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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jngse

Hamid Behmanesh*, Hamidreza Hamdi, Christopher R. Clarkson

SPE, University of Calgary, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 22 August 2014

Received in revised form

31 October 2014

Accepted 3 November 2014

Available online 20 November 2014

The current focus on liquids-rich shale (LRS) plays in North America underscores the need to develop

reservoir engineering methods to analyze such reservoirs. Commercialization of LRS plays is now

possible due to new technology, such as multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW). Efcient production

from such reservoirs necessitates understanding of ow mechanisms, reservoir properties and the

controlling rock and uid parameters. Production-decline analysis is an important technique for analysis

of production data and obtaining estimates of recoverable reserves. Nevertheless, these techniques,

developed for conventional reservoirs, are not appropriate for ultra-low permeability reservoirs. There

are substantial differences in reservoir performance characteristics between conventional and ultra-low

permeability reservoirs. LRS reservoirs produce much leaner wellstreams compared to conventional

reservoirs due to very low permeabilities that result in very large drawdowns. Methods for analysis of

two-phase ow in conventional reservoirs, with underlying simplifying assumptions, are no longer

applicable.

This paper discusses production data analysis of constant owing bottomhole pressure (FBHP) wells

producing from LRS (gas condensate) reservoirs. A theoretical basis is developed for a gas condensate

reservoir during the transient matrix linear ow (drawdown) period. The governing ow equation is

linearized using appropriately dened two-phase pseudopressure and pseudotime functions so that the

solutions for liquids can be applied. The derived backward model is employed to compute the linear ow

parameter, xfk.

Simulation results show that the liquid yield will be approximately constant for LRS wells during the

transient linear ow, from the early days of initial testing, if FBHP is almost constant. An analytical

formulation is used to prove this nding for 1D transient linear ow of LRS wells.

The proposed production data analysis (PDA) method is illustrated using simulated production data for

different uid models and relative permeability curves. Fine-grid compositional and black oil numerical

models are used for this purpose.

2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Production data analysis

Tight gas condensate reservoirs

Multi-fractured horizontal wells

Two-phase ow

1. Introduction

Unconventional resources have become a reasonably reliable

source of energy in North America. Horizontal drilling followed by

multi-stage hydraulic fracturing (multi-fractured horizontal wells

or MFHW) has become a widely employed practice for development of unconventional light oil (ULO) and unconventional gas

(UG) reservoirs. There is an increased importance placed on

reservoir engineering methods to analyze such reservoirs; specifically, production analysis techniques for ULO/UG must be adapted

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: behmaneh@ucalgary.ca (H. Behmanesh).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.11.005

1875-5100/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

there have been a number of recent studies of this topic, particularly for shale gas, typically the developed PDA techniques rely on

simplifying assumptions about the reservoir rock and uid properties. In particular these studies generally assume single-phase

ow, which is not valid for saturated black oil and gas condensate

reservoirs.

Hydraulically-fractured vertical and horizontal wells completed

in tight formations typically exhibit long periods of transient linear

ow. Large drawdowns are imposed on these very low permeability

formations to yield economic production. For dry gas and gas

condensate reservoirs, this can give rise to large variations in gas

physical properties and large gas-to-oil mobility ratio gradients

near the fracture face, respectively. Some techniques for analyzing

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

been proposed (e.g. Nobakht and Clarkson, 2012). However, relatively little attention has been applied to the development of

analytical methods to address the two-phase ow complexities

associated with transient linear ow analysis of gas condensate

reservoirs. This paper addresses production data analysis of liquidsrich shale (LRS) reservoirs with a focus on gas condensate uid

systems. The results can be used in support of short- and long-term

production forecasts for liquid-rich shale.

2. Background and statement of problem

Well test analysis relies heavily upon solutions to ow equations

assuming single-phase ow of a liquid with small and constant

compressibility and viscosity. These solutions are often adapted for

rate-transient analysis (RTA) problems. If the wellbore pressure

falls below the bubble or dew point pressure, two-phase ow

conditions exist and the solutions for liquids are no longer valid.

However, liquid solutions for pressure- and rate-transient analysis

can still be used if (for example) pseudovariables are used to correct

for pressure-dependent uid properties and for multi-phase ow

(Fraim and Wattenbarger, 1987).

Analytical modeling of pressure/rate transients for multiphase

ow in porous media is challenging because the nonlinearities

associated with the uid must be contended with. Since the 1950's,

many investigators have proposed different approaches to tackle

this problem. Perrine (1956) and Martin (1959) suggested the

application of total mobility and the single-phase-ow concepts for

analyzing well responses when the pressure at the wellbore falls

below the bubble-point or the dew-point pressure. The premise of

their theory is that at some distance from the wellbore, the saturation gradient is small enough that can be ignored. Under such

circumstances, mobility and compressibility term in the singlephase ow expression may be replaced by total mobility (sum of

the mobility of each of the owing phases) and total compressibility (sum of the compressibility of each phase with each

compressibility term weighted by the saturation of that phase).

Later on, different investigators adapted various methods for twophase ow in radial models. Raghavan (1976) examined solutiongas-drive systems and proposed that a two-phase pseudopressure be used to determine formation permeability from well

test data. Aanonsen (1985) extended Raghavan's work and introduced the concept of the reservoir integral. Jones and Raghavan

(1988) and Camacho and Raghavan (1989) analyzed drawdown

and buildup responses in gas-condensate and solution-gas-drive

systems respectively by using Aanonsen's concept. Jones and

Raghavan (1988), Camacho and Raghavan (1989) and Hamdi

et al., 2013 used the ideas of Aanonsen (1985) to analyze drawdown and buildup responses in gas-condensate and solution-gasdrive systems. Some investigators utilized the powerful similarity method mathematical technique for analysis of these nonlinear problems. O'Sullivan and Pruess (1980) and O'Sullivan

(1981) proposed similarity solutions to highly nonlinear multiphase ow problems in geothermal well test analysis. The similarity method has also been applied in the study of multiphase ow

in solution gas-drive and gas condensate reservoirs (Be et al.,

1989; Vo et al., 1990).

