incompressible fluid like the water.
Therefore the Poisson equation will be solved for the air
pressure everywhere except for inside cavities. There,
the equation
(2)

NKN X   X )

Barcellona, M., M. Landrini, M. Greco, and


O. Faltinsen. An Experimental Investigation on Bow
Water Shipping. Journal Ship Research 47(4), pp. 327
346, 2003, Dec.).
Colicchio, G., A. Colagrossi, M. Greco, and M. Landrini. Freesurface Flow After a Dam break: A Comparative Study. Proc. of 4th Numerical Towing Tank

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Symposium (NuTTS). Hamburg, Germany, 2001.


Colicchio, G., M. Landrini, and J. Chaplin. Level-set
modelling of the two-phase flow generated by a surface
International Workshop on Water
piercing body.
Waves and Floating Bodies. Le Croisic, France, 2003.

~ 2f

Dooley, B., A. Warncke, M. Gharib, and G. Tryggvason. Vortex ring generation due to the coalescence
of a water drop at a free surface. Experiments in Fluids 22(5), pp. 369374, 1997.
Greco, M. A Two-dimensional Study of Green-Water
Loading. Ph. D. thesis, Dept. Marine Hydrodynamics,
NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 2001.
Greco, M., O. M. Faltinsen, and M. Landrini. Water Shipping on a Vessel in Head Waves. Proceedings
24 Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, technical
session: Slamming, Green Water and Capsizing, pp. 1
14. Fukuoka, Japan, 2002.

2f

Yeung, R., C. Cermelli, and S. Liao. Vorticity Fields


Due to Rolling Bodies in a Free Surface - Experiment
and Theory. Proceedings 21 Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics. Trondheim, Norway, 1996.

2f

Yeung, R., D. Roddier, L. Alessandrini, L. Gentaz,


and S. Liao. On Roll Hydrodynamics of Cylinders Fitted with Bilge Keels. Proceedings 23 Symposium on
Naval Hydrodynamics. Val de Reuil, France, 2000.

2f

Zhou, Z. Q., J. Q. D. Kat, and B. Buchner. A nonlinear 3-d approach to simulate green water dynamics
on deck. Piquet (Ed.), Proc. 7 Int. Conf. Num. Ship
Hydrod., pp. 5.11, 15. Nantes, France, 1999.

2f

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Krish Thiagarajan
The University of Western Australia, Australia
The pressure impact curves shown in the
overheads are more spread out and less localized than
the pressure spikes seen in classic dam break problem
(shown in Figure 12 of the paper). Can you explain
the physical reason for the differences?
AUTHORS REPLY

Figure 2: Figure 12 of the paper.

There are many reasons for the different


pressure profiles.
First, the problems are qualitatively similar,
but the flow conditions that determine the impact
against the vertical wall and the successive plunging
breaking are not the same.
Second, the two scales are different and this
is important during the air-entrainment phase.
Third, the shape of the of the plunging is
very different, in the dam-break case it is very well
defined and it is more energetic, in the considered
water on deck event, the amount of water involved in
the plunging formation is smaller and the successive
impact on the water is less intense.
Fourth, the time intervals plotted into the
two figures are quite different when referred to the
time scale of the impact phenomena.

Figure 1: Experimental (lines with symbols) and


numerical (continuous line) pressure evolution along
the wall for the water on deck problem.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Jinzhu Xia
Australian Maritime College, Australia
What is the perspective of coupling this
methodology to a seakeeping computation?
AUTHORS REPLY
The coupling, by itself, is well suitable for a
sea-keeping analysis. The challenge is not in the
coupling of the two different codes, but in the
individual development of each solver, both to treat
3D flows and to allow the free motion of the body.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

The numerical simulation of ship waves using cartesian grid


methods with adaptive mesh refinement
Douglas G. Dommermuth1 , Mark Sussman2 , Robert F. Beck3 , Thomas T. OShea1 ,
Donald C. Wyatt1 , Kevin Olson4 , and Peter MacNeice5
1

Naval Hydrodynamics Division, Science Applications International Corporation,


10260 Campus Point Drive, MS 34, San Diego, CA 92121
2
Department of Mathematics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306
3
Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, University of Michigan,
209 NA&ME Building, 2600 Draper Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109
4
University of Maryland at Baltimore County, Code 931, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771,
5
Drexel University, Code 931, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771

Abstract
Cartesian-grid methods with Adaptive Mesh Refinement
(AMR) are ideally suited for simulating the breaking of
waves, the formation of spray, and the entrainment of air
around ships. As a result of the cartesian-grid formulation, minimal input is required to describe the ships geometry. A surface panelization of the ship hull is used
as input to automatically generate a three-dimensional
model. No three-dimensional gridding is required. The
AMR portion of the numerical algorithm automatically
clusters grid points near the ship in regions where wave
breaking, spray formation, and air entrainment occur.
Away from the ship, where the flow is less turbulent,
the mesh is coarser. The numerical computations are implemented using parallel algorithms. Together, the ease
of input and usage, the ability to resolve complex freesurface phenomena, and the speed of the numerical algorithms provide a robust capability for simulating the
free-surface disturbances near a ship. Here, numerical
predictions, with and without AMR, are compared to experimental measurements of ships moving with constant
forward speed, including a vertical strut, the DDG 5415,
and a wedge-like geometry.

Introduction
Two different cartesian-grid methods have been developed to simulate ship waves. One technique (CLSVOF)
combines Level-Set (LS) techniques with Volume-ofFluid (VOF) methods to model the free-surface interface. The second technique uses a pure VOF formulation. The CLSVOF formulation uses Adaptive Mesh
Refinement (AMR) to resolve small-scale features in the
flow. The VOF formulation uses domain decomposition
without AMR. Both methods that are described in this
paper use the same panelized geometry that is required

by potential-flow methods to automatically construct a


signed-distance-function representation of the hull (see
Sussman & Dommermuth (2001)). The hull representation is then immersed inside a cartesian grid that is used
to track the free-surface interface. No additional gridding
beyond what is already used by potential-flow methods
is required. The CLSVOF formulation is used to investigate the flow around the DDG 5415, and the pure VOF
formulation is used to model the flow around a vertical
strut and a wedge-like geometry. In all cases, comparisons are made to experiments.
The Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code is meant
to provide a turnkey capability to model breaking waves
around a ship, including both plunging and spilling
breaking waves, the formation of spray, and the entrainment of air. Cartesian-grid methods are used to model
the ship hull and the free surface. Following Goldstein,
Handler & Sirovich (1993) and Sussman & Dommermuth (2001), a body-force method is used to enforce
a no-slip boundary condition on the hull. Based on
Colella, Graves, Modiano, Puckett & Sussman (1999),
the ability to impose free-slip boundary conditions is also
provided. A surface representation of the ship hull is
used as input to construct a three-dimensional representation of the ship hull on a cartesian grid. The interface capturing of the free surface uses a second-order
accurate, VOF technique. At each time step, the position of the free surface is reconstructed using piecewise planar surfaces as outlined in Rider, Kothe, Mosso,
Cerutti & Hochstein (1994). Based on Iafrati, Olivieri,
Pistani & Campana (2001), the in-flow and out-flow
boundary conditions use a body-force technique to enforce a uniform stream with no free-surface disturbance
ahead of and behind the ship. A second-order, variablecoefficient Poisson equation is used project the velocity onto a solenoidal field thereby ensuring mass conservation. A preconditioned conjugate-gradient method
is used to solve the Poisson equation. The convective

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

interface. These challenges are not unlike those facing


experimentalists in the laboratory and in the field. In
particular, techniques are required to analyze unsteady
effects, including the formation of bubbles and spray.
Here, we propose various statistical approaches. For example, two approaches are proposed for analyzing the
free-surface elevation as predicted by VOF formulations.
The first technique reconstructs the free surface using the
average of the volume fractions over time. The second
technique takes the mean and variance over time of the
zero-crossings throughout a column of fluid. The first
technique is useful for predicting the mean surface elevation. In addition, it provides a prediction of air entrainment beneath the surface and droplet formation above the
surface. The second technique forms the basis for investigating the variance in the free-surface elevation. Generally speaking, high variance indicates regions where
either bubbles are entrained or droplets are shed. These
approaches and their nuances are discussed in greater detail in the results section.

terms in the momentum equations are accounted for using a slope-limited, third-order QUICK scheme as discussed in Leonard (1997). Based on the PARAMESH
suite of codes (MacNeice, Olson, Mobarry, deFainchtein
& Packer 2000), domain decomposition is used to solve
the field equations. PARAMESH controls data communication between blocks of grid points, and also between
computer processors. PARAMESH is written in Fortran
90. PARAMESH provides AMR capability, but here we
only illustrate the NFA code using uniform grid spacing
without adaptive meshing. (An AMR capability for the
NFA code is in progress.) On the Cray T3E, message
passing is accomplished using either the Cray SHMEM
library or MPI. The CPU requirements are linearly proportional to the number of grid points and inversely proportional to the number of processors. For the NFA code,
comparisons are made to measurements of flow around
a vertical strut (Zhang & Stern 1996)and a wedge-like
geometry (Karion, Waniewski-Sur, Fu, Furey, Rice &
Walker 2003).
Developed concurrently with the NFA code, another
code based on the Coupled Level set and Volume-ofFluid (CLSVOF) method has been developed for modelling free-surface flows in general geometries. The
CLSVOF code uses adaptive mesh refinement to compute multi-scale phenomena. Like the NFA code, the
CLSVOF code uses cartesian grid techniques to model
complex geometries. Also, like NFA, CLSVOF uses a
two-phase formulation of the air-water interface. Unlike the NFA code, which is based on PARAMESH,
the CLSVOF code is based on BOXLIB, which is developed by the CCSE group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. The strategy of BOXLIB is that
high-level adaptive gridding and parallel functions are
performed using C++ while numerical discretizations
of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed using a
FORTRAN code. The BOXLIB libraries take care of
all the dynamic gridding functions, whereas the user
only has to supply FORTRAN routines that operate on
fixed, uniform, rectangular grids. Please refer to the
work of Rendleman, Beckner, Lijewski, Crutchfield &
Bell (2000) for more information regarding BOXLIB.
For computation of incompressible flow on an adaptive
grid, it is not enough to insure that fluxes are matched
at coarse/fine grid boundaries. We must also compute a
composite projection step at each time step. A composite projection step insures that the pressure, velocity, and divergence-free condition, are satisfied across
coarse-fine grid boundaries. For details of our adaptive
implementation, we refer the reader to Sussman (2003b)
and the references therein. CLSVOF predictions are
compared to measurements of the flow around the DDG
5415 (see http://www50.dt.navy.mil/5415/).

Formulation
Consider turbulent flow at the interface between air and
water. Let ui denote the three-dimensional velocity field
as a function of space (xi ) and time (t). For an incompressible flow, the conservation of mass gives
ui
=0 .
xi

(1)

ui and xi are normalized by Uo and Lo , which denote the


free-stream velocity and the length of the body, respectively.
Following a procedure that is similar to Rider et al.
(1994), we let denote the fraction of fluid that is inside
a cell. By definition, = 0 for a cell that is totally filled
with air, and = 1 for a cell that is totally filled with
water.
The convection of is expressed as follows:
Q
d
=
,
dt
xj

(2)

where d/dt = /t + ui /xi is a substantial derivative. Q is a sub-grid-scale flux which can model the entrainment of gas into the liquid. Details are provided in
Dommermuth, Innis, Luth, Novikov, Schlageter & Talcott (1998).

CLSVOF and VOF formulations pose unique challenges associated with data processing of the free-surface

2
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Let ` and ` respectively denote the density and


dynamic viscosity of water. Similarly, g and g are the
corresponding properties of air. The flows in the water
and the air are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations:
dui
dt

1 P
1
+
(2Sij )
xi
Re xj
ij
1
2 i3 +
,
Fr
xj

where Ri denotes the nonlinear convective, hydrostatic,


viscous, sub-grid-scale, and body-force terms in the momentum equations. uki and k are respectively the velocity components at time step k. t is the time step. P is
the first prediction for the pressure field.

= Fi

For the next step, this pressure is used to project the


velocity onto a solenoidal field. The first prediction for
the velocity field (ui ) is


1 P
ui = uki + t Ri
(8)
(k ) xi

(3)

where Re = ` Uo Lo /` is the Reynolds number and


Fr2 = Uo2 /(gLo ) is the Froude number. g is the acceleration of gravity. Fi is a body force that is used to impose
boundary conditions on the surface of the body. P is
the pressure. ij is the Kronecker delta symbol. As described in Dommermuth et al. (1998), ij is the subgridscale stress tensor. Sij is the deformation tensor:


1 ui
uj
Sij =
+
.
(4)
2 xj
xi

The volume fraction is advanced using a volume of fluid


operator (VOF):

= k VOFi uki , k , t
(9)
A Poisson equation for the pressure is solved again during the second stage of the Runge-Kutta algorithm:


1 P k+1

ui + uki

+
R
=
(10)
i
xi ( ) xi
xi
t

and are respectively the dimensionless variable densities and viscosities:


() = + (1 )H()
() = + (1 )H() ,

ui is advanced to the next step to complete one cycle of


the Runge-Kutta algorithm:



1
1 P k+1

k
uk+1
=
u
+
u
+
t
R

, (11)
i
i
i
i
2
( ) xi

(5)

where = g /` and = g /` are the density and viscosity ratios between air and water. For a sharp interface,
with no mixing of air and water, H is a step function. In
practice, a mollified step function is used to provide a
smooth transition between air and water.

and the volume fraction is advanced to complete the algorithm:




ui + uki k
, , t
(12)
k+1 = k VOFi
2

As discussed in Dommermuth et al. (1998), the divergence of the momentum equations (3) in combination with the conservation of mass (1) provides a Poisson
equation for the dynamic pressure:
1 P
= ,
xi xi

Details of the CLSVOF numerical time-integration


procedure are provided in Sussman (2003a).

(6)

E NFORCEMENT OF B ODY B OUNDARY C ONDITIONS

where is a source term. As shown in the next section, the pressure is used to project the velocity onto a
solenoidal field.

Two different cartesian-grid methods are used to


simulate the flow around surface ships. The first technique imposes the no-flux boundary condition on the
body using a finite-volume technique. The second technique imposes the no-flux boundary condition via an external force field. Both techniques use a signed distance
function to represent the body. is positive outside
the body and negative inside the body. The magnitude of
is the minimal distance between the position of and
the surface of the body. is calculated using a surface
panelization of the hull form. Greens theorem is used to
indicate whether a point is inside or outside the body, and
then the shortest distance from the point to the surface of
the body is calculated. Details associated with the calculation of are provided in Sussman & Dommermuth
(2001).

N UMERICAL T IME I NTEGRATION


Based on Sussman (2003a), a second-order RungeKutta scheme is used to integrate with respect to time the
field equations for the velocity field. Here, we illustrate
how a volume of fluid formulation is used to advance the
volume fraction function (see, for example, Rider et al.
(1994)). During the first stage of the Runge-Kutta algorithm, a Poisson equation for the pressure is solved:
 k


1 P

ui
=
+
R
,
(7)
i
xi (k ) xi
xi t
3

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

CLSVOF method

Free-slip conditions

In the CLSVOF algorithm, the position of the interface is updated through the level-set equation and the
volume-of-fluid equation. After, the level-set function
and the volume fractions have been updated, we couple
the level-set function to the volume fractions as a part
of the level-set reinitialization step. The level-set reinitialization step replaces the current value of the level-set
function with the exact distance to the VOF reconstructed
interface. At the same time, the VOF reconstructed interface uses the current value of the level-set function to determine the slopes of the piecewise linear reconstructed
interface. For more details of the CLSVOF algorithm, including axisymmetric and three-dimensional implementations, see Sussman & Puckett (2000).

In the finite volume approach, the irregular boundary (i.e. ship hull) is represented in terms of along
with the corresponding area fractions, A, and volume
fractions, V . V = 1 for computational elements fully
outside the body and V = 0 for computational elements
fully inside the body. Once the area and volume fractions
have been calculated, they are used in the Poisson equation for the pressure and in the projection of the velocity
onto a solenoidal field. Through the Poisson equation
and the projection operator, the component of velocity
that is normal to the ship hull is set to zero. This corresponds to imposing free-slip conditions on the hull form.
Details associated with the calculation of the area and
volume fractions are provided in Sussman & Dommermuth (2001) along with additional references.

E NTRANCE AND E XIT B OUNDARY C ONDITIONS


No-slip conditions

Entrance and exit boundary conditions are required


in order to conserve mass and flux. Two techniques are
considered. The first technique uses a body force, and
the second technique uses a special formulation of the
pressure.

The boundary condition on the body can also be imposed using an external force field. Based on Dommermuth et al. (1998) and Sussman & Dommermuth (2001),
the distance function representation of the body () is
used to construct a body force in the momentum equations. As constructed, the velocities of the points within
the body are forced to zero. For a body that is fixed in a
free stream, this corresponds to imposing no-slip boundary conditions.

Body-force method
Body forces are used in the momentum equations
(see Equation 3) and the convection equation for the volume fraction (see Equation 2) to force conservation of
flux and mass. For the velocities, a parallel flow with
(u, v, w) = (1, 0, 0) is forced at the entrance and exit.
For the volume fraction, the mean surface elevation is
forced to be zero at the entrance and exit. A similar procedure is used by Iafrati et al. (2001) in their level-set
calculations of two-dimensional breaking waves over a
hydrofoil. The body-force is prescribed as follows:

I NTERFACE C APTURING
Two methods are presented in our work for computing ship flows. Both methods use a front-capturing
type procedure for representing the free surface separating the air and water. The first technique is based
on the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, and the secondtechnique is based on the Coupled volume-of-fluid and
level-set method (CLS).

Fi (x, t) = Fo T (x) (ui vi ) ,

(13)

where Fo is a force coefficient, vi = (1, 0, 0) is the desired velocity field at the entrance and exit, and T (x) is
a cosine taper that smoothly varies from one at the entrance or exit to zero inboard of the entrance or exit over
a distance Lf . The formulation for the volume fraction
is similar.

VOF method
In our VOF formulation, the free surface is reconstructed from the volume fractions using piece-wise linear polynomials and the advection algorithm is operator
split. The reconstruction is based on algorithms that are
described by Gueyffier, Li, Nadim, Scardovelli & Zaleski (1999). The surface normals are estimated using
weighted central differencing of the volume fractions.
A similar algorithm is described by Pilliod & Puckett
(1997). Work is currently underway to develop a higherorder estimate of the surface normal using a least-squares
procedure. The advection portion of the algorithm is operator split, and it is based on similar algorithms reported
in Puckett, Almgren, Bell, Marcus & Rider (1997).

Hydrostatic-pressure method
At the inflow boundary, the horizontal velocity is set
equal to the free-stream velocity and the normal pressure
gradient is zero. At all other side boundaries, the reduced pressure is zero and the velocity at the boundary
is extrapolated from interior grid cells. In our computations, we use the reduced pressure, Pr . We define
Pr = P ()g(z zo ), where zo is the static freesurface elevation. The resulting Navier-Stokes equations
4

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

in terms of Pr are
ui
1 Pr
(z zo ) g
ui
+ uj
=

t
xj
xi

xi

based on a NACA 0024 section. The numerical results


are compared to laboratory measurements that are reported in Zhang & Stern (1996). For the laboratory experiments, the chord length of the model was 1.2m long,
and the draft (1.5m) was sufficiently deep such that at the
bottom of the strut the effects of the free surface were
minimal. The Froude number based on chord length is
Fr = 0.55.

(14)

Recall that the density is expressed in terms of a step


function (see Equation 5). Substitution of the equation
for the density into the preceding equation gives

The length, draft, and depth of the computational doui


ui
1 Pr
(z zo )(1 )g H()
+ uj
=

(15) main normalized by chord length are respectively 4, 1,


t
xj
xi

xi
and 0.8. The height of the computational domain above
the mean water line normalized by chord length is 0.2.
The last term is discretized using the same second-order
The leading edge of the strut is located at x = 0 and the
technique used by Sussman (2003a) for the surfacetrailing
edge is located at x = 1. No flux boundary
tension term. The last term gives rise to a jump in the
conditions
are used on the centerplane of the strut (y =
reduced pressure of magnitude (z zo )(1 )g. By
0),
at
the
side
of the computational domain (y = 1.0),
forcing the reduced pressure to be zero at the walls, over
the
bottom
of
the computational domain (z = 0.8),
time, the water level at the walls relaxes to z = zo .
and the top of the domain (z = 0.2). Periodic boundary
conditions are used along the x-axis at x = 0.3725 and
I NITIAL T RANSIENTS
x = 3.6275. The three-dimensional numerical simulations used 512 128 128 = 8, 388, 608 grid points
Since VOF simulations are time accurate, there can
resulting in a grid spacing along each coordinate axis of
be problems with starting transients. As shown by Wexi = 0.0078125. The time step is t = 0.00125, and
hausen (1964) and others, unsteady oscillations can oc3001 time steps have been simulated, which corresponds
cur in the wave resistance, and by implication the surto 3.75 chord lengths. The number of sub domains along
face elevations, due to starting transients. There are also
the x, y, and zaxes are respectively 32, 8, and 8.
starting transients in the buildup of separation and the
512 CRAY T3E processors have been used to perform
boundary layer on the hull, but the viscous time constants
the numerical simulations. Each time step took approxiare significantly shorter than the wave resistance. The
mately 60 seconds per time step.
oscillations in the wave resistance occur at a frequency
Figure 1 compares numerical predictions to experequivalent to Uo /g = 1/4 and decay inversely proporimental
measurements. The numerical predictions are
tional to time. The decay rate is very slow and can lead
shown on the left side of the strut, and the experimental
to solutions that oscillate for relatively long times. This
measurements are shown on the right side of the strut.
can problematic if one is trying to reach steady state and
The color contours indicate the free-surface elevation.
also wants to minimize computer time. For computaRed denotes a wave crest ( = +0.15) and blue denotes
tions presented in this paper, a step function start of the
a wave trough ( = 0.15). In general, the agreement
velocity instantaneously jumping to the free-stream vebetween the numerical simulations and the experimenlocity has always been used. Step function starts are easy
tal measurements is very good. However, there are some
to initiate in the compute code, but they cause relatively
notable differences. For example, the numerical simulalarge transient oscillations. These very strong initial trantions show more fine-scale detail than the experimental
sients tend to weaken after the body has moved 10 body
measurements. This is because the experimental mealengths, but the weaker oscillations as predicted by Wesurements are time-averaged and the numerical simulahausen (1964) are still present. The effects of these trantions show an instantaneous snapshot of the free surface
sients are reduced by time averaging. We note that the
at t = 3.75. We also note that unlike the numerical simoscillations due to the starting transient can be mitigated
ulations, the measuring device that had been used in the
by reducing the severity of the startup from a step funcexperiments is only capable of measuring single-valued
tion to one that is much smoother and slower, which is
free-surface elevations. Another difference between nuan option that is currently being investigated.
merical simulations and experimental measurements occurs away from the strut where the numerical simulations
Results
show edge effects due to the smaller domain size that is
used relative to the actual experiments. Figure 1 illustrates that we are able to model the macro-scale features
NACA 0024 geometry
of the flow associated with the body interacting with the
The NFA code is used to simulate the flow around a
free surface.
surface-piercing vertical strut moving with constant forFigures 2 and 3 show details of the numerical simuward speed. The water plane sections of the strut are
5
Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 1: Comparisons to Measurements for Strut Geometry.

lations and experimental measurements for two different


views. The numerical results are shown on the left side of
the strut and the experimental measurements are shown
on the right side of the strut. The red and green dots
along the sides of the strut denote experimental measurements of the free-surface profile. As before, the color
contours indicate the free-surface elevation. Red denotes
a wave crest ( = +0.15), and blue denotes a wave
trough ( = 0.15). Toward the rear of the foil, the
dots indicate the upper and lower bounds of the unsteady
rise and fall of the free surface due to flow separation.
Note that in Figure 2 and to lesser degree Figure 3, the
experimental contours off of the body do not appear to
agree with the experimental profiles on the body. This is
because the contour measurements off of the body could
not be performed too close to the body due to limitations
associated with the measuring device. In Figure 2, the
numerical simulations show the formation of a spilling
breaker and spray near the leading edge of the strut. Toward the rear of the strut, flow separation is evident. The
numerically predicted free-surface elevations agree well
with the profile measurements in both Figures 2 and 3.
The numerical simulations in Figure 3 illustrate that air
is entrained along the sides of the strut and in the flow
separation zone in the rear. Additional numerical simulations are in progress to establish the accuracy of the
numerical simulations.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 2: Side Views Looking Down on Strut.

Figure 3: Side Views Looking Up on Strut.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

5415 geometry
The length, beam, and draft are respectively 5.72m,
0.388m, and 0.248m. The speed is 6.02 knots. Details
of the hull geometry,including the sinkage and trim, are
provided at http://www50.dt.navy.mil/5415/.
The length, width, and depth of the computational
domain normalized by ship length are respectively 2, 0.5,
and 0.5. The origin of our computational domain is taken
to be the point at which the unperturbed water intersects
the bow of the ship. The x coordinate at inflow is x = 0.5
and at outflow, x = 1.5. The height of the computational domain above the mean free surface normalized by
ship length is z = 0.5. Reduced pressure boundary conditions are used along the sides (y = 0.25) and back of
the computational domain (x = 1.5). The free-stream
velocity is imposed at the leading edge of the computational domain (x = 0.5) with zero pressure gradient.
No flux conditions are used at the top and the bottom of
the domain (z = 0.5). The CLSVOF formulation is
used to capture the free-surface interface. AMR is used
locally near the ship hull and the free surface.

Figure 4: AMR grid for 5415 at x = 0.1.

Three grid resolutions are considered: low, medium,


and high. The low resolution simulation consists of a
uniform mesh broken up into 64 rectangular grid blocks,
accounting for 2, 097, 152 cells. The mesh spacing is
= 0.0078125. The cpu time per time step is 376 seconds for the low resolution case. The low resolution simulation was run on 32 processors on an IBM supercomputer (AIX operating system).
The medium resolution simulation has 64 grid
blocks on the coarsest level and 148 grid blocks on the
finest level. There are 5, 324, 800 cells for the medium
resolution simulation. The cpu time per time step (32
processors) is 1300 seconds for the medium resolution
case.

Figure 5: Bow view of 5415

dictions and measurements is very good. However, the


experiments have fine-scale structure that is not present
in the numerics. Current research is focusing on improving resolution at the bow by using more levels of AMR.

The high resolution simulation has 64 grid blocks on


the coarsest level, 116 grid blocks on the medium level,
and 475 grid blocks on the finest level accounting for a
total of 17, 940, 480 cells. The grid spacing on the finest
level is = 0.001953125. The cpu time per time step
(64 processors) is 3000 seconds for the finest resolution
case.
Figure 4 illustrates the adaptive grid at x = 0.1
and t = 1.76. Blocks of grid points are clustered near
the ship hull and the free surface. We note that blocks of
grid points are added and deleted over the course of the
simulation depending on resolution requirements. In analyzing cells advanced per processor, the speed-up due to
adding processors or levels of adaptivity comes to about
70%. Figure 5 shows a perspective view of the bow.
The wave overturning that occurs at this Froude number
is clearly visible. Figure 6 compares numerical predictions to whisker-probe measurements at various positions
along the x-axis. In general, the agreement between pre8

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Figure 6: CLSVOF predictions compared to whisker-probe measurements for the 5415. (a) x = 0.044. (b) x = 0.062. (c)
x = 0.080. (d) x = 0.098. (e) x = 0.115. (f) x = 0.133.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

resolution
coarse
medium
fine

grid points
320 128 96 = 3,932,160
480 192 144 = 13,271,040
640 256 192 = 31,457,280

resolution
coarse
medium
fine

grid spacing
0.00625
0.004166
0.003125

cpu time per time step (sec)


30.9
47.5
94.8

Table 1 Grid resolution.


Table 3 CPU speed.
resolution
coarse
medium
fine

sub-domains
20 8 6 = 960
30 12 9 = 3240
40 16 12 = 7680

processors
120
270
320

The mean surface elevations for each grid resolution


are shown in Figure 7. The flow is from right to left. The
color contours indicate the free-surface elevation. Red
denotes a wave crest ( = +0.025), and blue denotes a
wave trough ( = 0.025). The mean position of the
free surface is calculated from the volume fraction averaged over time from t = 4 to t = 6. Based on this time
average, the mean position of the free surface is defined
as the 0.5 isosurface. As grid resolution increases, the
bow wave becomes steeper. In addition, the trough in the
flow separation region at the corner of the wedge gets
deeper. The wave rays also become more distinct.

Table 2 Details of the domain decomposition.

Wedge geometry
The length and draft of the wedge geometry are respectively 35 and 3.5 feet. The entrance angle is 20 degrees. The speed is 6.0 knots. The Froude number is
Fr = 0.3021. The wedge geometry has a full bow based
on the Revelle hull form, and a narrow stern, based on
the bow of the Athena hull form. This enabled the model
to be towed in two different directions to investigate the
effects of fullness on the bow wave. Details of wedge geometry and the towing experiments are provided in Karion et al. (2003).

The correlation coefficient between the coarse and


medium resolution simulations is 0.94, and the correlation coefficient between the medium and fine resolution
simulations is 0.99. The rms differences between the
coarse and medium resolution simulations is 1.83103 ,
and the rms differences between the medium and fine
resolution simulations is 6.68 104 . This demonstrates that the prediction of mean quantities is converging. Increasing grid resolution also improves resolution
of small-scale fluctuations as shown in Figure 8.

The length, width, and depth of the computational


domain normalized by ship length are respectively 2, 0.8,
and 0.5. The height of the computational domain above
the mean free surface normalized by ship length is 0.1.
The bow is located at x = 0 and the stern is located at
x = 1. A reflection boundary condition is used on the
centerplane (y = 0) of the wedge. No-flux conditions
are used on the top (z = 0.1), bottom (z = 0.5), and
side (y = 0.8) of the computational domain. The flow at
the entrance (x = 0.6) and exit (x = 1.4) are forced
to be a parallel flows ((u, v, w) = (1, 0, 0)) with zero
free-surface elevations.

The rms surface fluctuations for each grid resolution are shown in Figure 8. The color contours indicate
the magnitude of the free-surface fluctuations. Red denotes the maximum rms fluctuations (
= 0.011), and
blue indicates regions where there are no fluctuations.
The rms fluctuations are calculated by taking the square
root of the variance of the vertical offset where the phase
changes from air to water. The regions where phase
changes occur include droplets of fluid above the mean
position of the free surface and bubbles of air beneath
the mean position of the free surface. The statistics are
calculated from t = 4 to t = 6. A histogram analysis indicates that phase changes are dominated by smallscale fluctuations on the mean position of the free surface. This corresponds to roughening of the free surface.
The greatest fluctuations in the free-surface elevation occur along the centerline of the wedge, in the flow separation region behind the corner of the wedge, and along
the front face of the bow wave. Comparisons of coarse,
medium, and fine resolutions show that fluctuations increase as the grid resolution increases. Interestingly, the
finest resolution simulation shows that the rms fluctuations increase in extent slightly off of the center plane on
the front face of the bow wave. Based on photographs
of the experiments (Karion et al. 2003), this is a region

Three different grid resolutions are used, corresponding to coarse, medium, and fine grid resolutions.
The details with respect to grid resolution are provided in
Table 1. The finest resolution is twice that of the coarsest.
The finest grid resolution is 0.003125 ship lengths. This
would correspond to 31cm for a 100m ship. In order to
resolve large-scale features associated with spray formation and air entrainment, we believe that grid resolutions
less than 10cm are required. Details of the domain decomposition are provided in Table 2, and the cpu time
per time step for each grid resolution are provided in Table 3. Based on these two tables, it can be shown that
the cpu time scales linearly with respect to the number of
grid points and the number of processors. The numerical
simulations have been run for 3001 time steps. The time
step for each simulation is t = 0.002.
10

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 7: Mean surface elevation. (a) Coarse. (b) Medium (c)


Fine.

Figure 8: RMS surface fluctuations. (a) Coarse. (b) Medium


(c) Fine.

where the bow wave overturns. This effect is also evident


in the measurements shown in Figure 9.

color contours indicate the free-surface elevation. Red


denotes a wave crest ( = +0.03), and blue denotes a
wave trough ( = 0.03). QViz measurements are plotted on the left side of each figure. Snap shots of the free
surface at time t = 6 for each grid resolution are plotted on the right side of each figure. As grid resolution
increases, the fragmentation of the free surface also increases. We conjecture that the large-scale break up of
the free surface is dominated by inertial effects and that
the effects of surface tension are only important at the
very smallest scales. Work is currently in progress to test
this assertion.

The mean free-surface elevation for each grid resolution compared to laboratory measurements are shown
in Figure 9. Numerical predictions are plotted in the top
portion of each graph. Quantitative Visualization (QViz)
measurements are plotted in the bottom portion of each
graph. QViz uses a laser sheet to illuminate the free
surface. A video camera is used to capture snapshots,
which are then digitally processed. Additional details
of the QViz measurements are provided in Karion et al.
(2003). The color contours indicate the free-surface elevation. Red denotes a wave crest ( = +0.035), and
blue denotes a wave trough ( = 0.035). As before,
the mean position of the free surface is calculated from
the volume fraction averaged over time from t = 4
to t = 6. For these figures, 0.687 x 0.284
and 0.21 y 0.21. The correlation coefficients
between the measurements and the predictions for the
coarse, medium, and fine simulations are respectively
0.951, 0.954, and 0.957. Since the QViz instrument measures from the top down, we also consider the correlation
between the experimental data and the predictions of the
mean plus the rms fluctuations. In this case, the correlations improve to 0.950, 0.958, and 0.960 for respectively
the coarse, medium, and fine simulations.

Conclusions
With sufficient resolution, interface capturing methods
are capable of modelling the formation of spray and
the entrainment of air. Based on comparisons to other
VOF formulations that are not reported here, secondorder-accurate formulations such as those used in the
NFA and CLSVOF codes are desirable because firstorder schemes tend to inhibit wave breaking. A major benefit of our cartesian-grid formulations relative to
body-fitted formulations is that second-order VOF formulations are easier to develop.

Perspective views of the free-surface deformation


for each grid resolution are shown in Figure 10. The

In terms of future research, an AMR capability is


currently being developed for the NFA code. For our
11

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

second-order VOF formulation, a key issue is mass conservation and surface reconstruction along boundaries
where grid resolution changes. Various methods are
also being investigated to reduce initial transients. One
method slowly ramps up the free-stream velocity, which
is similar to how a towing-tank carriage operates. We are
also continuing development of techniques for processing VOF datasets to improve understanding and modelling of wave breaking.
Acknowledgements
This research is supported by ONR under contract numbers N00014-04-C-0097 and N00014-02-C-0432. Dr.
Patrick Purtell is the program manager. The second author is supported in part by the NSF Division of Mathematical Sciences under award number DMS 0108672
with Thomas Fogwell as program manager and by ONR
under contract number N00014-02-C-0543 with Judah
Goldwasser as program manager. The numerical simulations have been performed on the Cray T3E at the U.S.
Army Engineering Research and Development Center.
Figure 9: Comparisons to QViz Measurements for Wedge Geometry. (a) Coarse. (b) Medium (c) Fine.

References
Colella, P., Graves, D., Modiano, D., Puckett, E., & Sussman,
M., An embedded boundary / volume of fluid method
for free-surface flows in irregular geometries,
Proceedings of FEDSM99, 3rd ASME/JSME Joint
Fluids Engineering Conference, 1999.
Dommermuth, D., Innis, G., Luth, T., Novikov, E., Schlageter,
E., & Talcott, J., Numerical simulation of bow waves,
Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, Washington, D.C., 1998, pp. 508521.
Goldstein, D., Handler, R., & Sirovich, L., Modeling a no-slip
boundary with an external force field, J. Comp. Phys.,
Vol. 105, 1993, pp. 354366.
Gueyffier, D., Li, J., Nadim, A., Scardovelli, R., & Zaleski, S.,
Volume-of-fluid interface tracking with smoothed
surface stress methods for three-dimensional flows, J.
Comp. Phys., Vol. 152, 1999, pp. 423456.
Iafrati, A., Olivieri, A., Pistani, F., & Campana, E., Numerical
and experimental study of the wave breaking generated
by a submerged hydrofoil, Proceedings of the 23rd
Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Nantes, France,
2001, pp. 746761.

Figure 10: Perspective views of wedge. (a) Coarse. (b)


Medium (c) Fine.

