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5/9/2016

LectureSynopsis

SwinburneUniversityofTechnology
FacultyofEngineeringandIndustrialDesign

SomeDefinitions
TheEvolutionofRailways
TheLiverpool&ManchesterRailway(L&MR) thefirstcommercially
operatedrailwayintheworld
DevelopmentofrailwaysinVictoriaandAustralia
Railsystemtypes Passenger/Freight<>
KeycomponentsofRailSystems Infrastructure
RailInfrastructure Railtracks GeometricDesign<>
RailInfrastructure RailSignallingandSafeworking
RailSystemCapacity
Passenger/FreightTimetabling
TrainCrewScheduling
Railwaysinthe21st Century<>

CVE30003TRANSPORTENGINEERING
LECTURE1 RAILSYSTEMS

Definitions

RailwaySystem

RailwayorRailroad
Arailwayor railroadcanbedefinedasnarrowtracksofrails,orplinthsofiron,
woodorothertenaciousmaterial,madewithverysmoothorlevelsurfacesand
laiddownwithgreatsolidityandtruth,totherequiredplanes,sothatthewheels
ofcarriagesmaymeetwiththeleastresistancethatispracticableinrollingover
themandthusreduceasmuchaspossiblethepowerrequiredtomoveagiven
loadortomovethegreatestloadbyagivenpower,ormoveagivenloadatthe
highestvelocity.
From:
HebertLAPracticalTreatiseonRailroadsandLocomotiveEngines,London,1837.

Ameansoftransportforpassengersandfreightwherebyvehiclesarecoupled
togetherastrainsandpulledorpropelledbymechanizedmotivepoweralongrail
tracksinconjunctionwiththeuseofcomplexsafeworkingsystemsthathavebeen
developedovermanyyearstocontroloperationsandmovements.

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MotivePower

HeavyRailandLightRailSystems

Themechanizedmotivepowerforpullingorpropellingatrainislocatedeitherat
theheadortailendofthetrainoralternativelyitisdistributedthroughoutthe
train.

Heavyrailsystemsinvolvetrainsoperatingontheirownexclusivereservationor
rightofway.

1.

ElectricandDieselElectricLocomotives

Headend,distributedandtailendpowerusuallyreferstoseparatelocomotives
beingattachedtothefront,middleorrearofthetrain.

Lightrailsystemsmayoperateintheirownexclusivereservations,orinshared
rightsofwaywithroadvehiclesincityandsuburbanstreets.
Note:
Modernequipmentstandardshavetendedtoblurtheboundariesbetween
heavyandlightrailsystems.
Forexample,iflightrailservicessharethetrackwithheavyrailtypeservices,
thenthelightrailvehiclemayrequireahigherstandardofcrashworthinessinthe
eventofacollision.

Locomotivesaregenerallyelectricordieselelectric.

Electriclocomotivesdrawpowerfromoverheadlineequipment(OLE)generallyat25kVAC
althoughtherearestillrailwaysthatutilizeDCpower(e.g.Victoria&NSW,1.5kVDC).

Dieselelectriclocomotivesuseadieselenginetodriveanalternatortogenerateelectricity
onboardthelocomotive.

Bothelectricanddieselelectriclocomotivesuseelectricitytopowertractionmotorsthrough
agearingmechanismsthatisattachedtoawheelset.

Dieselelectriclocomotivescarrytheirownfuelsourcethatisusuallylocatedinfueltanks
belowthefloorofthelocomotive.

2. ElectricorDieselMultipleUnitPassengerTrains
Anumberofcarriages(2to10orgreater)semipermanentlycoupledtogetherinto
aunit/s.EachunithasaDriverscabateitherend(althoughsomearecompletely
automatedandhavenocabs).Aseriesofunitscoupledtogetherbecomesa
multipleunit.Theunitsareselfpropelledi.e.thereisnoseparatelocomotive.
Therearetwotypesofmultipleunit:
ElectricMultipleUnit(EMU)
DieselMultipleUnit(DMU)
AClassDoubleDeckEMU SydneyNSW

V/LineVelocityDMU

Thetechnologyfordieselelectriclocomotivesisquiteadvancedparticularlywithnewer
locomotivesandtheirfuelconsumption.
InRussia,CompressedNaturalGas(CNG)isnowbeingusedforlocomotivepoweraftera
numberofyearsofR&D.