In recent years, attention has shifted to low-permeability (unconventional) wells where transient linear ow is a dominant owregime and pressure gradients are large. Several studies (Ibrahim

and Wattenbarger, 2006, Poe, 2002, Miller et al., 2010 and

Nobakht and Clarkson, 2012) focused mainly on the ow of single

phase gas to obtain the linear ow parameter, xfk. Ibrahim and

Wattenbarger noted that the transient linear ow solution, derived

for liquids, required the use of pseudopressure and empirical

23

pressure. Nobakht and Clarkson (2012) later used a corrected

pseudotime (as well as pseudopressure) to account for these effects. More recently, Qanbari and Clarkson (2013) and Chen and

Raghavan (2013) independently presented a similarity-based

methodology for innite-acting gas linear ow analysis for constant owing bottomhole pressure.

The analysis of two-phase ow, during the transient linear ow

period, provides unique challenges that are now receiving attention. The nonlinearities associated with two-phase ow (pressuredependent properties and high saturation gradients near the

wellbore) cannot be accounted for only by incorporating saturation

changes in the two-phase pseudopressure e more rigorous treatment is required to account for pressure-dependent properties of

the uids. Furthermore, the techniques that have been developed

for calculation of two-phase pseudopressure in radial models

cannot be condently used for linear models. This is because, for

radial ow, a steady-state region of signicant size develops,

whereas in linear ow, the steady state region progresses only a

small distance away from the wellbore.

In this work, we have developed a novel rate transient analysis

(RTA) technique for analyzing tight gas condensate reservoirs

during the transient linear ow period. The new method includes

evaluation of two-phase (gas condensate) pseudopressure, which

incorporates a new method for calculation of the saturationepressure relationship analytically, and two-phase pseudotime, which are used to linearize the diffusivity equation. The

reservoir uid is assumed to be a rich gas condensate uid. The

initial reservoir pressure is set close to the saturation pressure, and

the well is producing against a constant FBHP. The suggested

techniques presented in this work are valid for any multiphase ow

scheme provided that uid ow can be described by the diffusivity

equation based on formation volume factor formulations. This

manuscript is focused on the theoretical development of our multiphase analytical methods. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the presented method with eld cases. The signicance of

this work is that we have proven that the liquid-analog solution can

be applied (through use of carefully dened pseudovariables) for

low-permeability gas condensate reservoirs (under certain conditions), which are currently being exploited extensively by industry.

Several commonly observed behaviors of tight gas condensate

wells are also explained analytically.

The manuscript is organized as follows. First, we will discuss

two methods for linearizing the diffusivity equation as well as

backward solutions in the Model Development section. Next we

will discuss the setup of numerical simulation models in the

Simulation Model Setup section, followed by validation of our

new approaches using numerical simulation in the Model Verication Using Simulation section. Application of our new methods

for establishing the linear ow parameter (xfk) is demonstrated in

the Application of New Methods for Determination of xfk section. Finally, we will provide some brief conclusions obtained from

this work.

3. Model development

The emphasis of this study is on the transient (matrix) linear

ow regime associated with hydraulically-fractured tight gas and

shale gas condensate reservoirs. As observed from simulations,

when the pressure falls below the dew point pressure, the oil

saturation buildup near the fracture plane can cause a considerable

reduction in gas phase mobility (up to 70% according to our

simulation results). The corresponding diffusivity equation is highly

nonlinear because the uid properties are a strong function of

pressure and mobility is changing with saturation. Linearization of

24

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

through the use of pseudovariables, i.e. pseudopressure and the

pseudotime. The pseudopressure transform is an exact mathematical transform whereas pseudotime is based on empirical

relationships.

In this section, two methods for solving the partial differential

equation (PDE) corresponding to the tight gas/shale gas condensate

case are developed. The backward solutions for obtaining the linear

ow parameter, xfk, are given using these two approaches.

Further, important considerations for calculating pseudovariables,

which are required to enable the use of liquid solutions, are discussed. In a later section, our approximations are validated with

numerical simulation.

For the rst method of solving the PDE, the Boltzmann transform variable is applied. The corresponding pressure prole for a

single-phase liquid during innite acting linear ow for constant

rate and constant FBHP production are given in Eqs. (1) and (2),

respectively (Wattenbarger et al., 1998):

.

i vp

v h

rs krg mg Bgd kro =mo Bo

vx

vx

.

f

v

$

rs Sg Bgd So =Bo

0:00633$k vt

(4)

p pi

p pwf

p pi

0x

x0

x

t0

t >0

t >0

S So .

a krg mg Bgd Rs kro =mo Bo

.

a rs krg mg Bgd kro =mo Bo

.

b Sg Bgd Rs So =Bo

.

b rs Sg Bgd So =Bo

0

_

xvx=vS

p x vx=vps x2a; a; b; b

.

h p

pD xD ; tD p 2 tD =p$exp x2D 4tD

. pi

xD $erfc xD 2 tD

(1)

following equation:

. p

pD xD ; tD erfc xD 2 tD

(2)

xf

at the wellbore, the dimensionless pressures are dened as pD kh

(pi p)/qBm and pD (pi p)/(pi pwf), respectively. The pressure

prole for constant pressure production is only a function of the xD/

tD variable. However, for constant rate production this is not the

case. This will be used later to explain some of the observations

made from numerical simulation results.