Karion, A., Waniewski-Sur, T., Fu, T., Furey, D., Rice, J., &
Walker, D., Experimental study of the bow wave of a
large towed wedge, Proceedings of the 8th International
Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Busan,
Korea, 2003.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Leonard, B., Bounded higher-order upwind multidimensional


finite-volume convection-diffusion algorithms,
W. Minkowycz & E. Sparrow, eds., Advances in
Numerical Heat Transfer, Taylor and Francis,
Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 157.
MacNeice, P., Olson, K., Mobarry, C., deFainchtein, R., &
Packer, C., Paramesh : A parallel adaptive mesh
refinement community toolkit, Computer Physics
Communications, Vol. 126, 2000, pp. 330354.
Pilliod, J. & Puckett, E., Second-Order Accurate
Volume-of-Fluid Algorithms for Tracking Material
Interfaces, Technical Report LBNL40744, Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory, 1997.
Puckett, E., Almgren, A., Bell, J., Marcus, D., & Rider, W., A
second-order projection method for tracking fluid
interfaces in variable density incompressible flows, J.
Comp. Physics, Vol. 130, 1997, pp. 269282.
Rendleman, C., Beckner, V., Lijewski, M., Crutchfield, W., &
Bell, J., Parallelization of structured, hierarchical
adaptive mesh refinement algorithms, Computing and
Visualization in Science, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 147157.
Rider, W., Kothe, D., Mosso, S., Cerutti, J., & Hochstein, J.,
Accurate solution algorithms for incompressible
multiphase flows, AIAA paper 950699.
Sussman, M., A second order coupled level set and
volume-of-fluid method for computing growth and
collapse of vapor bubbles, J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 187,
2003a, pp. 110136.
Sussman, M., A parallelized, adaptive algorithm for
multiphaseflows in general geometries, J. Computers
and Structures, submitted.
Sussman, M. & Dommermuth, D., The numerical simulation
of ship waves using cartesian-grid methods,
Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Naval Ship
Hydrodynamics, Nantes, France, 2001, pp. 762779.
Sussman, M. & Puckett, E., A coupled level set and volume of
fluid method for computing 3d and axisymmetric
incompressible two-phase flows, J. Comp. Phys., Vol.
162, 2000, pp. 301337.
Wehausen, J., Effect of the initial acceleration upon the wave
resistance of ship models, J. Ship Research, Vol. 7(3),
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Zhang, Z. & Stern, F., Free-surface wave-induced separation,
ASME J. Fluids Eng., Vol. 118, 1996, pp. 546554.

13
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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Joseph Gorski
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
The Cartesian based grid strategy the
authors present looks very attractive both from the
ability to quickly generate grids as well as the
improved accuracy possible for computing the free
surface.
Since no additional gridding beyond
potential flow methods is required have the authors
investigated how well the approach works for
predicting the boundary layer flow near a ship, which
can influence the wave field at the stern?
Also,
have the authors made a direct comparison of the two
methods, VOF and CLSVOF, or have any indication
that one may be better than the other?

AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you Joe for your comments.
As
formulated, our Cartesian grid method will not
resolve boundary layers along the hull. At the stem,
where turbulent break up is apt to occur, we would
have to incorporate a model into our formulation.
However, at the stern where there is a clean
separation, our formulation is adequate.
We are
currently in the process of comparing the merits of
VOF and CLSVOF.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Alessandro Iafrati
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale, Italy
First of all, the authors should be
congratulated on producing such large amount of
results. I have two questions. The first one concerns
the entrance and exit boundary conditions: the model
you adopted to enforce a parallel uniform flow with
zero free surface elevation at entrance and exit looks
rather efficient. I wonder if you could give more
details about it. My second question concerns the
comparison between numerical and experimental
results shown on figures 1 and 2 of your paper: timeaveraged experimental measurements display
longitudinal striations which are not so evident from
the numerical results. Maybe, this is because the
latter are just instantaneous snapshot. Did you try to
establish the same comparison by using timeaveraged free surface profiles also for the numerical
data?
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you Alessandro for your comments.
We force a uniform stream at the entrance and exit.
The x-component of velocity is set equal to negative
one, and the y- and z-components of velocity are set
equal to zero. The free-surface elevation is set equal
to its still-water level. The nature of the forcing is
very similar to the forcing that you have formulated
in your own research studies as noted in our paper.
In regard to our comparisons with experiments, we
have discussed this matter with experimentalists who
indicate that the capacitance wave probes that were
used in the experiments are prone to drift. This may
explain the striations that are observed in the
experiments.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
1.

The Qviz measuring technique is currently being


generalized so that it is possible to investigate
unsteady effects.

2.

Research is ongoing to investigate flows at lower


Froude numbers for a range of hull types.

3.

The CLSVOF formulation uses a free-slip


condition.
The VOF formulation as
implemented in NFA uses either a free-slip or
no-slip condition. The NFA results reported in
this paper use no slip. Your comments in regard
to implementing a mixed condition are
interesting and deserve further study.

4.

Blockage is always an issue in finite-size


computation domains. Matching to a spectral
solution in the outer domain is one way to
alleviate this problem. Alternatively, adaptive
mesh refinement is also attractive.

5.

We are primarily interested in time-accurate


computations.
As a result, our numerical
algorithm is optimized for explicit time-stepping
procedures. We note that VOF has stringent
Courant conditions that are hard to circumvent.
For our purposes, implicit time-stepping
procedures would smear the free surface too
much.

Kelli Hendrickson
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Firstly, I would like to thank the authors for
their work. All of them have contributed greatly to
the field of numerical Naval Hydrodynamics and this
work is an example of their continuing effort to delve
into the complex nature of even simulating high
Froude number flows about surface ships, much less
improve our understanding of the phenomena of
wave breaking, spray formation and air entrainment.
I have questions regarding both the
numerical method and comparisons with
experiments, so please bear with me if they appear
too detailed for this venue.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Many of the comparisons to experiments are


quite good in terms of mean values such as the
regions where QVIZ data is available. Is there
available data to attempt comparison for the
unsteady components?
All of the results shown here are for fairly high
Froude number cases where experimental data is
difficult to obtain near the hull. Has there been
any validation effort for low Froude number
cases where experimental data (average and rms)
is easier to obtain?
It appears that the body boundary condition in
use for all of the results is a free-slip condition,
even though a no-slip condition is discussed in
the paper. Is the body force technique capable of
implementing a mixed condition which utilizes a
contact line model such that the effect of the
free-surface and wave breaking have on the body
boundary layer can be studied?
Do you feel the side-wall free-slip boundary is
affecting your results and if so, how difficult is it
possible to implement a condition which has less
blockage effect?
Because the method uses explicit time stepping,
the time step is relatively small. While the code
is fairly quick for the problem being attempted, I
imagine that a simulation to full steady state is
quite expensive in terms of computational time.
As the authors conjecture that the wave breakup
is more inertial dominated than surface tension
dominated, what would be the drawbacks to
using an implicit time integration algorithm to
increase the time step size?

AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you Kelli for your comments. We
address your questions point by point.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Stephen Scorpio
Johns Hopkins University, USA
I would like to thank the authors for an
excellent paper. What are your ideas for validating
the fine scale structure (e.g. ejection of water
droplets, air entrainment and free surface
fluctuations) predicted by your model?
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you Steve for your comments. A
range of instruments are currently being developed to
capture the fine-scale structure that is present in ship
flows. In addition, different methods for processing
existing datasets are also being developed to capture
unsteady effects.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Experimental Study of the Bow Wave of the R/V Athena I


Thomas C. Fu, Anna Karion, James R. Rice, and Don C. Walker
(Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
ABSTRACT
Detailed measurements of the bow wave of the R/V
Athena I were made, at night, over the three-day
period 29-31 October 2003. The data was taken while
the ship traversed back and forth in St Andrews Bay,
Panama City, FL at ship speeds of 3.1, 4.6, 5.4, and
6.2 m/s corresponding to Froude numbers based on
waterline length (47 m) of 0.14, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.29,
respectively. Measurements were made using a laser
based optical technique. This data will be used to
characterize the breaking bow wave for a real ship in
real conditions, as well as to compare with tow tank
data of a large bow wedge (Karion et al (2003)). The
bow wedge is of similar geometry and was towed at
3.1 and 4.6 m/s. two of the same speeds as the R/V
Athena I. Utilizing these two data sets the differences
between field and tow tank testing will be
investigated, including scale effects and the effect of
ambient seas.
INTRODUCTION
While detailed measurements of bow waves have
been done previously (e.g. Ogilvie (1972), Miyata
and Inui (1984), Waniewski et al (2002), Roth et al
(1999), Karion et al (2003) and others), these test
have all been performed in tow tank facilities,
limiting the model size and wave amplitude. Except
for Karion et al (2003), these tests were performed in
relatively small tow tanks. More recently large
models (displacement = ~12,200 kg, Overall Length
=10.7m) have been utilized to study bow waves and
bow wave breaking by Karion et al (2003).
Large scale breaking has also been
examined by Coakley et al (2001) and Furey et al
(2003). In both of these works a large breaking wave
was generated from a submerged hydrofoil held at a
fixed angle of attack. Waves with peak to trough
amplitudes of ~0.5 m were studied. Though these
waves should be considered full-scale breaking
waves, they were spilling breakers more similar to
the trailing wave behind the transom of a ship (see

Figure 1) than the plunging wave associated with the


curl over of the bow wave of a flared hull ship (see
Figure 2)
Past, at sea studies of bow waves have been
mainly qualitative in nature, Ratcliffe (2003) for
example. Recently, measurements of bow wave spray
droplet size and velocity distributions have been
made on the R/V Revelle (Sur & Chevalier (2003)),
but measurements of the free-surface elevation of the
bow wave were not made. This paper will report the
results from field measurements of the bow wave of
the R/V Athena I. Quantitative measurements of the
bow wave elevation were made at several speeds
ranging from 3.1 to 6.2 m/s, in the relatively calm
water of St. Andrews Bay, Florida. There was
relatively little ship motion and the ambient seas
were characteristic of sea state 1, though there was
some slight wind chop (actual test conditions will be
discussed in the results section). Additionally,
comparisons between this data and breaking wave
data, obtained at NSWC for a bow wave generated
from a large wedge (Karion et al (2003) and Karion
et al (2004)) will be made, as well as a qualitative
comparison to a potential flow computation provided
by Donald C. Wyatt of SAIC, La Jolla, CA
TEST DESCRIPTION
The test spanned a three-day period from 29-31
October 2003. The ship left the dock at 2:00 AM,
local time, each morning and returned at 11:00 AM
the same day. Data was collected while the boat
transited back and forth between two stations located
approximately 2 nautical miles apart and oriented in a
North-Northeast direction. Ships headings were 60o
80o and 240o-280o .
Test Platform: The R/V Athena I (see Figure 3) is a
converted PG-84 class patrol boat built in 1969 and
converted to a research vessel in 1976. She has an
aluminum hull and an aluminum and fiberglass
superstructure. The ship owned by the U.S. Navy and
is operated by NSWC Carderock. Measurements and

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

a)
Figure 3: The R/V Athena I traveling at +10 m/s.
details for the R/V Athena are listed in Table 1.
More
information
can
be
found
at
www.code50.nswccd.navy.mil.

b)
Figure 1: a) Breaking wave over a submerged
hydrofoil, U=2.6m/s, chord=1.8m, depth of
submergence =1.8m, b) Flow behind the DDG-67,
USS Cole, U=10.3m/s.

a)

Instrumentation: A laser sheet quantitative


visualization method (QViz) was utilized to measure
lateral free-surface profiles at several axial locations.
The free-surface was illuminated by a laser light
sheet generated by a scanning mirror and imaged
using three black and white, progressive scan
cameras. In the current experiment, a laser light sheet
was generated from a scanning mirror and projected
from an optical rail system down to the waters
surface. The laser used was a diode-pumped, solid
state YAG laser, with an output of 2.5-3.0 W at 532
nm (Model MLM-0532 by Melles-Griot). The set-up
is shown in Figure 4. Two of the cameras faced aft,
while the third camera pointed forward. This was to
insure that if the wave blocked the aft facing
cameras view of the laser sheet, the forward facing
camera would still be able to obtain clear images.
The recorded digital images were then corrected for
distortion and calibrated. The corrected images were
then processed
Table 1: Description of the R/V Athena I

b)
Figure 2: Images of the bow wave of the DDG-67
USS Cole at 20 knots, a) bow on and b) side view.
Note the fluid sheet curl over characteristic of a
plunging breaker.

Length Overall

50.3 m

Length Waterline

47.0 m

Extreme Beam

7.3 m

Draft

3.2 m

Propulsion

Twin screw,
Twin diesel (low speed)
Gas Turbine, (high
speed)

Speed

6.5 m/s (diesel)


18 m/s (turbine)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Camera 1

Camera 3

Spatial
Reference

Camera 2
a)

Camera 3

Spatial
Reference
Laser Sheet

Camera 2

Camera 1

b)
Figure 4: Image of the QViz set-up showing the 3
cameras and the spatial reference.

proved to be easier for the Captain than constant


speed through the water, due to the type of readout,
crude dial for speed through the water, digital display
for the GPS speed. So in order to maintain as
constant a speed as possible during a run GPS speed
was used. This issue will be resolved on future tests
by the addition to the bridge of digital knotmeter
readout. Because GPS speed was used, there is some
variability introduced by currents. Some attempt will
be made to characterize these currents by looking at
the differences between successive runs made at
opposite headings.
Test Conditions: Measurements of the bow wave
were made at four speeds, in head and following seas.
Data was collected in the relatively protected waters
of St. Andrews Bay, Florida to minimize ship motion
from ambient seas and so measurements could be
made in relatively calm conditions. Testing was
performed at night, which provided a stronger signalto-noise ratio in the QViz images. Specifically, data
was collected from 3:00 AM to 6:00 AM local time.
This time period coupled with the time of year (Oct
29-31), also made for calm test conditions. The
winds, which typically build as the day progresses,
were minimal (typical speeds 3.5 to 5.5 m/s), and it
was a new moon, so tidal excursions were
minimized. Data was collected at 3.1, 4.6, 5.4, and
6.2 m/s, corresponding to Froude numbers based on
water line length (47 m) of 0.14, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.29,
respectively. The test conditions were chosen to
cover a range of displacement speeds and also to
allow for comparison with tow tank results for a large
bow model of similar geometry to the R/V Athena
(Karion et al (2003)).
DATA PROCESSING

to provide the free-surface elevation in the image


plane of the camera. This technique has been used
extensively to measure free-surface elevations and
breaking waves (Fu et al (2003), Karion et al (2003))
and is described in Furey and Fu (2002).
The current system and its capabilities are
described in detail in Rice (2004). Figure 4b shows
the test set-up as deployed. Note the sea state. The
conditions shown in Figure 4b are representative of
the ambient conditions when data was collected. The
three cameras can be seen and also the light bar used
as a spatial reference in calibration images.
Ship motions were recorded from the ships
onboard GPS compass; a wave buoy recorded the
ambient seas; and the wind speed and direction were
measured using the ships onboard anemometer.
Maintaining constant GPS speed (speed over land)

The ship motion data from the GPS compass was


reduced to provide time-averaged heading, speed,
pitch and roll for each run. RMS values of each of
these quantities were also calculated to evaluate the
steadiness of the run. Figure 5 shows the heading,
speed, roll and pitch time series for a typical run and
the RMS values calculated for that run. It can be seen
that within in the accuracy limits (1.5 deg RMS Max.
Error) of the GPS compass (FURUNO SC-120) there
is minimal ship motion. This is important when
interpreting the results and in assessing the accuracy
of the free-surface elevation measurements. The
mounting pieces could be manually made to vibrate
and this would introduce measurement error.
Assessment and evaluation of the in-situ set-up, of
the QViz images, images from the video cameras
mounted on the set-up, showed minimal motion
relative to the ship.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

SPEED

Speed (m/s)

6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
40.0

60.0

80.0
100.0
Time (sec)

120.0

ROLL
Roll (deg)

4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
40.0

60.0

120.0

PITCH

2.0
Pitch (deg)

80.0
100.0
Time (sec)

1.0
0.0
-1.0
-2.0
40.0

60.0

80.0
100.0
Time (sec)

120.0

Heading (deg)

HEADING
360
330
300
270
240
210
180
40.0

60.0

80.0
100.0
Time (sec)

120.0

Figure 5: Typical time series of a) speed: mean=5.35


m/s, RMS =0.02, b) roll angle: mean=-0.86 degrees,
RMS=0.18, c) pitch angle: mean= -0.29, RMS=0.11,
and d) compass heading: mean=250.9 degrees,
RMS=0.58 for the R/V Athena I in St. Andrews
Bay.

Figure 6: Example of a QViz image of the R/V


Athena I bow wave at U=4.6 m/s, with the edge
detected by the data processing algorithm
superimposed in red (points) and yellow (smoothed
line).
As mentioned above, an attempt was made
to characterize the currents in the test region. By
looking at the average GPS speed and the average
speed through the water for each pair of successive
runs, the magnitude of the current in direction of boat
travel can be estimated. This analysis proved to be
less straightforward than anticipated. There proved
to be no consistent result from this analysis, i.e. each
pair of runs did not show a consistent bias in speed or
direction. This result most likely stems from
inaccuracies in the recording of the speed through the
water and in the lack of stationary statistics. Taking
into account all the data, one can characterize the
speed of the current as being approximately 0.3 m/s
and is viewed as an uncertainty in the reported speed.
QViz images were corrected for distortion
and calibrated using standard National Instruments
image processing subroutines. These corrected
images were then processed to provide free-surface
profiles. An image analysis program developed at
NSWCCD using National Instruments LabView
software with the Image Processing (Vision) toolbox
was used to extract the surface profile. Figure 6
shows a sample image with the processed profile
superimposed.
Free-surface images were recorded at 30
frames per second for one minute giving 1800
profiles. Each frame, for each speed and axial
position, was analyzed to generate time-averaged
profiles and the standard deviation for each location.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

a)

b)

c)

d)

c)

e)

Figure 7: Successive QViz images t =1/30th second, U=4.6 m/s and x=5.9 m from the bow stem.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

RESULTS
A sample of successive frames with the extracted
edge superimposed in red, for U=4.6 m/s at an axial
location 5.9 m from the bow stem are shown in
Figure 7. Note the wave crest amplitude changes by
approximately 0.15 m in ~ 1/6th of a second. To
characterize this unsteadiness of the free-surface
profiles, the mean and the standard deviation for each
speed and location were computed. Figure 8 shows
these mean profiles in red and the standard deviation
in blue for speeds of 4.6, 5.4, and 6.2 m/s at the same
axial location and the same general heading
As noted above 1800 individual profiles
were collected per run. At least two runs were
performed for each speed and axial position.
Comparing mean free-surface profiles for the same
location, for two separate runs, it was observed that
two mean profiles were very similar. The most
obvious difference was a slight amplitude offset, due
to a slight difference in speed. This difference was
much smaller than the unsteady fluctuations of the
instantaneous profile, where the difference between
runs was approximately 2 cm and the range of the
unsteady fluctuations was around 15 cm, so the large
fluctuations are not due to the way the ship is
operated, i.e. variations in speed or ship motions
while recording a data set.
Though the ambient conditions were very
calm, with only a slight wind chop from a 3.5 to 5.5
m/s breeze, there is still a great deal of fluctuation in
the free-surface elevation. Data for a given speed
was acquired at two headings, roughly equivalent to
head and following sea conditions. The effect of
heading on the breaking bow wave can be seen in
Figure 9. Figure 9 shows the average free-surface
profile for an axial position 5.3 m aft of the bow stem
for two successive runs at opposite headings. The
shape of the profile is markedly different. One can
see that on the southward run (red, heading = 255
deg.), which would be nominally a head seas
condition, the wave is smaller and the peak of the
profile is farther from the ship, than is the northbound
case (blue, heading = 65 deg.)). This difference is
not due to the direction of the swell, because there
was minimal swell present, but mostly due to the fact
that the wind direction is slightly off of the ships
track. The wind came out of nominally 30 degrees.
The QViz instrumentation was mounted on the port
side of the ship. So the system would then be on the
windward side on northbound runs and on the
leeward side during southbound runs. The slight
difference in speed through the water, due to the
currents in the bay should also be noted. This effect

was similar across the speed range, i.e. the wind


pushed the peak of the bow wave closer to the ship
on the windward side.

a) U=6.2 m/s

b) U=5.4 m/s

c) U=4.6 m/s
Figure 8: Mean surface profiles (red) and standard
deviation (blue) for a) 6.2 m/s, b) 5.4 m/s, and c) 4.6
m/s, at an axial position 5.9 m aft of the bow stem.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

standard deviation for R/V Athena data is ~0.1m and


0.01m for the tow tank. This was seen at all speeds
and is to be expected, due to the more variable
ambient conditions present in the field versus the
very calm conditions present in a tow tank. There is
also minimal ship motion and speed fluctuation in a
tow tank test, which would add to the free-surface
variability seen in the R/V Athena data, though
certainly this is not as large an effect as the ambient
conditions.

Figure 9: Effect of ships heading on the amplitude


of the bow wave for U= 4.6 m/s at x=5.3 m aft of the
bow stem.

The physical appearance of the bow wave


was very similar. This can be seen in Figure 12. The
most noticeable difference is not in the bow wave
itself, but the fact that in the field, after the bow wave
breaks, the presence of organic surfactants stabilizes
the white bubbly flow in the breaking zone and it is
carried downstream. While in the tow tank the
bubbles in the breaking region have a very short
lifetime and the surface convected bubbly layer is not

DISCUSSION
Figures 8 shows that the standard deviation in
amplitude of the profiles is only weekly dependent
upon speed. The magnitude of the variability was on
the order of 0.15 m. Because the magnitude of the
fluctuations was for a large part independent of speed
that would lead one to believe that ambient
conditions may be causing this variability. Looking
at the tail ends of the profiles away from the crest of
the bow wave the range of fluctuations is on the order
of 0.1 m. This is similar to the difference seen in
Figure 9. It may very well be that the wind chop
present was on the order of 0.1 m in amplitude and a
great deal of the variability present is due to the wind.
A more systematic assessment of the ambient seas
surface conditions has not been made to date. Video
and analysis of portions of the images further from
the ship would also help in characterizing the
ambient seas.
The objective of the test was to obtain
detailed free-surface measurements of the bow wave
of a full-scale ship. Data was taken in as calm as
possible field conditions to allow for comparison to
tow tank data.
Looking more closely at the
differences between field and tow tank conditions,
Figure 11 shows the time-averaged wave profile for
the Athena and for a large wedge model towed at the
same speed (4.6 m/s) and nominally the same axial
position. The wedge model is large (5 ft draft, 7 ft
max beam) and flared with a 20-degree entry angle,
making it generally similar to the R/V Athena. A
detailed description of the geometry is found in
Karion et al (2003). Figure 11 shows that the

a) R/V Athena, U=4.6 m/s. mean-red, std. dev. -red

b) Bow-wedge, U=4.6 m/s (Karion et al (2003)),


mean red, std. dev. - blue
Figure 11: Comparison of the standard deviation in
the free-surface profiles of the a) R/V Athena and a
b) large wedge (tow tank).

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

a) Bow Wedge, U=4.6 m/s


Figure 13: Contour map of the predicted and
measured (insert) free-surface elevation (cm)
(courtesy of D. Wyatt).

b) R/V Athena II at U=4.6 m/s


Figure 12: Images of the bow wave of a) a large bow
wedge and b) the R/V Athena II
present. The turbulent break up of the thin film on the
hull also is much more pronounced on the R/V
Athena than it is on the tow tank model. On the bow
wedge the thin film sheet does not break up until it
curls over and the bow wave breaks, but in Figure
12b the thin sheet on the Athena bow has already
begins to break up immediately.

a) Das Boot Prediction

One last comparison to be made is that of


the time-averaged free-surface measurements to the
results of a steady potential flow code. Donald C.
Wyatt using the Das Boot potential flow code
provided pre-test predictions. An example of his
results is shown in Figure 13. The potential flow
computation was for a steady, sea state 0 case, so
exact agreement is not expected, but comparing
Figure 14a (predicted) with Figure 14b (measured),
the amplitudes and shape are in general agreement.
b) Measurement
CONCLUSIONS
Data was collected to characterize the breaking bow
wave of the R/V Athena I, and to begin to investigate

Figure 14: Contour map of the a) predicted and b)


measured free-surface elevation (cm) of the R/V
Athena, U=4.6 m/s..

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

the effects of ambient conditions and the differences


between tow tank and field conditions.
These measurements demonstrated how
even relatively calm field conditions still introduce
unsteadiness and variability to the free-surface wave
field. Though they also showed there is some merit
and fidelity to steady CFD codes, in that the timeaveraged measurements seem to give good agreement
with the predictions, at least in this case where the
experiment was designed to provide data for the calm
water, minimal ship motion case.
Detailed measurements of the bow wave
were made using a laser-sheet visualization technique
demonstrating that measurements of this type, that
were in the past only possible in the laboratory, can
now be done in the field on full-scale ships.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work would not have been possible without the
support of the Toby Ratcliffe (NSWC, Code 5200),
Media Lab (NSWC, Code 3830), Tom Broglio
(NSWC, Code 5300), the crew of the R/V Athena,
Don Wyatt (SAIC), Dr. Arthur Reed (NSWC, Code
5030) and Dr. L. Patrick Purtell (ONR). This work is
supported by ONR under contract number
N0001403WX20633. Dr. L. Patrick Purtell is the
program manager.
REFERENCES
Coakley, D. B., Haldeman, P. M., Morgan, D. G.,
Nicolas, K. R., Penndorf, D. R., Wetzel, L. B., and
Weller, C. S., Electromagnetic Scattering from
Large Steady Breaking Waves, Experiments in
Fluids, Vol. 30, 2001, pp. 479-487.
Fu, T.C., Furey, D., Karion, A., Mutnick, I., Rice, J.,
Sur, T., and Walker, D. Hydrodynamic
Measurements of a Steady Wave During Various
Breaking Conditions in the Circulating Water
Channel, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
Division, Hydromechanics Directorate R&D Report,
NSWCCD-50-TR-2003/012, March 2003, pp. 30.

of a Large Towed Wedge, 8th International


Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics,
Busan, Korea. September 22-25, 2003.
Karion, A., Fu, T.C., Rice, J., Walker, D., and Furey,
D., "Experimental Measurements of the Surface of a
Breaking Bow Wave, to be presented at the 25th
Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, St. Johns,
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, August 8-13,
2004.
Miyata, H. and Inui, T., Non-linear Ship Waves,
Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 24, No. 1,
1984, pp. 215-288.
Ogilvie, T. F., "The Wave Generated by a Fine Ship
Bow", 9th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,
1972, pp. 1483-1524.
Ratcliffe, T., "Photographic Visualization of the
Surface Wave Field and Boundary Layer
Surrounding the Research Vessel, R/V Revelle",
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
Hydromechanics
Directorate
R&D
Report,
NSWCCD-50-TR-2003/003, March 2003, pp15.
Rice, J., Fu, T.C., Karion, A., Walker, D., and
Ratcliffe, T., "Quantitative Characterization of the
Free-Surface Around Surface Ships, to be presented
at the 25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, St.
Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, August
8-13, 2004.
Roth, G.I., Mascenik, D.T., and Katz, J.,
Measurements of the Flow Structure and Turbulence
within a Ship Bow Wave, Physics of Fluids, Vol.
11, No. 11, 1999, pp. 3512-3523
Sur, T. W. and Chevalier, K., Field Measurements
of Bow Spray Droplets, ONR Final Report, ONR
Contract Number N00014-03-C-0105, September 30,
2003, pp31.
Waniewski, T. A., Brennen, C. E., and Raichlen, F.,
"Bow Wave Dynamics", Journal of Ship Research,
Vol. 46, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 1-15.

Furey, D.A. and Fu, T.C., Quantitative Visualization


(QViz) Hydrodynamic Measurement Technique of
Multiphase Unsteady Surfaces, 24th Symposium on
Naval Hydrodynamics, Fukuoka, Japan, July 8-13,
2002.
Karion, A., Sur, T., Fu, T.C., Furey, D., Rice, J., and
Walker, D., "Experimental Study of the Bow Wave

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION

at-sea data, but have not had a chance to remove any


effects of ship motion or ambient conditions.

Dane M. Hendrix
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
The difficulty in obtaining these detailed
measurements in the field for conditions that are of
practical interest and over extents likely to be helpful
to modellers is tremendous. I would like to thank the
authors for a very interesting paper and encourage
them to continue to examine the details of this data to
improve our understanding of the factors that control
the characteristics of breaking wave flows.
One question I have concerns the rather
dramatic difference due to ships heading shown in
Figure 9. I note that the ship speed and the wind
speed are roughly equal and that your heading is
nearly down wind. Do you think it likely that the
down wind pass is a condition where the ship is
moving in phase with the wind generated waves?
There might be a steady wave pattern around the ship
that is dependent on this particular condition and may
account for the difference in the average wave profile
observed.
AUTHORS REPLY
This is certainly possible and something we
will be looking at as we get further into the analysis.
The wind generated waves were minimal due to the
small fetch in the bay, but nonetheless, there was an
observable wind generated chop.
DISCUSSION
Dane M. Hendrix
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
My
second
question
concerns
a
characteristic of the flow that you may not have yet
had time to analyze in detail. In Figure 11, you show
that the average profile is much more variable for the
at-sea test than for the tow tank large bow wedge.
How would you compare the surface roughness of
the bow wave observed on Athena and on the large
bow wedge at the same speed at an instant in time?
AUTHORS REPLY
We have begun to look more in depth at the
rms fluctuations of the free-surface elevations
between the at-sea and tow tank data. We are
planning to compare the roughness spectra from the
two tests. We do observe increased variability in the

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Stephen M. Scorpio
Johns Hopkins University, USA
Does QViz require the presence of droplets
or bubbles to visualize the free surface?
AUTHORS REPLY
QViz does not require droplets or bubbles,
but it does require sufficient surface roughness to
spectrally scatter enough light that the surface can be
detected from the recorded images. This has not
been an issue in the field, but it does require the QViz
images be recorded at night. In the lab, we use
fluorescing dye to mark the free-surface when there
is insufficient scattering.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Patrick Purtell
Office of Naval Research, USA
What is the effect of surface roughness since
the fluctuations occur both in the tank and at sea?

AUTHORS REPLY
The surface roughness observed in the tank
is associated with the turbulence from the breaking
bow wave and some residual disturbance from the
previous run. The surface roughness seen in the field
is due to both the breaking wave turbulence and with
ambient roughness from wind driven chop and
ambient waves. We have made full-scale laboratory
measurements of the small scale roughness generated
by wind and see a significant increase in spectral
content at the wavenumbers associated with surface
roughness. The surface roughness does not seem to
alter the time averaged wave fields, but we will
continue our analysis and attempt to quantify or at
least identify the affects of the ambient conditions on
bow wave breaking.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Richard Lahey, Jr.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Is it not possible to also measure the
velocity, turbulence and void fraction fields using
existing instrumentation (e.g., ). These type of salt
water data are badly needed by modelers.
AUTHORS REPLY
It is certainly possible to measure velocity,
turbulence and void fraction with existing
instrumentation at least at discreet points. Velocity
and turbulence can be measured with Acoustic
Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) probes in the lower void
fraction regions. And Eric Terrill at the Scripps
Institution on Oceanography, UCSD, did make void
fraction measurements of the transom flow region
during the May 2004, Athena effort, and Mory
Gharib, of the California Institute of Technology also
measured bubble size and velocity distributions. So
while it is certainly possible to measure velocity,
turbulence, and void fraction to go along with the
free-surface elevation and surface roughness, we
have not yet attempted to obtain a detailed
comprehensive salt water data set of all these
quantities for the same breaking wave feature. That
canonical data set is indeed one of the goals of the
field work and the authors do thank the modelers for
their encouragement and support.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
This paper describes a study in which fullscale wave breaking around a surface ship was
investigated. What makes this work unique is that
very little full-scale data on this phenomenon is
available in published literature. Congratulations
should be extended to the authors for undertaking an
experiment of this magnitude, especially one where
quantitative
measurements
were
obtained
successfully. A few comments on the discussion
presented in the paper:
1) On page 1, the authors present the different
speeds at which Athena was run vs. those at
which the wedge experiment was run. While
some of these are the same, in terms of scaling
they represent different Froude, Reynolds, and
Weber number combinations. It would have been
more useful to make these comparison using
these nondimensional parameters (using draft as
the length scale) rather than absolute speeds.
AUTHORS REPLY
The intent was to focus on the field
measurements and only make initial observational
comments on the comparison of the data to the wedge
experiment data. We will indeed carry out the kind of
specific analysis Len mentions. In fact, the draft at
the bow of the R/V Athena I is only 1.55m which is
very close to one of the three wedge drafts (1.5m,
1.1m, and 0.6m), so direct comparison and scaled
comparisons can be made.
DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
2) On page 4, there is a discussion regarding
characterization of near surface currents. It
should be noted that this is not a trivial task due
to the unsteady nature of Gulf of Mexico surface
currents near the free-surface. Much work has
been carried out in investigating this subject by
the off-shore petroleum industry in the framework of VIV problems.
AUTHORS REPLY
This has indeed been more complicated than
first anticipated. The data was taken in St. Andrews

Bay, with successive north-south runs spaced by


roughly 30 minutes. It was hoped that a bias would
be found between the GPS speed (speed over land)
and the EM Log (speed through the water), which
could be used as an estimate of the current. The
surface currents have indeed been found to be very
unsteady.
DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
3) Breaking wave time-space histories like those
shown in Figure 7 on page 5 could be useful in
validating the time-accuracy and free-surface
turbulence modeling fidelity of VOF and LS
uRANS and LES codes currently employed in
breaking wave studies.
4) On page 6, the authors highlight the (significant)
effect of wind directionality relative to ship
speed and heading has on breaking wave
kinematics. This is important to note as only a
very limited number of numerical studies on
wave breaking have accounted for wind effects.
The experimental results presented, to some
extent, bring into question the overall validity of
many numerical results.
5) On pgs. 7-8, there is a discussion regarding (i)
the bubbly region aft of the bow wave breaking
zone and (ii) the break-up of the bow (wave runup) thin film, namely the difference between the
physics observed in the Athena experiment and
the wedge experiment. While organic surfactants
will play a role in elucidating the differences in
(i) between the two experiments, the fact that the
Athena measurements/observations were taken
in
salt
water
while
the
wedge
measurements/observations were taken in fresh
water will have an impact of equal magnitude on
bubble transport in the breaking wave zone. The
differences in item (ii) are likely due to the
different Fr, Re, and We no.s combinations
representing each experiment. The thin sheet
break-up in this problem is closely related to the
dynamics and kinematics of the contact line
problem, which itself is highly dependent on Fr,
Re, and We no. (Imas 1998).
6) On page 8, the comparison to the potential flow
(Das Boot) panel method result should be treated
as qualitative since the tool employed in the
computation is not capable of explicitly

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

predicting wave breaking zones around a


surface-piercing body.
AUTHORS REPLY
This comparison was only intended to be
qualitative in nature. The point was to validate that
QViz was tracking the free-surface accurately, since
this was the first time the system has been used in the
field.
DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
7) On page 8, while I agree with the authors
conclusion that there is some merit to steady
CFD computations in the context of free-surface
wave predictions, the real issue here is what
application is the steady vs. unsteady CFD tool
being used for and whether the tool is
appropriate in that specific context. To answer
such questions, data from experiments such as
the one presented in this paper (e.g. Figures 7, 8,
11) will prove to be very useful.
REFERENCES
Imas, Leonard, 1998 Hydrodynamics Involving a
Free-Surface Body Juncture, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT,
Department of Ocean Engineering.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Tricia Waniewski Sur
Science Applications International Corporation, USA

DISCUSSION

I would like to ask the following questions.

Tricia Waniewski Sur


Science Applications International Corporation, USA

1.

3.

It is difficult to compare the free-surface


measured by QViz presented in Figure 14 with
that calculated by Das Boot presented in Figure
13. Is it possible to present these results similar
to Figure 12 in Karion et al. (2003) to facilitate
comparison?

Has any of the QViz data taken on the R/V


Athena May 2004 field experiment been
processed? Are there differences in free surface
elevations for the same operating conditions? Is
a quantitative assessment of wave breaking
parameters (similar to Karion et al., 2003)
planned?

AUTHORS REPLY
AUTHORS REPLY
This has been done and is in the final
version of the paper.
DISCUSSION
Tricia Waniewski Sur
Science Applications International Corporation, USA
2.

The discussion section describes differences in


the physical appearance of the bow waves in the
towing tank and in the field. It states, The most
noticeable difference is not in the bow wave
itself, but the fact that in the field, after the bow
wave breaks, the presence of organic surfactants
stabilizes the white bubbly flow in the breaking
zone and it is carried downstream. It is wellknown that more, smaller bubbles are created by
breaking waves in seawater. In addition, smaller
bubbles tend to be more stable than larger
bubbles. Is it possible that differences in bubble
number density and size distribution are the
primary reason for the difference in physical
appearance?

A sampling of the data has been analyzed.


The data for similar conditions for the two cruises
looks very similar. There are differences in freesurface elevation for similar operating conditions, but
this is mainly due to environmental conditions and
unsteadiness. As we get further into the analysis, we
will be able to examine this more. A quantitative
assessment of breaking parameters is planned for the
coming year.
REFERENCES
Karion, A., Sur, T. Waniewski, Fu, T.C., Furey,
D.A., Rice, J.R., and Walker, D.C., Experimental
Study of the Bow Wave of a Large Towed Wedge,
Proc. 8th International Conference on Numerical Ship
Hydrodynamics, 2003.