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An EMUtakesDCorACpowerfromtheOLEviaaseriesofpantographsor
alternativelyfromathirdraillocatedjustabovetracklevelviaaseriesofcollector
shoesmountedonthesideofthebogieatthefrontandrearofthetrain.

Thirdrailsystemsareusedwheretunnelspredominateasthetunnelprofilecanbe
reducedinsize(whichinturnreducesthecostoftunnels).

Electricpoweristhentransmittedtotractionmotorsfromacontrolsystem
operatedbythedriver.

Notallbogiesonatrainarepowered.InMelbourne,eachunithas3carsarranged
asMTM(MotorTrailerMotor).

TheMcars(designatedassuchonthesideofthevehicle)withaDriverscab
contain4motors(2perbogie)whilethetrailercarshavenomotors.Hencewith
6bogiesinaunit,4aremotorbogies.

AdvantagesofEMUsareasfollows:

Aspassengerdemandschange,unitscanbeaddedtoorremovedfromatrain
(althoughthisdoesnotoccurinMelbournebecauseofgrowthindemand)

Offermorepassengerspacepertracklength,sincetheyoperatewithouta
locomotive

Distributetractionandbrakingpowerthroughoutthetrain,achievinghigher
powertoweightratios,andgreateraccelerationandbrakingrates

Theyarepopularoncommuterandsuburbanrailnetworksaroundtheworlddue
totheirfastaccelerationandpollutionfreeoperation.
ThefirstEMUs

UnitsarecoupledtogetherbymeansofScharfenbergcouplerswhichcarry
controlsystemconnectionsforpoweringthetrainandcompressedairforbraking.
Thesecouplersarelocatedatthecabendsonly,withtherestofthetraincoupled
togetherusingdrawbars.

See:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrT5aATS4vo (accessed4/5/16)

EMUscommencedoperatingin1893inBritainontheLiverpoolOverheadRailway
using3rd railelectricalpickupbecause(strangely)sectionsofthislinewas
underground.

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TheMelbourneSuburbanElectrification

TheoriginalEMUsfortheMelbournesuburbansystemtookcomponentsof
EnglishandAmericanelectrictrainandtramtechnologyandadaptedthat
technologyininnovativewaysthatsawtheoriginalEMUsremaininuseforsome
70years.

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ADMUissimilartoanEMUwiththeexceptionthatthedieselenginesforthetrain
arelocatedbelowthefloorofthetrain(asistheirdieselfueltanks).

ThesameconfigurationofpowerandtrailercarsmayapplyasforEMUs.however
thetrailerorcentrecarsmayalsobepowered

V/LineVelocityDMUshaveallcarspowered.

Currentlytheyareconfiguredaseither2or3carunits.

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TheEvolutionofRailways
TheEngineersfortheL&MR,Georgeandson,RobertStephensonandtheircompanywere
abletobringtogether3keyelementsthatdistinguishrailwaysfromotherformsoftransport:

Thefirstcommerciali.e.privatelyfundedrailwaytosuccessfullycarrypassengers
andfreightintheworld theLiverpoolandManchesterRailway(L&MR)
commencedoperationsinthenorthofEnglandon15September1830.

TheL&MRwassome50kminlengthandconnectedtwolargecitiesinEngland
theportcityofLiverpoolwiththetextilecityofManchester.

Itisstillinusetoday,repletewithmagnificentviaducts,bridges,tunnels,deep
cuttingsandlengthysectionsoftrackthroughboggy,marshyland.

Fromthestartofconstructiontocompletiontook4years(itstartedafteryearsof
oppositionfromlandownersandotherpeople).Itisafeatunlikelytobebeaten
today!

TheL&MRstartedbycarryingcoal,rawmaterials(cottonfromtheUSA),finished
productsforexports(textiles)andpassengers.

theedgerail,
theflangedwheeland
mechanizedmotivepower.

Whatisofinterestiswhyandhowthesethreeelementscametobe!
Itisonlyinthelastfewyearsthatthehistoryoftheseitemshavebeenresearched
objectively.