In the second method, it is hypothesized that the linearized

diffusivity equation for a dry gas reservoir is still valid if we use

two-phase pseudotime, ta,tp.

p

k

62:55

$

h$ Ppi Ppwf $m

r

.

l=c* f

(5)

given later.

For a single-phase gas reservoir, Eq. (5) can be simplied to Eq.

(6), which is exactly the same equation derived for dry gas (Ibrahim

and Wattenbarger, 2006). One should note that the appearance of a

constant 2 in the numerator of Eq. (6) is due to the fact that we

consider ow from only one side of the fracture.

xf

p

k

2 315:4T

p

h$ fmct i $ Ppgi Ppwf $m

(6)

The combination of the Darcy and continuity equations yields

the governing PDE for ow of gas and oil components in a gas

condensate reservoir. The simplifying assumptions of constant rock

properties, thickness and temperature are used. It is further

assumed that Darcy's law is valid and capillarity and gravity effects

are ignored. Other effects such as gas slippage and turbulent ow

effect are also ignored e we will investigate these effects on the

outcome of rate-transient analysis in future work. However, we

assume that slippage effects are negligible because the relatively

large permeabilities (and hence pore sizes) assumed in this work

(the range of permeabilities studied in this work vary between

0.00001 and 0.1 md). Although turbulent ow could be expected to

occur in the fractures, the effect will manifest itself as a skin and

will not affect the derivation of linear ow parameter. We have also

assumed that the performance of the system can be modeled using

a single fracture with an innite conductivity.

As shown in Appendix A, the consequent governing PDEs (Formation Volume Factor formulation) for gas and oil components are

written as follows:

i vp

v h .

krg mg Bgd Rs kro =mo Bo

vx

vx

f

v .

Sg Bgd Rs So =Bo

0:00633$k vt

Pseudotime

In the second method, it is assumed that, for the two-phase gas

condensate system, the linearized diffusivity equation for dry gas is

still valid if we use two-phase pseudopressure instead of dry gas

pseudopressure and a two-phase pseudotime instead of dry gas

pseudotime.

Analogous to the dry gas formulation, a linearized form of the

diffusivity equation for two-phase ow conditions is given as:

v2 ppg

vppg

f

$

0:00633$k vta;tp

vx2

2011) is used here, and given as:

Zt

ta;tp

0

xf

(3)

(7)

xf

dt

vb vPpg

(8)

p

k is calculated according to following equation:

p

k

62:55

p

0

h$ f$ Ppgi Ppwf $mCP

(9)

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

0

given in Appendix B.

Calculation of pseudopressure and pseudotime

for the backward

p

solution is required for determination of xf k. Assessment of these

parameters will be discussed further in the next section.

Relationship

In both methods described above, pseudopressure is required to

linearize the diffusivity equation. A problem with pseudopressure

calculations for multiphase problems is that pressure must be

related to saturation to perform the calculations.

For radial ow problems, several investigators (Aanonsen, 1985;

Serra, 1988; Thompson and Reynolds, 1997) have shown that for the

constant-rate drawdown in a homogeneous, innite-acting gas

condensate or solution-gas-drive reservoir, the pressures, saturations, phase compositions, and hence the PVT properties and

relative permeabilities are unique functions of the Boltzmann variable. Furthermore, we see from Eq. (2) that for single-phase linear

ow, the pressure prole is also a function of this variable. By

assuming that the Boltzmann transformation is valid for two-phase

linear ow conditions under constant FBHP (skin is assumed zero),

a unique pressureesaturation (PeS) relationship can be found. This

has been veried against numerous compositional and black oil

simulations. This in turn implies that under a constant drawdown

condition, the pseudopressure drop is also invariant.

Following the Be et al. (1989) procedure, a saturationepressure

relationship for linear ow conditions is derived as follows:

25

equation:

krg

p

kro

mg Bgd

GOR Rs

$

1 rs$GOR mo Bo

(14)

observed for all simulated LRS cases when producing against a

constant owing pressure. This observation is consistent with the

ndings of Whitson and Sunjerga (2012) and with our mathematical derivations for the linear ow regime. Based on numerical

simulations, Whitson and Sunjerga (2012) found that the liquid

yield (rp 1/GOR) remains approximately constant for long periods

of constant FBHP in LRS reservoirs. They noted this behavior to be

characteristic of LRS reservoirs for the case of innite-acting ow,

when the ow is 1D planar. Be et al. (1989) gave an analytical

solution that yields a constant GOR for constant rate innite-acting

radial reservoirs. The same conclusion can be made here based on

Eq. (12) and using the same approach as Be et al. to derive the GOR

behavior. This is always true where both the PDE and the associated

boundary and initial conditions can be expressed as a function of

the Boltzmann variable. This directly implies that for the linesource radial constant rate solutions, the PDE and the boundary

and initial conditions can be expressed in terms of the Boltzmann

variable, leading to a constant GOR. In the case of linear ow

(constant rate production), the inner boundary condition cannot be

expressed in terms of the Boltzmann variable and hence a constant

GOR cannot be obtained; indeed, it increases with time.

in the late time (i.e. steady-state ow or equivalently close to the

wellbore) and as y / (limiting case II) or in the early time (or

equivalently at a far distance), where the simplied forms can be

derived for practical purposes. These limiting cases are given by:

Use of the pseudopressure transformation alone does not account for all the nonlinearities involved with two-phase ow of oil

and gas. Interpreted results from simulated tests do not correlate

well with the liquid reference curve if the initial value of (c/l)*i is

used in Eq. (5). The empirical pseudotime transformation (Eq. (8)) is

used to linearize the temporal part of the diffusivity equation. For

boundary dominated ow, the integrand parameters are evaluated

at an average reservoir pressure. During the boundary dominated

ow regime, average reservoir pressure is declining by time. For

transient ow, however, we use the average pressure in the distance of investigation (DOI) as proposed by Anderson and Mattar

(2007). The average pressure in the DOI tends to be a constant

value for constant owing pressure as demonstrated in the work of

Nobakht and Clarkson (2012) for dry gas reservoirs. Likewise for gas

condensate reservoirs, as shown from our simulation results, the

same conclusion is drawn. This behavior is discussed further below.