AUTHORS REPLY
The primary difference in the appearance is
the stability of the white bubbly region in saltwater.
This is due to differences in surface tension. The
smaller bubble size certainly contributes to the
bubble stability, but the visual differences I am
referring to are not differences in the appearance of
the white water regions, but the fact there are larger
areas of whitewater due to the differences in surface
tension.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St.Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Numerical Simulations of Breaking Waves


around an Advancing Ship by an Unstructured NS Solver
T. Hino (National Maritime Research Institute, Japan)
comparison of computed and measured flow field data
for a ship model with a blunt bow. The method employs an unstructured grid for its larger flexibility to
handle complex geometry.
There are two major ways to treat free surface flows
with Navier-Stokes solvers. One is an interface fitting
method in which a free surface configuration is explicitly defined and tracked and a numerical grid is aligned
to a free surface. The other way is an interface capturing method. In this approach, an interface shape is
not tracked explicitly, instead, a scalar quantity, such as
the volume fraction of each cell or the level set function, is used to indicate the interface location. The interface fitting method offers a high accuracy because
the free surface conditions can be imposed accurately
in the exact location of an interface. However, difficulty arises when a free surface shape deforms largely
in such cases as very steep waves or breaking waves.
In case of spilling breakers, breaking wave models
(for example Rhee et al, 2002) are used to prevent the
breakdown of computation. On the other hand, the interface capturing approach can be used when the interface deformation is large, although the accuracy of
boundary conditions is not so good as the interface fitting method. Another advantage of the interface capturing approach, which is particularly attractive for an
unstructured grid method for a complex geometry, is
that it does not need re-gridding due to the free surface
movement. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) approach has
been applied to simulate breaking waves around a ship
(Azcueta et al, 1999). The present method adopts another interface capturing approach, that is, the level set
method (Sussman et al, 1994) for free surface modeling with one-phase flow mode (Hino, 1999).
In the following section, the brief outline of numerical procedure is given. It is followed by the description
of computational results and the comparison with measured data. Conclude remarks is presented in the last
section.

ABSTRACT
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods for
solving Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations
are being used as a design tool in various fields of fluid
engineering. However, there remain many problems
which are not easily analyzed by standard CFD methods. Wave breaking which often appears in free surface
flows around an advancing ship is one of such examples. Its simulations are difficult because of the underlying complicated physics such as interface topology change, air-water interaction or energy dissipation.
Yet, analysis of wave breaking is of great importance
in ship hydrodynamics, since the wave breaking resistance plays a significant role in propulsive performance
of a certain class of ships. Therefore, it is desirable that
CFD methods for ship design have capability to simulate breaking waves. In this paper, the capability of the
up-to-date unstructured Navier-Stokes method which
is under development at National Maritime Research
Institute, Japan is examined for breaking wave simulations around a ship model. The method employs an
interface capturing scheme for free surface treatment
and it is expected that it can cope with large deformation of free surface shape.
INTRODUCTION
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods
have reached the stage in which they are used as a design tool in various fluid engineering fields. However,
there remain many problems which are not easily analyzed by standard CFD methods.
Wave breaking often appears in free surface flows
around an advancing ship is one of such examples. Its
simulation is difficult due to the underlying complicated physics such as interface topology change, twophase flow interaction or energy dissipation. Analysis
of wave breaking, on the other hand, is of great importance in ship hydrodynamics, since wave breaking
resistance plays a significant role in propulsive performance of a certain class of ships. Therefore, it is desirable that CFD methods for ship design have capability
to simulate breaking waves.
In this paper, the capability of the up-to-date CFD
method which is under development at National Maritime Research Institute, Japan is examined by the

NUMERICAL PROCEDURE
Flow Solver
The flow solver used in this study is called SURF
(Solution algorithm for Unstructured RaNS with
FVM). It is under development toward a practical ship

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Spatial discretization is based on a cell-centered


finite-volume method. A computational domain is divided into unstructured polyhedral cells and flow variables (pressure, velocity and eddy viscosity) are stored
in the center of each cell. Cells whose shape are hexahedra, tetrahedra, prisms or pyramids can be used and
the combinations of these cells give greater flexibility
for handling complex geometry.
For the inviscid fluxes (convection terms and
pressure gradient terms), the second order upwind
scheme based on the flux-differencing splitting of Roe
(Roe, 1986) with the MUSCL approach is employed.
The viscous fluxes are evaluated by the second order
central scheme. Thus, the overall accuracy in space is
second order.
The backward Euler scheme is used for the time
integration. Local time stepping method is used, in
which time increment is determined for each cell in
such a way that the CFL number is globally constant.
The linear equations derived from the time linearization of the fluxes are solved by the Symmetric GaussSeidel (SGS) iteration.
The turbulence model used in the present investigation is the one-equation model by Spalart and
Allmaras(Spalart et al, 1994).

design tool. The governing equations are the threedimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows. In order to couple pressure with a velocity field, artificial compressibility is
introduced into the continuity equation with expense
of time accuracy, which means that the present formulation is for a steady state solution. The final form can
be written as follows:
q (e ev ) (f f v ) (g g v )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z
(1)
and
q = [ p u v w ]T
In the above expressions all the variables are made dimensionless using the reference density 0 , velocity
U0 and length L 0 . Pressure p is modified as
p = p +

z
F2

where p is
the original pressure and F is the Froude
number, U/ gL0 , with z being the vertical coordinate. By this modification of pressure, the gravitational acceleration term can be dropped from the zmomentum equations. The velocity components in the
(x, y, z) direction is expressed as (u, v, w).
The inviscid fluxes e, f and g are defined as

u
v
w
u2 + p
vu
wu

e=
uv , f = v 2 + p , g = wv
w2 + p
uw
vw

Free Surface Treatment


Free surface is an interface between air and water in
the present applications. Free surface conditions consist of kinematic and dynamic conditions and they are
implemented in the interface capturing framework.
The kinematic condition is the condition that fluid
particles on a free surface remain on an interface. This
is written in a mathematical form as follows:

where is a parameter for artificial compressibility.


The viscous fluxes ev , f v and g v are written as:

0
0
0

xx

v
xy v zx

ev =
xy , f = yy , g = yz
zx
yz
zz
where
ij = (

DH
H
H
H
H
=
+u
+v
+w
=0
Dt
t
x
y
z

(2)

where a free surface shape is defined as


H(x, y, z; t) = 0
In the present scheme, this kinematic condition is formulated based on the localized level
set method(Peng et al, 1999) which improves
the efficiency of the original level set approach
(Sussman et al, 1994) used in the previous version of
the present code (Hino, 1999).
The level set function is defined as the signed distance from the interface, i.e.,

in water
>0
=0
on the interface
(3)

<0
in air

1
ui
uj
+ t )(
+
)
R
xj
xi

R is the Reynolds number defined as U 0 L0 / where


is the kinematic viscosity. t is the non-dimensional
kinematic eddy viscosity.
Since a numerical procedure for the Navier-Stokes
equations are described in Hino, 1997 and Hino, 1998,
only the brief outline is given here and the treatment of
free surface is described in the following sections.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Since (x, y, z; t) = 0 defines the free surface shape,


the kinematic condition can be satisfied if the following equation is used to update :
D

=
+u
+v
+w
=0
Dt
t
x
y
z

(4)

In the localized version of the level set method, the


two parameters 1 and 2 where 0 < 1 < 2 are introduced. The signed distance function is rewritten as
d(x, y, z; t) and the definition of the level set function
is modified as

if d > 1
1
d
if |d| 1
=
(5)

1
if d < 1
Thus, the level set function is localized within the
bandwidth 21 from the interface. The transport equation (4) is also modified as

+ C() u
+v
+w
= 0 (6)
t
x
y
z
where C() is the cut-off function defined as
C() =

(|| )2 (2|| + 3 )
2
2
1
3

)
2
1

if || 1
if 1 < || 2
if || < 2
(7)

from the cell centered values with the second order accuracy in the physical space. The gradient of at the
cell center used in the extrapolation above is obtained
by the least squares method. Furthermore, when a cell
face is quadrilateral, the face is divided into two triangles and the one point quadrature is used for each
triangle, which guarantees the second order accuracy
in the physical space. The time integration is carried
out by the Euler backward scheme as in the same way
as for the momentum equations.
In order to avoid reflection of free surface waves in
the outer boundaries of a computational domain, the
wave damping method (Hino, 1999) is used.
There is a singular behavior of the interface in the
region close to a solid wall. The no-slip condition imposed on a solid wall prevents the interface movement
there, while the interface in the outer region moves due
to the fluid motion. It causes the unphysical large deformation of near a solid wall. The extrapolation
approach is employed here to remove this problem, in
which the value of for the cells close to the wall is
extrapolated from the outer cell. The selection of outer
cells on unstructured grids also needs special attention
(Hino, 1999).
The re-initialization of the level set is an important
step in the level set method, since the level set function
is no longer a distance function after the convection.
The re-initialization process can be done using the partial differential equation as in Sussman et al, 1994 or
Peng et al, 1999.
Flow Variable Extrapolation

in such a way that the update of is performed only in


the region where || < 2 .
The numerical solution method for Eq.(6) is similar
to the flow equations. The cell centered finite-volume
discretization applied for the cell i yields
Vi



i
+ C(i )
(i+j)/2 U(i+j)/2 = 0
t
j

Since most of ship hydrodynamics applications require a flow field of water region only, one-phase flow
approach is used, i.e., flow variables in the air region are extrapolated from a water region in such a
way that the dynamic condition on free surface boundary is satisfied. This method also has an advantage that it is not necessary to cope with large density difference between air and water. At this point,
the present method differs from the original level set
method(Sussman et al, 1994) where two-phase flow
approach is employed.
The dynamic free surface conditions can be approximated by the following two conditions. First, the velocity gradients normal to the free surface are zero.
Second, the pressure on the free surface is equal to atmospheric pressure. In order to satisfy the first condition, the velocity components are extrapolated in
the direction normal to the interface. Following the
localized level set method (Peng et al, 1999), this is
achieved by solving the following equation in the air

(8)

where
U(i+j)/2 ui Sx,(i+j)/2 + vi Sy,(i+j)/2 + wi Sz,(i+j)/2
Vi is the cell volume and j is the neighbor cells of the
cell i. The subscript (i + j)/2 denotes the cell face
between the cells i and j and (S x , Sy , Sz ) are the area
vectors of the cell face. Special care should be taken
in the construction of the flux (i+j)/2 U(i+j)/2 . When
the flow is uniform and parallel to the flat interface,
the flat interface should be preserved. To achieve this,
(i+j)/2 , the value of on the cell face, is extrapolated

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Free Surface

| i |

C
A

Table 1: Waterline coordinate of the


model(SRI-BBM)
x/L
y/L
x/L
0.00000 0.00000
0.50000
0.00198 0.024267 0.60000
0.00785 0.047895 0.65000
0.01747 0.070261 0.67414
0.03059 0.090776 0.71034
0.04685 0.10890
0.74655
0.06582 0.12415
0.78276
0.08702 0.13614
0.81897
0.10987 0.14453
0.85517
0.13378 0.14912
0.89138
0.15000 0.15000
0.92759
0.20000 0.15000
0.96379
0.30000 0.15000
1.00000
0.40000 0.15000

| j |
J

Figure 1: Free surface pressure condition.


region where < 0 for the pseudo time .

q = 0

||

(9)

Note that the quantity /|| is the unit vector


normal to the interface whose direction is from water
to air. In the region away from the interface where
is constant, /|| is replaced by the vector
(0, 0, 1).
The pressure boundary condition is written as
p=

h
on the free surface
F2

(10)

(zc /F 2 )(|i | + |j |) pj |i |
|j |

where
zc =

y/L
0.15000
0.15000
0.15000
0.14935
0.14694
0.14166
0.13346
0.12223
0.10771
0.089610
0.067359
0.037416
0.00000

A ship model used is called SRI-BBM (Ship Research Institute- Blunt Bow Model) which is designed
for investigation of wave breaking around a blunt
bow of simple geometry. Flow field measurements
for this model have been carried out at Ship Research Institute (currently, National Maritime Research
Institute)(Hinatsu et al, 2001). Fig.2 shows the geometry of the model whose length, width and draft are
2.0m, 0.6m and 0.6m, respectively. The waterline
shape is a semi-circle of radius r/L = 0.15 at the
bow followed by a parallel part of a half ship length
and a smooth curve to the stern-end. Waterline coordinates are shown in Table 1. The hull shape is wallsided down to z/L = 0.15 and the remaining part
is a lower-half of a body of revolution with the profile
being same as the waterline.
Fig.3 shows the views of the computational grid.
Since the geometry is simple, the grid is generated as
a structured grid of O-O topology and the data structure is converted into the unstructured grid format. The
number of cells are 128 68 80 in the streamwise,
girth and normal directions. The grid points are clustered to the body surface and are densely distributed
in the interface region. A solution domain is on the
port side of the ship assuming symmetry of flow field
and its size is 2 x 4, 2.5 y 0 and
2.2 z 0.3, while a ship is placed at 0 x 1.
The averaged spacing adjacent to the solid wall is
3.16 106 .
As a flow condition, Froude number and Reynolds
number, based on a ship length, are set 0.3834 and

where atmospheric pressure is assumed to be zero and


h is the z-coordinate of the interface. For an air cell
which is next to a water cell, pressure is extrapolated
in the following way. Suppose that the cell i is the air
cell for which the pressure must be extrapolated and
the cell j is the neighboring water cell. From the definition, || is the distance to the interface with i < 0
and j > 0. The interface is supposed to be located
between the cell centers i and j. Thus pressure at the
cell i is extrapolated as
pi =

blunt bow ship

|i |zj + |j |zi
|i | + |j |

is the z coordinate of the point C on the interface (see


Fig.1) and z i and zj are the z coordinate of the center
of cells i and j. See Hino, 1999 for detail. In case that
an air cell has several adjacent water cells, the pressure
value is obtained by taking the average of the extrapolated values from each water cell. In the remaining air
region, pressure is extrapolated using Eq.(9).
RESULTS
Condition of Computation

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

0.4
0.3
0.2
y/L

0.1
0.0

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0.00

0.25

0.50
x/L

0.75

1.00

Waterline
0.4
0.3

Figure 3: Partial view of computational grid.

0.2
z/L

0.1

and wave contours between experiment and simulation. In these figures, it is observed that general features of a wave field have been captured by the present
computation. Bow wave forms an arc-like shape. It
is followed by the steep trough behind it. The second
wave crest is present slightly aft of a midship. However, there are some differences in the details of wave
configurations. A bow wave in the picture shows a turbulent surface due to spilling beaker, while a free surface shape in the computation is smooth except for the
small hump ahead of a bow. The grid resolution may
not be sufficient enough to capture breaking and/or
small-scale turbulent motions. Furthermore, the preset
steady state solution method cannot simulate unsteady
flows properly. The second wave crest in the experiment is breaking with air bubbles, which is also beyond
the capability of the present code which employs onephase flow approach. However, the computed wave
front of the second crest shows discontinuity, which
indicates wave breaking.
The same trend is seen in the comparison of wave
profiles along a ship hull shown in Fig.7. From the
fore-end to the bottom of wave trough, the simulated
wave profile agrees very well with the measured one,
where wave breaking is not present. The second wave
crest with strong breaking is not simulated well, although the weak discontinuity of a free surface shape
can be observed. The computed wave crest height is
smaller than that in the experiment. Note that in the experiment this region is a mixture of water and air as can
be seen in Fig.5, while in the computation flow field is

0.0

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0.00

0.25

0.50
x/L

0.75

1.00

Profile
Figure 2: Geometry of ship model.
3.4 106 , which corresponds to the experimental condition.
Flow Field Solution
Computation continued up to 3,000 iteration steps
with the CFL number of 5. At this stage, the resistance
and the number of cells within water still show fluctuations with the iteration step. Since the actual flow field
is unsteady due to strong wave breaking, it is reasonable that the present steady state solution method failed
to get convergence. In the following, the snapshot flow
data at 3,000-th step is analyzed to examine the capability of the present method. Time accurate simulation
is underway and the result will be presented in the presentation.
Fig.4 shows hull surface pressure and velocity vectors on a center plane together with wave profile.
Figs.5 and 6 shows the comparison of wave patterns

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Measured

Y/L

0.25

-0.25

-0.5

0.25

0.5

0.75

X/L

Computed

Figure 4: Computed flow field.

h/L

Figure 6: Comparison of wave contours. Contour interval h/L is 0.005.


0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1

Measured
Computed

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

X/L

Experiment
Z
Y

Figure 7: Comparison of wave profiles along a ship


hull.

cations of a steep profile are different from each other.


Note that the computed wave profile in the stern region
is not stationary.
The magnified view of the second wave crest on the
plane at y/L = 0.16 (1% of ship length away from
the ship hull) is shown in Fig.8. Velocity vectors and a
wave profile exhibit wave breaking. It can be stated
that the present method has a capability to simulate
breaking waves although the magnitude of braking is
under-predicted.
The hull surface pressure distribution is compared
in Fig.9. Again, the comparison show good agreement
from the fore-end to the wave trough. In the mid ship
and aft part, the distribution patterns differ in the same
way as the wave profiles. The region of high pressure
beneath the second crest is narrower in the computation than in the experiment, which correspond to the
lower wave height in the computation.
Finally, the velocity and the wave profile in front of
a bow and a center plane (Plane A) and on a plane with
45 degrees from a center plane (Plane B) as shown

Simulation
Figure 5: Comparison of wave patterns.

assumed to be filled with water. The computed stern


wave shows very steep profile which corresponds to
the breaking wave in the experiment, although the lo-

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

0.4

0.05

0.2
z/L

0.0

Plane A

-0.05

-0.2

Plane B
r/L

-0.1

-0.4
-0.25

-0.15

0.00

0.25
x/L

0.50

0.75

1.00

-0.2
0.4

0.5

0.6

Figure 10: Location of velocity measurement sections.

0.7

measured velocity magnitude beneath a free surface


is reduced, this suggest energy dissipation with the
wave breaking/turbulent free surface effect in the experiment. These features are not simulated well in the
computation. The computation also cannot reproduce
the vortical motion beneath the free surface in front of
a body which is seen in the experiment. The same tendency is observed in the comparison of Plane B.
In order to clarify the reason for discrepancies, grid
refinement tests should be carried out first. In addition
to that, effects of the steady state formulation and one
phase flow approach should be examined. These are
subject to future investigations.

Figure 8: Breaking waves near the midship at y/L =


0.16.

0.2

0.1

Z/L

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0

0.25

0.5

0.75

X/L

Measured

CONCLUDING REMARKS
The capability of the up-to-date CFD method which
is under development at National Maritime Research
Institute has been examined by the comparison of computed and measured flow field data for a ship model
with a blunt bow.
In general, wave breaking is not simulated well
by the present method, although the simulated flow
field agrees reasonably well with the experimental one
where wave breaking is not present and the breaking in
the midship region is captured to some extent.
Poor grid resolution in the interface region may be
one reason for this discrepancy. However, there seem
to be more subtle limitations in the present method
for simulating breaking waves . Steady-state solution methods like the present method may not simulate
breaking waves which are essentially unsteady. Twophase flow approach may be necessary for simulations
of strong wave breaking. Especially if the air trap plays

0.2

0.1

Z/L

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0

0.25

0.5

0.75

X/L

Computed
Figure 9: Comparison of pressure distribution on a
ship hull. Contour interval Cp is 0.1.
in Fig.10 are compared in Figs.11 and 12. On the
center plane (Plane A), the wave profile in the experiment is less steep than in the computation and the

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

PLANE A

a certain role in the breaking process, two-phase flow


approach becomes essential.
Further investigations should be focused on these
subjects to improve the present methods capability of
wave breaking simulations.

0.12
0.1
0.08

Z/L

0.06
0.04

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

0.02
0

The author would like to thank staffs of Center for


CFD Research, National Maritime Research Institute,
for their valuable discussions and suggestions.

-0.02
-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

X/L

Measured
0.12

REFERENCES

0.1
0.08

Rhee, S.-H. and Stern, F.,RANS Model for Spilling


Breaking Waves, J. Fluids Engineering, Vol.124, 2002,
pp.424 432.

Z/L

0.06
0.04
0.02
0

Azcueta, R., Muzaferija, S., Peric, M., Computation of


Breaking Bow Waves for a Very Full Hull Ship, Proc.
Seventh Int. Conf. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, 1999,
pp. 6.2-1-6.2-11.

-0.02
-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

X/L

Computed

Sussman, M., Smereka, P. and Osher, S., A Level Set Approach for Computing Solutions to Incompressible TwoPhase Flow, J. Comput. Phys., Vol.114, 1994, pp.146159.

Figure 11: Comparison of velocity distributions on a


center plane y = 0. Velocity components are (u, w).
PLANE B

Hino, T., An Interface Capturing Method for Free Surface


Flow Computations on Unstructured Grids, J. of the Soc.
Naval Archit. Japan, Vol.186, 1999, pp.177 183.

Z/L

0.1

Hino, T., A 3D Unstructured Grid Method for Incompressible Viscous Flows, J. of the Soc. Naval Archit.
Japan, Vol.182, 1977, pp.9 15.

0.05

-0.2

-0.1

Hino, T., Navier-Stokes Computations of Ship Flows on


Unstructured Grids, Proc. of the 22nd Symp. on Naval
Hydro., 1998.

R/L

Measured

Roe, P.L., Characteristic-Based Schemes for the Euler


Equations, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol. 18, 1986, pp.337
365.

Z/L

0.1

Spalart, P.R. and Allmaras, S.R., A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows, La Recherche
Aerospatiale, No.1, 1994, pp.5 21.

0.05

-0.2

-0.1

Peng, D., Merriman, B., Osher, S., Zhao, H. and Kang,


M., A PDE-Based Fast Localized Level Set Method, J.
Comput. Phys., Vol.155, 1999, pp.410-438.

R/L

Computed

Hinatsu, M, Tsukada, Y., Fukasawa, R. and Tanaka,


Y.,Experiments of Two Phase Flows for the Joint Research Proc. SRI-TUHH mini-Workshop on Numerical
Simulation of Two Phase Flows, Ship Research Institute,
2001.

Figure 12: Comparison of velocity distributions on a


plane of 45 degrees from a center plane. Velocity components are (u t , w), where ut is the component tangential to the measurement section.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Arthur Reed
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
The author notes discrepancies between the
waves ahead of the bow by computation and
measurement. I note that the computations fail to
capture the stagnation flow ahead of the bow. This is
seen in the experiments as a predominantly vertical
flow on the centerline immediately ahead of the bow.
Stagnation flow is a steady phenomena that should be
captured by the computations, even with a simple
free surface breaking code. An examination of why
the stagnation flow is not captured might help to
resolve the differences between the computations and
experiments.
AUTHORS REPLY
Fig. A1 shows the computed streamlines in
the center plane in front of the bow. The present
computation captures the feature of the stagnation
flow although the computed stagnation point is
higher than the experimental one. In Fig.A2, the
front views of the surface pressure distributions are
compared between the computation and the
measurement. Again, the high (stagnation) pressure
zone in the computation is located higher than in the
measurement. This difference is most likely due to
the poor grid resolution in the vertical direction,
although the verification is needed.
0.08

Z/L

0.06

0.04

-0.1

-0.05

X/L

Fig.A1 Computed streamlines on the center plane.


Cp=1
0.1
0.08
0.06

Measured

Computed

0.04

Z/L

0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1
-0.12
-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

X/L

Fig.A2 Front view of surface pressure distributions


in the bow.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Experimental Measurements of the Surface of a Breaking


Bow Wave
Anna Karion, Thomas C. Fu, James R. Rice, Don C. Walker and Deborah A. Furey
(Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, USA)
A BSTRACT
A prismatic wedge was towed in fresh water in the David
Taylor Model Basin at the Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Carderock Division (NSWCCD), generating a large bow
wave. Towing speeds ranged from 0.7 to 4.6 m/s, and
drafts ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 m. These conditions correspond to Froude numbers from 0.2 to 1.4 (based on
model draft, D). In addition to the variations in draft and
speed, two different bow geometries were investigated:
one with a 20 degree bow entrance angle, 20 degree flare,
and sharp leading edge, and one with a 40 degree bow entrance angle, no flare, and rounded leading edge. Measurements of free-surface elevations near the bow were
made using a laser imaging technique. Some results
from the experiment have been presented in a previous
paper (Karion, et al. (2003)). The current paper presents
further analysis of the experimental data. Fluctuations
on the free surface are quantified, and characteristics of
the breaking region are studied in more detail. Information about the breaking region can aid those attempting
to model wave breaking with either advanced numerical
techniques or with simpler empirical methods.

rough breaking. Turbulence and velocity measurements


in two-dimensional breaking ocean waves were conducted by Melville, et al. (2002) on a larger scale, and on
a model-scale bow wave by Roth, et al. (1999). Surface
roughness measurements, similar to those presented
here, were presented by Walker, et al. (1996) for a
two-dimensional steady breaking wave. The experiment
described in this paper was designed to characterize the
breaking region of a large three-dimensional bow wave
with energetic breaking.
In the current experimental study, two different bow geometries and leading edges are used to generate bow waves under otherwise identical conditions.
A laser-sheet based imaging technique is used to measure free-surface heights for a variety of speeds and
three different model drafts. Results for averaged freesurface profiles and maximum wave height scalings from
this experiment have been presented in a previous paper
(Karion, et al. (2003)). This paper presents free-surface
fluctuations and the location and size of breaking regions
for the various conditions of the experiment, as well as
surface roughness measurements for two conditions.
E XPERIMENTAL SETUP AND INSTRUMENTATION

I NTRODUCTION
Bow wave dynamics have been the subject of analytical,
experimental,
and numerical
research
in
the
past
(including
Ogilvie (1972), Miyata and Inui (1984), Wyatt (2000),
Roth, et al. (1999),
Waniewski, et al. (2002),
and
others).
At present, a large variety of computational methods exists for modeling freesurface flows near surface ships (Wyatt (2000),
Sussman and Dommermuth (2001), and many others).
As numerical methods have grown more sophisticated,
developers have begun to attempt to model the breaking
bow wave. Experimental data in this breaking region
is needed for validation of these advanced numerical
techniques. While previous experiments have also investigated bow waves (Ogilvie (1972), Roth, et al. (1999),
Miyata and Inui (1984), Waniewski, et al. (2002)), most
were conducted with smaller models and did not exhibit

A large bow wedge model (Model No. 5605) was towed


in the Deep Water Towing Basin at the David Taylor Model Basin of the Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Carderock Division. This fresh-water basin is 15.5 m
wide and approximately 575 m long. During the experiment, the depth of the basin varied between 6.3 m (when
the model was at the 1.5 m draft) and 5.4 m deep (at the
0.6 m draft). The water level was lowered to reach the
different drafts for the experiment, while the model itself
remained at a fixed height on the carriage.
Model No. 5605 is a large prismatic wedge with
dimensions as indicated in Figure 1. One end (referred
to as the fine bow) has a 20 degree entrance angle and is
flared at 20 degrees, with a fine leading edge (0.16 cm
radius of curvature). The other end (referred to as the
full bow) has a 40 degree entrance angle and is straightsided, with a rounded leading edge (1.27 cm radius of
curvature). For the first part of the experiment, the model

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 1: Diagram of wedge model with dimensions (in meters). The fine bow is on the right in the figure, and the full bow
on the left.

Table 1: Matrix of run conditions for which there was bow


wave breaking for the fine bow.

D (m)
0.6
0.6
1.1
1.1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

U (m/s)
2.0
2.9
2.6
3.9
2.0
3.1
3.9
4.6

Fr
0.8
1.2
0.8
1.2
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.2

was towed with the fine bow forward, and for the second
part, the model was mounted in the opposite direction
(with the full bow forward). Thus, measurements of the
free surface were made for both configurations. Figure 2
shows an example of the bow wave generated by the full
bow (in the photograph, the model is running from left to
right).
The run conditions are summarized in Table 1
for the fine bow and Table 2 for the full bow. In the
tables, D represents the draft (the immersion depth of the
model, measured from the free surface at zero velocity),
U the towing velocity, and Fr the Froude number. The
Froude number is defined as follows:
U
Fr = ,
gD

Figure 2: Example of the bow wave generated by the full bow


at D = 1.1 m and U = 2.6 m/s. The model is painted black
with a white grid. The vertical grid spacing is 30.5 cm, and the
horizontal spacing is 30.5 cm if measured along the centerline
of the model. The small horizontal marks at the top of the grid
are the top of the model.

Table 2: Matrix of run conditions for which there was bow


wave breaking for the full bow.

D (m)
1.1
1.1
1.1

(1)

where g is the coefficient of gravitational acceleration.


The conditions shown in these tables are those for which
the rough breaking region was analyzed. The experiment
included additional run conditions at slower speeds but

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

U (m/s)
1.7
2.6
3.1

Fr
0.5
0.8
1.0

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

down the basin. Images were collected for 2 seconds at


30 frames per second at each of approximately 180 locations along the hull (every 2.54 cm) for the fine bow, and
115 locations for the full bow.

Figure 3: Diagram of laser sheet and camera setup, viewed


from above. In this case, the model would be moving from left
to right. When the full bow was forward, the traversing system
was mounted on the full bow.

there was no breaking in the bow wave, so data from


those conditions is not presented here.
Quantitative Visualization and Data Analysis
A non-intrusive optical technique, Quantitative Visualization (QViz), has been developed to measure the freesurface deformations occurring in regions commonly inaccessible using more traditional measurement methods,
i.e. near wake flows, bow waves and breaking waves.
Using a laser sheet and video camera, the QViz system illuminates the surface of interest and collects digital images representing instantaneous cross sections of
the spray envelope and surface profiles (further details
can be found in Furey and Fu (2002)).
In the current experiment, a laser light sheet
was projected onto the water surface perpendicular to the
side of the hull. The laser used was a diode-pumped,
solid-state YAG laser, with an output of 2.53.0 W at
532 nm (Model MLM-0532 by Melles-Griot), transmitted through two fiber optic cables to cylindrical lenses
mounted inside laser probes, producing two laser sheets.
The laser sheets were next to each other, in the same
plane, generating effectively one sheet with two times
the width. A standard video camera was mounted facing aft, collecting images of the laser sheet reflection
off the water surface. The camera and fiber optic laser
probes were mounted to a rail system that was attached
to a traverse, which was in turn mounted on the model
itself (see Figure 3). The two fiber optic laser probes
formed a laser sheet approximately one meter wide. The
camera was mounted approximately 1.5 meters forward
of the laser sheet and angled down towards the water surface. The traversing system was automated and coupled
with the data acquisition software so that once the desired number of images was acquired, the laser sheet and
camera system moved aft together and the camera began
acquiring images at a new position. Thus, depending on
the run time, many positions were covered on each pass

Digital images from the video camera were collected at 30 frames per second using a National Instruments frame-grabber board and a personal computer. An
image analysis program was developed at NSWCCD
using National Instruments LabView software with the
Image Processing (Vision) toolbox using built-in edgedetection routines to extract the surface profile information. For the present analysis, the breaking region of
each image was analyzed separately, and the resulting
water line determined as a function of time. The image size was 640480 pixels, covering a viewing area
of approximately 1.51.2 meters. Thus the lowest possible uncertainty (approximately 1 pixel) was equal to
0.25 cm. Distortion due to camera placement and viewing angle was corrected using an image of a calibration
grid with equally spaced points and a calibration algorithm in National Instruments LabView IMAQ Vision
software package. The largest error in the system was
introduced by the camera placement and the calibration
method. For example, error in the calibration would result if the grid was not held perfectly square and at the
correct distance relative to the camera. It is estimated
that the total error on the free-surface elevations is 1cm.
However, this is an error affecting the determination of
the absolute location of the free surface. The relative
error in the free-surface measurement from one frame
to the next (affecting the fluctuations of the surface presented here) is much lower, estimated to be at the pixel
error value of 0.25 cm. Future effort to reduce the error
on these types of measurements is focusing on placing
the cameras on automated pan-and-tilt units, so that their
orientation is exactly known, and the calibrations can be
performed in a more controlled environment.
The images collected in this experiment were
taken with an interlaced camera, so that each image was
acquired in two fields, 1/60 of a second apart in time. In
an interlaced image, the first field is composed of the odd
pixel lines and the second the even. For the current analysis, these fields were separated to minimize the blurring
of the moving surface (the shutter speed of the camera
was also at 1/60 second). The effective vertical resolution for each image was thus halved to 240 pixels, and
the number of images doubled. The LabView software
used to perform this separation of the interlaced fields
simply interpolated to regenerate the intermediate pixels. Thus, at each location, the two seconds of data at 30
frames per second, each composed of two fields, resulted
in 120 images for analysis.
An example of an image that has been analyzed
in this way is shown in Figure 4. The red line superimposed on the surface of the wave is the edge that has been

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

0.6

Fine Bow Wave Profile, D = 1.5 m, FrD = 1.0, U = 3.9 m/s (7.5 kt), X = 2.6 m

0.4

0.26

0.2

z (m)

0.25
0

0.24

z (m)

0.2

0.23

0.4

0.22
0.6
0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6
y (m)

0.8

1.2

0.21

1.4

0.2
0.7

Figure 4: Example of a QViz image of the bow wave generated


by the full bow, with the edge detected by the data analysis
algorithm superimposed in red. The speed of this run is 2.6 m/s,
and the draft is 1.1 m.

extracted using the analysis. The sides of the image seem


distorted because the image has been processed using a
calibration grid to correct for the distortion due to camera placement. The model appears on the left side of the
image.

0.75

0.8

y (m)

0.85

0.9

0.95

Figure 5: An example of the mean free-surface location in the


breaking region, in the red points, with the blue dots showing
the band one standard deviation away. The standard deviation
is calculated for each point based on an analysis of 120 frames
over two seconds.

R ESULTS
D = 1.5 m Fr = 1.0

Surface Fluctuations
The Quantitative Visualization (QViz) data was used to
determine the variation of the free surface with time.
Two seconds of data images were collected at each fixed
laser sheet location; these were analyzed to determine the
fluctuation of the free surface. Surface fluctuations were
determined only on the breaking region of the bow wave;
that is, in the region beginning where the bow sheet first
impinged back onto the free surface. In this area, the
laser light sheet was scattered very effectively due to the
turbulent, multiphase nature of the flow. Therefore, the
region analyzed was that where the image was clearly
and significantly brighter than the surrounding background. The image was thresholded at a high pixel value
that differed based on the condition, but was usually at
an approximate value of 200 out of 255, and then the
edge-detection algorithm was executed to find the topmost edge. Because this region had high contrast levels,
the image processing revealed relatively accurate measurements of the free surface. The non-breaking parts of
the free surface, although previously analyzed in a mean
fashion (Karion, et al. (2003)), were not clear enough for
a frame-by-frame analysis.

median RMS (meters)

0.015

0.01

0.005
raw data
smoothed data

0
0

0.5

1
1.5
2
x (meters from stem)

2.5

Figure 6: Standard deviation of the free-surface profile as a


function of distance along the hull, x, for the fine bow at Fr =
1.0, D = 1.5 m, and U = 3.9 m/s.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The median of the standard deviation along the


y dimension is shown as a function of x, the distance
along the hull, for the fine bow at D = 1.5 and Fr = 1.0
in Figure 6. The magnitude of the fluctuations varies significantly along the hull with no apparent trend, for this
and the other conditions. It was observed, when analyzing the fluctuations from one run to another and correlating them to the time of day of the run, that the fluctuation magnitude was significantly lower for runs performed when the basin water was its calmest (for example, for the first run of the day or after a long break).
The results show that fluctuations in the free surface of
the wave are strongly dependent on the initial conditions.
During the experiment, these initial conditions were not
tightly controlled. Although the wait time between runs
was roughly constant at 30 minutes, some runs were performed when the water was significantly calmer, such as
the first run of the day or after a long break in runs to
make an equipment repair. There was also an effort made
not to run a fast speed immediately following a slowerspeed run, but this was not always possible due to tight
scheduling.
Figure 7 shows the median value of the standard deviation (taken over all positions x) as a function
of draft Froude number. There is considerable scatter in
the data, due to the reasons explained above. Figure 8
shows the same data normalized by the maximum average wave height for each condition. This figure shows
that in general, the magnitude of the surface fluctuations
scales with the maximum wave height, and varies from
between two and six percent.
Surface Roughness Measurements
Wavenumber spectra have been constructed by performing a fast-fourier transform of each detected edge (i.e.
the free-surface profile for each frame). The goal of performing these transforms was to establish a spectrum of
the turbulent length scales in the breaking region of the
wave, and to determine whether the spectrum changes
with the wave conditions, such as Froude number. Spectra were only calculated for the full bow because the surface of the breaking region of the fine bow was too short

0.03

fine bow, D = 0.6 m


fine bow, D = 1.1 m
fine bow, D = 1.5 m
full bow, D = 1.1 m

0.025

RMS (m)

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
0

0.5

Fr

1.5

Figure 7: Median standard deviation of the free-surface profile,


as a function of draft Froude number. The error bars represent
the standard deviation for each point.

0.1

fine bow, D = 0.6 m


fine bow, D = 1.1 m
fine bow, D = 1.5 m
full bow, D = 1.1 m

0.08

RMS / Zmax

The free-surface location was determined for


each of the 120 images at a certain laser sheet position,
and its mean calculated as a function of y position along
the wave, where y is defined as the distance from the
models centerline, in the direction perpendicular to the
hull (i.e., along the laser sheet). The standard deviation
of this mean was also calculated as a function of location
in the sheet, y. An example of the result is shown in Figure 5 for the fine bow at Fr = 1.0. The band around the
mean free-surface profile indicates the magnitude of the
fluctuations at each location along the free-surface profile.