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TheFirstEnergyCrisis

Around1550,duringwhatisknownastheScientificRevolution(1550
1700),Britainbecameextremelyshortoftimber
Woodfromtimberwastheprimaryenergysource
Itwasusedforheatingandcookingandforthesmeltingofmetals(as
charcoal)aswellasbeingusedforshipbuildingandforhouseand
commercialconstruction
Itwastheworldsfirstenergycrisis!
However,coalwasavailableoverawidepartofBritain itwasfoundin
outcropsatthesurfaceorrelativelyclosetothesurfaceanditcouldbe
minedinitiallywithouttoomuchdifficulty

ThebirthdateforrailwaysintheUKwasprobablyduringthisperiod
Forexample,thefirstuseofwoodenrailsappearstodatefromaround
1556inundergroundmines(theymayhavefirstbeenusedinGermany)
Wagonsorcartswereusedforhaulingcoalfromtheminefacetoashaft
orupaslopetogroundlevel.
Thecartswerefittedwithtimberflangedwheelsandranontimber
stringersorrails.
Themotivepowerwasprovidedbyhumans probablychildren.
Itwouldhaveprobablynotbeendissimilartowhatisdescribedbelow:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PD75gui4XrM (accessed5/5/16).

Coalwasusedbecauseitwascheaperthanwood,anditcouldtransported
moreeasilyoverlongerdistances.
Verysooncoalwastransportedbycoastalshipandalongcanalstotowns
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andcities.

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GeneralRailwayComponentTimeline notonesingleinvention!

1556 Firstuseofrailsappearstohaveoccurred therailwasmadeoftimber


whilstthewheelsresembledpulleys theyweredoubleflanged

ThesuccessoftheL&MRsetinmotiononeoftheworldsgreatestever
engineeringachievements thebuildingofrailwaysallovertheworld.

1605 wagonwaysortramwayswereusedonthesurfaceforhauling
wagons/cartsofcoalfrommineswithhorsestoacanalorcoastalport

Todaytherearearoundsome1.37millionroutekmofrailwaybeing
worldwide.

1719 InventorThomasNewcomenssteamenginesinstalledinminesfor
dewateringpits(thisinventionwastopowertheBritishindustrialrevolution)

NowhereintheworldhasrailwaydevelopmentbeengreaterthanintheUSA
wherethereissome280,000routekmofrailwayinoperation(Australiahas
some41,000routekmofrailway)

1729 Flangedironwheelswerecastforthefirsttime

1767 thefirstironrailswereintroduced

SincetheearlydaysoftheL&MR,almost2centuriesagorailwayshavebeen
andstillarecontinuouslyexpandingtheboundariesofknowntechnologies.

1804,RichardTrevithickdemonstratedhishighpressuresteamengine.From1804
onwards therewasnumerousdevelopmentsbyotherinventorsofsteam
locomotives

StephensonslocomotiveTheRocket wassuccessfullytestedintheRainhillTrials
(RainhillisastationontheL&MR)priortobeingselectedasthemotivepowerby
theL&MRDirectors.(TheRocketreachedspeedsofaround5060kph)

Thesedaystrainscan:

Carrypassengersatmaximumspeedsupto10timesasfastaswhatthey
wouldhavetravelledatin1830i.e.1830/2006 50kph/574.8kph

Carryfreightatupto10timesthemassoneachwheelsetofawagonthat
theycouldhavecarriedin1830i.e.1830/2012 4t/42t.

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18

Railway Development in Australia

VIDEOREFERENCES

RichardTrevithick1804Locomotive recreated
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9Bb931f1bw
(accessed5/5/16)
TheRocket ReplicaofStephenson's1829Steam
Locomotive
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNn0LC_9imY
(accessed5/5/16)
TheTGVat574.8kph
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfll5h6Rg8 (accessed
5/5/16.

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ThefirstrailwayinAustraliawasconstructedatNewcastlein1821,usinghorse
drawncarts/wagonsthatranoncastironrailsfromtheporttothecity

InVictoria,in1839,theSurveyorGeneralofwhatwasthenknownasThePort
PhillipDistrict(partofthecolonyofNSW),proposedarailwaybetweenSandridge
(nowPortMelbourne)andtheearlycitylocatedonthenorthbankoftheYarra
RiveradjacenttoFlindersStreet(approx.3.6kminlength)

In1854,3yearsaftergoldwasdiscovered,andtocaterfortheinfluxofmigrants,
TheHobsonsBayRailwayCompany,builtwhatbecamethefirststeamhauled
railwayinAustralia