_

ds=dp aa0 aa0 =aa_ aa

dp

_

aa_ aadp=dy

2y ab_ ab_

(10)

auxiliary equation for calculation of dp/dy (Eq. (11)) is not useful for

linear ow as wellbore pressure is independent of time.

dp

2

p

dy A$a$ fk$m

(11)

ds=dp ab0 ab0 = ab_ ab_

(12)

(13)

Eq. (12) is for the long producing times and Eq. (13) is for early

producing times. For a specic uid system and a set of relative

permeability data, ds/dp can be easily calculated by these

relationships.

Eq. (12) gives the saturation derivative for the steady state

condition where the saturation values (as a function of pressure)

can be obtained by integration. However, there is another, easier

p

Z 2p

using the material balance equation for a tank of variable size. The

size of the tank is directly proportional to the distance of investigation in the linear ow regime. Distance of investigation is used in

well testing and is a measure of how fast the diffusion front moves

through porous media. The average pressure in the distance of

investigation can be estimated by the following equation using an

iterative scheme. The detailed derivation of Eq. (15) is given in

Appendix C.

!

p

1000$rgsc 5:615$rosc =GOR Bgdi $ mct i Ppgi Ppwf q

pi

$

$ 1

$

$ vb vPpg p

Zi

Sgi

1000=5:615rgsc rosc rsi 0:194 62:55

(15)

26

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

In order to validate the approaches described above, a series of

ne-grid black oil and compositional simulations were conducted.

Eclipse 100 and 300 (Schlumberger, 2010) are used for reservoir

simulations. The simulations were also used to study the performance of typical tight gas condensate reservoirs. The steep pressure and saturation gradients occurring near the hydraulic fracture

plane are captured using a geometric grid spacing scheme. Several

sensitivity analyses were performed to nd the optimum number

of grids and the geometric ratio. The distance between fractures is

discretized to an odd number of grids expanding away from the

fracture plane midway to the adjacent fracture and shrinking afterward. The mathematical formulation describing the relationship

between fractures distance and the geometric ratio, and size of rst

grid block is given by Eq. (16):

x0 $ an2 an1 a 1

a1

Fig. 2. Schematic showing linear ow toward two fractures in multi-fractured horizontal well. The shaded rectangle indicates the element of symmetry. In our simulation

sensitivities, twice the area of shaded rectangular is modeled and rates from the halffracture model are scaled up to full well rates.

(16)

the fracture spacing, a is the geometric ratio and n is the number

of grid. A geometric ratio of 1.28 is used for grid size, with a large

distance d between the wells to ensure that the well is in transient ow for the entire producing period. In this work, an innite

conductivity fracture is assumed. The conductivity behavior of a

fracture is quantied by dimensionless fracture conductivity, FCD:

FCD

kf wf

kxf

(17)

conventional reservoirs, however, as the matrix permeability of the

formations is very low, a higher FCD is selected in our cases. A single

grid is assigned to the fracture. As long as fracture conductivity

(fracture permeability times fracture width) is kept the same, there

will be no actual difference in the performance of different simulation cases. For evenly spaced fractures throughout the horizontal

section of the well, each fracture forms an element of symmetry.

The smallest element of symmetry is a quarter of the open area of

ow towards the fracture face from both sides. Fig. 1 illustrates a

sector model schematic used for the simulations. Fig. 2 shows a top

view of linear ow towards the fracture and the smallest element of

symmetry is shaded. In all simulations, twice the area of this

element is used and the rate performance for a fully gridded

reservoir is simply 2Nf-fold of the simulated model. Fig. 3 illustrates

the 1D planar fracture geometry gridding. We have assumed that

the drainage beyond the fracture's tips is negligible and used 1D

planar model for our mathematical and simulation modeling.

For numerical simulation sensitivities, two sets of relative

permeability curves, one with saturation exponents of 2.5 for both

oil and gas, and the other with saturation exponents of 3.5 and 5 for

Fig. 1. Schematic showing multi-fractured horizontal well geometry used for simulation. A subsection of this schematic, highlighted with dashed lines, is illustrated in

Fig. 2.

the gas and the oil respectively, are used. Furthermore, a third set of

measured relative permeability data for a tight formation (i.e. a

porosity of 0.08 and a permeability of 0.18 md), in absence of the

initial water saturation, are used in the simulations. Relative

permeability curve 3 has been measured in the HerrioteWatt

University Gas-Condensate Research Lab. The pertinent relative

permeability data are given in Fig. 4. In addition, three different rich

gas condensate uids are used in this study. Table 2 provides the

key reservoir uid properties and composition of uid. Fig. 5 presents the calculated Constant Volume Depletion (CVD) data for the

actual measured relative permeability data obtained for a tight formation with

permeability 0.01 md.

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

27

Table 1

Reservoir Simulator required input data.

Property

Value

Unit

Matrix Permeability, k

Fracture permeability

Reservoir Thickness, h

Relative permeability

CVD of in-situ uid

Matrix porosity, f

Fracture half-length, xf

Wellbore diameter

Fracture conductivity

Fracture width

Fracture porosity

0.01

10,000

100

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

0.06

250

3

1000

0.1

0.25

md

md

ft

ft

inch

md-ft

ft

Table 2

Key reservoir PVT properties.