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0

0.5

FrD

1.5

Figure 8: Median standard deviation of the free-surface profile,


normalized by the maximum wave height, as a function of draft
Froude number. The standard deviation for each point ranges
from 0.005 to 0.02.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Full Bow, D = 1.1 m

10

FrD = 0.8, X = 0.50 m


Fr = 1.0, X = 0.50 m
D
Fr = 0.8, X = 0.75 m
D
Fr = 1.0, X = 0.75 m

Power density

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

wavenumber (rad / m)

Figure 9: Wavenumber spectrum for the breaking region of


the bow wave for the full bow at two velocities (2.6 m/s, or
Fr = 0.8, and 3.1 m/s, or Fr = 1.0) and at two locations along
the hull.

in length, usually ten centimeters or less. The straightsided bow with its rounded leading edge produced a wide
breaking wave, as contrasted with the narrow, plunging
breaker of the fine bow. The reflection of the laser sheet
off of the wide breaking region of the wave provided a
free-surface profile that was long enough to allow for
performing the FFT (see Figure 4).
The resulting wavenumber spectra are shown in
Figure 9 for two different speeds (2.6 m/s and 3.1 m/s)
at two different locations (0.5 m and 0.75 m from the
stem). The draft is 1.1 meters. The wavenumber results
show that the power spectrum at the higher wavenumbers, or shorter wavelengths, does not vary significantly
with Froude number. This result is consistent with
results shown for a two-dimensional spilling breaker
by Walker, et al. (1996). It appears that the two cases
at higher speeds have slightly more energy at lower
wavenumbers than the two cases at lower speeds. However, this phenomenon would need to be studied experimentally in more detail in the future to make a firm conclusion. These somewhat limited results do support the
conclusions of Walker, et al. (1996), however.
Extent of Breaking
The extent of breaking occuring in the bow wave for each
condition was determined from the QViz images. Essentially, for each image, the region in which the laser
reflected very brightly off of the surface was defined as
the breaking area. This was the area in which the laser
reflected off of the multiple air-water interfaces of the
wave. Although this determination is somewhat subjective, it was found that there was a very clear contrast in

Figure 10: Contour plot of free-surface height with the location of breaking superimposed in black. This run is for the fine
bow, and has D = 1.5 m, U = 3.9 m/s (7.5 kt) and Fr = 1.0.

the images between this region and the rest of the free
surface, and effort was made to be consistent. This was
the same region that was used for the surface fluctuation
and surface roughness analyses described above.
Figures 10 and 11 show contour plots of the free
surface with the breaking area, as defined above, superimposed in black, for the fine bow and full bow, respectively. It should be noted here that the contour plots were
also generated using the same laser sheet data, but analyzed in a different manner (see Karion, et al. (2003) for
more contour plots and details regarding this analysis).
The mean width of the breaking region in the direction perpendicular to the hull (i.e., in the plane of the
laser sheet) for the fine bow is shown in Figure 12 as a
function of draft Froude number. Figure 13 includes the
values for the full bow on the same plot, with a new scale.
The breaking width has been normalized by the characteristic length for the wave, U 2 /g. This normalization relates the width of breaking to the wavelength, (2)U 2 /g.
Figure 12 illustrates that the extent of breaking does increase with increasing Froude number, even when normalized, indicating that the fraction of the wavelength
that exhibits rough breaking on the surface is not constant. Figure 13 shows that the hull shape makes a very
significant difference, as the width of the breaking region is much larger for the full bow than for the fine bow.
The extent of breaking for the full bow seems to decrease
from Fr = 0.8 to Fr = 1.0. This may be at least partially
due to a transition in the form of the wave between these
two conditions. The bow wave transitions from a spilling
breaker that breaks violently ahead of the stem (for Fr =
0.8) to a plunging breaker that begins breaking behind
the stem, once the bow sheet impinges on the free surface (for Fr = 1.0).

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

fine bow, D = 0.6 m


fine bow, D = 1.1 m
fine bow, D = 1.5 m
full bow, D = 1.1 m

0.9
0.8

breaking

/ (U /g)

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.5

FrD

1.5

Figure 13: Width of the breaking region for the fine and full
bow, normalized by U 2 /g, as a function of draft Froude number.

Figure 11: Contour plot of free-surface height with the location of breaking superimposed in black. This run is for the full
bow, and has D = 1.1 m, U = 2.6 m/s (5 kt) and Fr = 0.8.

0.15

0.1

breaking

/ (U2/g)

fine bow, D = 0.6 m


fine bow, D = 1.1 m
fine bow, D = 1.5 m

0.05

0
0

0.5

Fr

1.5

Figure 12: Width of the breaking region for the fine bow, normalized by U 2 /g, as a function of draft Froude number.

C ONCLUSIONS
Data from laser-sheet visualization of the bow wave of a
large towed wedge has been analyzed with the goal of understanding features of the turbulent surface of the breaking wave. The large size of the model was necessary to
produce a wave large enough to exhibit characteristics
of waves in the field, such as spray and bubble generation and turbulent, multiphase breaking. The model was
towed at three different drafts, various speeds, and with
two different bow shapes, yielding a unique data set for
comparison with computations.
Three different results are presented that will
aid researchers modeling breaking bow waves. The magnitude of the free-surface fluctuations is presented, serving as a measure related to the turbulent energy of breaking. The surface roughness on the face of the breaking
wave is presented for cases in which the wave was wide
enough to enable a spectrum analysis. The wavenumber
information supports previous work in this area, although
not enough of the data was able to be analyzed to be conclusive. Lastly, the area and location where breaking occurs is shown; the extent of the breaking, normalized by
U 2 /g, increases with draft Froude number and is significantly larger for the straight-sided (full) bow than the
flared (fine) bow. The data and conclusions here can be
used to aid in the development of breaking models in the
future.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research is supported by ONR under contract numbers N0001403WX20225 and N0001403WX20728. Dr.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

L. Patrick Purtell is the program manager.


R EFERENCES
Furey, D.A. and Fu, T.C., Quantitative Visualization (QViz)
Hydrodynamic Measurement Technique of Multiphase Unsteady Surfaces, 24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,
2002.
Karion, A., Sur, T.W., Fu, T.C., Furey, D.A.,
Rice, J.R. and Walker, D.C., Experimental Study
of the Bow Wave of a Large Towed Wedge,
8th Intl Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics,
2003.
Melville, W.K., Veron, F. and White,, C.J., The velocity field
under breaking waves: coherent structures and turbulence,
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 454, 2002, pp. 203233.
Miyata, H. and Inui, T., Non-linear ship waves,
Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1984,
pp. 215288.
Ogilvie, T. F., The Wave Generated by a Fine Ship Bow,
9th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, 1972, pp. 1483
1524.
Roth, G.I., Mascenik, D.T. and Katz, J., Measurements of
the flow structure and turbulence within a ship bow wave,
Physics of Fluids, Vol. 11, No. 11, 1999, pp. 35123523.
Sussman, M. and Dommermuth, D. G., The numerical simulation of ship waves using cartesian-grid methods, 23rd Symposium on Naval Ship Hydrodynamics, 2002,
pp. 762779.
Walker, D.T., Lyzenga, D.R., Ericson, E.A. and Lund, D.E.,
Radar backscatter and surface roughness measurements for
stationary breaking waves, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, Vol. 452,
1996, pp. 19531984.
Waniewski, T.A., Brennen, C.E. and Raichlen, F., Bow Wave
Dynamics, Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2002,
pp. 115.
Wyatt, D.C., Development and Assessment of a Nonlinear Wave Prediction Methodology for Surface Vessels,
Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2000, pp. 96107.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION

the breaking region. Are the wavenumber


spectra shown in the Figure from a single frame
or averaged over multiple frames? Is it possible
to estimate typical time scales as well from the
QViz images?

Trish Sur
Science Applications International Corporation, USA
I would like to ask the following questions.

AUTHORS REPLY
1.

Typical results for the Quantitative Visualization


(QViz) technique for the bow wedge experiment
are presented in Figures 10 and 11 of the present
paper and in Figures 5 through 12 of a previous
companion paper (Karion et al., 2003). These
figures show a region close to the bow wedge for
which QViz is unable to obtain measurements of
the free surface elevation. Similarly, there is an
outboard limit to the QViz measurement area.
For the QViz measurements used in the present
analysis, did the breaking areas have missing
portions? If so, how would this affect the
characteristics of the free surface fluctuations
reported herein?

AUTHORS REPLY
There are two reasons that data is missing
from the contour maps in Figures 10 and 11. The
first is that the light was shadowed behind the crest of
the wave, keeping the camera from viewing the area
behind the wave crest. The breaking regions were at
the wave crest and were not affected by this
shadowing. The second, the outboard limit to the
measurement area, does however apply to the
breaking areas as well. As the measurement system
and camera moves aft, the crest of the wave moved
out of the cameras field of view.
Visual
observations indicate that often by this point the
rough breaking had dissipated and was spread out
over a wide area, but it is possible that some breaking
roughness was there and not measured. It is not clear
how the breaking regions aft and outboard of the
measurement area would affect the characteristics of
the free surface fluctuations. Figure 6 illustrates that
there is no clear trend in the fluctuations as a function
of distance downstream of the stem. Therefore, there
is no reason to believe that the characteristics of the
breaking region outside the measurement region is
different from those of the region measured (at least
within our accuracy).
DISCUSSION

The wave number spectra are averaged over


all the frames for a particular run, which is to say for
2 seconds. In the presentation at the conference I will
show additional results averaged over 25 positions
for each speed. The answer to the second question is
unfortunately no, it is not possible to estimate typical
time scales. The QViz data images were acquired at
a standard 30 frames per second, and the fluctuations
occur at a higher rate than this. Fluctuations slower
than 15 frames per second (to satisfy the Nyquist
sampling criterion) could be resolved but it was
found that the fluctuations are faster than the
sampling rate in this case. A high-speed video
system would be necessary to capture fluctuation
time scales.
DISCUSSION
Trish Sur
Science Applications International Corporation, USA
3.

The present paper alludes to using this


characterization of the breaking region to help
develop breaking models. To your knowledge,
has this been done and/or are there any specific
plans along these lines?

AUTHORS REPLY
I am not aware of anyone developing
breaking models based on our data (although there
are others who have developed their own models
based on acceleration or slope). However, there are
plans to use this data and other tow-tank data to
generate a breaking model at NSWC Carderock.
REFERENCES
Karion, A., Sur, T. Waniewski, Fu, T.C., Furey,
D.A., Rice, J.R., and Walker, D.C., Experimental
Study of the Bow Wave of a Large Towed Wedge,
Proc. 8th International Conference on Numerical Ship
Hydrodynamics, 2003.

Trish Sur
Science Applications International Corporation, USA
2.

Figure 9 of the present paper defines the length


scales associated with the surface roughnesses in

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Stephen M. Scorpio
Johns Hopkins University, USA
I would like to thank the authors for making
progress on a challenging measurement. Would it be
possible to make a quantitative comparison with
Walkers 2D breaking wave measurements by
measuring surface fluctuations normal to the
breaking wave crest? Walker suggested a model
spectrum where the spectral roll-off was related to
the width of the turbulent plume. Does your data
support this hypothesis?
AUTHORS REPLY
We do not believe it is possible to use the
data from this experiment to quantify the
wavenumber spectrum in the direction perpendicular
to the breaking wave crest. The laser sheet was
oriented perpendicular to the hull itself, and thus the
instantaneous wave profiles are only known in this
direction. Sequential x positions were one inch apart
and could not be used to reconstruct a continuous
surface in any arbitrary direction.
(The second part of this question is
answered in our reply to Dr. Ericsons second
discussion question.)

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Richard Leighton
General Dynamics, USA
What ancillary measurements were made?
To expand on that, for validation purposes, there are
more robust measurements for comparison. For
example, the pressure along a transverse cut on the
hull. Without a robust and independent baseline
measurement, the detailed comparisons are suspect.
AUTHORS REPLY
Unfortunately, there were no additional
measurements made during this experiment other
than those reported in the given paper and in Karion
et al. (2003). These include laser sheet wave height
data and high-speed video of spray droplets as well as
extensive video.
REFERENCES
Karion, A., Sur, T., etc. 8th International Symposium
on Numerical Hydrodynamics, September 2003.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION

AUTHORS REPLY

Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

The curves shown in figure 5 are actually the


time-averaged wave height (in the center, in red),
with the lines above and below the curve showing the
band one standard deviation away from this average
in either direction. Therefore, the standard deviation
is not actually time-averaged. The wave profile is
time-averaged, and the standard deviation gives an
idea of how much the wave profile fluctuates with
time.

This paper describes a study in which a


systematic study to investigate wave breaking due to
the motion of a surface-piercing body was carried out
by performing a large-scale tow-tank experiment.
What makes this work unique is that (a) draft-based
Froude, Reynolds, and Weber number combinations
were varied parametrically to investigate breaking
wave kinematics and (b) free-surface topology during
the wave-breaking events was studied. Very little
data of this kind is available in published literature.
Congratulations should be extended to the authors for
undertaking an experiment of this magnitude,
especially one where quantitative measurements were
obtained successfully. A few comments on the
discussion presented in the paper:
1) On page 1, it would be more consistent to
acknowledge that the computational research
tools cited are not unique in their capabilities;
namely, commercially available computational
tools are also fully capable of modelling wave
breaking but at the same time, they too require
further validation. Data such as that presented
here is very useful in this respect.
AUTHORS REPLY
We certainly agree and only cite certain
methods as examples of some of the tools that
researchers are currently using.
Commercial
computational tools are also rapidly becoming
sophisticated in their treatment of wave breaking and
multiphase flows.

DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
3) Regarding Figure 5 (pg. 4), would any additional
information be evident if these results are plotted
as a 3D surface where the axes are z, y, Fr?
Namely, is the behavior self-similar?
AUTHORS REPLY
The wave profiles at a given position are
different enough that a 3D surface plot would not be
appropriate.. However, the following two figures
each show three wave profiles (with standard
deviation bands) at the same position. The first
figure shows profiles at the same Froude number, but
different drafts, and the second shows profiles at
three different Froude numbers but the same draft.
All are quite different.

DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
2) On page 4, in Figure 5, the standard deviation
curves which are shown are actually timeaveraged. It would be of interest to see how
these curves appear frame by frame over the two
second period for the different Froude numbers
at which the model was tested. Namely, how
much information is removed by performing this
averaging?

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

AUTHORS REPLY
Unfortunately, the data set from this
experiment only allowed for a wavenumber analysis
of the full bow data at two Froude numbers, 0.8 and
1.0. The figure below illustrates the average wave
number spectrum for each case (averaged over x
location). The figure further illustrates that the
curves differ in the low wavenumber region, but it is
unclear how this effect might change at a different
Froude number condition.
2

10

Fr = 0.8
Fr = 1.0

4) The effect of ambient conditions on the level of


surface fluctuations is discussed on page 5. This
is important to note as assigned free-stream and
ambient turbulence levels are often taken for
granted when free-surface CFD computations are
performed.
AUTHORS REPLY

Power density

10

10

10

10

10

It is unfortunate that during the course of the


experiment the amount of ambient surface fluctuation
was not specifically measured before each run. This
makes it difficult to quantify the effect of ambient
conditions on the fluctuations of the bow wave. The
experiment only serves to show that there is certainly
an effect, which was noted in the experiment by
differences in fluctuation magnitudes based on the
time of day of a given run.

10

10

10

wavenumber (rad / m)

Similar conclusions to those reached based on the


results presented (in Figures 10 13), on extent of
wave breaking were recently obtained using VOF
simulations (Imas 2004).
DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

DISCUSSION
Leonard Imas
Stevens Institute of Technology, USA
5) As the authors point out, surface fluctuations are
important as a measure related to turbulence
energy in breaking. Using this measured quantity
for CFD code validation should prove useful as at
present time, there is limited understanding
about the accuracy of uRANS and LES turbulence
models performance in the breaking wave zone.
6) The surface roughness measurements presented
in Figure 9 essentially indicate that the breaking
wave region is spectrally broad-banded. It would
be useful to produce this curve for a broader
range of Froude numbers, both above and below
1.0. Namely, do the differences in the curves
become larger or smaller at lower wavenumbers?

To conclude, I have found the data measured


by the authors as part of this experiment very useful
for purposes of code validation on two separate
occasions now and would like to thank them again
for sharing their data and commend them for the high
quality of their work.
REFERENCES:
Imas, Leonard, Simulation of Free-Surface Flow
Around the DTMB Wedge Body, presentation given
at the ONR Ship Wave Breaking and Bubble Flow
Review, La Jolla, California, March 2004.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Eric A. Ericson
Johns Hopkins
Laboratory, USA

University

Applied

Physics

The breaking bow wave measurements and


analysis presented in this paper address important
issues regarding free-surface hydrodynamics.
Detailed measurements such as these are critical to
understanding and predicting the generation of
surface wakes by ships.
A couple of issues came to mind as I read
the paper. The first concerns the overturning bow
sheet. From the paper, I get the impression that the
bow sheet is not present for all run conditions and
that its presence impacts the form of the breaking
bow wave. Can the laser sheet measurements be used
to characterize the bow sheets in any way? In
particular, it would be interesting to identify the
location where the bow sheet impinged back onto the
free surface, quantify its distance from the hull, and
study its impact on the following breaking crest.
The second issue concerns the low
wavenumber roll-off of the surface elevation spectra
shown in Figure 9. As the authors note, these spectra
have forms similar to those observed for the
stationary breaking waves presented by Walker et al.
(1996). The spectra from Walker et al. had a low
wavenumber roll-off determined approximately by
2 divided by the plume length, where the plume
length is the distance from the breaking crest to the
toe of the turbulent region on its forward face. Can
the plume lengths of the breaking bow waves be
estimated from the laser sheet measurements? If so, it
may be interesting to see if the same low
wavenumber roll-off dependence applies.

The location at which the bow sheet impinges on


the free surface is somewhat difficult to
determine with sufficient accuracy to be useful.
It can probably be estimated, however, by
relating it to the point where the multiphase
nature of the breaking begins that is, where the
laser light sheet begins to be reflected very
brightly in the images. This is probably the point
of initial splash-up of the wave, which probably
coincides or is at least close to the point of
impingement by the bow sheet. This location
can be found in Figure 10 at the forward tip of
the shaded area indicating the extent of breaking.
In this example, the impact of the jet probably
occurs close to x = 1 meter from the stem and y
= 0.5 meters.
2) Although the plume length specifically has not
been determined, the average width of the
breaking region has, and is shown in Figures 12
and 13 of the paper. This quantity, defined in
the paper as the region where the laser reflects
brightly of the multiphase flow in the breaking
region, is defined in the direction of the laser
sheet. The plume length perpendicular to the
crest can be determined by multiplying the
avergage breaking width reported in the paper by
the cosine of the angle between the wave crest
and the laser sheet (for both Froude numbers it
was measured to be close to 40 degrees). The
plume length varies along the crest of the wave
(or x position along the wedge), as does the peak
frequency of the wavenumber spectrum.

AUTHORS REPLY
1) The authors believe that the bow sheet exists for
all the breaking conditions of the fine bow. That
is, the breaking wave generated by the fine bow
was a plunging breaker, characterized by a bow
sheet riding up the side of the hull, overturning,
and impinging back on the free surface. The
current paper only addresses conditions in which
the bow wave was breaking. There were
certainly experimental conditions that did not
exhibit the bow sheet, but they are not
considered to be breaking for the purpose of this
paper, because whitewater was not observed in
the laser sheet. The full bow, in contrast, did not
always exhibit a bow sheet because the bow
wave was sometimes more of a spilling wave
than a plunging wave with a clear bow sheet.

The figure above shows the frequency at which


the peak occurs for each x position for each of
the two Froude numbers. The x axis shows the
plume length at that position, which is the
breaking width along the laser sheet after the
cosine correction. The dashed line in the figure
is the equation y = 2/x, following the

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

suggestion of the discussor. It seems to match


the data very well, a fact which suggests that the
dominant wavelength is equal to the length of the
plume.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

An Experimental Investigation of Breaking


Bow Waves Simulated with a 2D+T Technique
Mostafa Shakeri, Xinan Liu, Sven Goll and James H. Duncan
(University of Maryland, United States of America)
has to be large as well and, of course, the model must
be operated at the same Froude numbers as the full
scale ship. The second major issue that must be
addressed in order to obtain realistic bubble
populations is that the experiments must be performed
in salt water. It is well known that in salt water air
entrainment processes produce many more small
bubbles than in fresh water, Monahan and. Zeitlow
(1969), Monahan et al. (1994), Slauenwhite and
Johnson (1999).

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this experimental study is to explore
the physics, surface profiles, flow fields, and bubble
distributions in breaking bow waves of high-speed
ships.
These laboratory experiments must be
performed at relatively large scale and in salt water to
insure that the bubble size distributions are similar to
those in full scale ships. In order create these large
waves, a two-dimensional deformable wave maker is
being used. The profile of the wave maker at each
instant in time (t) is set to match the vertical section of
a ship model at a streamwise location that is a distance
Ut from the stem, where U is the ship model speed.
The wave maker has a draft of 0.91 m and an
equivalent full beam of 2.83 m. It is capable of speeds
that simulate 30 knots full scale speed for a ship with a
draft-to-length ratio of 23.11. The wave maker and
the wave tank are built to be used with salt water. In
this paper, measurements of the profiles of the
breaking bow wave in fresh water are presented for
two cases with equivalent full scale ship speeds of 20
and 25 knots.

In this paper, the above problems are addressed by


studying experimentally the dynamics and bubble
generation in simulated breaking bow waves. These
waves are generated by a method known as 2D+T in
which a two-dimensional wave maker moves
horizontally and deforms in a manner so that its surface
approximates the intersection of the profile of the
three-dimensional ship hull and a fixed vertical plane
as the ship moves in a direction normal to the plane.
Tulin and Wu (1996) have shown through numerical
calculations that the 2D+T method produces waves that
are quite similar to those of 3D ships. In the remainder
of this section, we show a simple comparison of
experimental data to illustrate these similarities. Dong
et al. (1997) made an experimental investigation of free
surface flow around a 3D ship model using a PIV
technique. The model was 3.05 m long and the model
speed ranged from 0.914 m/s to 2.44 m/s. Dong et al.
also photographed the surface flow patterns using a
camera that was mounted on the towing carriage.
Figure 1(a) (taken from their paper) shows an extended
exposure photograph of the bow wave system around
the ship model at a Froude number (based on model

INTRODUCTION
Breaking bow waves in the flow around high-speed
ships are of great practical and scientific interest. The
primary goal of the current experiments is to explore
the dynamics of air entrainment by breaking bow
waves and to provide information on the bubble
populations and velocity fields created by these
breakers at positions as far downstream as the stern of
a 3D ship model. In these experiments, two major
issues must be taken into account in order to achieve
realistic bubble populations. First, the breaking bow
waves must be large enough to make the effect of
surface tension small relative to the available kinetic
energy thus allowing the creation of small bubbles,
similar to those created in the large waves of full scale
ships. In order to generate large waves, the ship model

length Fr = U /

gL , where U is the model speed, g

is the acceleration of gravity and L is the model length)


of 0.334. The water surface was marked with
Aluminum powder. Since the wavelength of the bow
wave is short, the breaker is strongly affected by

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

surface tension and appears as a spilling breaker with


no plunging jet.
As yet, there are no complete experimentally
determined 2D+T wave profiles for direct comparison
with the work of Dong et al. However, some
information can be gained using the experimental data
on short wavelength unsteady two-dimensional
breakers given in Duncan et al. (1999). The breakers
were generated mechanically by a plunging wave
maker and forced to break far from the wave maker. In
these experiments, crest profile histories of the
breakers were measured using a photographic
technique that employs a high-speed digital camera, a
laser light sheet and fluorescent dye (see the following
section for more details on this measurement
technique). A sequence of crest profiles from a weak
spilling breaker is shown in Figure 2. This wave
breaking event is also dominated by surface tension
and occurs without the formation of any plunging jet.
The data is plotted in a manner that gives the 2D+T
equivalent of the wave pattern on the starboard side of
a ship model as it moves vertically down in the figure.
In spite of the fact that this wave was not created with
any hull displacement in the vicinity of the breaker (as
it would have been in a 2D+T simulation), many
features in the surface pattern are qualitatively similar
to those found in the photograph by Dong et al. (1997).
In particular, the leading edge of the breaking zones
have the same shape and the curved trajectories and
number of the ripples are quite similar in the two cases.
While not proving the accuracy of a 2D+T simulation,
this comparison gives credibility to the similarity of the
two flows.

Figure 2. 2D+T representation of wave profiles of a


two-dimensional spilling breaker generated by
dispersive focusing. From Duncan et al. 1999}

Experimental Details
The experiments are being carried out in a wave tank
that is 14.80 m long, 1.15 m wide, and 2.20 m deep
with a water depth of 1.83 m. The 2D+T wave maker
was built to simulate the 5415 model that was used in
tests at the Naval Underwater Warfare Center,
Carderock. (Other ship profiles can be simulated as
well by modifying the computer control software.)
Unfortunately, it is not possible to simulate the bow
bulb in the 2D+T experiments so this feature was
removed from the wave maker profile sequence. The
beam to draft ratio of the 5415 model is 3.11 and the
length to draft ratio is 23.11. The draft of the 2D+T
wave maker is 0.91 m. Thus, the equivalent beam and
length of the 3D model simulated by the 2D+T wave
maker are 2.82 m and 21.03 m, respectively.
A schematic drawing of the wave maker is shown in
Figure 3. The wave maker is powered by four
servomotors, which drive four vertically oriented
shafts. Each shaft drives a toothed pulley, which drives
a tube via a rack-and-pinion-like system. The drive
tubes, in turn, drive horizontally oriented drive plates

Figure 1. Bow wave pattern around a ship model


with a length of 3.05 m, Fr=0.334. From Dong et al.
(1997).

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

that are as wide as the tank (1.14 m) and guided along


the tank walls by tracks. The edges of the plates
farthest from the pistons are attached to the skin of the
wave board via hinges. Position sensors and motor
tachometers are used in a computer-based feed back
control system to achieve the desired motion of each
piston. Most of the wave maker is submerged inside
the tank and the wave maker frame is bolted to the
bottom and sidewalls of the wave tank. The wave
maker is made of appropriate materials to resist
corrosion due to salt water.

Wave board

Servo motors
Keel bar
Figure 4. A photograph of the wave maker in the fully
extended position (midships).
In order to examine the accuracy of the wave maker,
two measurements are shown in Figure 5 and 6. Both
measurements were done at a full scale equivalent ship
speed of 25 knots, Fr= 0.346. The wave maker motion
lasts 2.25 seconds at this equivalent speed. Figure 5
is a plot of the measured horizontal position of each
drive tube versus time along with the desired position
data for each tube taken from horizontal cuts of the
hull of the 5415 model. The drive tube position data
was measured with the linear position sensors used for
feedback for the wave maker control system (see
Figure 3). Note that measured and desired data are in
very close agreement. Figure 6 is a plot of the shape of
the wave board at various times and the shape of the
5415 hull profiles at the corresponding streamwise
positions along the length of the model. The wave
board position measurements were taken from
photographs the wave maker during its extension.
Note the excellent agreement between the two sets of
data with the exception of the bottom of the first
profile where the top of the bulbous bow can be seen in
the 5415 profile data.

Position
sensors

Figure 3. A schematic drawing of the wave maker.


The wave board bends over the top of the keel bar
assembly. The keel depth of the model is at the top of
the keel bar.
The waves are generated by the motion of the flexible
wave board that is driven by the four drive tubes. The
wave board, which spans the width of the wave tank, is
constructed from interleaved thin stainless steel plates
of various lengths. The plates are slotted and riveted
together in such a way that does not allow any straightthrough flow of water from one surface of the wave
board to the other. The stainless steel plates are thin
enough to bend elastically under the differential action
of the pistons. Each piston is attached to a different
layer of stainless steel via hinges so that as the pistons
move out at different speeds, the changing distance
between the hinge points is accommodated by the
stainless steel plates sliding relative to each other.
The effective keel of the model is created by the fixed
keel bar over which the wave board bends and slides,
see Figure 3. A photograph of the wave board in the
tank and in the fully extended position is shown in
Figure 4.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

fluorescent dye and upon illumination by the laser light


sheet the dye glows with a greenish-yellow color. Also
attached to the instrument carriage is a high-speed
digital camera that was operated at 250 pictures per
second. Each picture consists of an array of 512 by
512 pixels with eight-bit gray levels. The glowing line
seen in each image is the intersection of the light sheet
and the water surface and its position and shape yield
the crest profile in each image via digital image
processing techniques. The carriage is mechanically
connected to the top drive tube of the wave maker so
the camera and light sheet move at the time varying
speed of the upper part of the wave board.

60

Offset (inches)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Time (arbitrary units

Figure 5. Position versus time of the four drive tubes of


the 2D+T wave maker plotted along with the
corresponding positions for the 5415 model
(essentially horizontal plan cuts of the hull profile).
The two sets of four curves are in very close agreement
and are therefore indistinguishable in the plot.
Profile Near
stem

High-speed movie
camera

Mirror

Laser ligh
sheet

Profiles near
Mid ship
Carriage moves
with top drive plate

60

50

z(in)

40

1.82 m

30

Water
mixed with
fluorescene
dye

20

10

10

20

30
y(in)

40

50

60

Figure 7.
apparatus.

Figure 6. Hull profiles of the 5415 model at various


streamwise sections (solid lines) and corresponding
measured positions of the wave board of the 2D+T
wave maker (data points).

1.15 m

Water surface profile measurement

Results
A sequence of six photographs from a single run with
the wave maker is shown in Figures 8 (a) through 8 (f).
The sequence covers the first 452 ms of the
experimental run. This run has an equivalent full scale
ship speed of 25 knots (Fr = 0.346) and is completed in
2.25 s. The image widths are about 50 cm. In Figure 8
(a), the wave maker has just started to move and the
water surface is nearly flat. The wave board is vertical
at the left side of the image. The bright nearly
horizontal line on the left at the bottom of the image is
the intersection of the light sheet and the water surface.
After 20 ms (Figure 8 (b) the water surface has begun
to rise up the wave board. At t=144 ms, Figure 8 (c),
the water surface has risen much further up the wave
board and a jet directed horizontally to the right is

The first step in the experiments is to measure the


profile histories of the wave system generated by the
2D+T wave maker. Important characteristics of the
profiles of the breaking waves include the crest height,
wave steepness, and the plunging jet thickness and
velocity just prior to impact with the front face of the
wave. These measurements are taken photographically
with the system shown in Figure 7. Illumination is
provided by an Argon Ion Laser that is mounted
outside the tank. The laser beam is directed by a series
of mirrors to the instrument carriage upon which is
mounted a system of mirrors and lenses to convert the
beam into a light sheet that is oriented vertically along
the center plane of the tank. The water is mixed with

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

beginning to form. The jet begins to fall toward the


water surface at about t = 280 ms, see Figure 8 (d). As
the jet falls air is either entrapped in the top or captured
as the jet impacts the water surface, see Figures 8 (e)
and (f).

Figure 8 (c). t = 144 ms. The jet begins to form.


Figure 8 (a). t = 0 ms. The wave board has barely
begun to move.

Figure 8 (d), t = 280 ms. The jet begins to fall due to


gravity.

Figure 8 (b). t = 20 ms. The water begins to rise on


the wave board.

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Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

The maximum water surface height at the last profile


processed is about 300 mm.

Figure 9 Profiles of the wave crest generated at the


bow for an equivalent full scale speed of 25 knots. The
total run time is 2.25 seconds and the time between
water surface profiles is 4 ms.

Figure 8 (e). t = 400 ms. Air can be seen in the jet tip.

The time histories of the height of the water contact


line on the wave board and the horizontal speed of the
plunging jet were recorded for runs with 2.8-second
(Fr=0.2755) and 2.25-second (Fr=0.346) durations
these runs correspond to 20 knot and 25 knot
equivalent full scale speeds, respectively. The contact
line height data for the 2.8-second and 2.25-second
runs are shown in Figures 10 and 11. respectively.
The maximum heights of the contact lines are 18 cm
and 25 cm for the 2.8-second and 2.25-second runs,
respectively.

20
18
16
Contact line height (cm)

Figure 8 (f). t= 452 ms. The jet begins contact with the
front face of the wave.
Data from image sequences such as the one from
which the samples were taken for Figure 8 are being
processed to obtain the history of the wave crest
profile. A sample data set is shown in Figure 9. The
plot contains about 100 profiles from a run with a 2.25second duration. The time between profiles is 4 ms. It
can be seen that the water surface rises quickly up the
wave board and flattens across the top at about the
same time that a horizontally moving jet is formed.

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Time (seconds)

Figure 10. Contact line height versus time for 2.8second run.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

30

Conclusion

Contact line height (cm)

25

These preliminary experiments demonstrate the


feasibility and important features of bow wave
generation with the 2D+T technique. In this
technique, it is possible to generate very large energetic
waves in a facility filled with salt water. The waves
are at least qualitatively similar to bow waves
generated by 3D ship models and the relationship
between these two wave systems will be explored
further in the future. One of the main goals to be
addressed in future work is the relationship between
the geometric characteristics of the bow waves prior to
jet impact and the turbulent fluid motions and bubble
populations after jet impact. Flow fields will be
measured with particle image velocimetry and bubbles
will be measured with various techniques including
shadow graphs and in-line holography. It is hoped that
this data can be used in numerical models to predict
empirically the air entrainment characteristics of the
breaking bow wave of high-speed ships.

20
15
10
5
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Time (seconds)

Figure 11. Contact line height versus time for 2.25second run.
Another interesting quantity is the horizontal speed of
the jet as shown in Figure 12. Data for both the 2.8second run and the 2.25-second run are shown in the
figure along with the velocity of the top drive tube
which is located 15.24 cm above the undisturbed water
level. The velocities are non-dimensionalized by the
maximum velocity of the top drive tube ( U max ) in

Reference

each case and time is multiplied by U max . As can be

Tulin M. P. and M. Wu, 1996, Divergent bow


waves, Proceedings of the 21th Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, Trondheim, Norway, June 1996.

seen from the figure, the horizontal speed of the jet


was as high as 1.7 times U max and still rising when the
last data points were taken for the jet speed.

Dong R. R., J. Katz, T. T. Huang, 1997, On the


structure of bow waves on a ship model, Journal of
Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 346, pp. 77-115.

1.8
Channel 1 velocity, 20 knots
Jet horizontal velocity, 20 knots
Channel 1 velocity, 25 knots
Jet horizontal velocity, 25 knots

1.6

Duncan J. H., H. Qiao, V. Philomin and A. Wenz,


1999, Gentle spilling breakers: crest profile
evolution, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 379, pp.
191-222.

1.4

Velocity/U

1max

1.2

0.8

Monahan E. C. and C. R. Zeitlow, 1969, Laboratory


comparisons of fresh-water and salt-water whitecaps,
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 74, pp. 69616966.

0.6

0.4

0.2

20

40

60
Time*U1max (inches)

80

100

Monahan E. C., Q. Wang, X. Wang, and M. B.


Wilson, 1994, Air entrainment by breaking waves: A
Laboratory assessment, Aeration Tech. ASME Fluids
Engineering Division, Vol. 187, pp. 21-26.

120

Figure 12. Horizontal velocities of the jet tips and the


top drive tube as a function of time for the 2.8-second
and 2.25-second wave maker motions..