TheVictoriancolonialgovernment,flushwithmoneygeneratedbythediscovery
ofgold,builtsome400kmofrailwaybetween1854and1864.Theprimaryinterest
beingtolinktheprovincialcitiesofBallaratandBendigo)tothecoastalportsof
Geelong,PortlandandMelbourne

After1864thebuildingofnewrailwaylinescontinuedatvaryingratesovera
periodof80years

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ThesuburbanrailwaylinesofMelbournewereelectrifiedovera9to12
yearperiodfrom1910onwards(beingpartiallyinterruptedbyWW1).First
electricserviceoperatedSandringham EssendonandFlemington
Racecourseon28/5/1919.

By1901,suchwastheextentoftherailwaysreachinVictoriathat(withthe
exceptionofthemountainousregionsintheeastofthestate)nopersonlived
morethan40kmawayfromarailwayline

By1931whenrailwayconstructionbasicallyceasedduetotheGreatDepression,
practicallyalltownsinVictoriawithapopulationofaround500peoplehadtheir
ownrailwaystation!Therailwaysprovidedthegluethattiedcommunities
together

TheotherstatesofAustraliadevelopedtheirrailwaysinasimilarmanner,butnot
tothesameextentasoccurredintheeasternstatesofVictoriaandNSW.

TheextentofthecoverageofrailwaysinVictoriacanbeseenfromthis1947
VictorianRailwaysmap(therewerealsoextensiveprivatelyownedandoperated
timbertramwaysaswelleastofMelbourne)
http://www.victorianrailways.net/vr%20map/vrmap47.html (accessed5/5/16)
TherailwaysalsoenabledtheearlysuburbanexpansionofMelbournewhich,had
averyextensivesteamrailwayoperationthatservicedthesuburbsfromthemain
station,FlindersStreet generallythoughtatthetimetobeoneofthebusiest
stationsintheworld

Withlittlemoneyavailableforrailwaysinthe1930sandwithpetrol
rationingforalmost10yearsduringthe1940stherailwayswerebasically
clappedoutthroughlackofmaintenanceandnewinvestment
Intheearly1950stherewasalargeprogramofmodernizationincluding
dieselization,newtrainsandnewwagons
AsthepopulationofMelbournecontinuedtogrow,itexpandedoutwards.
Fromthe1950stothe1970sthismovementoutwardswas
predominantlytothenortheast,east,andsoutheastsuburbsof
Melbourne
Newstationswereprovidedandlinesextendedmarginallywhilst
additionaltrackswereprovidedonsomelinestoincreasetraincapacity
particularlyduringthepeakhours

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In1971,constructionstartedontheMelbourneUndergroundRailLoop(City
Loop),aneventthattooksome10ormoreyears.Thefirstline(theCaulfieldLoop)
openedforserviceinJanuary1981.

22

Duringthesameperiodoftime,passengernumbersonthe
suburbansystemplummetedconsiderably.Withtheopeningofthe
CityLoop,passengernumbersreboundedslowly
Itwasnotuntil2005thatpassengernumbersgrewatgrowthrates
inexcessof7%perannum(andsince2011growthhasbeenaround
4%perannum).In2014annualpatronagewas222million(or61
journeysperheadperannumcomparedwith160in1927)
InthesameperiodoftimeMelbournesgrowthhadextendedto
thenorthandwestofthecityandrailworksinthelastyearshave
tendedtobeconcentratedintheseareas.

FlagstaffStation
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TheRailwayGaugeProbleminAustralia

TheDevelopmentofMineralandCoalRailwaysinAustralia

Fromtheearlydaysofcolonizationtherewere3railwaygauges:

Intheearly1960s,thedemandforironorefromJapanandKoreasawthe
constructionoftwoindependentheavyhaulstandardgaugerailwaysfromthe
ironrichPilbararegiontothecoastalportsofDampierandPortHedlandinWA

Sincethetimeofconstruction,andasthedemandforironorehasincreased,so
hasthedemandforheavierandlongertrainsincreasedcommensurately

TherailwaysinthePilbaraoperateandmaintainwhatarenowworldsbest
practicerailwayswithtrainscapableoftransportingsome30,000tonnesoforein
trains23kminlengththroughsomeoftheworldsharshestclimaticenvironments

Duringtherecentminingboom,theironoreproducerFortescueaddedathirdline
fromtheironorminingprovinceofWAtoPortHedland.