Dew point pressure (psia)

Initial solution oil in gas (STB/MMscf)

Maximum CVD liquid dropout (%)

Reservoir temperature ()

Fluid 1

Fluid 2

Fluid 3

4305

4300

101

0.10

280

3560

3557

101.4

0.17

250

3528

3525

72.7

0.22

200

different uid systems used in this study. Fluid 1 and uid 2 are

synthetic uids and consist of 3 and 5 components respectively.

These uid samples are the Mixture 4 of Jones and Raghavan

(1988) and Rich Gas B uid sample from Heidari and Gerami

(2011). Fluid 3 is a real rich gas-condensate uid model and consists of 9 pseudo components with a maximum liquid-drop-out of

0.22 (from the CVD test) and a dew point of 3525 psia measured at

reservoir temperature of 200 F (Composition 1 of gas condensate

system from Shi's PhD thesis (2009)).

Porosity and absolute permeability are kept constant in the

simulation models. Other required information for the reservoir

simulator is given in Table 1. Gravitational and capillary effects are

neglected and the initial reservoir pressure is set to be only a few

psia above the saturation pressure for all simulated cases. This

initial boundary condition is the extreme case in terms of existing

nonlinearity as most of the investigated area is under two-phase

ow. Modication of our methods for undersaturated reservoirs

with different degrees of undersaturation is discussed elsewhere

(Behmanesh et al., 2014a,b).

Fig. 5. Constant volume depletion data for 3 different rich gas condensate uids used

in the numerical simulation.

Fig. 6. Simulated production performance from a liquid rich shale gas condensate

reservoir producing at constant FBHP (1000 psia) using a 1D planar fracture geometry.

For this simulation run, Sgi 1; uid composition 1 and relative permeability set 1

were used (pi 5600 psia, rsi 171 stb/MMscf).

effect of absolute permeability, relative permeability, uid type,

and production constraints on the reservoir performance. A constant GOR during linear transient period for all LRS producing

against constant pressure was observed (Fig. 6). This observation is

consistent with the ndings of Whitson and Sunjerga (2012) for the

radial ow and our mathematical derivations for the linear ow

regime.

5. Model verication using simulation

In this section, various model assumptions are tested, including

the calculation of pseudovariables and saturationepressure relationships. The accuracy of linear ow parameter xfk calculations

using Method 1 and Method 2 is also examined.

In order to verify our results, the gas and oil relative permeabilities and the uid ow properties of each simulation grid cell

were exported from the reservoir simulator and used in the evaluation of pseudopressure. Fig. 7 shows the saturationepressure

Fig. 7. Saturationepressure relationship obtained using uid 2 and relative permeability set 1. Reservoir saturations are plotted versus pressure at the end of rst and

second year. Saturation and pressure history of grid block 30 are also displayed. The

simulated well is owing against constant FBHP of 1000 psia. The unique saturationepressure relationship is valid during constant FBHP transient ow.

28

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

Table 3

Numerical result of distance of investigation and average properties calculation.

Time

Distance of

investigation, ft

1st Year

646

2nd Year

914

3rd Year

1119

Fluid 3-Relative permeability 1

1st Year

646

2nd Year

914

3rd Year

1203

Fluid 3-Relative permeability 3

1st Year

646

2nd Year

914

3rd Year

1203

Average pressure,

psia

Average condensate

saturation

2809

2808

2808

0.1455

0.1457

0.1457

2782

2781

2780

0.1279

0.1281

0.1282

3057

3057

3057

0.0791

0.0792

0.0793

saturation relationship exists for all time steps. A xed average

pressure in the distance of investigation is calculated from the

pressure prole. This is also implied by the material balance

equation given by Eq. (15). The values of the distance of investigation, and the corresponding average pressure and the condensate

saturation for different set of relative permeability and uid system

are given in Table 3.

According to the simulation results, for the case of owing at

constant FBHP condition, the average pressure, as well as the

average condensate saturation within the DOI, is invariant with

time. Similar studies were conducted for a well owing with constant gas rate production and it was concluded that the average

pressure declines, while the average condensate saturation increases in the DOI over the time. The invariant average condensate

saturation in the DOI may be used to explain the constant GOR for

the constant FBHP cases. Conversely, as the condensate saturation

increases in the DOI, the GOR increases for constant rate production

during transient linear ow.

5.1. Saturation-Pressure in the Distance of Investigation

Comprehensive numerical experiments showed that the full

path of pressure and saturation can be estimated using the two

limiting cases described previously (limiting case I and limiting

case II) and interpolation. In this study, we used a cubic polynomial

The numerical simulation-derived curve, interpolation using polynomial function, CCE

and CVD tests, steady state, and limiting case II are also shown.

The numerical simulation-derived curve, interpolation using polynomial function, CCE

and CVD tests, steady state, and limiting case II are also shown.

provides reasonable results for many numerical simulations. The

four cubic polynomial coefcients (ai's) are obtained using (p, s)

points from the two limiting cases and their associated derivatives

(p, ds/dp). These points are selected close to where the limiting case

I starts to deviate from its initial trend, and where the limiting case

II deviates from the Constant Composition Experiment (CCE test).