Slauenwhite D. E. and B. D. Johnson, 1999, Bubble


shattering: Differences in bubble formation in fresh
water and seawater, Journal of Geophysical Research,
Vol. 104(C2), pp. 3265-3275.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Alan Brandt
Johns Hopkins University, USA
Is there an expected scale to the intermittent
fingering noticeable at the leading edge of the
spilling breakers? A scale could be associated with
the eddy structure in the turbulent region.
AUTHORS REPLY
We are planning to rotate the laser light
sheet and camera by 90 degrees about a vertical axis
so that we can measure the surface structures along
the cross stream length of the jet. We agree that there
will probably be a relationship between the dominant
length scale of these surface structures and the length
scales of the turbulent velocity field in cross stream
planes, at least just after jet impact with the front
wave face. However, we are not sure that the PIV
measurements that are planned for the underlying
flow will be sufficient to determine the turbulent
length scales in the cross stream plane. In any case,
we will attempt to address this issue.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Richard Lahey, Jr.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
To make good local void fraction
measurements one can use a rake of tubes with quick
closing ball valves at either end. At a given time all
valves are closed capturing the local air volume (i.e.,
void fractions). This device works well in high void
fractions where optical devices wont work. The
authors are encouraged to investigate the use of these
devices.
AUTHORS REPLY
Thank you for your interesting suggestion.
We will explore the possibility of this measurement
technique. Though we can see the advantages of this
measurement technique in statistically stationary twophase flows, we will need to address difficulties
caused by the fact that in the breaking wave the highvoid fraction zone is in a region of space that is
initially above the mean water level in the tank and
the high-void fraction zone is moving rapidly in
laboratory coordinates.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Field Measurements of Bow Spray Droplets


T. Waniewski Sur and K. Chevalier
(Science Applications International Corporation, USA)
ABSTRACT
The bow spray is a very prominent hydrodynamic feature of the flow around naval combatant ships; it must be
included as part of computational fluid dynamic models
if a complete hydrodynamic prediction is desired. Modelling the generation and evolution of large quantities of
droplets over a wide range of scales requires specialized
procedures, and full scale field measurements of bow
spray are needed for model development and validation.
This paper presents full scale measurements
of bow spray droplets from a field experiment led by
the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) aboard
the R/V Roger Revelle on a transit from Lyttelton,
New Zealand to Pago-Pago, American Samoa in February/March 2002. SAIC deployed a high-speed digital
video camera to examine the generation of spray droplets
by the breaking bow wave over a region extending from
zero to six meters aft of the forward perpendicular. Ship
forward speeds ranged from 1.0 to 7.7 m/s, and sea state
conditions ranged from sea state zero to three. Ship
motion data was collected and the flow around the R/V
Roger Revelle was documented by nine standard digital
video cameras throughout the field experiment.

namic feature, it continues to be extremely challenging


to model. Not only is the overturning shape of the bow
wave free surface highly three-dimensional and complex,
but the flow is also multiphase in nature. Portions of the
bow wave sheet thin down to the point where it ruptures
into myriad spray droplets. Other portions of the bow
wave remain intact, curl over, and impinge on the free
surface entraining air bubbles into the flow around the
ship. At Science Applications International Corporation
(SAIC), an ongoing computational ship hydrodynamics
effort focuses on these modelling challenges. Several
years ago a simple bow spray model (described in a later
section herein) was developed as part of this effort; however, suitable experimental data was not available for its
validation even though the study of sprays has been an
active research area.

INTRODUCTION

Interest in sprays arises from many practical applications related to power, propulsion, heat exchange,
and material processing. There are also natural occurrences of sprays. A recent review of the science and
technology of droplets and sprays may be found in Sirignano (1999). Experimental investigations have been and
continue to be useful for exploring the physics of spray
generation and evolution. Dai et al. (1997) studied turbulent primary breakup of annular wall jets and correlated drop sizes at the onset of turbulent primary breakup
by equating the surface energy required to form a drop
to the kinetic energy of an eddy of corresponding size.
Sarpkaya and Merrill (1999) also focused on the physics
of ligament and drop formation at the free surface of liquid wall jets, flowing over smooth and sand-roughened
plates. They found that the root mean square value of
v 0 was quite close to the initial ligament ejection velocity, thereby relating the ligaments to the internal structure of the flow. Turbulent breakup of the liquid sheet is
widely accepted as the main source of spray generation;
however, it should be noted that some groups observed
instabilities in the liquid sheet which also contribute to
spray droplet generation (see, for example, Shroff and
Liepmann (1997)).

The breaking bow wave has been of interest to the


naval hydrodynamics community for the past several
years. Even though there has been a significant amount
of research dedicated to understanding this hydrody-

While these and other laboratory experiments


were carefully performed and documented, resulting empirical correlations cannot be incorporated into a full
scale numerical model without uncertainty because the
scaling of the spray generation process is unknown. Vi-

Not only do the high-speed images provide detailed records of full-scale bow wave break up into spray
droplets, but image processing yielded a quantitative
characterization of the spray including droplet sizes and
velocities. Variations in spray droplet size and velocity
with ship Froude number and with distance aft of the forward perpendicular were observed. It was also observed
that the bow wave and spray generation were quite unsteady even for the mildest sea state conditions. Correlations between the pitch angle in a ship-fixed coordinate
system and the spray sheet elevation showed that the ship
motion relative to the incoming waves is a key parameter
in determining the extent of the bow spray sheet.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 1: Photographs of the bow flow at twenty knots at two different scales: the USS Cole (left) and David Taylor Model Basin
model 5415 (right).

sual inspection of model and full scale flows at the same


Froude numbers (see Figure 1) reveals simple Froude
scaling is inadequate. There are significant differences
in the appearance of bow spray; the bow sheet does
not break up into spray droplets in the towing tank. It
is likely that the spray generation process scales with
both Reynolds and Weber numbers in addition to the
Froude number. In addition, ambient conditions (wind
and waves) strongly effect the spray generation process
in the field. Seawater also contains surfactants which
can accumulate and reduce the local surface tension by
as much as 0.02 N/m (Kaiser et al., 1988). For these
reasons, it is important to obtain full scale field measurements of bow spray characteristics and this paper
presents the first attempt (to the authors knowledge) to
use high-speed photography and image processing techniques to study full scale bow flows in the field.

Figure 2: R/V Roger Revelle with approximate location of


SAIC camera boom marked by the blue line. The green lines
are the forward and aft boom control lines; they passed through
mooring holes and were secured by two cam cleats at the common topside location.

The high-speed monochrome video camera


used by SAIC (Photron FASTCAM-PCI 2K/16m) had
three main components: (1) a small camera head, 160
(W) x 330 (D) x 180 (H) mm, (2) a full-size standard
PCI board, and (3) a 16 m long cable which connected
the camera to the board. The camera had an adjustable
frame rate from 30 to 2,000 frames per second. Its imaging sensor was a square pixel, 250 Hz progressive scan
CCD and the scan area was 4.8 (H) x 3.6 (V) mm, or
1/3 inch. Full resolution, 512 by 480 pixels, could be
achieved up to frame rates of 250 frames per second. It
had a recording capacity of 512 Mb, or 2,176 images at
full resolution. The video was recorded using two Cmount lenses: (1) a 75 mm fixed focal length lens or (2)
a 100 mm zoom lens at full zoom.

R/V ROGER REVELLE FIELD EXPERIMENT


The R/V Roger Revelle field experiment was conducted
on a transit from Lyttelton, New Zealand to Pago-Pago,
American Samoa in February/March 2002. Ship forward
speeds ranged from 1.0 to 7.7 m/s, and sea state conditions ranged from sea state zero to three. Various instruments were deployed by SIO and photographers from
the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division
(NSWCCD), extensively documented the flow around
the ship using nine digital video cameras (Ratcliffe et al.,
2003). Ship motions were recorded using a six-degreeof-freedom motion package (Seatex MRU 5) installed on
the R/V Roger Revelle. SAIC deployed a high-speed
digital video camera to examine the generation of spray
droplets at locations along the bow wave ranging from
zero to six meters aft of the forward perpendicular.

In the field experiments, the high-speed video


camera was housed in a protective enclosure with an optical glass window and mounted on an adjustable boom
that facilitated camera deployment across a large range
of positions. The boom was located on the port side of
2

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

the R/V Roger Revelle, situated so that when the boom


was hanging vertical it was adjacent to the forward perpendicular (see Figure 2). Three adjustable lines controlled the boom position. Regulation of the forward
and aft control lines determined the fore/aft angle of the
boom with respect to vertical. Similarly, the outboard
angle of the boom was controlled by the outboard line,
which was arranged with a 2:1 purchase system in order
to facilitate the adjustment of the boom. Additional lines
were used to control the attitude of the camera housing.
All of the control lines went to a common topside location to permit adjustment by a single person.

Figure 5: Illustration of the high-speed video camera and lens.

Images of Calibration Target

A typical camera/boom deployment positioned


the camera approximately 6.9 m away from the spray
generated by the breaking bow wave (see Figure 3). Using a 100 mm zoom lens, the field of view was approximately 26 cm horizontal by 25 cm vertical resulting in
a resolution of 1.9 pixels/mm. Since this field of view
did not encompass the entire bow wave, the camera was
repositioned to look at different sections of the bow wave
for a given forward speed. The camera was also calibrated by recording images of a stationary grid target located at a known distance from the camera lens. The grid
was imaged on the main deck of the R/V Roger Revelle.
A tuffcam, a rugged 30-frames-per-second video camera, provided by NSWCCD photographers was mounted
on top of the high-speed video camera housing. Since
it had a larger field of view, it was used to aim the highspeed video camera and to simultaneously record images
with GPS time code. It documented the overall bow flow.

Before each group of high-speed video runs of the bow


spray droplets, images of a grid distortion target (Edmund Industrial Optics) were taken on the main deck of
the R/V Roger Revelle. The white reflective Mylar target
is 206 by 280 mm, and a 150 by 150 mm grid of black
dots is printed on it. The dot diameter is 30.13 mm
(similar in size to the spray droplets), and the dot center spacing is 60.0008 mm. The target was oriented in
a vertical plane, perpendicular to the high-speed video
camera line of sight, for each working distance. A threedimensional model of the high-speed camera boom and
the R/V Roger Revelle hull was used to determine the
working distances from measurements of the control line
lengths . The images from the calibration target runs
were used to determine the field of view for each working
distance even though this can be calculated using similar triangles to relate the field of view to the working
distance, lens focal length, and CCD sensor size. An illustration of this relationship is included as Figure 5. For
both lenses the agreement between the measured and calculated values was good.

Over the ten-day experiment, more than 100


high-speed video image sequences were recorded and
typical images are shown in Figure 4. The ship forward speed for these image sequences ranged from 1.0 to
7.7 m/s (2 to 15 knots), but the majority of the sequences
were recorded at 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

Images of Spray Droplets


For each run, the AVI file was viewed first to determine
whether or not the images had the contrast and focus required for successful image processing. If the contrast
and focus were good, then the TIFF image files were processed. The first fifty TIFF files in each image sequence
were used to select the best grayscale threshold value for
the image sequence so that the water appear white and
the air would appear black. Then the remainder of the
sequence was processed in consecutive groups of fifty
due to memory limitations. The main image-processing
steps were to:

IMAGE PROCESSING
Both the tuffcam and the high-speed video were used to
make measurements of bow spray characteristics. The
tuffcam video was used to estimate elevations of the bow
wave/spray sheet by scaling the image from distinctive
markings on the R/V Roger Revelle ship hull. These
videos also highlight the unsteady nature of the bow
wave due to the at-sea conditions. The high-speed image
sequences were processed using custom software written
in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) together with the
Signal Processing and Image Processing toolboxes. The
key image-processing steps for the calibration and spray
droplet images are presented, and a discussion of the error associated with these techniques follows.

1. Import fifty images into the MATLAB workspace.


2. Use grayscale threshold to convert image from
grayscale to binary.
3. Filter binary images to remove noise using medfilt algorithm.
3

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Figure 3: Forward looking view of a typical deployment of the SAIC camera boom and high-speed video camera aboard the R/V
Roger Revelle (left). Aft looking view of a deployment with a large outboard offset (right).

Figure 4: Part of a typical raw image sequence (eight frames out of 2,176) from the high-speed video camera of the spray droplets
generated by bow wave break up. The sequence reads from the left to the right and from the top to the bottom; the elapsed time in
between successive frames is 0.4 seconds. The field of view of the camera was approximately 26.5 cm (H) by 24.8 cm (V).

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

4. Label objects, groups of connected on-pixels, using


four-connected neighborhoods.

Qualitative Description of Bow Spray Generation


The generation of bow spray is a complex process that
depends on many parameters including turbulence, gravity, surface tension, liquid sheet geometry, velocity distribution in the sheet, surface shear, roughness of the
contact surfaces, temperature distribution in the jet, pressure fluctuations within and outside liquid sheet, acoustic excitation, external flows, intentionally imposed disturbances, and foreign particles (Sarpkaya and Merrill,
1999). Both the tuffcam and the high-speed video enhance the observations from the field. In particular, they
provide detailed records of full-scale bow wave breakup
into spray droplets.

(a) Discard objects with an area less than four pixels.


(b) Discard objects with an area greater than 25%
of total image area.
p
5. Calculate the apparent diameter, 2 area/, for the
remaining set of objects.
6. Track the objects from one image to the subsequent
image.
(a) The centroid of the object in the subsequent
image must be located within a certain neighborhood around the centroid of object in the
original image. The size of the neighborhood
is determined by averaging the magnitude of
the velocity of several object pairs selected by
the user for each group of fifty images.

The primary mechanism of bow spray droplet


generation is the breakup of the bow sheet. In the highspeed video, the distortion of the bow sheet into ligaments that elongate until the tip pinches off to form a
droplet was observed. This type of breakup has been described in detail by Sarpkaya and Merrill (1999). The
high-speed video also showed instances where the bow
sheet became extremely thin and appeared to shatter.
First, holes form which perforate the sheet. The holes
grow rapidly leaving threads at the edges which then
break up into drops. This seems similar to descriptions
given by Dai et al. (1997). Both types of bow sheet
breakup are seen in the images presented in Figure 4. In
windy conditions, the airflow assists bow sheet breakup,
i.e. atomization.

(b) The object in the subsequent image must have


an area within 10% of the object area in the
original area.
(c) Any non-unique object pairs are discarded.
7. Calculate velocity by dividing distance travelled by
the time between two successive video images.
Error Analysis

The secondary mechanism of bow spray generation is the impact of the bow wave jet on the free surface, and the amount of spray droplet generation (and
air entrainment) depend quite critically on the degree of
breakup of the bow wave jet before impact. The free
surface itself is disturbed and may be rough and foamy.
After the primary impact, there may be additional impacts similar to a skipping stone, but these produce fewer
droplets. Finally, droplets may also be produced by
droplet splitting and by bubbles bursting at the free surface.

The greatest source of error in this technique arises from


the depth of field uncertainty. The depth of field refers to
a range that begins in front of the working distance and
extends behind it; if an object is located in this range it
will appear in-focus in the image. An illustration is included as Figure 5. For each of the SAIC high-speed
video runs, the depth of field was determined using a
software lens calculator (MiDAS 2.0 by Xcitex, Inc.)
created from accumulated camera and lens manufacturer
literature. Then, the depth of field was used to calculate
upper and lower limits on droplet size and velocity measurements. For example, at a working distance of 6.9 m
(SAIC high-speed video runs 71 and 72), a 5.3 mm apparent diameter droplet could appear as large as 5.5 mm
if it was at the near edge of the depth of field or as small
as 5.2 mm if it was at the far edge of the depth of field.

Quantitative Results
Image processing of the high-speed videos yielded quantitative results; the following sets of figures present examples of typical results from processing a single run as
well as groups of related runs. The first set of figures,
Figures 6, 7, and 8, show typical results from processing a single run, SAIC run 72 where the ship forward
speed was 6.2 m/s (12 knots). In addition to the results
shown here, the image processing programs also calculate velocity direction, droplet eccentricity, and droplet
size-velocity maps. For this run, the camera was located
at (x, y, z) = (2.20, 6.62, 4.47) meters, with respect

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The image processing and analysis yielded results which
were both qualitative and quantitative in nature; this section presents a summary. In addition, the high-speed
video was correlated with the ship motion data using
GPS time code; these results are also presented here.
5

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

3.5
3
1000*probability function

350

number of droplets per image

300
250
200
150

4
5
time (s)

1.5

0.5

300 400 500 600 700


apparent droplet velocity (cm/s)

800

900

1000

Figure 6 presents the number of droplets per image as a function of time and demonstrates the unsteady
nature of the bow spray. Figure 7 shows the numerical
frequency (probability density function) of the apparent
spray droplet diameter. The number of droplets is normalized such that the area under the curve connecting
the data points is equal to one. Recall from the Image
Processing section
that the apparent droplet diameter is
p
defined as 2 area/. A total of 148,410 droplets were
counted. The bin size for these distributions was 1 mm;
for example, the fraction of spray droplets with an apparent diameter between 2 and 3 mm is represented by the
filled circle at 2.5 mm on the abscissa. The mean spray
droplet apparent diameter for this run was 5.3 mm. Based
on spray droplet distributions reported in the literature
(see, for example, Sarpkaya and Merrill (2001) and Sallam et al. (1999)), a more Gaussian-shaped distribution
was expected. The shape of these size distributions indicate that there are probably a number of smaller droplets
that could not be captured with a high-speed video camera having a resolution of 512 by 480 pixels.

1
1.5
apparent droplet diameter (cm)

200

to an origin at the forward perpendicular on the design


waterline. A three-dimensional model of the high-speed
camera boom and the R/V Roger Revelle hull was used
to determine this position from measurements of the control line lengths. The R/V Roger Revelle stem is visible
in the video from this run.

2.5

0.5

100

Figure 8: A typical bow spray number frequency distribution


of the spray droplet velocity for SAIC run 72. The ship forward speed was 6.2 m/s (12 knots). The mean value of this
distribution is 2.7 m/s and the standard deviation is 1.4 m/s.

Figure 6: Number of bow spray droplets identified per image


as a function of time for SAIC run 72. The ship forward speed
was 6.2 m/s (12 knots). The sampling rate was 250 Hz. The
dotted line indicates the mean value.

probability function

1.5

0
0

50

0
0

0.5

100

0
0

2.5

2.5

Figure 7: A typical bow spray numerical frequency distribution of the apparent spray droplet diameter for SAIC run 72.
The ship forward speed was 6.2 m/s (12 knots). The mean value
of this distribution is 5.3 mm.

Figure 8 shows the numerical frequency (probability density function) of the spray droplet velocity for
the same run as is presented in Figure 7. It is extremely
important to note that the velocities reported here were
measured in the focal plane of the camera. Although the
spray droplets also move in and out of the focal plane,
6

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

locations along the wave. Figure 10 illustrates a general


decrease in droplet apparent diameter as the distance aft
of the forward perpendicular increases.

mean apparent droplet diameter (mm)

6
5.5

RUN 72
RUN 71

Correlation of High-Speed Video and Ship Motion


Data

4.5
RUN 79
RUN 77

Ship motion data was collected throughout the R/V


Roger Revelle field experiment by a motion reference
unit (Seatex MRU 5). A small portion of the ship motion
data which corresponded to a set of high-quality SAIC
high-speed video camera runs was provided by SIO.
The motion package included three angular rate sensors
and three linear accelerometers that were strapped-down
(as opposed to gyro-stabilized) to the platform frame.
As a result, measurements were made in the platforms
frame of reference. Transformation of the measurements
to the earths frame of reference is involved, but welldocumented in the literature (see, for example, Thwaites
(1995) and Edson et al. (1998)).

RUN 78

RUN 75
RUN 74

3.5

RUN 80

RUN 73
RUN 76

3
RUN 81

2.5
0

3
4
distance aft of FP (m)

Figure 10: Mean spray droplet apparent diameter as a function of distance aft of the forward perpendicular (FP) for runs
71-81 (black). The average diameter for all of the runs at a
given location is also shown (red). The error bars on the mean
values indicate upper and lower bounds based on spray droplet
position within the image depth of field.

Our initial hypothesis was that the bow spray


would correlate with the total vertical displacement of
the bow in an earth-fixed coordinate system. A procedure outlined by Edson et al. (1998) was used to calculate the total vertical displacement at the bow; however,
it was found that the result was highly dependent on the
time constant chosen for the high-pass filters. These filters could not be eliminated from the procedure because
there was an obviously non-physical low frequency component with an amplitude of greater than 10 m. It was
possible to select a time constant for the high pass filter to remove this low frequency component; however,
the filter may also have removed physically meaningful
frequency components. In addition, video observations
suggested that the motion of the ship relative to the incoming waves was important in determining the extent
of the spray sheet, but incoming wave height was not
measured. Because the total vertical displacement of the
bow could not be calculated with confidence and the observations suggested that the relative motion between the
ship and the waves may be better correlated with the bow
spray events, the correlation results presented here use
the pitch angle data in a ship-fixed coordinate frame.

this movement could not be measured with the existing


high-speed video system. The distribution has a mean
value of 2.7 m/s and standard deviation of 1.4 m/s.
Figure 9, present mean spray droplet size and
velocity as functions of Froude number
based on ship
draft, F rd . It is defined as F rd = U/ gd where d is the
ship draft. The runs selected for these figures were from
similar locations, each field of view was within 1.2 meters of the bow stem. Sixteen runs are included in these
figures: runs 69 and 70 at 3.1 m/s (6 knots), runs 60,
61, 62, 64 and 66 at 4.1 m/s (8 knots), runs 47 and 48
at 5.1 m/s (10 knots), runs 71, 72 and 75 at 6.2 m/s
(12 knots), runs 53 and 54 at 7.2 m/s (14 knots), and
runs 56 and 57 at 7.7 m/s (15 knots). Table 1 shows the
effects of the depth of field for the working distances employed by the runs included in these figures. The mean
spray droplet apparent diameters and velocities were averaged for all of the runs at a given Froude number. The
figures show a decrease in the mean spray droplet diameter and an increase in the mean spray droplet velocity
with Froude number; linear curve fits were added to the
figures to emphasize these expected trends. At higher
Froude numbers the breakup of the bow wave is more
energetic and produces droplets that are smaller and have
greater velocities.

The correlation results are summarized in Figure 11 for SAIC runs 7779. Figure 11 show the number
of droplets identified in each high-speed video image as a
function of time; the high-speed video runs begin at zero
seconds. In addition, about sixty seconds of pitch angle
data is also shown where positive pitch angle values indicate bow down motion. Finally, a sixty second interval
of the bow spray elevation as measured from the tuffcam video was added. Each frame from this video was
stamped with the GPS time code and was used to synchronize the measurements. Both the pitch angle and the
spray elevation data is periodic; furthermore, bow down

Figure 10 demonstrates the variation of mean


droplet size with location along the bow wave. Eleven
runs, Runs 71 through 81, are included in this figure.
Each was performed at a ship forward speed of 6.2 m/s
(12 knots), yet the field of view was located at successive
7

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Mean Diameter (mm)

6
5.5
5
4.5
4
0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.1

Mean Velocity (m/s)

4
3
2
1
0
0.4

Frd

Figure 9: Mean spray droplet apparent diameter (top) and velocity (bottom) as a function of Froude number based on ship draft,
F rd . In both figures, the error bars on the mean values indicate upper and lower bounds based on spray droplet position within the
image depth of field. Linear curve fits are shown by the dotted lines.

run
47, 48, 53
54, 56, 57
60-62, 64, 66, 69-72
75

working distance
(m)
5.94
5.21
6.91
3.84

near edge
(m)
5.79
5.10
6.71
3.77

far edge
(m)
6.10
5.32
7.12
3.90

depth of field
(cm)
31
22
41
13

max.
(mm)
5.23
5.06
5.24
5.15

min.
(mm)
4.97
4.84
4.94
4.98

Table 1: Spray droplet size error bounds based on location within the depth of field for a given working distance.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

motions seem to correlate well with the increases in bow


spray elevation. Cross-correlation results for pitch angle and spray elevation for SAIC runs 7779 are shown
in Figure 12. The cross-correlations appear quite structured, the local maxima occur at regular intervals. In fact,
all of the correlations have eleven local maxima over a
sixty second interval which indicates that the two signals
have a common frequency of 0.2 Hz. The absolute maximum occurs between 0.5 and 1.0 seconds in the figures;
this slight apparent phase difference in the two signals is
likely due to slight synchronization errors.

full-scale; the main conclusions in this area follow.


The primary mechanism of bow spray generation
appears to be the breakup of the bow sheet. Breakup
occurs as the bow sheet: (1) distorts into ligaments
that elongate until the tip pinches off to form a
droplet and/or (2) thins until it ruptures or shatters
into myriad droplets
Increases in the ship Froude number cause the mean
spray droplet apparent diameter to decrease and the
mean spray droplet velocity to increase because the
breakup of the bow wave into spray droplets is more
energetic.

CONCLUSIONS

Increases in the distance aft of the forward perpendicular along the bow wave appear to cause the
mean spray droplet apparent diameter to decrease.

A high-speed video camera was deployed on the 2002


R/V Roger Revelle field experiment to record images of
the bow spray; a multitude of high-quality images were
obtained. These images were processed using custom
software yielding both qualitative and quantitative results. The conclusions from this experimental work fall
into two main areas. The first area is an assessment of the
high-speed video measurement technique and the second
area is a description of the bow spray at full-scale.

The ship motion relative to the incoming waves is a


key parameter in determining the height of the spray
sheet. Since incoming wave data was not available
for this experiment, correlations between pitch angle in ship fixed coordinate system and the spray
sheet elevation were used instead.
It is important to note that these results are from an initial
experiment employing a unique research technique, and
they should be interpreted and used with care.

High-Speed Video Measurement Technique


To the authors knowledge, these were the first attempts to use high-speed video measurement techniques
to study full-scale bow flows in the field. At the time of
the experiment, the best commercial off-the-shelf highspeed video camera was purchased. This camera was
deployed successfully in the field and recorded highquality (excellent contrast and focus) images. Furthermore, spray droplet velocity distributions appear reasonable when compared with the ship forward speed; therefore, frame rate, field of view, and other camera parameters were appropriately selected. However, a camera
with higher resolution and additional memory is strongly
recommended for future experiments. Also, simultaneous recording of GPS time code with the high-speed
video images is recommended to facilitate synchronization with other shipboard measurement systems. In addition, a motorized lens to allow electronic control and
readout of zoom, focus, and aperture is recommended.
An electronically controlled pan and tilt would also improve the ease of use of this system in the field. Moreover, it would significantly improve the repeatability of
different camera positions and views.

FUTURE RESEARCH
Future directions for this work include both field experiments and numerical modelling efforts.

Field Experiments
Additional field experiments were conducted on the R/V
Athena in Panama City, FL in October 2003 and are
planned for May 2004. Table 2 presents a comparison of geometric characteristics for a DDG-51, the R/V
Roger Revelle, and the R/V Athena. High-speed video
of the bow spray was recorded. These experiments provided an opportunity to collect calm water data for a
full-scale naval combatant and to improve the high-speed
video system according to the suggestions described in
the Conclusions section. The calm water conditions are
important for several reasons. First, experimental measurements are more repeatable in calm, protected water than in the open ocean. Second, current prediction
methodologies for breaking waves (computational fluid
dynamics and scaled model-scale data) are limited to
steady conditions; therefore, calm water full-scale data
is required for their validation and further development.

Bow Spray
This experimental work provides a detailed description
of the breakup of the bow wave into spray droplets at
9

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Length (m)
Beam (m)
Length-beam ratio
Block coefficient
Prismatic coefficient
Bow half angle (deg.)
Flare angle (deg.)

DDG-51
142 (waterline)
18.0 (waterline)
7.9
0.521
0.627
10
10-20

R/V Roger Revelle


83.2
16.0
5.2
0.545
0.608
19 (at waterline)
26

R/V Athena
47.0
7.0
6.9
0.47
0.641
10
10-25

Table 2: Comparison of ship characteristics.

picted in Figure 13. At the time this model was developed, suitable experimental data was not available for its
validation.
There are some numerical models documented
in the literature which are related to the bow spray problem; however, they cannot be directly applied. Modelling the generation and evolution of large quantities of
droplets over a wide range of scales requires specialized
procedures. For example, the approach that Sussman and
Dommermuth (2001) used for studying spray sheets is
only suitable for micro-scale analysis of droplets; it is
not possible to model the flow around an entire ship with
such detail. Numerical models for spray droplet breakup
computations such as the Taylor Analogy Breakup model
(ORourke and Amsden, 1987) and the surface wave
instability model (Reitz, 1987) are also too detailed.
Complementary to the numerical simulations are simpler approaches. Sellens and Brzustowski (1985) used
the maximum entropy formalism to predict the drop
size distribution in a spray resulting from the breakup of
a liquid sheet, but the average droplet size must already
be known. Novikov and Dommermuth (1997) presented
a statistical description of droplets in a turbulent spray
connected with the description of turbulent dissipation.
Formulas for characteristic droplet sizes and corresponding probability distributions are obtained; however, these
contain unknown constants that can only be determined
empirically.

Figure 13: Bow wave (blue) of surface ship model 5415 (gray)
with envelope of spray sheet (white) as calculated by previous
SAIC bow spray model.

Numerical Modelling
As a result of this experimental work, there is a unique
collection of bow spray measurements for different geometric and flow conditions that will be helpful in bow
spray model development and validation. The development of an empirical spray model that will interface with
an existing base flow code has been initiated by Dr. Sur
at SAIC. Several years ago, a bow spray model was developed at SAIC as part of an ongoing effort in computational ship hydrodynamics. It used the bow wave
predicted by Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA), a mature
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) code written by Dr. Douglas Dommermuth of SAIC, for surface ship model 5415.
Spray source points were located along the contact line
of this bow wave along the ship and then along the cusp
of the overturning bow wave. A size distribution similar
to that presented by Novikov and Dommermuth (1997)
was assigned to the spray droplets and they were ejected
from the source points with velocities related to the base
flow velocity. The spray droplets were tracked as they
interacted with an approximate solution for the air flow
around the ship. The results of the calculation are de-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research is supported by the Office of Naval
Research under contract numbers N00014-97-C-0345,
N00014-01-C-0295, N00014-02-C-0283, and N0001403-0105. Dr. L. Patrick Purtell is the program manager.
The authors also wish to acknowledge Mr. John Kuhn
of SAIC, Dr. Eric Terrill , Ms. Lisa Lelli, and Professor
Ken Melville of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
and Dr. Thomas Fu, Mr. Billy Boston, and Mr. Martin
Sheehan all of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division for their contributions to this work.
10

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

REFERENCES

simulation of ship waves using cartesian-grid methods,


Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium on Naval
Hydrodynamics, Office of Naval Research, 2001,
pp. 762779.

Dai, Z., Hsiang, L.-P., and Faeth, G., Spray Formation at the
Free Surface of Turbulent Bow Sheets, Proceedings of
the Twenty-First Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,
Office of Naval Research, 1997, pp. 490505.

Thwaites, F.T., Development of an Acoustic Vorticity Meter


to Measure Shear in Ocean-Boundary Layers, Doctoral
dissertation, 1995, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Edson, J.B., Hinton, A.A, Prada, K.E., Hare, J.E., and Fairall,
C.E., Direct Covariance Flux Estimates from Mobile
Platforms at Sea, American Meteorological Society,
1998, pp. 547562.
Kaiser, J.A.C, Garrett, W.D., Ramberg, S.E., Peltzer, R.D., and
Andrews, M.D., WAKEX 86; A Ship Wake/Films
Exploratory Experiment, NRL Memorandum Report
6270, 1988, Naval Research Laboratory.
ORourke, P. J. and Amsden, A. A., The TAB Method for
Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,
Society of Automotive Engineers, paper number 872089,
1987.
Novikov, E.A. and Dommermuth, D.G., Distribution of
droplets in a turbulent spray, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 56,
No. 5, 1997, pp. 54795482.
Ratcliffe, T., Boston, W.S. and Sheehan, M., Photographic
Visualization of the Surface Wave Field and Boundary
Layer Surrounding the Research Vessel, R/V
REVELLE, NSWCCD-50-TR-2003/003, March 2003,
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West
Bethesda, MD.
Reitz, R.D., Modelling Atomization Processes in
High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,
Atomization and Sprays Tech., Vol. 3, 1987, pp.
309337.
Sallam, K.A., Dai, Z., and Faeth, G. M., Breakup of
Turbulent Liquid Jets in Still Gases,
Proc. AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA paper
number 99-3759, June 1999.
Sarpkaya, T., and Merrill, C.F., Spray formation at the free
surface of liquid wall jets, Proceedings of the TwentySecond Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Office of
Naval Research, 1999, pp. 796808.
Sellens, R.W. and Brzustowski, T.A., A Prediction of the
Drop Size Distribution in a Spray from First Principles,
Atomization and Spray Technology, Vol. 1, 1985,
pp. 89-102.
Shroff, S. and Liepmann, D., Spray Generation over Curved
Surfaces, In Proceedings of the Fluids Engineering
Division Summer Meeting, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1997.
Sirignano, W. Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Droplets and
Sprays, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Sussman, M. and Dommermuth, D.G., The numerical

11

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

100

20

10

10

20

2
40

30

100

50

0
30

20

10

10

20

2
40

30

100

50

0
30

20

10

10

20

pitch (deg)

0
30

pitch (deg)

200

pitch (deg)

number of droplets

number of droplets

number of droplets

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

5
40

30

time (s)

Figure 11: SAIC high-speed video run 77 (top), 78 (middle) and 79 (bottom). The blue line indicates the number of droplets per
high-speed video image; the high-speed video runs begin at time zero seconds. The green line indicates the pitch angle where
a positive value represents bow down motion. Finally, the red line indicates the elevation of the spray sheet measured from the
tuffcam video.

amplitude

6000
4000
2000
0
30

20

10

10

20

30

20

10

10

20

30

20

10

10

20

30

amplitude

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
30

amplitude

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
30

time (s)

Figure 12: Cross-correlations of the pitch angle (where a positive value represents bow down motion) and the bow spray elevation
for SAIC high-speed video run 77 (top), 78 (middle) and 79 (bottom).

12

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Alan Brandt
Johns Hopkins University, USA
A significant fraction of the bow sheet does
not form droplets. Is it not important to also account
for this in the measurements at model-scale?
AUTHORS REPLY
In the field tests on the R/V Revelle and R/V
Athena and also in the model scale (i.e. bow wedge,
see Karion et al., 2004) tests, there is a portion of the
bow sheet that does not break up into droplets that is
visible in the high-speed video camera field of view.
In each high-speed video image, this portion of the
bow sheet is filtered out so that it does not register as
a large droplet and affect the droplet size
distributions. It would be of interest to quantitatively
characterize this portion of the bow sheet,
particularly the surface roughnesses; however, this
has not been a focus of our work.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
DISCUSSION
Thomas C. Fu
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
1.

Your measurement of spray droplet velocity is


restricted to the focal plane of the camera, and
you intentionally minimize your depth of field to
reduce error. While the bow sheet is relatively
thin, and moving primarily along the hull, one
can see ligaments and droplets that appear and
move through the imaged plane. How big a
limitation do you think this is in your present
correlation with the ship motion, and do you
think this will be an issue as you construct your
empirical model, both in developing the model
and its application?

AUTHORS REPLY
The correlation with ship motion focused on
the relationship between the maximum elevations of
the spray sheet with pitch angle. In the model, the
initial ejection velocity for the spray droplets will be
provided by the base flow code. If the full threedimensional velocity of the spray droplets could be
measured (perhaps by using multiple synched highspeed video cameras), then these measurements could
be used to validate the velocity prediction by the base
flow code.

Thomas C. Fu
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA
3.

You have recently (October 2003 and May 2004)


taken data on the R/V Athena. Knowing that you
have not had a great deal of time to look at that
data have you noticed any obvious differences
between the R/V Revelle and R/V Athena data? If
there are differences do you think these are due
to the differences in geometry, ambient
conditions, ship motion, or something else?

AUTHORS REPLY
Preliminary image processing of the R/V
Athena data revealed mean droplet sizes that were
smaller than those from the R/V Revelle data. This
difference is likely due to the deployment of a higher
resolution high-speed video camera on the R/V
Athena. General trends such as mean droplet size
decreasing with ship forward speed and mean droplet
velocity increasing with ship forward speed appear to
be consistent, though additional image processing of
the R/V Athena is required.
DISCUSSION

DISCUSSION

Thomas C. Fu
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA

Thomas C. Fu
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division,
USA

4.

2.

Presently you are working on an empirical spray


model, do you have plans to work on a more
physics based model, and what kind of
data/effort would be required to do this?

One of your main conclusions is that: Increases


in the distance aft of the forward perpendicular
along the bow wave appear to cause the mean
spray droplet apparent diameter to decrease.
Do you think this is due to a more energetic
breakup of the bow sheet or is there the
possibility that smaller droplets generated further
forward are being carried aft?

AUTHORS REPLY
AUTHORS REPLY
The spray model is actually semiempirical; the droplet size distribution is based on a
theoretical droplet size distribution by a turbulent
breakup mechanism (Novikov and Dommermuth,
1997). It is not yet possible to run a physics-based
calculation like Dommermuths (1999) twodimensional spray sheet breakup due to grid
resolution limitations.