InadditiontothePilbararailways,heavyhaultrainsoperateinNSWand
Queenslandtransportingsteamingandbituminouscoalfrominlandminestothe
ports,commencingoperationwhendemandforcoalfromSouthEastAsia
blossomedinthelate1970s.

TherearealsootherheavyhaullinesinSA,WAandTasmania.

CapeGauge:
1067mm Queensland,Tasmania,WestAustralia
StandardGauge: 1435mm AllAustralianmainlandstates,ACT,NT
BroadGauge:
1600mm Victoria suburbanandregionalservices,
Adelaidesuburbanservices.

In1962,anewstandardgaugelinewasopenedbetweenMelbourneandAlbury,
enablingpassengersandfreighttobetransportedbetweenMelbourneand
Sydneywithoutbreakofgauge(i.e.transhipmentoffreightandpassengers)
Furthergaugestandardizationwasundertakeninsubsequentyears.
FinallyinJune1995,trainscouldtravelcontinuouslybetweenBrisbaneandPerth,
viaSydney,MelbourneandAdelaideonastandardgaugetrack.
In1998,theAustralianGovernmentowned,AustralianRailTrackCorporation
(ARTC)tookoverthemanagementandcontrolofsome8,500kmofstandard
gaugetrack,primarilythroughdirectownershipandlongtermleasesofstate
ownedtrackbetweenKalgoorlie,WAthroughSA,Victoria,andNSWandupto
AcaciaRidgeinQueensland.
In2004,thestandardgaugelinewasextendedfromAliceSpringstoDarwin.

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PassengerRailSystemTypes

PassengerandFreightRailSystemTypes

Sevenpassengerandfreightrailsystemtypesareconsidered

Eachsystemtypehasitsownparticularoperatingcharacteristicsandthe
infrastructuremustbedesignedtocaterforthatparticularsystem

Safeworkingandoperationalsystemsareverysimilarforallsystemtypesexcept
perhapslightrail

Underground/Tube/Metro/Subway (Alsoknownasrapidtransit,masstransit)
Characteristics:

PassengerRailSystemTypes:

Metro/Tube/Subway/Underground
Suburban/RegionalorInterurban(Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan)
InterCity/InterMetropolis
LongDistance
LightRail

FreightRailSystemTypes:

IntermodalFreight
HeavyHaul
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Knownasundergroundortube(London),metro(Paris),subway(NewYork)
CBDsectionsareusuallyintunnelorelevatedonviaductsabovestreetlevel.
Servicesrunfromterminalpointsononesideofthecitytoaterminalpointonthe
oppositeside(somemayhavecircularservices)
GenerallylargenumberofstationsfordistributionofpassengersinaCBD
Theyprovideconnectionsbetweenrailwayterminalstationsincitiesandother
majortrafficgeneratingdevelopments
Thelinesprovidingtheservicestoacitymaybeonseparatesystemssothat
interchangebetweenthemisundertakenatmultilevelstations usually
undergroundandintheCBD.
MTRinHongKonghavelineswithlineson3differentlevels.Somelinesmayshare
trackwitheachotherforaportionoftheirroute,oroperatesolelyontheirown
rightofway
Trainlengthforbothtypesmayvaryconsiderably.Inpeakhours,urbantrains
(EMUs)areusually68carsinlength.
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Thistypeofrailsystemisbestformovinghighpassengervolumesfor
shortdistancesaroundanurbanarea.
Thetypicalcarcapacityisabout100passengersseated,orcrushloadsof
around160.
Trainsusuallyhavefewerseatsandthereforemorestandingroom.
Thenumberofdoorsoneachsideofthecarriagemayvaryfrom3to4.
Stationsonsomeurbanrailsystemshaveplatformedgedoorsorplatform
screendoorsthat:
Operatesimilartoalift/elevatorandopen/closeafterarrivalandbefore
departureofatrainfromastation
Improvessafetyandensurespassengerconfidence
Reducethecostsofstationairconditioninginundergroundstations
Preventslitterandothermatterfrombeingdepositedontracks

LondonUndergroundRollingStock

3rdrailcurrentcollectionshoe(DC)