This approach ensures that the slopes and trends of the two

limiting cases are reasonably preserved in the interpolation polynomial. Therefore, the polynomial is anchored to match the PeS

path in the early and late times (or equivalently the near and far

wellbore areas), and is used to predict the path for the intermediate

times (or areas). The use of a cubic polynomial for the PeS path

prediction yields negligible error in the calculation of pseudopressure with respect to reservoir integral pseudopressure. Fig. 8,

Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 show the relevant plots for different saturationpressure paths for different sets of uid models and relative

permeability curves. The CCE experiment, CVD test and the two

limiting cases are shown in each plot. The limiting cases I and II

adequately predict the saturation-pressure path at the pressure

close to the FBHP and the dew point pressure, respectively. For

Fig. 10. Saturationepressure relationship derived for uid 2, relative permeability set

3. The numerical simulation-derived curve, interpolation using polynomial function,

CCE and CVD tests, steady state, and limiting case II are also shown.

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

Fig. 11. GOR and pressure prole for simulated unconventional (linear) gas condensate

reservoir. The steady state region advances very slowly even after 2 years of well

production against constant FBHP. Only 6% of the pressure-saturation path can be

correctly predicted from the steady state method.

pressures other than these regions, the corresponding cubic polynomial is used. The mere use of CCE or CVD experiments alone did

not give favorable results as these experiments underpredict or

overpredict the PeS path, respectively, depending on the selection

of uid system and relative permeability curve.

Although some authors (Jones and Raghavan, 1988; Camacho-V

and Raghavan, 1989) demonstrated that the steady state assumption can be used to describe the pressure-saturation path for conventional reservoirs, this was found to be a poor approximation for

tight formations. For example, Figs. 11 and 12 show the GOR and

pressure proles for a conventional (i.e. a radial homogeneous

reservoir with k 16 md) and a tight formation (i.e. a linear homogeneous reservoir with k 0.01 md). The relative permeability

data and the uid system of these two cases is the same. These plots

reveal that for the tight formation, the constant GOR (i.e. steady

state region) is limited to around 50 ft away from the wellbore after

2 years of production. This is indeed equivalent to a steady state

region after only 10 days of production in the conventional case.

The pressure drop within the steady state region of the conventional case contributes to almost 80% of total pressure drop

29

Fig. 13. The reciprocal of pseudotime integrand for different sets of uid and relative

permeability curves.

(pi pwf) while this is only around 6% for the tight formation. This

simple example clearly shows that the steady state assumption

cannot fully characterize the reservoir performance in tight

reservoirs.

Calculation of pseudotime is simplied as follows due to the use

of average pressure in this distance of investigation for the constant

owing pressure case (average pressure is constant in the distance

of investigation):

ta;tp

1

t

vb vPpg p

(18)

Fig. 13. This term simplies to (mgcg) for dry gas reservoirs. For the

two-phase ow condition, a correction factor, fCP, is introduced to

correct the xfk, which is calculated from the initial rock and uid

properties and Eq. (20) can alternatively be written in terms of fCP

and slope mCP:

xf

p

62:55

$fCP

k p

fmct i $h Ppgi Ppwf $mCP

(19)

fCP

u

u mg ct i

t

vb vPpg

(20)

Table 4

Rate transient analysis of different uid types and relative permeability curves. The

exact xfk 25.

Relative Permeability 1

xf

p

k h$P 62:55

P

Fluid 1

Fluid 2

Fluid 3

p

xf k

Fig. 12. GOR and pressure prole for a simulated conventional (radial) gas condensate

reservoir. The steady state region advances much faster than linear model. We see that

the steady state method for prediction of saturationepressure relationship is valid in

this case.

Fluid 1

Fluid 2

Fluid 3

pi

pwf $m

Relative

Permeability 3

q

$ l=c*i =f

42.0

55.6

p62:55

h$

Relative

Permeability 2

39.7

37.6

135.7

23.97

24.05

24.5

24.6

24.66

30

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

Eqs. (5) and (19) is the backward solution used for determination of the linear ow parameter, xfk. The procedure for analyzing

production data during transient linear ow for LRS gas condensate

wells subject to constant FBHP is adapted from Nobakht and

Clarkson (2012) as follows:

1. Plot the inverse gas rate versus the square-root of time in Cartesian coordinates. The data should form a straight line during

transient linear ow from which the slope (mCP) can be

determined.

2. Determine xfk using the initial rock and uid properties. The

solution is given as:

xf

p

62:55

k p

h fmct i $ Ppgi Ppwf $mCP

(21)

3. From the material balance equation evaluate the average pressure in the region of investigation.

4. Evaluate the correction factor, fCP, and multiply xfk from step 2

by fCP.

Fig. 14. Illustration of the effect of corrected (for multiphase ow) pseudotime on the

slope of the square-root-of-time plot for uid 3, relative permeability set 1.

selected ve combinations of uid compositions and relative

permeability curves from the sets previously discussed, and

compared our derived linear ow parameter with that used in

numerical simulation. For all the cases studied in this work the

exact value of xfk is 25 (ft md1/2).

As a rst attempt, the pseudopressure (i.e. the reservoir integral)

and the pseudotime transformations were evaluated based on the

actual pressure-saturation path and the average pressure from the

simulation results. For each simulation case the results of calculated

xfk from Eq. (5) (Method 1) and Eq. (9) (Method 2) are listed in

Table 4. (l/c)* is evaluated at initial reservoir pressure, pi, in Eq. (5)

The use of initial properties led to overestimation of xfk for all the

simulated cases. The calculated values clearly show that the liquid

analogy is achieved when the pseudopressure and the pseudotime

are used in Method 2. Method 1 does not achieve as good of a results as Method 2 because (l/c)* is assumed to be constant, which is

commonly assumed for radial ow.