Our previous modeling efforts have shown


that smaller droplets generated further forward are
being carried aft by the air flow. The smaller
droplets are lighter and remain in the air longer;
therefore, they are carried further aft by the air flow.
This causes the mean spray droplet apparent diameter
to decrease with distance aft of the forward
perpendicular.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13
25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics
St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

Computational Design of Trans-Cavitating Propellers


and Experimental Evaluation of Their Performance
Yoshitaka UKON1, Tatsuro KUDO1,
Junichi FUJISAWA1, Noriyuki SASAKI 2
(1 National Maritime Research Institute, 2Sumitomo Heavy Industry, Japan)
fluctuations as that of the TCPs, while for the 35.0kt
case, some TCPs and one designed CP working behind
a ship hull showed better performance not only for the
efficiency but also for the pressure fluctuations than
the traditional CPs.
This paper concludes that a TCP is promising for
a highly loaded propeller working behind a high-speed
ship with shallow draft and presents future tasks to
enhance the performance of TCPs and to improve the
evaluation on cavitation performance of propellers
working in non-uniform flows under TC condition.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of a research
project on the theoretical design of trans-cavitating
propellers (TCP) for high-speed and high-powered
ships with shallow draft.
Extensive experimental
evaluation was carried out on these propeller models
working in a uniform flow and behind a complete ship
model of twin-screw large fast ferry. Ten propellers
were designed to generate the necessary thrust under
the operating condition between sub-cavitation and
super-cavitation.
First of all, this paper describes a theoretical
design method for TCPs, developed from the NMRI
super-cavitating propeller design method. The present
method employs two kinds of combinations with
super-cavitating and non-cavitating blade sections to
design a hybrid propeller. In this paper, six propellers
including conventional propellers were designed at
30.6kt and four propellers were designed at 35.0kt
under each normal operating rate condition. In each
case, the design of the propellers was made not only by
current methods but also by a newly developed method
which can theoretically control sheet cavitation over
the propeller blades using a couple of high
performance blade sections, so as to satisfy a given
thrust with maximum efficiency. Extensive evaluation
in cavitation open water tests shows that the designed
TCPs had higher efficiency than the CPs under the
severer cavitating condition.
Secondly, this paper introduces a method to
evaluate the propeller efficiency working behind a ship
model under trans-cavitating (TC) conditions for a
given propeller, thrust load coefficient. Using this
evaluation method, extensive experimental evaluation
of TCPs was made in the NMRI (SRI) Large
Cavitation Tunnel with respect to the propeller thrust,
propeller efficiency, pressure fluctuations and erosion.
For the 30.6kt case, conventional propellers still kept
in the same level of efficiency and pressure

INTRODUCTION
In these days, high speed ships, for example,
Ro/Ro ferries, become faster and bigger. Since high
speed and/or highly loaded propellers cannot evade
cavitation, a new type of propeller is needed, which
can generate the necessary thrust under the operating
condition between sub-cavitation and super-cavitation.
Under this condition, most of the suction side of the
propeller blades is covered with cavitation and
significant thrust breakdown is revealed, if a subcavitating propeller (Non-Cavitating Propeller, CP)
with aerofoil (NC) sections is used under this
condition. Most of the propeller blade (near the tip) is
super-cavitated and the rest of the blade (near the root)
is partially cavitated. This is called the transCavitating (TC) condition. Under this condition the
efficiency of this type of a propeller becomes
tremendously worse. Propeller designers have to give
up their propeller design by a normal design method.
Then, the trans-cavitating propeller (TCP) with a
hybrid concept is expected to be one of the possible
candidates
In order to design a highly efficient propeller
under such a condition, Yim invented the TCP (Yim,
1998, Vorus, 1988). The propeller blade is divided
into two or three domains by the borderline or the
intermediate region (domain C) as shown in Fig. 1.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

geometrical shape was modified by their lifting surface


theories similar to the NMRI SCP design method
(Ukon, 1994 and 1995) under the same design
condition as that performed by the NMRI (Ukon,
1994), that is, CT=0.334 (KT=0.1587, J=1.10) and
V_SC=0.4. To design a TCP, two-term SC sections for
SC domain (B) and NACA 66 sections for NC domain
(A) were employed. The measured thrust coefficient
and efficiency were 0.183 and 0.676 at the designed
advance coefficient, while the previous design for a
hybrid propeller by the NMRI obtained the higher
efficiency of 0.695 in the experiment (Ukon, 1995,
0.786 in Wangs paper is misreading). The reasons
to design a lower efficiency TCP might be suggested
that the comparison was made at higher loaded
condition (CT=0.385) than the design one and less liftdrag ratio of two-term SC sections than the SRJN
section were employed.
Three cases described above are the application
of TCPs to lightly loaded propellers. This paper
discusses the application of TCPs to a more highly
loaded case and experimental and design issues for
TCPs.

Super-Cavitating (SC) blade sections are adopted near


the tip (domain B), while aerofoil sections are
employed near the root (domain A). In the domain C,
blade sections are smoothly interpolated by using the
respective offset data given by two different kinds of
blade sections with the help of suitable polynomials.

Fig. 1 Concept of Trans-Cavitating Propeller


Vorus et al. made the first development of a TCP
and the TCP was designed for a 40kt-25m high-speed
patrol boat (Vorus et al., 1988). The pitch and blade
sections of the four bladed trans-cavitating propeller,
called hybrid propeller, change at the borderline
(0.75R) with kinks on the face blade in the radial
direction but the back blade was continuous and
smooth. The propeller was designed under the
condition that the advance coefficient J, the thrust
coefficient KT and the cavitation number v_SC were
1.410, 0.154 and 0.409 (n=0.813) respectively. The
expected propeller efficiency of 0.731 was obtained
under the very lightly loaded design condition of
CT=(8/)(KT /J2)=0.197. The model test results in
two cavitation tunnels showed that this TCP has the
similar high performance as a Newton-Rader propeller.
The latter propeller is well known as a high
performance propeller but causes severe vibration due
to cavitation self-oscillation under a certain operating
condition (Ukon, 2001).
Yim et al. designed a four bladed TCP for a
34kt-23m air cushion vehicle (Yim, 1998). The
design condition was given by one that the advance
coefficient J was 1.048, the thrust coefficient KT was
0.164, and the cavitation numberV_0.7R based on the
ship speed and the static pressure at 0.7R in the
upright position was 0.65. Cavitation tests on this
propeller were performed in the KRISO cavitation
tunnel. The expected propeller efficiency O was
0.62 but the obtained efficiency was 0.57 under the
design condition of CT=0.380 (KT=0.164, J=1.048)
andV_0.7R = 0.65.
Wang et al. (Wang, 2001) designed a TCP by
their lifting line theory for preliminary design and its

DESIGN METHOD OF TCP


Assumption in Present Design
This paper describes the design method (Kudo,
1999c) on the geometrical blade shape of TCPs under
the assumption that the principal particulars, such as
propeller diameter, blade number, boss ratio and the
parameters prescribing the working condition, such as
advance coefficients, thrust coefficient and cavitation
number are given. Some of the parameters on the
propeller working condition can be determined by a
parametric study and with the assistance of propeller
design charts.
In the vicinity of propeller tip, the optimum SC
blade sections of a TCP are aggressively designed by
the NMRI super-cavitating propeller design method
(Ukon, 1994) as possible, to avoid the cavity collapse
on the blades. On the other hand, a traditional design
method is applied for the NC blade sections near the
root of the TCPs. In the intermediate region C, two
kinds of blade sections generated by different concepts
as shown in Fig. 1 are connected smoothly using
polynomials.
Employed Blade Section
In this paper, two combinations with four kinds
of blade sections are employed for the design of TCPs
as shown in Table 1.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13
sections their blade width is determined as large as
possible to get the optimum performance.

Table 1 Combination of Blade Sections


Near Root

Near Tip

NC Section

SC Section

Combination I

NACA 16

SRJN

Combination II

UT-NC

UT-SC

Two-Dimensional Blade Load Distribution


The load distributions on the blade section at
each radial position of TCPs are determined by the
chordwise pressure distribution on optimum twodimensional blade sections. The load distribution of
the SRJN sections can be computed by the linear
vortex panel theory, while that of NACA sections can
be given by one of the NACA camber lines, such as
a=0.8 mod. The load distributions for UT-SC and UTNC are calculated from the pressure distribution for
each blade section.

An attempt was made to apply the combination I


for the design of SCPs and a relatively good result was
obtained (Ukon, 1995). The SRJN SC section used
near the tip was developed for high performance SCPs
using the face blade shape based on Johnson five terms
and the back blade shape given by the linear vortex
panel method with thickness at the trailing edge
(Ukon, 1994, 1995, 2000b and Kudo, 2000).
The back shape of the SC section is determined
by the required lift coefficient and strength at a given
local cavitation number R and thrust coefficient KT.
Near the root, a NACA 16 series blade section is
employed because the leading edge radius is so small
to connect to the SC section smoothly. In the
combination II the UT-SC section was developed for
an optimum TC section at lower cavitation number
and higher lift coefficient with zero thickness at the
trailing edge, to connect this section to the NC
sections easily. The NC section was developed using
Epplers method to design an optimum pressure
distribution with high lift drag ratio and wider
cavitation bucket zone (Yamaguchi, 1999).

Three-Dimensional Blade Section


Since the required three-dimensional load
distributions at each radial position are known, the
final geometrical lifting surface can be determined by
the lifting surface correction using a lifting surface
theory as the design of the NCPs and the SCPs. Based
on the obtained three-dimensional camber lines, threedimensional blade sections can be obtained by
superposing these camber lines and two-dimensional
blade thickness or cavity thickness.
Fairing at Intermediate Zone
In the design of TCPs, the fairing is needed at the
intermediate zone C between the SC domain A and the
NC domain B as shown in Fig. 1. In this paper, one
or two radial points from each of two end regions are
selected for the fairing and the offsets of blade sections
are interpolated by quadratic or cubic polynomials.

Optimum Circulation Distribution


The present design of TCP utilized the Lerbs
optimum circulation distribution as used for the design
at NCPs and SCPs as a target. The circulation
distribution was computed by the Lerbs lifting line
theory. It is difficult to satisfy the target circulation
distribution especially in the intermediate region using
two different kinds of optimum blade sections.

Interactive Employment of Lifting Surface Theory


The present design of TCPs is performed with the
help of the improved lifting surface theory SC-VLM 3
interactively to confirm the design result on thrust and
propeller efficiency and especially the effects of the
interpolation at the intermediate zone. The SC-VLM3
was improved from the SC-VLM used for the design
of SCPs (Kudo, 1994) at several points and developed
for the application for the TCPs.
The improved points are given as follows,
* Increase in the patterns of panel from two (NC and
fully cavitated) to three (partly cavitated added) to
avoid sharp and stepwise change in the loading
between neighboring panels of the TCP
* Definition of the rear end position of cavity in the
last panel to satisfy the cavity closure condition
* Introduction of a nonlinear term on the pressure to
calculate cavity shape more rigorously

Determination of Blade Contour


The present TCPs are assumed to be used for
controllable pitch propellers and not only their
expanded area ratio is restricted to be less than 0.64
but also the blade width and skew line are constrained
not to hit each other, when the pitch of blades is
changing. In the present design of TCPs, the blade
width at each radial position is determined not only to
satisfy the required section modules but also to obtain
the maximum lift drag ratio iteratively. The blade
contour is determined in different ways for the
respective SC blade sections. For the SRJN sections,
their blade width is given as small as possible, to
obtain the highest lift drag ratio, while for UT-SC

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

the conventional propellers (CPs) and the transcavitating propellers (TCPs) are called CP and HP,
respectively. Usually the thrust load coefficient art
35.0 kt should be higher than that at 30.6 kt. In order
to clearly demonstrate the effect of cavitation number
on the design results, however, the thrust load
coefficient was kept to 0.728 throughout the present
propeller design. Except the conventional propeller of
CP-1, other propellers were designed as the propeller
working in the starboard side.
All of the propellers were designed for those
turning outwards, based on the self-propulsion tests
performed at the NMRI 400m towing tank. The
designed advance coefficients for some TCPs (HP-5, 6,
7) were modified with taking account of the tangential
wake in the propeller plane.

* Introduction of an empirical modeling on the base


pressure at the trailing edge surface. The length of
separation is assumed to be one panel length to give
the pressure condition at the trailing edge for the
lifting surface equation of TCPs.
DESIGN OF CP AND TCP AND
EVALUATION IN UNIFORM FLOW

THEIR

Design Condition
The present design method was applied for the
TCPs equipped to twin-screw large high-speed ferries
with twin rudders whose design speeds are 30.6 and
35.0 kt. The principal particulars of the ship model,
NMRI M.S. No.610 are given in Table 2. The
working conditions for the designed propellers at the
normal operating rate (NCR) are given in Table 3.

Design and Evaluation on VS=30.6kt Case


The design results are usually evaluated by the
experiment. In this paper, two kinds of experiment
were conducted in the NMRI Large Cavitation Tunnel.
One of the tests was made for the open water test
under non-cavitating and several cavitating conditions
in the No.1 working section. Another was performed
behind the complete ship model in the No.2 working
section under the NOR and MCR conditions.

Table 2 Principal Particulars of Model


Description
Length between Perpendiculars
Length at Dead Water Line
Breadth
Depth for Cavitation Tunnel
Draft
Block Coefficient
Prismatic Coefficient

key
LPP
LDWL
B
DCAV
d
CB
CP

unit
m
m
m
m
m
-

7.000
7.233
1.089
0.389
0.272
0.500
0.556

CP-1
This propeller as shown in Fig. 2 was designed
using the existing camber lines and pitch distribution
of which controllable pitch propeller offered good
results (Toyama, 1996).
The blade thickness
distribution was determined with satisfying the
requirement of the NK rule. At the design condition
in a uniform flow, this propeller was fully cavitated
with thrust breakdown as shown in Fig. 2 but the
propeller efficiency is in a reasonable level.

Table 3 Propeller Working Condition for Design


VS [knots]
V
J
KT
CT

CP-1~3
HP-4
HP1~3
30.6
1.371
0.916
0.240

HP-5

HP-6

HP-7

0.732
0.153

0.935
0.250

35.0
1.048
0.935
0.250
0.728

The principal particulars of the designed


propeller models are given in Table 4. In this paper,

Table 4 Principal Particulars of Propeller Models


Prop. Name

CP-1

CP-2

M.P.No. (NMRI)

411/
412

413

Diameter [mm]
Boss Ratio
Pitch Ratio
Exp. Area Ratio
Proj. Area Ratio
Rake at Tip [mm]
Skew at Tip
Blade Number
Blade
Section
Rot. Direction
Material

CPBlade 3
431

HP-1

HP-2

HP-3

HP-4

HP-5

HP-6

HP-7

433

432

434

444

445

446

447

1.478
0.625
0.506

1.506
0.630
0.507

1.088
0.584
0.504

1.410
0.779
0.636

SRJN
NACA

SRJN
NACA
Right

SRJN
NACA

UT-SC
UT-NC

1.475
0.731
0.600

1.479
0.731
0.600

1.412
0.731
0.605

1.292
0.637
0.521

1.447
0.580
0.468

NACA

MAU

Mod.
NACA
R/L

UT-SC
UT-NC

SRJN
NACA

194.4
0.30
1.282
0.634
0.518
0
35.54
4
UT-SC
UT-NC

Aluminum (Anodized)

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

Fig. 2 Blade Shape and Cavitation on CP-1


CP-2
This propeller as shown in Fig. 3 was designed
using the MAU chart with MAU blade sections and
the same blade contour, thickness and pitch
distribution as CP-1. The pitch of this propeller was
determined to satisfy the same power and propeller
revolution rate as CP-1. This propeller was also fully
covered with super-cavitation as shown in Fig. 3 and
the serious thrust and efficiency breakdown was
observed in the cavitation open water test.

Fig. 4 Flow Chart of Design Procedure for CP-3

Fig. 5 Example of Designed Blade Section for CP-3

Fig. 3 Blade Shape and Cavitation on CP-2


CP-3
This propeller was designed at the condition of
30.6 knots by a design program based on the QCM
(Sasaki,1994). The design procedure of CP-3 is shown
in Fig.4. As shown in Fig.5, the blade section of CP-3
is optimized so as to suppress the cavitation extent by
increasing the loading in the vicinity of trailing edge.
The CPmin values on the blade surface at each radial
position are almost the same as CP-1 and the camber
distributions near the trailing edge are increased to
obtain wide shock free zone for the angle of attack.
The magnitude of camber increment near the trailing
edge depends on the wake steepness. Near the root,
the blade sections as shown in Figs.5 and 6 were
truncated to prevent root cavitation in an oblique flow
around the propeller shaft. The propeller revolution
rate and the thrust were kept the same as those of CP-1.
Propeller open water characteristics measured in
the cavitation tunnel on CP-3 are shown in Fig.6.
Under the design condition for 30.6kt case, only
bubble cavitation as shown in Fig.6 was observed and
the cavitation occurrence on CP-3 was completely
suppressed, compared to CP-1 and CP-2.

Fig. 6 Blade Shape and Cavitation on CP-3


Propeller open water characteristics on CP-3
measured in the cavitation tunnel are shown in Fig. 7.
Under the design condition for 30.6kt case, only
bubble cavitation was observed as shown in Fig. 6.
HP-1
This propeller as shown in Fig. 8 utilized UT-NC
and UT-SC in the root region and tip region,
respectively. The optimum circulation distribution
was given by the Lerbs lifting line theory. The blade
contour was determined with referring HP-2 except the
tip region. To satisfy the optimum local lift coefficient

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

The measured thrust coefficient at the design


advance coefficient is 0.247 and 2.9% higher than the
target value in the design. In the outside of 0.9R, no
cavitation occurs in spite of prediction of supercavitation as shown in Fig. 8. Tip vortex cavitation
was not observed.

for UT-SC section in the outside of 0.8R, the chord


lengths near the tip were expanded. As the result of
the design, the radial pitch distribution of this
propeller has two peaks as shown in Fig. 9 to get
prescribed circulation distribution in the intermediate
region as smooth as possible. Since the geometrical
fairing was not made for these propellers, wavy
geometrical offsets were generated. With regard to
HP1, by the SC-VLM3 the converged solution could
not be obtained. One of the reasons is the wavy or
zigzag blade offsets in the radial direction.

HP-2
This propeller as shown in Fig. 10 was designed
based on the Lerbs optimum circulation distribution.
The SRJN sections were used from the tip to 0.7R
where the optimum SRJN sections could be adopted,
while the NACA 16 sections were employed from 0.5R
to the root, using the pitch distribution of CP1.
Between 0.5R and 0.7R, the blade sections were
generated by the interpolation. At 0.7R, the chord
length was increased to obtain the smooth blade
contour and the thickness at the trailing edge was
reduced because of the excessive strength and smooth
radial connection at the trailing edge.
From the experiment in a uniform flow of the
cavitation tunnel, the measured thrust was 6.0%
higher than the target one in the design. The
discrepancy in the thrust, that is, over pitch is due to
the simple and direct adoption of the NC sections of
CP1. Longer sheet cavitation occurs outside 0.65R,
while partial cavitation is observed inside of 0.6R as
the expectations as shown in Fig. 10.

Fig. 7 Propeller Open Characteristics Curves


Measured in Uniform Flow at Cavitation Tunnel

Fig. 10 Blade Shape and Cavitation on HP-2

Fig. 8 Blade Shape and Cavitation on HP-1

1.6
1.4
H/DP

HP-3
This propeller as shown in Fig. 11 was designed,
referring to the open water test on HP-1 in the
cavitation tunnel. The offsets of HP-3 were generated
by fairing the geometrical shape of HP-1. The pitch
outside of 0.9R was increased to stimulate sheet
cavitation because of less sheet cavitation in this
region of HP-1. In the intermediate region, the fairing
was made to remove the wavy geometrical shape.
Although the measured thrust is 7.9% higher
than the target, the former is 2.8% higher than the
prediction by SC-VLM3 in the design. The measured

CP-1
CP-2
CP-3
HP-1
HP-2
HP-3
HP-4
HP-5
HP-6
HP-7

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.2

0.4

0.6
r/RO

0.8

1.0

Fig. 9 Pitch Distribution of Designed Propellers

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

around the shaft line of the dynamometer, K&R J26 as


shown in Fig. 12.

propeller efficiency of this propeller is the highest


among the designed propellers for 30.6kt case. The
super-cavitation area became wider than HP-1, while
unexpected long sheet cavity between 0.5R and 0.6R
occurred due to excessive smoothing.

HP-5
HP-5 propeller as shown in Fig. 13 was designed
by the same way in HP-4 but including the tangential
component of wake distribution at the propeller plane.
It amount to 5% of the incoming uniform flow at 0.7R
of the propeller. The design condition on the advance
and the thrust coefficients was modified and they were
increased 2.1% and 4.2%, respectively.
In order to enhance the propeller efficiency and
to design the cavity thickness at each radial position as
thin as possible, the analytical computation was
employed to determine the optimum pitch distribution
iteratively. Thus, not only the thrust but also torque
can be designed within 3% accuracy with the help of
the analytical tool. The measured thrust agrees with
the target value but sheet cavitation partly occurs at
0.7R and around the tip. The observed patterns are
different from the prediction as shown in Fig. 13
.

Fig. 11 Blade Shape and Cavitation on HP-3


Design and Evaluation on VS=35.0kt Case
The present experiments on CP-1~3 and HP-1~3
indicated that the conventional propellers, that is,
NACA type propellers aiming at suppressing the
occurrence of cavitation have still good performance at
the ship speed of 30.6kt, that is, CT=0.728 and V=
1.371. Then, the target speed of the ship was
increased to 35.0kt that is, V=1.048 but the thrust
load coefficient was not changed to demonstrate the
effect of cavitation number on the TCP design.
HP-4
This propeller as shown in Fig. 12 was designed,
using the SRJN SC sections from 0.7R to 0.95R and
NACA 16 sections from 0.3R to 0.4R.
The
interpolation between 0.4R and 0.7R was made by
cubic polynomials.

Fig. 13 Blade Shape and Cavitation Pattern on HP-5

Fig. 12 Blade Shape and Cavitation on HP-4


Fig. 14 Propeller Open Characteristics Curves Measured in
Uniform Flow at Cavitation Tunnel

The measured thrust is 2.5% higher than the


target. The observed cavitation pattern was not the
expected. The sheet cavity from 0.7R but no sheet
cavity between 0.75R and 0.95R was found. Unstable
sheet cavitation near the root occurred due to the wake

Propeller open water characteristics on HP-5 are


shown in Fig. 14. The propeller efficiency of HP-5

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

increases with the decrease of cavitation number and


becomes higher than that under the non-cavitating
condition as other HPs.
HP-6
HP-6 propeller as shown in Fig. 15 was designed,
increasing the propeller revolution rate by 27.2%, the
optimum circulation distribution was obtained by
Lerbs lifting line theory and 1.5% increase in the
propeller efficiency to HP-5 was predicted by this
theory. This propeller employs the SRJN SC sections
from 0.8R to 0.95R and the NACA sections from 0.3R
to 0.6R. In the intermediate region between 0.6R and
0.8R, the fairing was made by parabolic interpolation.
Both of the measured thrust and torque were 30%
and 40% higher than the target and prediction
respectively. One of the reasons is that bubble
cavitation was observed on the whole of blades as
shown in Fig. 15 in the test, while sheet cavitation was
predicted by SC-VLM3 in the design.

Fig. 16 Blade Shape and Cavitation Pattern on HP-7


CP-3
This propeller was not designed under the
designed condition for 35.0kt case but this propeller
was examined under this condition for the reference
because the design procedure and results should be the
same except the blade strength.
From the
measurements, the thrust and efficiency at the design
condition for 35.0kt case were 0.231 and 0.630, 8.0%
and 9.6% less than at that for 30.6kt case. Cavitation
patterns are shown in Fig. 17. The water repellent
stimulated cavitation drastically and reduced the thrust
and efficiency (Kudo, 1999b). The water repellent
gives the similar effects as the high Reynolds numbers
effects (Kawanami, 2000). The application of a
groove cavitator also gives the similar results (Kudo,
2001).

Fig. 15 Blade Shape and Cavitation on HP-6


HP-7
This propeller as shown in Fig. 16 used UT-SC
sections from 0.5 to 0.95R and UT-NC section only at
0.3R. Not only in the intermediate region from 0.3 to
0.5R but also at 0.7R and 0.8R, the fairing was made
because of the lack of smoothness in radial
geometrical shape.
The measured thrust of HP-7 was 5.6% and
12.3% higher than the target and the prediction by
SC-VLM3 respectively, because the SC-VLM3 in the
design predicted lower thrust than the target and due
to the intentionally increased pitch the propeller blades
were almost fully covered with sheet cavity as shown
in Fig. 16 as the theoretical prediction.

w/o (Left) and with (Right) Water-Repellent


Fig. 17 Cavitation Pattern on CP-3 in a Uniform
Flow at 35.0kt Case
Summary of Evaluation Results in a Uniform Flow
Comparisons of propeller efficiency measured in
the cavitation open water tests among the designed
propellers for 30.6kt and 35.0kt are shown in Figs. 18
and 19.
VS=30.6kt; V=1.371, J=0.916
HP-3 shows the highest propeller efficiency of
68.4% at prescribed thrust load coefficient, CT=0.728
as shown in Fig. 18. The efficiency of CP-1, HP-1,
CP-3 and HP-2 are higher than that of CP-2, that is,
the MAU propeller that is a Japanese standard

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

propeller in this order. Since the efficiency of HP-3


and HP-1 increase with lowering the cavitation
number, they have superior cavitation performance as
HP-2 but show sharper drop in the efficiency than HP2, CP-1 and CP-3 against the increase of thrust load.
Under the design condition at VS=30.6kt, little
cavitation was found on the blades of CP-3, while CP1 and CP-2 were fully cavitated.

Fig. 19 Propeller Efficiency Measured in Propeller


Open Test in the NMRI Cavitation Tunnel
EVALUATION OF DESIGNED PROPELLER
PERFORMANCE BEHIND SHIP HULL
Tested Ship Model and Propeller Models
This paper also evaluates the performance of the
designed propellers working behind a complete ship
model in the NMRI Large Cavitation Tunnel. In the
cavitation test, the ship model was installed in the
No.2 working section as shown in Fig. 20. In order to
stimulate and stabilize cavitation occurrence, two lines
of stainless wires were equipped at the square station,
S. S. 2 1/2 to generate hydrogen bubbles by electrolysis.
Before the cavitation test, the resistancepropulsion tests and the wake measurement were
performed at the NMRI 400m towing tank. The
experimental conditions were determined based on the
self-propulsion. The propeller models as shown in
Table 4 were used for the behind cavitation tests.

Fig. 18 Propeller Efficiency Measured in


Propeller Open Test in the NMRI Cavitation
VS=35.0kt; V=1.048
HP-5 shows the highest propeller efficiency of
64.7% at CT=0.728 as shown in Fig. 19. The
propeller efficiencies of HP-7, HP-4 and HP-6 are
higher than that of CP-3 in this order. The efficiency
of all of HPs increases with the decrease of cavitation
number. HP-4 and HP-5 generate the necessary thrust
but no sheet cavitation occurred on these propellers
unlike that as predicted. The efficiency of HP-7 was
the second highest but sharply decreased with the
increase of the thrust load coefficient. On the other
hand, the efficiency of this propeller was not so high
but HP-6 kept high efficiency even in the off-design
and highly loaded condition.

Experimental Condition and its Setting


The present cavitation test including pressure
fluctuation measurements and erosion tests were
carried out under the maximum continuous rating
(MCR) condition but the same thrust load condition as
the NOR condition given for the propeller design.

Fig. 20 Arrangement of Ship Model in NMRI Large Cavitation Tunnel

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

Then, since the left-hand side of the equation (4), Ni


and T are known, the unknown coefficients A, B and
C can be calculated by a least squares method (Kudo,
1999a). These coefficients can be used for the
propellers with the same diameter and even for the
propeller with thrust breakdown.
Thus, the
experimental condition on n, Ni and T the pressure at
reference point for the test P0 can be set based on the
measured thrust load coefficient CT.

Usually cavitation tests are performed by the


thrust coefficient (KT) identity method because the
inflow velocity to a propeller model in a cavitation
tunnel cannot be identified easily. This method can be
applied for any propellers but without thrust
breakdown. For the TCPs treated in this paper,
multiple advance coefficients correspond with one
thrust coefficient due to the thrust breakdown. In the
extreme case, the thrust coefficient is constant against
the advance coefficient. Then, it is very difficult or
impossible to identify the correct experimental
condition in cavitation tunnels by the thrust coefficient
identity method.
This paper proposes the thrust load coefficient
(CT) identity method to apply for fully cavitated
propellers with thrust breakdown. A basic idea is to
use a propeller model as a current meter even under
trans-cavitating condition and has been used in the
propulsion test in a towing tank similarly (Ukon,
1999). Using a propeller model whose open water
characteristics are known as a current meter, the
propeller inflow velocity can be determined from the
measured thrust and propeller revolution rate by a
propeller dynamometer under NC condition.
From the torque measurements, the propeller
efficiency in the behind ship condition B and the
relative rotative efficiency R can be determined
using the propeller open water characteristics. From
the propeller open water characteristics measured at a
towing tank, the advance coefficient can be expressed
using the thrust coefficient KT as follows,
2
3
4
J = a0 + a1 KT + a2 KT + a3 KT + a4 KT
(1)
The thrust coefficient is defined as follows,
K = T n2 D 4
(2)

Wake Distribution
The wake distribution was measured by a four-rake
five-hole NPL type pitot tube in the No.2 working
section of the cavitation tunnel. The measured results
on the starboard side are shown in Fig. 21. Before the
wake measurement in the cavitation tunnel, the wake
distribution was measured at the towing tank at Froude
number FN=0.370, using the same apparatus and
measuring system as those in the cavitation tunnel.
Comparing two wake measurements, they are almost
the similar to each other but the axial wake in the
cavitation tunnel is relatively steeper than that in the
towing tank totally. It can be said that the present
experiment should offer more strict evaluation on the
cavitation performance.

where T is thrust, is density of water, n is propeller


revolution rate, DP is propeller diameter.
In the assumed propeller working area including
the propeller operating condition to be tested, the
measurements of propeller thrust are conducted by
changing the propeller revolution rate n and impeller
revolution rate Ni under the NC condition. The inflow
velocity to the propeller is given by
V A = JnDP
(3)
In cavitation tunnels, the inflow velocity to the
propeller should be determined by the following
equation,
V A = A Ni + B T + C
(4)
If the propeller revolution rate n and the thrust T are
known, VA can be obtained by using the equations
(1)~(3) together with impeller revolution rate Ni.
T

Fig.21 Wake Distribution Measured behind


Ship Hull in Cavitation Tunnel
According to the procedure mentioned above, the
propeller performance was measured behind the
complete ship model. The comparison of measured
propeller efficiency of designed propellers is shown in
Fig. 20 under the NOR conditions at 30.6kt and 35.0kt.
Evaluation on 30.6kt Case
As shown in Fig. 22, the behind propeller
efficiency of HP-3 was 64.5% and the highest among
CP-1~3 and HP-1~3 and no big difference among
them was observed except that the efficiency of CP-2
was 59.5% and extremely low under the NOR
condition. Under the MCR condition, the efficiency of
HP-3 was 64.3% and the highest among them.

10

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

that of CP-1. On the hub vortex cavitation (HVC),


those of CP-1, CP-3 and HP-3 were rarely visible,
while those of HP-1 and HP-3 were thicker than CP-1.
The HVC of CP-2 was extremely thick due to nonoptimum circulation distribution especially near the
root.

Propeller Efficiency behind Ship Hull


at NOR Condition (CT=0.576)
66

CP-1(30.6kt)
CP-2(30.6kt)
CP-3(30.6kt)

64

HP-1(30.6kt)

B[%]

HP-2(30.6kt)
62

HP-3(30.6kt)
CP-1(35.0kt)

Evaluation on 35.0kt Case


As shown in Fig. 22, the behind propeller
efficiency of CP-3 was 61.4% and the highest among
the designed propellers under the NOR condition for
35.0kt case. The efficiency of HP-3, HP-5, Hp-7, Hp-6
and HP-4 became worse in this order but the no
remarkable difference among them was found. The
efficiency of CP-1 and CP-2 become tremendously
worse. On the discrepancy on the thrust between the
measurements and targets, HP-4 generated the target
thrust but HP-5, CP-3, HP-6, HP-7 produced 3%
higher, 3% lower, 9% higher and 7% higher than the
target one respectively.
On the other hand, under the MCR condition, the
efficiency of CP-3 was 60.4% and also the highest
among the tested propellers. In the order of HP-5, HP6, HP-7, HP-4, the propeller efficiencies of them
became worse. CP-1 and CP-2 could not generate any
significant performance under this condition.
Cavitation patterns on HP-5, HP-7 and CP-3 are
shown in Fig. 24 under the MCR condition (CT=0.728,
V=1.048).
In this case, CP-3 showed the best performance
on the efficiency. One of the reasons is that less sheet
cavitation and large extent of bubble cavitation
occurred on the blades of CP-3 and the thrust breakdown was small under the behind condition in spite of
hydrogen bubble seeding to supply sufficient nuclei.
Although the propeller models were tested at the
Reynolds number ReK based on the definition by
Kempf around 1.3x106, unstable cavitation on CP-3
was observed. The size of tested propeller models
might be small for this propeller (Kawanami, 2000).
This paper cannot conclude whether the performance
of CP-3 was overestimated or not. This is a future task
on the development of more rigorous cavitation test
procedure.
On the TVC on the tested propellers working
behind the ship hull, those of HP-5, HP-7 and CP-1
were thicker, and HP-4 and HP-6 were thinner than
that of CP-3. On the HVC, those of CP-1 and CP-3
were thin and those of HP-6, HP-4, HP-5 and HP-7
were thicker than the CPs. There is a room to improve
the design techniques.
HP-7 and HP-5 fitted with the propeller boss cap
fin (PBCF) were tested in the behind condition, the

CP-3(35.0kt)

60

HP-4(35.0kt)
HP-5(35.0kt)

58

HP-6(35.0kt)
HP-7(35.0kt)

56

Tested Propellers under Trans-Cavitating Condition

Fig. 22 Comparison of Propeller Efficiency


behind Ship Hull under Trans-Cavitating
Condition
VS=30.6kt Case

(a) CP-1

(b) CP-3

(c) HP-3
Fig. 23 Cavitation of CP-1, CP-3 and HP-3 Working
behind Ship Hull under MCR Condition (VS=31.0kt)
Cavitation patterns are shown in Fig. 23, on CP-1,
CP-3 and HP-3 under the MCR condition (CT=0.728,
V=1.336), stable cavitation was observed on CP-2
and HP-2, while unstable streak and/or bubble
cavitation were found on CP-1, CP-3 and HP-3, in
spite of artificial nuclei seeding. Sheet cavitation on
CP-3 was suppressed under the present condition as
expected.
On the tip vortex cavitation (TVC), those of CP-3
and HP-1 were thinner, those of CP-2 and HP-3 were
almost equivalent and that of CP-3 was thicker than

11

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

HVC became thinner and the propeller efficiency


increased by 2.8% without any harmful effects on the
pressure fluctuations.

Relative Rotative Efficiency


at NOR Condition (CT=0.576)
1.10

CP-1(30.6kt)
CP-2(30.6kt)

1.05

CP-3(30.6kt)
HP-1(30.6kt)

Eta_R

1.00

HP-2(30.6kt)
HP-3(30.6kt)

0.95

CP-3(35.0kt)
HP-4(35.0kt)

0.90

HP-5(35.0kt)
HP-6(35.0kt)

0.85

HP-7(35.0kt)

(a) HP-5

0.80

Tested Propellers under Trans-Cavitating Condition

Fig. 25 Comparison of Relative Rotative Efficiency


behind Ship Hull under Trans-Cavitating Condition
EVALUATION OF PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS
(b) HP-7

If a high performance propeller induces high


pressure fluctuations, this propeller cannot be accepted
as a good propeller. In this paper, the pressure
fluctuations induced by the designed propellers were
measured behind the ship model hull under the MCR
condition for two cases of ship design speed. The
comparison on the pressure fluctuations was made
mainly at the first blade rate because the higher
components above the second blade rate were much
smaller than the first one for the tested propellers.
The comparison of the pressure fluctuation
amplitude converted to the full-scale value among the
designed propellers is shown in Fig. 26 for two cases
based on that of CP-1. The propeller revolution rates
were estimated from the measured advance coefficients
and assuming that the effective wake coefficients are
not affected by the deviation of the operating condition
from the designed one.

(b) CP-3
Fig. 24 Cavitation of CP-1, CP-3 and HP-2 Working
behind Ship Hull under MCR Condition
(VS=35.5kt)
Comparison of Propeller Efficiency between Open
Water and Behind Conditions
The ratio of the propeller efficiency behind the
ship model to that in the cavitating open water is
shown in Fig. 25 for two cases. The relative rotative
propeller efficiencies of the designed propellers except
CP-3 in 35.0kt case became 5~7% lower than those in
the cavitation open water test except CP-2 for two
cases. Since the existing towing tank tests indicate
that this efficiency of twin screw propeller is 0.95~1.0
in NC conditions, almost the same results were
obtained in the behind cavitation tests under the TC
condition.
On the other hand, CP-3 showed the completely
different tendency of the propeller performance from
other propellers due to less and unstable sheet
cavitation in non-uniform flows brought by unsteady
cavitation and Reynolds effects.

Evaluation on 30.6kt Case


The pressure fluctuating amplitude of CP-3 was
the lowest and in the order of CP-2, HP-3, CP-1, HP-2,
HP-1, the amplitudes became smaller. The amplitudes
under the cavitating became three or four times of
those under the non-cavitating condition. The second
blade rate amplitudes of CPs amounted to around 20%
of the first blade rate, while those of HPs were about
8%. One of the reasons is that on the HPs the cavity
volume variation was smaller but the displacement
effects due to cavity was much bigger than those of
CPs.
The pressure amplitudes of TCPs under the
cavitating conditions become 35~39% higher than that
of CP-3. TCP should be designed by taking into
account of the local flow effects on the propeller and

12

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

cavitation in detail to reduce the cavity volume and


cavity thickness.

Evaluation for 35.0kt Case


More intensive cloud cavitation on the blades and
root cavitation were observed on HP-4, HP-5, HP-6
and CP-3, while misty cloud cavitation was found on
the blade of HP-7. After the 30 minute erosion tests,
small removed off paint area on CP-3, HP-4 and HP-5
was found near the root. The paint on one blade of
HP-7 was removed off. Assuming that the intensity of
erosion is proportional to the removed off paint area,
more intensive erosion was predicted in the order of
HP-4, Hp-5 and CP-3. To reduce root cavitation, a
new blade section was proposed (Ukon, 2004).