Urbanrailwaysmayalsohaveautomatictrainoperation(ATO) firstused
ontheVictoriaLineintheLondonundergroundin1968.
WithATOacrewmemberislocatedintheDriverscabandoperates
(closes)thetraindoorsateachstation,thetrainthenstartsautomatically.
Trainsmayalsobedriverlesse.g.SingaporeMRTsNortheastline.
Historically,thefirsturbanrailsystemwastheLondonUnderground
whichopenedin1863,anditsoldestsectionscompleted150yearsof
operationon9January2013.
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30

Notes:

Suburban/RegionalorInterurban(Metropolitan/Nonmetropolitan)
Characteristics:

ThegeographicalreachofAustraliasurbanoperationsisextensive,even
ifthenetworkcoverageisnotdense.Thisisareflectionofandis
consistentwiththegenerallylowurbanhousingdensities.

TheyconveycommuterspredominantlytotheCBD
Journeytimeandattractivenessduetoguaranteedfrequency
Averyhighfrequencyserviceprovidescapacity
UsesEMUswithveryhighaccelerationandbraking
Minimumdwelltimeatstations
Signalingcontrolsystems
Automatedticketing
Personalsecuritythroughopendesign,alarmsetc
Designforlowestmaintenancetrainandinfrastructure
Maximumsegregationofservicesbuteasyinterchange

InAustralia,allofthecapitalcitieshavemetropolitan/nonmetropolitanpassenger
railsystemsofvaryingsizes.(AllcapitalcitiesexceptHobartoperateEMUstoa
varyingextent)

Themetropolitan/nonmetropolitantrainservicesareusuallyelectrifiedat1.5kV
DC(Vic,NSW)ormorecommonlythesedaysat25kVACusingOLE(Qld,WA,SA)

InSydney,2/3ofthetotalroutelengthliesbeyondthemetropolitan
area,(i.e.nonmetropolitanareas)ForexamplefromSydneyCentral
regionaltrainsrunto:

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Newcastle(168km)
Lithgow(156km)
Wollongong(83km)
Goulburn(225km)
Nonmetropolitanservices(thosetrainsnotcallingatmetropolitan
stations)mustbedovetailedintotrainworkingtimetablesbetween
stoppingservicesgenerallycallingatallstations.InMelbourneand
Sydney,thisisnomeanfeatinpeakhourswiththenumberoftrains
operating.
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EachAustraliancityhasdifferentstylesofpassengerservice
operation.
InPerth,ontheMandurahandClarksonlines,station
accessisprovidedprincipallybybusandcarparkandride,
complementedbypoliciesencouragingTransitOriented
Development(TOD)withwalkingaccess.
ThePerthMandurahandPerthClarksonraillineshave
beenconstructedinfreewaymedianstripswherethe
stationsarelocated.Thesestationsarealsowidelyspaced.
InMelbourne,theaveragespacingbetweenstationsis
around1.6kmandthisisgenerallysufficienttoallowsmall
shoppingcentrestobedevelopedandremaininbusiness

Suburbantrainsusuallyprovidelongerdistancecommuterserviceand
havemoreseatsseating offermorecomfortforlongertraveltimes.
Oftenbilevelpassengercarriagesareusedtoincreasepassengercapacity
andcomfort(effectivelyincreasingthecarcarryingcapacityby4045%)
e.g.Sydneyutilizes8cardoubledecktrainsforitswholefleet.(But,the
newNorthWestRapidTransitRailLinkinSydney,thatiscurrentlybeing
constructedwillsingledeckrollingstockonly
Suburbancommuterrailsystemsmayoperateatlowerfrequencyor
headwaysthanurbanrapidtransit,withhigheraveragespeeds,oftenonly
servingonestationineachvillageandtown.
Adistinguishingfeaturebetweenmetropolitanandnonmetropolitan
trainsmayrelatetonumberofdoorsoneachcarriageandwhetherthey
arefittedwithtoilets.
Afurtherdistinguishingfeature,isthatRegionalorInterurbantrainsdo
nothavepeaksi.e.alloftherollingstockisusedthroughouttheday
includingpeaks.Withmetropolitanservices,trainsmaybestabledoutof
useintheinterpeakintheeveningandallweekend.

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WhyareAustraliasurbanrailwaysdifferenttoEuropes?