In another attempt, and for practical application for each combination of uid and relative permeability, the pseudopressure and

pseudotime were calculated using our interpolation method to

derive the saturationepressure relationship, and the pseudotime

was evaluated at the average pressures in distance of investigation

(obtained from the material balance equation). In this attempt,

satisfactory results are also obtained and the corresponding relative

error analysis is tabulated in Table 5. The relative error is evaluated

based on the following equation:

factor on the slope of the square-root-of-time plot (plot of 1/qg

versus t and ta) is illustrated in Fig. 14 for uid 2 and relative

permeability set 1. We see that the slope correction is signicant

and greater than tting error.

% relative error

jexact calculatedj

100

exact

condensate reservoir

This is an example of an MFHW completed in a tight gas

condensate reservoir in Western Canada. Details of well location,

formation, completions and reservoir properties are withheld to

preserve operator condentiality. The well uid production rates

and uid production ratios are given in Fig. 15. The uid production characteristics (Fig. 16) are similar to that expected for a wet

gas reservoir. Flowing pressures are approximately constant after

100 days of production, and there our analysis (which assumes

constant owing pressure), is focused on data after 100 days.

Fig. 16 shows the inverse gas rate vs. the square root of time plot

(22)

Table 5

Rate transient analysis of different uid types and relative permeability curves. The

exact xfk 25.

Relative Permeability 1

p

xf k p62:55

h$ fmct i $Ppgi Ppwf $m0

Fluid 1

Fluid 2

4.5%

Fluid 3

4.1%

Relative

Permeability 2

Relative

Permeability 3

3%

3.5%

2%

Fig. 15. Fluid production rates and owing pressures for eld case.

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

Fig. 16. Condensate and water/gas ratio (CGR/WGR) for eld case.

for this case. The data form a straight line (after 100 days), which

indicates that linear ow is the dominant ow regime. Using the

slope of the plot in Eq. (9) the total xfk is calculated (the sum of

xfk from each stage) is calculated to be 21.5 ft md0.5. And if

considering k 0.0005 md, the individual fracture half-length,

assuming equal contribution from fractures along the well, is

1000 ft. The resulting fracture half-length is consistent with that

used in numerical model history-matching, which will be presented in a future paper (Fig. 17).

8. Conclusions

In this study, the production performance of liquid rich tight

gas/shale gas condensate wells under constant FBHP in the linear

ow regime was studied. Different gas/condensate uid systems

and relative permeability data have been used. Numerous

compositional and black oil simulations were performed and

validity of the driven mathematical relationships was veried.

Some key observations and conclusions of this study are listed as

follows:

1. By using the pseudovariables, the diffusivity equation is linearized and the liquid analogy is applied. This leads to an excellent

prediction of xfk.

2. A unique pressureesaturation relationship for the linear systems under multiphase ow is proved and two limiting cases for

the early and the late time behavior are obtained.

3. The production performance of unconventional (tight formations) is different from the conventional reservoirs. It is found

that the unsteady pressure-saturation path for the tight formations cannot be fully characterized by the commonly-used

steady-state path which is used for conventional reservoirs.

However, a combination of a tted polynomial of degree 3 and

data obtained from the two limiting cases was found to

adequately approximate the unsteady pressure-saturation path.

4. A material balance approach was used to calculate an invariant

average pressure within the investigation distance. This average

pressure is critical in the determination of the two-phase

pseudotime variable.

5. It is proved analytically that GOR is constant for transient linear

ow with the constant owing bottomhole pressure constraint.

This implies the existence of a steady-state region around the

wellbore, although very limited in extent.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the sponsors of Tight Oil Consortium for funding this project. Chris Clarkson would like to

acknowledge Encana and Alberta Innovates Technology Futures for

support of his Chair in Unconventional Gas and Light Oil Research

in the Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary. Hamidreza

Hamdi thanks the Interactive Reservoir Modeling, Visualization and

Analytics Research Group at the University of Calgary for supporting his postdoctoral fellowship.

Nomenclature

a

Af

Bgd

Bo

CCE

CVD

D

DOI

FBHP

FCD

GOR

IGIP

k

kf

krg

kro

Lb

Lf

Lh

LRS

Nf

Ni

n

ni

No

Fig. 17. Inverse gas rate vs. square-root-of-time plot for Field Example.

31

np

OGR

p

pb

pi

geometric ratio.

fracture half area, ft2.

dry gas formation volume factor, ft3/scf or RB/Mscf.

oil formation volume factor, RB/STB.

constant composition experiment

constant volume depletion

fracture spacing, ft.

distance of investigation

owing bottomhole pressure

dimensionless fracture conductivity.

gas oil ratio, Mscf/STB.

initial gas in place, MMscf.

formation permeability, md or nd.

fracture permeability, md.

gas relative permeability.

oil relative permeability.

length of square matrix block, ft.

fracture length, ft.

length of horizontal well, ft.

Liquid Rich Shale.

number of fractures per well.

number of cells inside the matrix blocks in x- and ydirection for fracture network grids.

grid block index.

initial moles in place, lbm.

number of cells outside the matrix blocks in x- and ydirection for fracture network grids.

produced moles, lbm.

oil gas ratio, STB/MMscf.

pressure, psia.

based pressure, psia

initial pressure, psia.

32

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

p

pwf

qg

qo

rp

rs

rsi

Rs

Rsi

RTA

t

wf

xf

Z2p

Z 2p

owing bottomhole pressure (FBHP), psia.

Surface gas rate, scf/D, Mscf/D, MMscf/D.

Surface oil rate, STB/D.

producing oil-gas ratio or liquid yield, STB/MMscf.

solution oil-gas ratio, STB/Mscf.

initial solution oil-gas ratio, STB/Mscf.

solution gas-oil ratio (GOR), scf/STB, Mscf/STB.

initial solution gas-oil ratio (GOR), scf/STB, Mscf/STB.

rate transient analysis

time, hrs, days.

fracture width, ft.