Pressure Amplitude against CP-1 at 31.0kt

Pressure Fluctuation Amplitudes


at First Blade Rate Induced by TCPs at MCR Condition
1.5
1.4

CP-1(31.0kt)
CP-2(31.0kt)
CP-3(31.0kt)
HP-1(31.0kt)
HP-2(31.0kt)
HP-3(31.0kt)
CP-1(35.5kt)
CP-3(35.5kt)
HP-4(35.5kt)
HP-5(35.5kt)
HP-6(35.5kt)
HP-7(35.5kt)

1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

VS=30.6kt Case; CT=0.718, V=1.371


Propeller Efficiency behind
Ship Hull [%]

Tested Propellers under Trans-Cavitating Condition

Fig. 26 Comparison of Pressure Fluctuations


behind Ship Hull under Trans-Cavitating Condition
Evaluation on 35.0kt Case
As shown in Fig. 26, the first blade rate pressure
amplitude of HP-7 was the lowest and those of HP-6,
HP-5, CP-1, HP-4 and CP-3 became lower in this
order. Roughly speaking, the tendency and the
relation on the pressure fluctuation amplitudes are the
similar to that for 30.6kt case. On the reduction of the
pressure fluctuations, the air injection from the ship
hull is very effective (Ukon, 2000a) though the
additional power for the air injection is needed.

70.0
HP-3

CP-1
65.0

HP-2
CP-3

Good
60.0

HP-1

CP-2

Bad
55.0
0.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

Pressure Amplitude against CP-1 [%]

Fig. 27 Determination of an Optimum Propeller


- VS=30.6kt Case -

VS=35.0kt Case; CT=0.718, V=1.048


Propeller Efficiency behind
Ship Hull [%]

EVALUATION OF EROSION ON DESIGNED


PROPELLERS
Highly loaded propellers treated in this paper
have a certain risk on erosion not only on the blade
surface but also near the root because of propeller
operation in non-uniform flow and unsteady cavitation
occurrence. In this paper, the Aotak Paint Method
was employed for the erosion tests because of short
testing time. The tests were performed under the
MCR conditions.

65.0
HP-7
60.0

CP-3

HP-5
HP-6

HP-4

Good

CP-1

55.0

Bad
50.0
0.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

Pressure Amplitude against CP-1 [%]

Fig. 28 Determination of an Optimum Propeller


- VS=35.0kt Case -

Evaluation for 30.6kt Case


In this condition, misty cloud cavitation was
observed on the propeller blade of CP-1, CP-3, HP-1
and HP-3, while no cloud was found on the HP-2 and
CP-2. After the 20 or 30-minute erosion test, no paint
removed off was detected. No risk of erosion for all of
the designed propellers was predicted.

SUMMARY OF EVALUATION UNDER BEHIND


CONDITION
In order to find the best propeller for this ship
from the experimental results on propeller efficiency,
pressure fluctuation and erosion, a reasonable
comparison is need. Although the risk of root erosion
was detected, the intensity was not so serious. If the

13

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

conventional propellers. The present experiment


indicates that the sophisticatedly designed CP
shows high performance as the TCPs do. From
the present experimental results, the cavitation
experiment with higher Reynolds number and
more careful nuclei control is needed for the
propeller designed to suppress the occurrence of
cavitation.

blade sections near the root are modified, root


cavitation could be reduced effectively. Then, the
comparison was made on two objects, the behind
propeller efficiency and the pressure fluctuation
amplitudes at the first blade rate as shown in Figs. 27
and 28.
For the case of 30.0kt, one can say that CP-1,
CP-3, HP-1 can be evaluated as good propellers in this
order from Fig. 27. On the other hand, HP-7 is the
best propeller and CP-3, HP-4, HP-5, HP-6 might be
evaluated as favorable propellers in this order for the
case of 35.0kt as shown in Fig. 28.

ACKNOULEDGEMENT

This paper describes the theoretical design


method on trans-cavitating propellers (TCPs) and
extensive experimental evaluation on the designed
propellers including conventional propellers (CPs) for
two high powered and high-speed ferries with shallow
draft. The following conclusions can be drawn,

The authors express their gratitude to Mr. Yuzo


Kurobe (Tokyo University of Marine Science and
Technology) and Mr. Noboru Matsuda for their
sincere experiments. The authors also thank to Prof.
Hiroharu Kato, Prof. Hajime Yamaguchi and Dr.
Shunji Soejima for their discussion and support.
The part of work described in this paper was
performed as the cooperative work between the
National Maritime Research Institute and the
Shipbuilding Research Association.

1.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

CLOSING REMARKS

2.

3.

4.

5.

The present theoretical design method can offer


high performance TCPs roughly within 5%
accuracy on propeller thrust under transcavitating open water conditions. For a CPP type
of TCP equipped to a 35.0kt high-powered large
fast ferry, the efficiency of the designed propeller
can achieve around 65% in the trans-cavitating
open water condition by the present method.
The present design method employs two kinds of
combinations with SC blade sections and NC
blade sections.
Both combinations are very
effective for designing high performance TCPs.
The present thrust load coefficient (CT) identify
method makes possible a reasonable experimental
evaluation on the efficiency of propellers working
in non-uniform flow, such as behind a ship hull
under the trans-cavitating condition.
In the case of CT=0.728 andV=1.371 equivalent
to the ship speed of 30.6kt, a conventional
propeller employing NACA sections with
sophisticated camber and pitch distribution can be
designed as the most efficient and less vibratory
propeller. On the other hand, a TCP can be
designed as a high efficiency propeller but it emits
higher pressure fluctuations than the CP does. In
the design of TCPs, more attention should be paid
on the reduction of pressure fluctuations.
In the case of CT=0.728 and V=1.048 equivalent
to the ship speed of 35.0kt, TCPs can be designed
as favorable propellers with higher efficiency and
less vibratory source than the existing

Kawanami, Y., Ukon, Y., Kudo, T. and Matsuda, N.,


Measurement Techniques on the Hydrodynamic
Characteristics of a Fully Cavitating Propeller, Proc.
of 74th General Meeting of SRI, June 2000, pp.
205208 (Written in Japanese)
Kudo, T. and Ukon, Y., Calculation of
Supercavitating Propeller Performance Using Vortex
Lattice Method, Proc. of The Second International
Symposium on Cavitation, Tokyo, April 1994, pp.
403408
Kudo, T., Fujisawa, J. and Ukon, Y., Estimation
Method of Propeller Advance Ratio for a Cavitation
Test in Non-Uniform Flow, Proc. of 73rd General
Meeting of SRI, June 1999a, pp. 188189
Kudo, T. and Ukon, Y., Cavitation Stimulation
Technique Using Water-Repellent Coating in a
Propeller Model Test, Proc. of 3rd ASME/JSME Joint
Fluid Engineering Conference & 1999 ASME Fluids
Engineering Division Summer Meeting (FEDSM99),
San Francisco, July 1999b
Kudo, T., Ukon Y. and Kato, H., Study on
Theoretical Design Method of Trans-Cavitating
Propeller, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects
of Japan, Vol. 186, Dec. 1999, pp. 4149 (Written in
Japanese)
Kudo, T. and Ukon, Y., Design and Evaluation of
Transcavitating Propellers for High-Speed Vessels,
Proc. of 74th General Meeting of SRI, June 2000, pp.
227230 (Written in Japanese)

14

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

04-05-13

Yim, B., Kim, K.-S., Ahn, J.-W. and Lee, J.-T.,


Design
of Trans-cavitating Propellers and
Performance Analyses of the Test Result, Journal of
Ship & Ocean Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, June 1998,
pp. 1330.

Kudo, T., Ukon, Y. and Sumino, Y., Proposal of a


Groove Cavitator on a Supercavitating Propeller,
Proc. of CAV 2001, The 4th Int. Symposium on
Cavitation, Pasadena, June 2001
Ukon, Y., Kudo, T. and Hoshino, T., Design
and Evaluation of New Supercavitating
Propellers, Proc. of The Second International
Symposium on Cavitation, Tokyo, April 1994,
pp. 395402
Ukon, Y., Kudo, T., Kurobe, Y., Matsuda, N. and
Kato,
H.,
Design
of
High
Performance
Supercavitating Propellers Based on a Vortex Lattice
Method, Proc. of PROPCAV95 Symposium,
Newcastle upon Tyne, May 1995, pp. 151162
Ukon, Y., Kudo, T., Fujisawa, J. and Matsuda, N.,
Experimental Evaluation of Trans-Cavitating
Propellers, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects
of Japan, Vol. 186, Dec. 1999, pp. 5158 (Written in
Japanese)
Ukon, Y., Kudo, T. and Fujisawa, J., Reduction of
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by Cavitating Propellers
due to Air Injection through the Hull at the Stern of a
Ship, Trans. of the West-Japan Society of Naval
Architects, Vol. 99, March 2000a, pp. 3342
(Written in Japanese)
Ukon, Y., Fujisawa, J., Kudo, T. and Kurobe, Y.,
Application of a Theoretical Design Method to Full
Scale Supercavitating Propellers for High-Speed
Boats, Trans. of the West-Japan Society of Naval
Architects, Vol. 100, Sept. 2000b, pp. 133143
(Written in Japanese)
Ukon, Y., Unstable Phenomena due to Cavitation on
Marine Propellers, Proc. of the 11th Symposium on
Cavitation, Sept. 2001, pp. 1316 (Written in
Japanese)
Ukon, Y., Kawanami, Y., Fukasawa, R., Fujisawa, J.,
and Kudo, T., Anti-Root Erosion Blade Section for
Marin Propellers Equipped to an Inclined Shaft, Proc.
of 12th Symposium on Cavitation, Fukuoka, March
204, pp.57~60
Vorus, W. S. and Kress, R. F., The Subcavitating/Super-cavitating Hybrid Propellers, Proc.
of SNAME Spring Meeting/STAR Symposium 1988
Wang, G.-Q. and Yang, C.-J., Design of Cavitating
Propellers by Lifting Surface Theory, Proc. of
PRADS, Sept. 2001
Yamaguchi, H., Kato, H., Maeda, M. and Toyoda, M.,
High Performance Foil Sections with Delayed
Cavitation Inception, Proc. of Int. Symp. Cavitation
Inception, 3rd ASME/JSME Joint Fluids Eng. Conf.,
ASME, San Francisco, FED SM99-7294-1-11 April
1999

15

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Stephane Cordier
Bassin dessais des Carnes, France
In the propeller series, the diameter D is
kept constant when rpm is increased in some cases:
(HP1, 3, 6). These propellers generate higher
pressure fluctuations, which is expected but also
better efficiency. Can you comment on the choice of
D associated with the different rpm?
AUTHORS REPLY
In the propeller design, the designed
propeller diameter was restricted to be less than 5.0
m due to the shallow draft of the present twin screw
high-speed ferry. Then there are no choices of larger
diameter in the present propeller design. The
difference in the propeller revolution rate of HP-1
and HP-3 corresponds to unexpected error due in the
theoretical propeller design, the amount of thrust
breakdown due to the design concept or inclusion of
the tangential wake in the design condition, while
that of HP-6 depends on the design requirement of
the higher propeller revolution rate.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Roger Kinns
RK Acoustics, UK
Variations in cavitation patterns between the
different propeller designs suggest that there may be
large variations in broadband noise. The consequent
vibration can be very annoying and dominate
components at blade rate and its multiples. Has this
been considered in the study?
AUTHORS REPLY
In the present study, cavitation noise emitted
by Trans-Cavitating Propeller (TCPs) was measured,
whose data were not included in this paper.
Rougly speaking, the respective sound
pressure levels generated by TCPs including CP-1
increase 610 dB at frequency corresponding to first
blade rate and 20 dB at the frequency above 10 kHz,
comparing with that under non-cavitating condition.
The sound pressure level of CP-3 was the lowest at
the first blade rate but larger than other TCPs at
multiples, while that of CP-1 is the lowest in the
frequency of 110 kHz.
In general, a cavitation controlled propeller
often offers low pressure amplitude at the first blade
rate but higher one at the higher order of the blade
rates.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Manfred Mehmel
Schiffbau-Versuchsanstelt Potsdam, Germany
Many thanks for your fine presentation.
You mentioned pressure amplitudes and made a
comparison on the base of CP1. My question, can
you give me the total pressure amplitude to get an
idea about the pressure pulses?
AUTHORS REPLY
The present propeller design was made for a
fast twin-screwed ship with very shallow draft. It
was expected that the propeller designed by a
conventional method for this ship, that is, CP-1,
surely causes thrust break-down and high pressure
fluctuations. The press fluctuation amplitudes at the
first blade rate of CP-1, HP-1 and CP-3 are predicted
15, 12 and 11 kPa at the ship sped of 30.6 kt by the
present CT identity method. The pressure amplitudes
of the second and higher blade rates are about 5% of
the first blade rate and negligible, especially for the
hybrid propellers.
At 35 kt, the pressure amplitudes of HP-7,
CP-3 and CP-1 are evaluated 11, 16.5 and 15 kPa.
The pressure amplitude level is unacceptable for the
ship builders and ship owners. The ship hull form to
reduce the effective horse power and to increase tip
clearance should be improved. In the present project,
the reduction of pressure amplitude due to air
injection along the hull surface above the propeller
blade was tested. The reduction rate is proportional
to the air injection volume. The pressure amplitudes
became around 30% of those without air injection
and acceptable level.
REFERENCE
Ukon, Y., et. al., Reduction of Pressure Fluctuations
Induced by Cavitating Propellers due to Air Injection
through the Hull at the Stern of a Ship, Trans. of the
West-Japan Society of Naval Architects, Vol. 99,
(2000.3), pp. 33-42

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics


St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

A Vorticity Based Propulsor Turbulent Inflow Model


Dr. Stephen A. Huyer and Dr. David Beal
(Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, RI USA)
ABSTRACT:
A vortex element method used to model a
turbulent propulsor inflow is presented. An undersea
vehicle configuration consisting of vehicle hull,
upstream stators and downstream rotor is used as the
test case. Velocity data previously acquired from
experiments taken for this configuration are used to
initialize, calibrate and validate the model. Vortex
elements are used to represent the horseshoe vortex
structures seen in experimental observations of
turbulent boundary layers. The filaments are initialized
one propeller diameter upstream in the form of single
vortex loops that encircle the vehicle hull. Sinusoidal
perturbations in the vortex loop model the horseshoe
vortex structures. Vortex blobs are used to model the
higher wavenumber component of the turbulence.
Simulations are then compared with mean velocity,
turbulence and velocity spectra from the experiments to
determine the quality of the model.
Excellent
agreement in mean velocity, turbulence and velocity
spectra was seen for the axial component. Agreement
is mostly seen for the radial component except in the
region where the tip vortex is expected. The swirl
component is underpredicted near the surface, with
better agreement outboard. Potential improvements to
the model are then discussed as well as potential
applications for computation of surface boundary
conditions on propuls or rotors.
INTRODUCTION:
Propellers that operate on actual vehicles
ingest a complex unsteady inflow, which greatly
affects the unsteady forces and radiated noise. This
unsteady inflow is generated by the wakes and
boundary layers produced by upstream surfaces. On
undersea weapons and unmanned undersea vehicles,
upstream control surfaces and stators produce wakes,
which combine with the hull boundary layer to produce
a very complex spatially and temporally varying
inflow. As the propeller encounters coherent wakes,
there is an unsteady response resulting in periodic,
narrowband forces resulting in an acoustic signature
that may be used to characterize the vehicle. The

turbulence in the wake can further excite the


narrowband forces due to the inherent unsteadiness.
The hull boundary layer contains turbulent eddies of
various length scales that are ingested into the
propeller. This results in a broadband type of response
function that increases the overall noise. The ability to
properly model the comp lex turbulent inflow is vital to
predict the unsteady hydrodynamic forces and
subsequent radiated noise.
Previous work on turbulent inflow models as
applied to propulsors has treated the problem in the
frequency (wavenumber) domain (e.g. Sevik (1974),
Wojno et al (2002), Lysak and Brungart (2003), Gavin
(2002)). The usual procedure is to define the inflow
velocity flow field.
If homogeneous, isotropic
turbulence is assumed, the correlation function is
known. The Sears gust response function, assuming
the flow can be decomposed into 2-D strips along the
span of the blade, provides an estimate of the blade
response to the ingested turbulence and hence the far
field radiated noise. Difficulties with this method
include the fact that for most propellers, the ingested
boundary layer turbulence is neither homogeneous nor
isotropic. Another difficulty is that the propeller blade
response is an inherently 3-D problem and
consequently the application of 2-D strip theory
problematic.
Gavin (2002) conducted a set of
experiments to measure the velocity correlation in a
flat plate turbulent boundary layer. He then derived a
vortex model of the turbulent boundary layer structures
to model the correlation coefficient.
Lysak and
Brungart (2003) utilize CFD in their methodology.
They assume isotropic turbulence and turbulent theory
to construct the correlation coefficients based on
integral length scale and turbulent kinetic energy.
Time domain methods offer an alternative
approach. The advantage with these methods is that it
is possible to define the structure of the turbulent
boundary layer and evolve it in time, thus
automatically providing the spatial correlation of the
flow field.
Also, three-dimensional solution
methodologies of the propulsor blade response function
may be used in a straightforward manner. Specifically,

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

vortex lattice methods are an approach used to model


the propeller blades and wake (Kerwin, 1984). Here,
the spatially unsteady inflow is used as boundary
conditions to compute the blade circulation and
unsteady loading. This method was extended by Huyer
and Snarski (2002) for examination of fully turbulent
inflows.
Extensive research examining turbulent
boundary layers has described the various vortical
structures present.
Theodorson (1952) originally
proposed turbulent boundary layer structure in the form
of an omega shaped vortex. The feet of the vortex were
parallel to the wall and the main body of the vortex was
inclined to the surface at some angle (thus the omega
shape). Falco (1977) and Head and Bandyopadhay
(1981) both conducted flow visualization and
concurrent hot-wire anemometry in order to more fully
characterize the turbulent boundary layer structure and
subsequent flow evolution. Vortex loops resemble half
a circular vortex ring. As the loop becomes elongated
resulting in moderate aspect ratios, it evolves into what
is described as a horseshoe vortex. As the stretching
becomes severe, high aspect ratios result with each side
of the vortex becoming very close to resemble a hairpin
(thus the name). Vortex loops dominate at the lower
Reynolds numbers whereas horseshoe and hairpin
vortices are seen at higher Reynolds numbers.
Interestingly, these vortical structures are consistently
inclined at a 40 50 deg angle relative to the surface.
In addition, a number of these structures are packaged
together forming a turbulent bulge. This bulge appears
to form an angle of approximately 20 deg with the
surface. These vortices are advected by the local flow
and evolved resulting in the turbulence. The boundary
layer shed from the stator wakes contains turbulent
eddies that produce a mean velocity defect that tends to
further excite the narrowband response. Since the
turbulent boundary layers and stator wakes contain
coherent vortex structures, a vorticity based method
may better model the actual turbulence and provide the
required structure to better predict the turbulent
hydrodynamic forcing and radiated noise.
Recent efforts utilizing vortex filaments to
model turbulent boundary layer flow structure have
been presented by Bernard et al (1999) as well as
Chorin (1993). Particularly, Bernard utilizes a vortex
method that includes surfaces. A layer of vortex sheets
are used to model the layer close to the wall and a
finite difference formula is used to compute the viscous
diffusion dominant near the surface. Vortex filaments
are then constructed from the top layer of vortex sheets
and then are advected by the flow as material elements.
In the outer region, the Euler equations are used to
evolve the vorticity and viscous diffusion is assumed to

be small. A form of this method has been implemented


into a larger vortex method algorithm developed by the
author (Huyer and Grant, 2000).
This paper presents the development of a
turbulent inflow model used to compute velocity
boundary conditions on a propeller. Experimental data
are used to initialize the vortex element calculations
and calibrate the model. Measurement (Muench, 2000)
and subsequent analysis (Huyer and Snarski, 2003) of
the full three-dimensional, unsteady, inflow velocity
field during operation of a SISUP propulsor have
provided a wealth of data to calibrate and validate the
turbulent inflow model.
The inflow is essentially
composed of two separate parts: The hull turbulent
boundary layer and the stator wakes. Vortex filaments
are used to model the hull boundary layer structures.
These essentially provide a low wavenumber
component to the flow. A random distribution of
vortex blobs is then used to model the higher
wavenumber components. Vortex filaments are used
to model the shed vorticity from the stator wakes and
are oriented in such a manner as to provide the
measured velocity defect.
A boundary element
calculation of the hull is used to model the hull near
wall vorticity. Finally, since the stators produce lift
(and hence a swirl component), a vortex lattice is used
to model the mean stator near wall vorticity and wake
vorticity due to this effect. This is treated separately
from the shed stator boundary layer vorticity. Results
of the model are then compared with experimental data
as stated above.
METHODOLOGY:
Turbulent Inflow Modeling:
In order to properly construct the turbulent
inflow, the computational model must reproduce the
mean velocity, turbulent intensity and velocity spectra.
As stated earlier, a turbulent boundary layer can be
represented as a collection of vortical structures. Falco
(1977) and Head and Bandyopadhay (1981) showed
that these structures are oriented in the boundary layer
in a semi-organized manner. This makes the proposed
turbulent inflow model amenable to vorticity-based
models. A qualitative concept of a boundary layer
orientation of the horseshoe vortices is shown in Figure
1.

Figure 1: Qualitative orientation of boundary layer


hairpin vortices.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Recent efforts utilizing vortex filaments to


model turbulent boundary layer flow structure have
been presented by Bernard et al (1999) as well as
Chorin (1993). This method was implemented into the
latest version of a vorticity based solution developed at
NUWC by Huyer (2002) based on work by Huyer and
Grant (2000). In this version, vortex blobs and vortex
filaments are used to model unsteady wake flows.
Expressions for the velocity and vorticity fields due to
vortex blobs are given by (see Marshall and Grant,
1996 for the full derivation):

v v 2
P 3 / 2, x x n / R 2n
v v
v v
v v

u( x, t) = v(x, t ) +
n (x x n )
v v 3
4 x x n
(1)
P(a,z) is the incomplete gamma function with limits P
= 0 at z = 0 and P = 1 as z . For a = 3/2 and z =
x2 , where x is real, P(a,z) is given in terms of the error
function:

P ( 3 / 2, x ) = erf ( x)
2

2xe x

(2)

1/ 2

The expression for the vorticity is:

n
v v 2

2
3 / 2 3 exp( x x n / R n )

Rn

N
v v

( x, t) = P 3 / 2, xv vx 2 / R 2
n
n

v v

n =1
n (x x n )

v v 3
4 x x n


(3)
The vorticity in (3) is divergence free. If the vorticity
is known at the control points, a matrix equation needs
to be developed to solve for the element amplitudes.
The induced velocity due to a set of vortex
filaments with core radius, n , length, l n ,
,
circulation, , and unit circulation unit vector,
n

is given by Bernard (1999) and Chorin (1993) as:

v v
N filaments

v v
n l n (x x n )
n (
u ( x, t) =
r /n )
v
v
3
4

n =1
x xn

(4)

where is a higher order smoothing function given


by:

(r / n ) = (1 (1

3 r 3 ( r / n ) 3
)e
)
2 3n

(5)

v v

r = (x x n )
n
As in the method described by Bernard, only
the vortex stretching and advection term will be
included, so the evolution of vorticity may be
approximated as:

v
v v v
v
v
+ u = ( )u
t

(6)

The second term on the left is due to advection and the


right hand side is due to stretching. Since the blobs
and filaments are advected with the local flow velocity,
the advection term is implicitly included. Also, the
horseshoe vortices may be modeled by a series of
filaments that are connected. Since the endpoints of
the filaments are advected, vorticity is automatically
conserved using the relation:

(l n n ) t+ t = (l n n )t

(7)

This implicitly includes the vortex stretching term.


Since the circulation is constant, lengthening the
filament will reduce the radius and, as can be seen from
the eqn. 8, the vorticity will increase.
This
methodology evolves the volumetric outer boundary
layer vorticity and shed wake vorticity due to lift from
the stators.
Hull Surface Effects:
The near wall vorticity associated with the
hull is modeled using a boundary element method. To
accomplish this, the axisymmetric hull is discretized
using quadrilateral panels. The solution due to Hess
and Smith (1966) is used to solve the integral for the
surface source and vortex panel strengths. This method
can be described as follows:
Each panel on the body surface carries two
velocity generators: a surface vortex distribution lying
in the plane of the panel and a potential source. Figure
2 shows the panel geometry for an arbitrary surface.
The sources ensure the no-flux boundary condition is
met properly. Both distributions are taken to be
uniform over an individual panel and lie in an infinitely
thin sheet on the surface. Thus the vortex strength
parameter characterizing a panel is the velocity jump
across the panel. The velocity due vto a potential
source, , and vortex panel strength, , on a surface
S is:

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

v v v
v v v v
v
1 ( x ) (x x )
1 ( x )(x x )
u ( x) =
dS +
dS
4 S vx xv 3
4 S vx xv 3
=

{ n B n + n B n }
N

U
18.7

n =1

(8)

y, u y

where n and n are the discretized strengths for a


panel n of surface area Sn and:
v
1
(xv xv ) dS
Bn =
(9)
4 S xv vx 3
n

v
The boundary condition at points x m on the surface is:
v
v
v
v
v
u elements( x m ) + u stator( x m ) + U = 0

(10)

v
v
Here, u elements( x m ) is the induced velocity due to all
v
v
vortex elements in the field and u stator( x m ) is the
induced velocity due to the stator.
Vortex Lattice Calculations:
Since the stators produce lift, the surface and
shed wake vorticity will produce an induced velocity.
This is treated as a mean effect. Instead of shedding
the vorticity in the form of filaments every time step
(one possible approach), it was decided to conduct a
separate calculation solving for the flow past a stator
using a vortex lattice method. The modified propulsor
unsteady flow (PUF) code (see Kerwin (1978, 1986),
Huyer and Snarski (2002)) was used for these
computations. The flow field was solved and induced
velocities were comp uted on a fixed grid.
An
interpolation routine was then used to compute the
induced velocity at any point in the field due to the
stators.
The unsteady velocity at a given point in the
field is therefore a summation of the velocities due to
1) Freestream velocity; 2) Hull near wall vorticity; 3)
Stator vortex lattice; 4) Hull boundary layer vorticity
due to filaments and blobs; and 5) Stator boundary
layer shed vorticity using vortex filaments.

n
s

= surface normal

= unit vector streamwise direction

= tangent to normal and streamwise

Figure 2: Undersea vehicle geometry

, u
x, u x

Figure 3: Solid mo del of SISUP stator and propeller


blade. The local and global coordinate system is
displayed. From Muench (2000).
Wind Tunnel Experiments For Model
Calibration/Validation:
Previously conducted experiments were used
to calibrate and validate the turbulence model.
Summaries of these data can be found in Muench
(2001) and Huyer and Snarski (2003).
SISUP Geometry:
The SISUP propeller, developed by the Naval
Ocean Systems Center (see Mautner et al, 1988), is an
open (no-duct) propeller with complex geometry
incorporating rake, twist and skew. The stators are
located upstream of the propeller and are set at an
angle of attack to counterbalance the torque generated
by the propeller. There are a total of eight stators,
equally spaced along the perimeter of the hull in 45 deg
increments.
The propeller consists of six-blades
equally spaced at 60 deg intervals. The SISUP
propulsor configuration is shown in Figure 3. The
global and local coordinate systems are displayed as
well. The X-coordinate is defined positive in the
direction of the freestream. The Y-coordinate is
positive vertical and the Z-coordinate is positive to
port. The local cylindrical coordinate system, x, r, ,
for definition of the inflow measurement plane is also
shown. x is positive in the direction of the freestream
and parallel with the hull; r (y in the figure) is positive
normal to the hull surface; is positive in the counterclockwise direction (looking upstream) and is 0 at an
angle of 83.41 deg relative to top dead center of the
wind tunnel. The local cylindrical coordinate system is
used for all comparisons with experimental data. At
the point of inflow measurement, the hull converges at
an 18.7o angle relative to the tunnel centerline. The
origin of the local coordinate system (x-r) is at the
propeller mid-chord at the root chord location.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

0o

90o

v 0.1
u'

1.0

ux

0.0

0.25

(a)

(a)
MEAN AXIAL VELOCITY
Uinf = 29.3 m/sec, J = 2.343

0.14

r/Rprop=0.39
r/Rprop=0.57
r/Rprop=0.65
r/Rprop=0.82

0.6

r/Rprop=0.98
r/Rprop=1.15

0.4

r/Rprop=1.32

0.2

sqrt(u'x+u' r+u' )/Ui n f

0.12

0.8

ux /Ui n f

TURBULENT INTENSITY
Uinf = 29.3 m/sec, J = 2.343

0.1
r/Rprop=0.39
r/Rprop=0.57

0.08

r/Rprop=0.65
r/Rprop=0.82
r/Rprop=0.98

0.06

r/Rprop=1.15
r/Rprop=1.32

0.04
0.02
0

0
0

20

40

60

80

Theta (deg)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Theta (deg)

(b)

(b)

Figure 4: Axial velocity component of the mean


inflow scaled by the freestream velocity (a) and plot of
the mean axial velocity over two stator wakes (b).
Inflow plane begins 1 cm upstream of propulsor root
leading edge. U = 29.3 m/sec. View is looking
upstream.

Figure 5: Magnitude of the rms turbulence scaled by


the freestream velocity (a) and plot of the turbulent
intensity over two stator wakes (b). Inflow plane
begins 1 cm upstream of propulsor root leading edge.

Inflow Measurements:
Inflow measurements were conducted for
various freestream velocities with non-dimensional
results at 29 m/sec used for model calibration and
validation.
Velocities were chosen so that the
boundary layer thickness in air at 36.6 m/sec was the
same as that for equivalent Reynolds numbers in water
(20.57 m/sec). At the end of the cylindrical UUV
section (before the afterbody), the Reynolds number
was approximately 120 million and the measured
boundary layer thickness was approximately 4.3 cm.
The in-water boundary layer thickness was
approximately 5% less than in-air measurements.

U = 29.3 m/sec. View is looking upstream.


Cylindrical hot-film anemometry was used to
measure the local unsteady velocity field.
TSI
Incorporated constructed customized u xu r (Model
1246AI-20) and uxu (1246C-20) x-wire probes with
probe lengths of 3.05 cm. The cylindrical hot-films
had diameters of 50 m, were 1 mm in length, and had
a frequency response of 50 kHz. Since only two
components could be measured at a time, the
instantaneous three-dimensional velocity field is
uncorrelated. Mean velocity, turbulence and spectra of
the propeller inflow in the axial, radial and tangential
directions were measured and analyzed. Errors in the
axial velocity component were estimated at 5.2% and
errors in the radial and tangential components were

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

estimated at 10.2% based on local mean values. A


rotating hub mechanism was used to collect data at 12
radial and 600 tangential locations.

Mean Velocity Calculations:


The mean velocity field also needed to be
computed to advect the element control points.
Experimental
data
existed
only
immediately
downstream of the stator so that the mean velocity
effects proximal to the stator and upstream of the stator
were unknown. It was therefore determined that the
best way to approximate the mean inflow was to
perform a vortex lattice calculation of the eight stators.
Velocities from the experimental inflow plane were
circumferentially averaged and the swirl (tangential
component) removed.
Axial and radial velocity
profiles were also smoothed so as to be more
representative of a typical turbulent boundary layer.
The axisymmetric velocity field was computed on a
fixed grid with the same resolution (13 radial and 600
circumferential points) at a given axial location as the
experimental measurement grid. These velocities were
extrapolated upstream so that mass was conserved.
The first axial plane was located one propeller radius
upstream. An additional two axial planes of data were
placed over the stator and six additional planes were
downstream of the experimental data plan for a total of
ten axial planes. A vortex lattice calculation of the
flow past the eight stators was then performed (see
Vortex Lattice Calculations section above).
The
induced velocity due to the vortex lattice solution to the
stator flow was then computed on each of the grid
control points. The velocity on the grid was then a
superposition of the original grid velocities and the
induced velocities from the stators and their wakes.
The local velocity of the vortex filaments was then
obtained by linearly interpolating the velocity from the
fixed grid.
Figure 6 shows the results of the
calculations taken midway between the two stators. As
can be seen, the radial profile was smoothed initially
and does not show the defect and overshoot seen at
r/Rprop = 1.0. The tangential profile shows that the
swirl is underestimated by the calculations very near

1.4
1.2

Tangential
1
Axial

r/R prop

Figures 4 and 5 display the axial velocity


component and the turbulent intensity, respectively. It
can be seen that the stator wakes are quite clear and
dominant. They give rise to the tonal in the radiated
noise acoustic signature. In order to model the
turbulence in the stator wakes, vortex filaments
extending along the entire span of the stator will be
used. The filaments may be initialized based on the
velocity defect from the mean velocity profile.
Variation in the filaments will provide the wake
turbulence levels. These data will be used to further
calibrate and validate the model.

MEAN VELOCITY PROFILES


Between Stators, Stator Computations

Radial

0.8
0.6
0.4

-0.3

0.2
-0.1

Experiments
Vortex Lattice Soln.
Vortex Lattice Soln.
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
ux , ur or u (r)/U inf

hub

0.9

Figure 6: Mean velocity profiles of the vortex lattice


calculations for flow about the eight stators.
the surface. It does not exhibit the humps in the profile
seen at r/Rprop = 0.73 and 1.06. This may be due to
incorrectly modeling the tip vortex, which the vortex
lattice method is not designed to do. Excellent
agreement is seen in the axial profiles, although the
solution slightly underestimates the velocity close to
the surface. It should be noted, however, that the
solution does not take into account the induced velocity
due to the rotor. Rotor effects will be discussed later.
Vortex filament initialization:
The vortex filaments are initialized with a
circulation, radius and length and placed upstream of
the propulsor rotor immediately downstream of the
stator. Vortex filaments representing the hull boundary
layer and the stator wakes are treated separately. The
boundary layer vortices are modeled using single
vortex loops that encircle the vehicle hull. Figure 7
shows an example of a single boundary layer vortex
loop at successive downstream stations. Each vortex
loop consists of approximately 200 vortex filaments.
Superimposed on the ring shape is a sinusoidal
perturbation. This perturbation is intended to model
the horseshoe vortices. This perturbation results in a
number of effective horseshoe vortices that are inclined
at angles between 40 to 50 deg relative to the hull
surface. The number of perturbations for each loop is
randomly varied between 20 and 60 and an additional
random perturbation of 0.01 is introduced in the axial
and radial direction that results in the differing
inclination angle. At each time step (t = 0.025), 11 of
these vortex loops are evenly stacked normal to the
surface beginning at a normalized distance of 0.05
above the hull surface extending out a distance of 0.25.
As the individual vortex loops are advected
downstream, Figure 7 shows that the mean shear

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

1.1
Axial Velocity
0.0

Hull Surface

Inflow Plane

Computational Outflow
Rake
Plane

Figure 7: Plots of single vortex loops at five different


timesteps.
boundary layer flow stretches the vortex filaments
creating elongated hairpin vortices.
To maintain
resolution, filaments are divided equally after they
double in length based on their initial value. Figure 8
shows a collection of the boundary layer vorticity using
vector plots at each filament control point. Vortex
loops are removed after they have advected two
propeller radii downstream. For a typical calculation,
the boundary layer consists of 1,000 loops and 200,000
filaments. To match the mean velocity profile of the
hull boundary layer a mean circulation of 0.002 is used
for each filament. To better achieve the profile, the
first two layers have circulations 1.5 times the mean
value and the outer four layers have circulations half
the mean value. To provide an additional random
component modeling the turbulence, the circulation
and radius are randomly perturbed by 50% of the mean
value.
The model of the stator wake vorticity is
intended to capture both the shed boundary layer
vorticity and wake vorticity due to lift. To accomplish
this, a simple vortex pair model is used. The wake
thickness is known from the experimental results and
the vortex lattice model provides the circulation of the

Figure 8: Isometric and side views of the filament and


blob velocity vectors at the element control points.
vorticity (due to lift) initially shed into the wake. What
is not provided is the effect of the boundary layer
vorticity shed. Each vortex loop consists of 36
filaments where the filament control points correspond
to the control points at the stator trailing edge from the
vortex lattice code.
The filament centers
corresponding to an upper and lower loop are separated
a distance of 0.5 wake thicknesses (t wake) in the axial
direction and 0.25 twake in the circumferential direction.
Additionally, each filament control point is randomly
perturbed an additional distance of 0.125 twake in the
axial direction and 0.05 twake in the circumferential
direction. To achieve the correct velocity defect, a
filament circulation of 0.005 is used. A circulation
differential corresponding to the vortex lattice output of
the wake circulation si used to model the stator lift
effect. To introduce an additional component of

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

turbulence, each filaments circulation and radius is


perturbed by 10% of its mean value.

Experiments
ur

0.8

Velocity (ux , ur or u /Uinf)

Finally, vortex blobs are used to introduce a


higher wavenumber turbulent component. These blobs
are introduced immediately downstream of the stator at
each time step with 300 blobs in the circumferential
direction and six radial stations for 1800 blobs each
time step. Typically, this results in approximately
100,000 additional blobs in the boundary layer. Each
blob has a radius of 0.01 with the radius perturbed by
50% of its mean value. Blob circulation is randomly
initialized between +0.0005.

CIRCUMFERENTIAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION


Simulation
r/Rprop=0.39

Axial
0.6
0.4
0.2
Radial
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

-0.2
Tangential
-0.4

Figure 8 shows an element vector plot of the


flow domain. Velocity vectors are colored based on
the axial velocity and are plotted at the filament and
blob control points. The filament initiation plane, the
plane where experimental data were collected, and the
outflow plane where points are removed are clearly
delineated.

Circumferential Angle

Figure 9: Axial, radial and tangential circumferential


velocity distributions for simulated and experimental
cases taken at r/Rprop = 0.39.
CIRCUMFERENTIAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION
r/Rprop =0.65
1
0.8

Velocity (ux, u r or u /Uinf)

The effective turbulent intensity and velocity


spectra data due to the vortex blobs and filaments were
computed and compared with the experimental
database. The size, strength and distribution of the
vortex filaments were adjusted to match the
experimental data with the vortex blobs providing an
additional random component to mimic the higher
wavenumber behavior.
Once qualitative and
quantitative agreement was reached, the data were
deemed suitable for the full flow simulation.

Axial

0.6
0.4
Radial
0.2
0
0

-0.4

40

60

80

100

Tangential

Simulation
Experiments
ur

Circumferential Angle

Figure 10: Same as Figure 9 except r/Rprop = 0.65.

CIRCUMFERENTIAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION


r/Rprop =0.9
1

Velocity (ux, u r or u /Uinf)

RESULTS:
Mean Velocity Comparisons
Figures 9, 10 and 11 show circumferential
distributions of axial, radial and tangential velocity at
r/Rprop = 0.39 (closest to the surface), 0.65 (middle of
the boundary layer) and 0.9 (outer boundary layer
under the influence of the tip vortex). For these and all
cases, comparisons are made in the local (x, r, )
coordinate system. The plots are shown from position
angles between 0 and 100 deg encompassing two
stators. For r/Rprop = 0.39, the axial velocity displays a
clear drop in velocity due to the stator wake.
Simulations slightly underpredict by 5% the magnitude
of the velocity decrease and demonstrate overshoots
not seen in the experimental data. This is likely due to
the lack of resolution of the boundary layer vorticity
shed from the stator. Aside from this, the simulated
axial velocity predicts the measured velocity between
the stator wakes to within 2%. The simulated radial
velocity distribution appears to follow the measured
distribution, but is offset by a value of -0.02.
Simulations of the tangential component do a better job

20

-0.2

0.8

Axial

0.6
0.4

Radial

0.2
0
0
-0.2
-0.4

20

40

60

80

100

Tangential

Circumferential Angle

Figure 11: Same as Figure 9 except r/Rprop = 0.9.

Simulation
Experiments
ur

of following the measured values. In all cases, the


effect of the wake is predicted by the simulations to
within 5%.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

1.2
Tangential
1
r/R prop

Axial
Radial

0.8
0.6
0.4

-0.3

0.2
-0.1

0.1

Experiments
Computations
R/Rprop
0.3
0.5
0.7
ux, u r or u (r)/Uinf

hub

0.9

Figure 12: Axial, radial and tangential velocity profiles


taken midway between two stators for simulated and
experimental cases.
At the middle of the boundary layer (r/Rprop =
0.65), the simulated axial velocity closely follows the
measured. The wake defect is slightly underpredicted
as is the mild overshoot prior to entering the wake.
Between the stators, the velocity distribution is
relatively flat with predicted values off less than 1%.
The predicted radial values appear to be greater by a
value of 0.02 compared with the measured velocities.
Predicted tangential velocities are greater by a constant
value of 0.1.
At the edge of the boundary layer, under the
influence of the tip vortex (r/Rprop = 0.9), there
continues to be excellent agreement between the
predicted axial velocities and the measured. The
magnitude of the velocity defect is predicted within
1%. Also, the mild decrease in velocity between the
stator wakes is replicated as well. The computations
slightly overpredict the velocity between the stators by
3%. The trends in the radial velocity are predicted as
well, but the simulated distribution appears shifted
upward by a value of 0.05. The simulated and
measured tangential velocities agree very well except
for the stator wake. Here, the tip vortex can be inferred
in the measured velocity distribution where an
overshoot on the left side of the wake followed by an
undershoot on the right side of the wake is observed.
This suggests that the measurement probe came very
close to traversing the center of the tip vortex. The
predicted values only display an undershoot suggesting
that the center of the tip vortex is still above the
computational rake.
Figure 12 shows radial axial, radial and
tangential velocity profiles taken midway between the

first two stators to highlight the hull turbulent boundary


layer.
Unlike the mean velocity vortex lattice
calculations shown in Figure 6, this figure shows the
time averaged velocity field based on the fully
turbulent inflow. Excellent agreement is achieved with
the axial velocity with all values within the
experimental error of 5.2% (shown by the error bars).
The radial profile agrees in the near wall region.
Outboard of r/Rprop = 0.8, where the tip vortex would
be expected, the agreement is not as good. The current
model of the tip vortex does not capture the radial
velocity defect and overshoot seen in the experiments.
Also at the furthest outboard locations, simulations
over-predict the radial component by a value of 0.04.
As a reference, the freestream radial component is
0.32, so that for both simulations and experiments, the
freestream values have not been reached.
Alternatively, the tangential profiles agree generally
well outboard of r/Rprop = 0.73, but do not agree well
near the wall. In the near wall region (below r/Rprop =
0.65), tangential velocity is underpredicted, except for
the radial location closest to the surface. In the outer
boundary layer, there are two mild overshoots in the
measured profile at r/Rprop = 0.82 and 1.06, but none in
the predicted.
Turbulent Velocity:
Propulsor inflow turbulence was estimated by
taking the standard deviation of the unsteady velocity
in the axial, radial and tangential directions. Figures
13, 14 and 15 show radial profiles taken between the
two stators of the axial, radial and tangential turbulence
components respectively. Simulations are compared
with measured values and flat plate turbulence profiles
are shown to provide another comparison. In all three
cases, the simulated turbulence is significantly greater
0.1

rms TURBULENCE PROFILES


Axial Direction

0.09
rms Turbulence / U inf

1.4

VELOCITY PROFILES
Between Stators

0.08

Flat Plate TBL, zero P (Klebanoff)

0.07

Computations
Experiments

0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
hub

0.01
0
0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9
r/R prop

1.1

1.3

Figure 13: Profiles of the axial Turbulence with


comparisons to experimental data and flat plate
turbulent boundary layer data (Hinze, 1975).

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

rms TURBULENCE PROFILES


Radial Direction

0.09

0.08

Flat Plate TBL, zero P (Klebanoff)

0.07

Computations
Experiments

0.06
0.05
0.04

0.08

Turbulence (u'x /Uinf)

0.09
rms Turbulence / U inf

AXIAL TURBULENCE
r/Rprop =0.73

0.1

0.1

0.03

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
Simulation

0.01

0.02
hub

0.01

Experiments

0
0

20

0
0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9
r/R prop

1.1

1.3

Figure 14: Same as Figure 13 except radial turbulence.


0.1

60

80

100

Figure 16: Circumferential distribution of the axial


turbulence with comparisons to experimental data for
r/Rprop = 0.73.
AXIAL VELOCITY POWER SPECTRA
r/Rprop = 0.47

rms TURBULENCE PROFILES


Circumferential Direction

0.09

1.E-04

0.08

Flat Plate TBL, zero P (Klebanoff)

0.07

Computations
Experiments

0.06

Computations
Experiments

1.E-05
Power (u/Uinf)^2

rms Turbulence / U inf

40

Circumferential Angle

0.05
0.04
0.03

1.E-06

1.E-07

1.E-08

0.02
hub

1.E-09

0.01

20

40

60

80

100

120

Frequency/Shaft Rate

0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9
r/R prop

1.1

1.3

AXIAL VELOCITY POWER SPECTRA


r/Rprop = 0.65

Figure 15: Same as Figure 13 except tangential


turbulence.

1.E-04

Computations
Experiments

than the measured values at the lowest radial location


(r/Rprop = 0.39). By the second measurement location
(r/Rprop = 0.48), the simulated axial turbulence is in
much better agreement with the measured values.
From r/Rprop = 0.65 to the outboard locations, all three
turbulent components are in good agreement with the
measured values. At stations outboard of r/Rprop = 0.9,
the freestream turbulence of 1% is evident in the
measurements. Freestream turbulence was not part of
the simulated turbulence.
Figure 16 shows a circumferential distribution
of the axial turbulence at r/Rprop = 0.73, in the middle
of the hull turbulent boundary layer.
Overall,
agreement with the measured turbulence is seen in the
region between the stators.
Simulations slightly
underpredict the stator wake turbulence and the
simulated wake appears wider by comparison. Not

Power (u/Uinf)^2

1.E-05
1.E-06
1.E-07
1.E-08
1.E-09
1.E-10
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Frequency/Shaft Rate

Figure 17: Axial velocity spectra with comparisons to


experimental data for r/Rprop = 0.47 and 0.65.
Frequency is non-dimensionalized by the rotor blade
shaft rotation rate of 27.3 Hz.
shown are the radial and tangential distributions. They
demonstrate qualitatively similar behavior with some
important differences to note. The broadband radial

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

appears represented, but the increased turbulence in the


stator is not seen in the radial component. This is due
to the simple vortex loop model of the wake flow.
Since the vorticity is along the span of the stator, there
is no radial velocity component, only axial and
tangential. Simulations indicate that the tangential
component of turbulence exceeds that measured by
approximately 3% in the stator wake. As seen in
Figure 15, the broadband is represented well.
Velocity Spectra:
Velocity spectra were computed based on the
unsteady velocity data and appropriately scaled for
comparisons with the experimental data. Figure 17
shows the axial velocity spectra for r/Rprop = 0.47 and
0.65 at a circumferential position midway between two
stators. 500 data points were used to compute the
spectra at a non-dimensional time step of 0.02. This
yielded a maximum non-dimensional frequency of 120.
As can be seen, there are considerably more
fluctuations in the simulated spectra compared with the
measured. This is likely due to the limited resolution.
Regardless, the slope of the data agrees very well with
the measured spectra with the data characteristically
broadband turbulent.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:
A model of the fully turbulent unsteady
propulsor inflow based on a vortex element method has
been presented.
Vortex filaments were used to
construct the vortices characteristic of experimentally
observed turbulent boundary layers. Initially, a number
of sinusoidal perturbations in a single vortex loop that
completely encircled the vehicle hull modeled the
boundary layer horseshoe vortex structures. Several of
these vortex loops were introduced one propeller radius
upstream for each time step. The vortex filaments
were advected by the mean flow, which was computed
using a vortex lattice method at a number of points
corresponding to a fixed grid. The mean flow included
effects from the hull and the upstream stators and the
stator wakes. The unsteady stator wake component of
the inflow model was initialized using a single vortex
loop consisting of several filaments and fully
connected. This modeled the shed vorticity from the
stator upper and lower surfaces. As the flow evolved,
velocity shear caused the boundary layer vortex
filaments to stretch so that in some cases, high aspect
ratio vortex structures were formed resembling hairpin
vortex structures. The model was constructed to
replicate as many of the physics as possible.
Experimental data were used to initialize the
circulation and radius of the vortex elements. A
random component in circulation, radius and position
was introduced to the vortex filaments to add a

component of turbulence. Random distributions of


vortex blobs with zero mean and various circulations,
positions and radii added another higher wavenumber
component.
Comparisons
with
experimental
data
demonstrated excellent agreement in the mean axial
velocity data. Turbulent boundary layer velocities and
wake velocity defects were both reproduced. In some
cases, the spatial location of the velocity defect was
slightly out of phase with the measured position. This
is likely due to the differences in computed tangential
velocity based on the vortex lattice method and the
measured. These differences were evident in the model
predictions of the tangential velocity component as
well. Mean tangential velocities were consistently
underpredicted near the surface (below r/Rprop = 0.65)
by values on the order of 0.05 to 0.1. Radial velocities
matched well near the surface, but were off in the
region of the tip vortex. Some explanations for the
observed discrepancies include neglecting the effect of
the rotor. Vortex lattice calculations of the flow past
the rotor, based on the experimental inflow, showed
very little contribution upstream in the swirl velocity.
Axial velocities of 0.03, radial velocities of 0.02 and
negligible tangential velocities were computed at the
surface with decreasing values at outboard locations.
By including the axial velocity effect, the subsequent
vorticity close to the surface will need to be increased
to match it possibly altering the swirl velocity
component. Another possible cause to note is the lack
of a stator root vortex model. As was seen from the
vortex lattice calculations to compute the mean flow,
the swirl close to the surface was underpredicted. This
may be expected for fully potential flow, but it was
hoped that the vortex filaments would better model the
swirl near the surface. By introducing a root vortex
model, it may be possible to increase the swirl near the
surface to better match the experimental observations.
It also appears that an improved tip vortex model is
needed to better predict the changes in radial velocity
seen in the radial profiles. It appears that this effect is
felt between the two stators. The induced velocity
effect from the model is much more localized by
comparison. These hypotheses will be tested in the
upcoming research in order to improve the model.
Substantial agreement was obtained with the
axial turbulence component. Again the hull boundary
layer and stator wake were matched very well. Points
closest to the surface were not matched as well. This is
likely due to the lack of resolution and use of the
vortex sheets to model the near wall boundary layer.
At outboard locations, the radial and tangential
components remained approximately 1%-2% high.
Again, this could be due to a lack of spatial resolution

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

of the vortex structures in the radial and tangential


directions. The fact that the overall agreement matched
as well as it did, however, is highly encouraging for
this model.
Velocity spectra of the computed turbulent
inflow model demonstrated that the wavenumber
characteristics of the inflow could be matched.
Increased noise in the inflow model spectra may be
explained by a lack of temporal resolution. Additional
runs are planned to compute the spectra for a large
number of points to address this issue. The overall
agreement with experiment suggests that the length
scales of the vortex structures are being modeled
properly.
The turbulent inflow model is now at the stage
where it can be used to compute turbulent inflow
boundary conditions on a propulsor rotor. These
computations are currently being conducted, but are
not the focus of this paper. After the unsteady forces
are computed, the direct radiated nose will be
computed based on the unsteady blade forces. The
current set of experimental data includes radiated noise
data. Comparisons will be made with the predicted and
measured radiated noise to fully evaluate the potential
of this model.

Gedney, C.J., Abbot, P.A., and Corriveau, P.J.,


Inferring Blade Rate Forces from Wind Tunnel Sound
Power Measurements, ASME Winter Annual
Meeting, Symposium on Flow Noise Modeling,
Measurement and Control, November 1998.
Gavin, J.R., Unsteady Forces and Sound Caused by
Boundary Layer Turbulence Entering A
Turbomachinery Rotor, Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate
Program in Acoustics, The Pennsylvania State
University, August 2002.
Hahn, N.J., Renick, D.H., Taylor, T.E., PUF-14.4: An
Unsteady Analysis Code for Wake-Adapted, Multistage Ducted Propulsors, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology Department of Ocean Engineering,
December, 2000.
Head, M.R., Bandyopadhyay, P., New Aspects of
Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure, Journal of Fluid
Mechanics, Vol. 107, pp. 297-338, 1981.
Hess, J.L., Smith, A.M.O., Calculation of Potential
Flow About Arbitrary Bodies, Progress in Aerospace
Science, Vol. 8, pp. 1 38, 1966.
Hinze, J.O. Turbulence, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill,
1975.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
This work was funded by the NUWC Internal
Research Program, Mr. Richard Philips, program
manager and the Office of Naval Research under
Contract N0001402WX20474, Dr. Kam Ng, program
manager. The experimental data used for comparisons
was collected during SISUP experiments, supervised
by Dr. John Muench for his thesis work and funded by
the Office of Naval Research under Dr. Patrick Purtell.

Huyer, S.A., Snarski, S.R., Analysis of Turbulent


Propeller Inflow, ASME Journal of Fluids
Engineering, May 2003.

REFERENCES:
Bernard, P.S., Dimas, A.A., Collins, J.P., Turbulent
Flow Modeling Using a Fast, Parallel, Vortex Tube and
Sheet Method, European Series in Applied and
Industrial Mathematics, Vortex Flows and elated
Numerical Methods III, ed. Gagnon, Y., Cottet, G.-H,
Dritschel, D.G., Ghoniem, A.F., Meiburg, E., Vol. 7,
pp 46-55, 1999 (http://www.emath.fr/proc/Vol.7/)

Huyer, S.A., Grant, J.R., "Simulation of UUV


Recovery Hydrodynamics," Proceedings from the 23rd
Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Val de Reuil,
France, Septemb er, 2000.

Chorin, A.J., Hairpin removal in vortex interactions


II, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 107, 1993,
pp 1-9.

Keenan, D.P., Marine Propellers in Unsteady Flow,


Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Ocean Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1989.

Falco, R.E., Coherent Motions in the Outer Region of


Turbulent Boundary Layers, Physics of Fluids, Vol.
20 (10), Part II, October 1977.

Kerwin, J.E., Lee, C.S., Prediction of Steady and


Unsteady Marine Propeller Performance by Numerical
Lifting Surface Theory, Transactions of the Society of
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Vol. 86, 1978.

Huyer, S.A., Snarski, S.R., Unsteady Propulsor Force


Prediction for Spatially and Temporally Varying
Inflow, ASME Paper No. FEDSM2002-31346, ASME
Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 2002.

Huyer, S.A., Grant, J.R., "Computation of Unsteady


Naval Hydrodynamics Using a Lagrangian Vorticity
Method," AIAA Paper No. 2000-2532, June 2000.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Kerwin, J.E., Marine Propellers, Annual Review of


Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 18, pp 367-403, 1986.
Lysak, P.D., Brungart, T.A., Velocity Spectrum
Model for Turbulence Ingestion Noise from
Computational-Fluid-Dynamics Calculations, AIAA
Journal, Vol. 41, No. 9, pp 1827-1829, September
2003.
Marshall, J.S., Grant, J.R., Penetration of a Blade into
a Vortex Core: Vorticity Response and Unsteady Blade
Forces, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 306, pp. 83109, 1996.
Mautner, T.S., Nelson, D.M., Gillcrist, M.C.,
Investigation of the SISUP (Swirl Inducing Stator
Upstream of Propeller) Concept for Marine
Propulsion, Naval Ocean Systems Center,
Proceedings: Propellers 88. September 1988.
Muench, J.D., Periodic Acoustic Radiation from a Low
Aspect Ratio Propeller, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of
Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics,
University of Rhode Island, 2001.
Sevik, M.M., The Response of Propulsors to
Turbulence, Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on
Naal Hydrodynamics, Rome, Italy, August 25-30,
1968.
Theodorsen, T., Mechanism of Turbulence,
Proceedings of the 2nd Midwestern Conference on
Fluid Mechanics, Ohio State University, 1952.
Uhlman, J.S., An Examination of the Frequencies of
the Unsteady Harmonic Forces Genereated by
Propulsors, NUWC-NPT Technical Report 10,470,
Naval Undersea Warfare Center, May 1995.
Wojno, J.P., Mueller, T.J., Blake, W.K., Turbulence
Ingestion Noise, Part 2:Rotor Aeroacoustic Response
to Grid-Generated Turbulence, AIAA Journal, Vol.
40, No. 1, pp 26-32, January 2002.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Stephane Cordier
Bassin dessais des Carnes
In the paper, the vortex filament intensities
are tuned to one geometry. How would this
method be applied when experimental data is not
available for a new geometry? Do the authors have
examples of this method applied based on a
computed (RANSE or LES) flow?
AUTHORS REPLY
It is correct that the results presented in this
paper were calibrated for a particular SISUP
geometry. Experimental mean 3-D velocity and
turbulence data were used in this process at a given
upstream plane. It would actually be easier to utilize
CFD data to calibrate the model for a generic
geometry, but, at present, we have no examples to
present. As long as mean and rms velocities are
computed, this information can be used to calibrate
the model.
Right now, this method is being
transitioned to a 6.2 program where turbulent inflow
into a propulsor will be computed. Unlike the SISUP
cases presented where experimental data were used,
the inflow velocity data is computational using a
RANS formulation. Mean velocities and turbulent
intensity will be used to calibrate a model to predict
the broadband unsteady hydrodynamic blade forces
and pressures. We will present these results in the
future as the calculations progress.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

DISCUSSION
Joseph R. Gavin
General Dynamics Electric Boat Division, USA

need of computational approaches, and the present


research might make a real contribution in trending
the physics.
AUTHORS REPLY

The authors are to be congratulated on an


important and well executed piece of work. The
inflow modeling is closely related to observable
quantities that give wonderful insight to the
turbulence physics, and certainly this improves our
collective abilities in modeling, testing and
mitigation. I am anxious to see the next step, which
will compare the measured and predicted
aeroacoustic response.
I am still frankly unclear if this approach
will serve mainly to increase our knowledge, or if it
will ultimately become a robust design tool. The
authors vision for their research would be most
welcome, along with some insight to the
computational load for a typical problem, and the
perceived robustness of the calibration constants.
How might this method compliment the existing
infra-structure of RANS, LES and experiments?
Thus far the model has achieved good
correlation with single point turbulence statistics.
The boundary layer mean flow, blade wakes, and
RMS turbulence statistics are certainly within
encouraging agreement of measurements.
The
spectral content of the velocity fluctuations might be
improved with finer discretization and longer
averaging as suggested, but our independent work
also emphasizes the need for great care in avoiding
artificial periodicity within the flow domain. The
near-wall behaviors also require some attention, but
these are generally less important to the turbulence
ingestion problem. The authors have probably
considered the use of vortical image sources below
the wall to better enforce the no-slip boundary
condition, but its unclear if this is already included or
a future enhancement.
The authors are certainly well aware that the
upcoming aeroacoustic predictions will rely not just
on simulating the single-point statistics, but also the
spatial distribution (or wavenumber content) of the
turbulent velocity fluctuations. The turbulent blobs
are a key feature for modeling the small scale
fluctuations. The key question remains if the
underlying structure is sufficiently random so that the
velocity fluctuations become completely decorrelated
at reasonable axial and circumferential separation
distances.
The authors should also consider the
extension of this approach to the more challenging
problem of predicting the wavenumber-frequency
content of the wall pressure fluctuations beneath
turbulent boundary layers. This is a problem in sore

Currently, this approach is intended mainly


as a robust design tool to mimic the physics
associated with turbulent inflows. It is not entirely
physics-based
as
either
empirical
and/or
computational data are required to initialize and
calibrate the filament and blob circulations.
Evolution of the vorticity associated with the
simulated turbulence is physics-based. This does not
mean, however, that problems cannot be designed to
increase our knowledge. By using this methodology
to establish a structurally realistic turbulent inflow,
specific response of some type of surface to the
resultant flow can be examined. In the present
problem, we examine the propeller response to the
turbulence to predict the radiated noise. Other
applications include examination of sonar or wide
aperture array surface response to better understand
the self-noise problem. Also, problems such as
modification of the turbulence due to ingestion into a
propeller may be examined. Eventually, a physicsbased approach is desired but is beyond the scope of
the currently funded research.
Indeed, there is very good agreement with the single
point turbulence statistics and agree that finer
discretization in space and time will improve the
agreement. We are in the process of conducting
longer runs (in time) with these goals in mind.
Introducing a false periodicity into the flow is
certainly a potential problem if care is not taken to
introduce sufficient randomness. For that reason,
Monte-Carlo methods are used to both spatially and
temporally introduce the vorticity upstream to
minimize this effect. As may not have been made
clear in the paper, a boundary element solution
solving for the no-slip and no-flux boundary
conditions using vortex and source surface panels is
used. The thin vortex sheets obtained from this
solution ensure that these boundary conditions are
met. The right hand side of the matrix equation
includes the induced velocities from all velocity
generators including the freestream and volume blob
and filament vorticity. This effectively addresses the
vortical image sources that Dr. Gavin speaks of.
We are currently conducting aeroacoustic
predictions with some initial results presented at the
Symposium. The radiated noise computations agree
well with experiments. The broadband components
are noisier compared with experimental data due to
the lack of sufficient averaging of the computational
results. Again, longer time runs should address this

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

problem. Also, initial investigation of two-point


statistics has shown that the turbulence is in fact
decorrelated at reasonable axial and circumferential
distances.
We greatly appreciate the suggestion that the
current method may be used to examine the
wavenumber-frequency content of wall pressure
fluctuations for turbulent boundary layers. This is an
example of a research topic that can be examined to
increase our knowledge of the underlying physics.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

Toward High-Fidelity Prediction of Tip-Vortex Around


Lifting Surfaces What Does It Take?
Sung-Eun Kim and Shin Hyung Rhee
Fluent Incorporated, Lebanon, N.H., 03766, U.S.A.

The presence of multiple features with


widely varying length scale translates into challenge
in meshing. The question comes down to how to
effectively allocate computational elements in the
solution domain so that one can obtain the best
possible solution accuracy, maximizing the return of
investment in terms of the usage of the
computational resources. Global mesh refinement refining the mesh everywhere - is obviously a very
expensive proposition for three-dimensional flows.
One very promising avenue can be found in local
mesh refinement and coarsening based on the
solution itself, which is made possible by the
numerics capable of handling unstructured meshes.
Another difficulty, arguably the most
challenging of all, comes from turbulence modeling.
Typical lifting surface flows, even at a moderate
angle of attack, involve strongly non-equilibrium
boundary layer, undergoing a rapid change from the
moment it impinges on the wall until it leaves or
separates from the surface in the form of a free
vortex-sheet. Furthermore, the flows off the wall are
dominated by strong rotation in the vicinity of the
vortices generated around the wing tip. As well
known, isotropic eddy-viscosity based turbulence
models are ill-equipped to handle this kind of flows.
All this begs the same, much-asked question of what
level of turbulence modeling would be needed for an
accurate prediction of lifting surface flows, or better
put, what consequence one should expect of using
different turbulence models. In this regard, it is
useful to mention the authors previous study of
turbulent flow past a 6:1 spheroid at incidence (Kim
et al., 2002), another example of vortex-dominated
flows, which revealed that the second-moment
closure based on the solution of Reynolds-stress
transport equations yields a remarkably accurate
prediction of the flow, outperforming all the eddyviscosity models
In the present study, we conducted a
computational study on the flow around a simple yet

ABSTRACT
An assessment is made of the fidelity of
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction of a
turbulent wingtip vortex. Efficacy of a featureadaptive local mesh refinement is showcased to
resolve steep gradients in the flow-field along the tipvortex. The impact of turbulence modeling is
evaluated using several popular eddy-viscosity
models and a Reynolds-stress transport model. The
results indicate that, with a judicious combination of
computational mesh with adequate resolution, highorder spatial discretization and advanced turbulence
models, one can predict the tip-vortex flow with a
commendable accuracy.
INTRODUCTION
Turbulent flow around lifting surfaces such
as propeller blades, rudders, and hydrofoils has long
been a topic of both fundamental and practical
interest in naval applications for their ubiquity around
naval vessels and significant impact on various
aspects of hydrodynamic performance. Despite the
long history of deployment and designers vested
interest, the task of numerically predicting turbulent
flows around lifting surface flows remains a difficult
one.
There are several challenges to be dealt with
before one can predict the subject flow accurately.
First, one has to overcome the sheer numerical
difficulty of resolving large gradients of the flowfields in the boundary layer on lifting surfaces and
the tightly braided vortices emanating from the tip.
One difficulty constantly encountered in real
applications is that there are many such regions
needing high-resolution simultaneously. When there
is a need to trace the tip-vortices over a long distance,
as is often the case when tracking trailing vortices in
the wakes of aircrafts, the difficulty is even more
acute.

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

generic finite-wing configuration. The flow was


studied in the wind tunnel at NASA Ames (Chow et
al., 1993; Chow et al., 1997) with the focus on the
tip-vortex generated around the wing placed at an
angle of attack of 10 degree, a moderate one that
rules out the possibility of a massive, unsteady
separation.
Finely resolved mean flow and
turbulence measurement shed much light on the
formation and evolution of the tip-vortex, providing a
rare case for CFD validations. There have been very
few numerical studies on this flow (Dacles-Mariani et
al., 1993; Dacles-Mariani et al., 1995; DaclesMariani et al., 1996; Chen, 2000). In the most recent
study (Dacles-Mariani et al. 1996), the one-equation,
eddy-viscosity transport models were used in
conjunction with a fifth-order upwind finite
difference scheme. The authors showed, via a
systematic grid refinement, that the prediction with
the modified Spalart and Allmaras turbulence model
(Dacles-Mariani et al., 1995) on a fine mesh (2.5million cells) closely matched the experimental data,
although the minimum static pressure along the tipvortex core was under-predicted appreciably.
This study is aimed at addressing the two
issues brought up earlier. First, we evaluate the
potential of a feature-adapted local mesh refinement
to efficiently resolve the formation and evolution of
the tip-vortex. A systematic, global mesh refinement
study is conducted in parallel to provide a basis for
comparisons. Secondly, the impact of turbulence
modeling is investigated with three contemporary
eddy-viscosity models and a differential Reynoldsstress model. The results obtained with the popular
two-equation models and the second-moment closure
will complement the earlier numerical studies,
providing a complete picture as to the role of
turbulence modeling.

axial velocity magnitude reaching nearly up to a


maximum of 1.8 times the free-stream velocity,
highly pronounced low (negative) static pressure
peak, and high levels of turbulent stresses, all along
the vortex-core. A kink in the vortex-axis was
observed downstream of the trailing edge. The
measurements also showed that the contours of
turbulent shear stresses have a characteristic pattern
resembling a four-leaf clover tilted by 30 ~ 40
degrees from the vertical and horizontal axes.
NUMERICAL METHOD
All the computations were carried out using
the segregated solver in the FLUENT code. The
flow was assumed incompressible. FLUENT adopts
a cell-centered finite-volume method in conjunction
with a linear reconstruction scheme capable of
handling both structured and unstructured meshes.
Gradients of the solution variables are computed
using Green-Gauss theorem. Diffusion terms are
discretized using second-order central differencing
scheme. For convective terms, there are several
choices offered in the code including first-order
upwind, second-order upwind (SOU), QUICK and
third-order MUSCL schemes. In the present study,
the QUICK scheme was used.
The discretized equations are solved using
pointwise Gauss-Seidel iteration in conjunction with
an algebraic multi-grid method to accelerate the
solution convergence. The details of the numerical
method can be found in the references (Mathur and
Murthy, 1997; Kim et al. 1998; Kim et al., 2003).
TURBULENCE MODELING
Among the numerous eddy-viscosity
turbulence models such as the k- and k- families
and Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model (Spalart
and Allmaras, 1994) most widely used these days, we
had to take a few to keep the scope of the study
tractable. And for the reasons alluded to in the
introduction, we included a second-moment closure
for the study. In the following, we briefly describe
the turbulence models chosen for the present study.

WING MODEL AND EXPERIMENT


The model used in the experiment is a finitewing with 4 ft (chord) x 3 ft (span) rectangular planform, being mounted on the tunnel bottom at a 10o
incidence with the free-stream.
The Reynolds
number based on the chord-length and the freestream
velocity is 4.6 x 106. The free-stream velocity used
in the experiment is about 170 ft/sec, sufficiently low
to be considered incompressible. The boundary layer
is tripped along the leading edge. The wind tunnel
has a 48 in x 32 in cross-section, which makes the
blockage effect non-negligible.
The measurements focused on the near-field
region close to the wing tip and the wake. Velocity,
pressure (static and total), and turbulent stresses were
measured extensively on several cross-flow planes.
The measurements revealed an exceptionally large

Eddy-viscosity models
We selected three most popular eddyviscosity models for this study. In view of its
popularity in the aerospace and the ship
hydrodynamics communities, the one-equation model
of Spalart and Allmaras (1994) (S-A hereafter) was
selected. We adopted the modification proposed by
Dacles-Mariani et al. (1995, 1996) to suppress the
unduly large build-up of eddy-viscosity in the vortex

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

core. The modification employs a modified strainration defined as,


S = + C prod min [0, S ]

in this study. The solution domain and a partial view


of the meshes are shown in Figure 1. The four
different meshes used in this study are summarized in
Table 1. The first three meshes (Mesh I, Mesh II,
and Mesh III) were obtained by globally refining the
coarsest one (Mesh I). The value of y+ in the fine
mesh is around 1.0 at the wall-adjacent cells.

(1)

which is used to compute the production term. In the


above equation, Cprod = 2.0, S and are the moduli
of strain-rate and rotation-rate tensors, respectively.
Among the k- family, the realizable k-
model (RKE hereafter) of Shih et al.(1995) was
chosen for its good track-record for non-equilibrium
boundary layer flows. For the present computations
with fine near-wall mesh resolution, the model originally formulated as a high-Reynolds number
model - was modified to account for the near-wall
effects by employing a zonal hybrid model. Lastly,
the shear-stress transport (SST) k- model (Menter,
1994) was selected to represent the k- family.

Table 1. Meshes used for the computations


Mesh I
Mesh II
Mesh III

# of cells
385K cells
1.04M cells
2.3M cells

Remarks
coarsest mesh
globally refined
globally refined

Mesh IV

1.38M cells

locally refined

In addition, we also employed a locally


adapted mesh (Mesh IV). Our intention was to
evaluate what may be called a feature-adaptive
refinement by which cells are marked for refinement
when the value of a selected variable at the cells falls
in the specified range. The current implementation of
this approach allows one to choose any quantity from
the solution variables (e.g., velocity components,
pressure, k, , etc.) or any derived and user-defined
quantities based on the solutions (e.g., derivatives,
curvatures, vorticity, helicity, total pressure, etc.).
For the present flow, any flow-variable that
can demarcate the tip-vortex region would be a good
candidate. To that end, the second-invariant of
deformation tensor, defined as

Reynolds-stress transport model (RSTM)


The RSTM model used in this study largely
replicates the model used by Gibson and Launder
(1978). The near-wall, low-Reynolds number effects
are modeled using the approach of Launder and
Shima (1989). The details of the model are described
in Kim (2002). The RSTM has been validated for a
number of complex three-dimensional internal and
external flows (Kim, 2001; Kim, 2002).
DOMAIN AND MESH

Q=

(2)

is a conceivable choice, inasmuch as the vortex-core,


where rotation-rate dominates over strain-rate, can be
identified as the region of a positive Q,. The idea of
local refinement based on the second-invariant is
illustrated in Figure 2, which shows the cells marked
for refinement. For this example, the medium mesh
(Mesh II) along with the solution on it was used,
which resulted in a 1.8-million-cell mesh. The figure
shows that the cells marked up for refinement largely
occupies the region around the tip-vortex.
Static pressure could also be an equally
good choice, considering that the tip-vortex carries a
very low static pressure along its core. Figure 3
shows the cells marked up for refinement based on
static pressure coefficient (CP) again using Mesh II.
It can be seen that the cells marked for refinement all
nicely overlap with the region close to the tip-vortex.
The resulting mesh has approximately 1.4 million
cells, much less than what a global refinement would

48"

137.55"

1 2
S2
2

37.3"

55.2"
32"

Figure 1. Solution domain and partial view of the


mesh - Only the bottom surface mesh is shown
here.
In view of the relatively simple geometry,
hexahedral meshes with an O-H topology were used

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

result. In the present study, we used this mesh (Mesh


IV).
Admittedly, one difficulty in this featureadaptive mesh refinement lies with the fact that the
choice of the quantity used to detect the feature is
arbitrary and assumes a considerable knowledge of
the flow in question on the part of the users.
Imaginably, this usability problem becomes more
serious for complex industrial applications in which
the predictions are most likely to be sensitive to the
choice of the variable.
Most ideally, local
refinement or coarsening based on a rigorously
derived error-indicator as adaptation criteria would
offer better alternatives.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Some of the earlier numerical studies
(Dacles-Mariani et al., 1995) used the experimental
data to specify the boundary conditions (Dirichlet)
not only on the inlet but also on the outlet boundary.
However, the practice of using a Dirichlet-type
boundary condition on the outlet - generally not
known a priori - is questionable both mathematically
and practically.
In the present study, the free-stream velocity
was specified at the upstream inlet boundary for the
sake of simplicity, which was deemed justifiable as
our focus is on the region away from the tunnel wall.
The exit boundary is modeled as a pressure outlet on
which an area-averaged static pressure is specified.
The velocity on the pressure outlet is linearly
extrapolated from the adjacent interior cells in such a
way that the overall continuity (mass conservation) is
satisfied. Other solution variables are extrapolated in
a similar manner.
On the tunnel wall and the wing surface, we
adopted a generalized wall-function approach (Fluent
Inc., 2003) that invokes proper wall-laws depending
on the y+ value to provide the wall boundary
conditions for the momentum and the turbulence
equations, thus being applicable to the entire inner
layer including the viscous sub-layer, buffer zone,
and logarithmic layer.
RESULTS

Figure 2. Cells marked for local refinement


based on the second-invariant of deformation
tensor

Mesh-Dependency of the RSTM Results


In this section, we present and discuss the
results obtained using the RSTM on the four meshes.

Figure 4. Mesh-dependency of the RSTM results


for the minimum static pressure alo