34

Trainformations(orconsists) EMUSANDDMUS

InEuropeancities,heavypassengerrailnetworksweredevelopedprimarilyforintercity
travelor,alternatively,asMetro/Subway/Undergroundinnerurbanmetrosystems(some
arebothe.g.ParisandLondon.

Australiassuburbanrailwayswerebuilttoconnectthelocalporttosurroundinghinterland
and,fromthelate19thcentury,tosupporttheexpansionofsuburbs.

Thisprovidedworkerswithaccesstocheaperland,albeitremotefromindustrialand
commercialcentres.

Theresultisgeographicallyextensivenetworksthatareradialinnature,designedtocarry
passengersfromtheirsuburbanhomesprincipallytocitycentreemployment.

ThegeographicalsizeofAustraliancitiesisvast,beinglargethanoverseasmetropoliscities.

WhilstMelbournehasalwaysbeenconsideredtobelargerthanGreaterLondon(GL),
AdelaidesmetropolitanareaisalsoslightlylargerthanGL;butitspopulationofaround1.2
million,isconsiderablylessthanthatofGL(around9million).

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AsstatedEMUsoperateinallcapitalcitiesofAustraliawiththeexceptionof
Hobart
InSydneyEMUsprovidethebulkoftheNonmetropolitanservices
DMUsareusedtooperateAdelaidesuburbanservices,butinSydneyand
Melbournetheyareusedonnonmetropolitanservices

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InterCityTrains

Characteristics
JourneyLength:
Upto400kmjourney
Averagespeed:
160200kph
Maximumspeed: upto320kph
Stationspacing:
5080kmbetweenstops
Traintype:
Highcapacitywithfeweronboardservices
Features
Attractiveoveralljourneytimethrough
Highfrequency/regularstoppingpatterns
Highaccelerationandbraking/lowstationdwelltime
Efficientguaranteedconnectionsbetweenintercityservicesathubsandwith
othertransportmodesatstations
Designforreliability,lowweightenergyuse
Tractionpowerissues
Personalsecuritythroughopentraindesign,alarmsetc
Conventionalintercitytrainsusuallyconsistofaheadendlocomotiveeithera25
kV(AC)electricordieselelectrichaulingaconsistofairconditionedcarriages.
Intercityservicesmaysharetrackswithfreightservicesandcanbehauledbythe
samelocomotivetypes.

Highspeedrail(HSR)servicesoperateatspeedsofupto320kphorbeyond.
Theygenerallyoperateineightcarsets.
SomeHSRtrainshaveintegratedlocomotives;othershavemotorsdistributed
throughoutthetrainwithpassengerseatinginwhatwouldotherwisebethe
locomotivesectioni.e.atthefrontortherearofthetrain.
HSRtrainsoperateonadedicatedrightofwaysotrainfrequenciesareusually
fairlyhighwithheadwaysofaround5minutes.
HSRtrainsmayalsooperateonconventionaltracktogainaccesstolocations
wherededicatedtrackcannotbebuiltsuchasinnercityrailwaystatione.g.
approachestoParisfor(TrainaGrandVitesse)TGVtrains.
Trainsarealwayselectrifiedand25kV(AC)istypical.

HSR Maximumtrainspeeds:

Currentlyintherangeof300320kphe.g.FranceTGV320kph,SpanishVAL
310kph.
Theworld'slongesthighspeedline,2298kminlengthopenedinChinaon26
December2012
OnApril3,2007,anAlsthomTGVtesttrainpostedaspeedof574.8kph,whichwas
recordedasthefastestwheeledtrainintheworldtoday!

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HSRTrainLengths

JapaneseShinkansenClass700HSR

ThelengthofaTGVtrainvariesdependingonthetypeoftrain.

TheTGVPOS,theThalysPBKAandtheTGVDuplex(bilevelcars)haveanoverall
lengthof200.19m

TheTGVThreeCapitals(Eurostar),theLondon/Paris/Brusselstrainhasalengthof
393.7m.(Thesetrainsareintheprocessofbeingreplacedbyanewfleetoftrains)

AnEMUsflexibilityanddesigncharacteristicsareidealforHSRservicesbecause
higherpowerlevelsareneededtoovercomeaerodynamicdrag.

SomeTGVandGermanInterCityExpress(ICE17)trainsareconsideredpushpull
trainswithpowercarsateachend withasmuchas12,200kW.