Fracture half-length, ft.

two-phase Z-factor.

two-phase Z-factor at average pressure.

gas viscosity, cp.

oil viscosity, cp.

mg

mo

(A-1)

eliminated by introducing an integral transformation as follows:

(A-7)

dPpg

1 d2 Ppg

yc=l*

2 dy2

dy

(A-8)

Expanding the terms gives:

_

c=l* a1 $db=dp a1 $ b0 bds=dp

y0

y

reference pressure, then the solution for Eq. A-8 is:

2

p$ Ppi Ppwf $

p

q Zy

c=l* $ exp c=l* t2 dt

0

Zp

Ppg

(A-9)

to (mgct). Eq. A-8 is an ordinary differential equation (ODE) with

corresponding boundary conditions. Use of the Boltzmann variable

causes the initial and boundary conditions in Eq. (3) to convert into

two boundary conditions. The resulting boundary conditions are:

p pwf

p pi

Focusing on the gas component, Eq. (3) may then be written as:

v

vp

f vb

a

vx

vx

k vt

1 d

dp

db

a

y

0

2 dy

dy

dy

(A-10)

adp

(A-2)

pb

(Be et al., 1989; Fevang and Whitson, 1996). To calculate the

pseudopressure, a relationship between saturation and pressure is

required, and is used in the evaluation of relative permeabilities

with pressure.

The Boltzmann variable of form y (fx)/2(0.00633 kt) is

now applied to simplify Eq. A-1. This is achieved by substituting the

space and time derivatives with the Boltzmann derivative through

application of the chain rule. From chain rule, the following

equality exists:

vm vm vy

vn

vy vn

(A-3)

Boltzmann derivatives with respect to space and time are given in

the following equations:

p

vy

f

pp

vx 2 0:00633k t

(A-4)

p

vy

fx

p p

vt

4 0:00633kt t

(A-5)

variable, the analogous equations for the oil and the gas components will take the following forms:

1 d

dp

db

a

y

0

2 dy

dy

dy

(A-6)

vp

qgsc A$k$a

vx

(A-11)

x0

where A 2xfh. All of the derived equations are based on this area

open to ow at the fracture face (i.e. to the wellbore). Merging Eqs.

A-10 and A-11, and after some mathematical manipulation, the

following equation is obtained:

qgsc

p

62:55

p q$ t

p

*

xf k$ Ppi Ppwf $h f$ c=l

(A-12)

1D linear (i.e. planar slab fracture) in LRS wells producing at constant FBHP, both gas and oil rates vary with t. This observation

mathematically implies 1/qg mt where m is the slope of

characteristic plot of 1/qg versus t.

Furthermore, xfk is calculated according to following

equation:

p

xf k

62:55

$

h$ Ppi Ppwf $m

r

.

*

l=c f

(A-13)

The obtained partial-differential equation and its conditions (Eq.

(7)) are linear with respect to pseudofunctions. If we dene

dimensionless parameters as:

H. Behmanesh et al. / Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22 (2015) 22e34

33

Rt

PpD

taD

where, ni rgsc rosc rsi $Gand np 0 rgsc qgsc rosc qosc $dt. As

shown previously, GOR is constant during the transient linear ow

period and 1/qgsc mt m0 ta. From mathematical manipulation, the following can be derived:

Ppi Pp

Ppi Ppwf

kta;tp

p.

np 2$ rgsc rosc =GOR $ t m

fmct i x2f

x

xD

xf

then Eq. (7), and the corresponding initial and boundary conditions

in dimensionless form, are as follows:

v2 ppD

vx2D

vppD

vtaD

PpD 1

xD 0

taD 0

PpD 1

xD 0

taD > 0

PpD 0

xD

taD > 0

(B-1)

any time step is:

.

G 2xf $yinv: $h$f$Sgi Bgi

1

qgsc

p

62:55

p$ ta

p

h f$ Ppgi Ppwf $xf k

(B-2)

(C-5)

investigation can be estimated by the following equation using an

iterative scheme:

!

p

1000$rgsc 5:615$rosc =GOR Bgdi $ mct i Ppgi Ppwf q

p

p

$

i$ 1

$

$ vb vPpg p

Sgi

1000=5:615rgsc rosc rsi 0:194 62:55

Z 2p Zi

The solution to Eq. (7) is the same as Eq. (2) except that PD

should be replaced by PpD and tD by taD. Having found the pseudopressure prole, the surface gas rate is then given by Eq. A-11.

Finally, Eq. B-2 is obtained after some manipulation and simplication (Wattenbarger et al., 1998):

(C-4)

(C-6)

p

Z

pi

Zi

s!

Ppgi Ppwf

mct

$ zg mg cg i $

1 0:46$

pi Sgi

mct i

(C-7)

single-phase slightly compressible uid, during the constant pressure innite acting period, can be represented by Eq. C-8. This can

be simply proved by combining the material balance equation (i.e.

the compressibility equation) and the rate equation:

distance of investigation.

p pi 0:46$ pi pwf

distance of investigation in the linear models (see Kuchuk (2009)

and references cited therein for radius of investigation).

pressure in Eq. C-6.

yinv: 0:159$

q

kt fmct i

(C-1)

this study another formulation (Eq. C-2) is used, which is based on

the results of unit impulse theory as discussed in Behmanesh et al.

(2014a,b).

yinv: 0:194$

q

kt fmct i

(C-2)

modied to take the same form as the dry gas formulation. For gas

condensate systems, these modications include the two-phase Zfactor (Z2p), which is given by Eq. C-3 (Hagoort, 1988; Vo et al.,

1990). Average pressure can be evaluated according to following.

np

p

p

i$ 1

ni

Z 2p Zi

(C-3)

(C-8)

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