TheEuroStartrainconsistsare:
1powercar 18trailercars 1powercar
(withatotalof24,400kWthatcancarry794passengersinbilevelcoach
configurations)
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LongDistanceTrains

InterMetropolis
Characteristics

Australia,Canada,China,Russia,USAallrunlongdistancepassengertrains
generallycontainingsleeperandsittingaccommodationforpassengers.

JourneyLength:
4001000kmjourneys,
Max.Speed:
320kphmax.speed
StationDistance:
240320kmbetweenstops
Infrastructure: Segregatedformainhighspeedjourneysectionbut
operatesinconjunctionwithothertrainsclosertothecitycentre

On27February2013,theGovernmentsofMalaysiaandSingaporeannounced
thata300kmHSRlinkbetweenKualaLumpurandSingaporewouldbebuiltandbe
operationalby2020.

TheHSRwouldcutrailtraveltimefrom8hoursto1.5hours.Whilstflighttimes
betweenKLandSingaporearecurrentlyaround40minutesoncecheckinginand
boardingtimesareadded,railtimesmaybeconsiderablyless.

Ithasbeenestimatedthataround400,000commuterswouldusethelinkdaily
onceitisrunning.
InSouthEastAsiathereareextensiveplansforHSRconnectingeachcountry.
AlreadybothSouthKoreaandTaiwanoperateHSRservices

Thesetypesaretrainsareforthetimepoorandsomecouldbeclassified
astouristtrains.
TheRussianRailwaysruntheTransSiberianExpress(TSE)fromMoscowto
VladivostokviasouthernSiberiaadistanceof9259kmandtakes8days
(passingthrough7timezones)toreachitsdestination.
Note:thelongestroutelengthappearstobefromKievintheUkraineto
Vladivostokat11,085km.
AustraliaslongestjourneyontheIndianPacificfromeastcoasttowest
coast SydneytoPerthviaBrokenHill,AdelaideandKalgoorlieontheis
4352km.

41

LightRailTransit(LRT)SystemTypes
(akaStreetcar,Tramway,LightRailTransitSystem)

Thesetypesofservicearegenerallydovetailedinwithfreightservices.
Thelengthofthesetrainsmaybeupto22carriagesinlength.

42

Lightrailvehicles(LRV)maybeeithersinglevehiclesorarticulatedvehicles.Ifsodesignedthey
maybecapableofbeingcoupledtogetherandoperatedasmultipleunits(forpeakhourservice).

Melbourne,Sydney,AdelaideandtheGoldCoastinAustraliahaveLRTsystems.AnewLRTsystem
iscurrentlybeingconstructedinSydney(seebelow)onrouteswheretramslastrunin1954)

Characteristics:

Note:Ofthetop10citieslistedinthe2012EconomicIntelligenceUnitsgloballivabilityindex,8haveLRT
systems.PerthandAuckland,aretheonly2citiesinthetop10thatdonotcurrentlyhaveLRTwhilst
Melbournewith27routesandatotallengthofaround250k,rivalsotherlightrailgiantsinEuropee.g.
Vienna.

Lighteraxleloadsthantrains

Distributedpower,overheadelectrictractionpowerat0.6kVDC(Melbourne)orhigher
(exceptioniscabletrams nonelectricmotivepower)

TherearegenerallyconsideredtobetwotypesofLRTsystem:

Singlevehicleorarticulated

Loweraveragespeed(say25kph)thanmetrotrains(say40kph)

TraditionalTramwaysystemwheretramsrunalongstreetsandsharespacewithroadtraffic.The
bestexampleintheworldbeingMelbourne!Stopstendtobeveryfrequent(300400mapart).
Maximumspeedcorrespondswithroadlaws.Averagespeedis1920kph,butlowerinpeakhours
whenthereistrafficcongestion.

Closerspacedstops(400/800m)comparedwithMetrotrains(1.01.6km)

Generallybecausevehicleaxleloadsarelighter,andcivilconstructioncostsareless,these
systemscanoperateatgradeoncitystreetsinterspersedwithtraffic,inthemedianstripsof
roadsorontheirownrightofway(i.e.theyarelessexpensive).

RightofWayTypeROW) hereLRVsareseparatedfromroadtraffic.Stopsaregenerallyless
frequent(i.e.widerspaced)thanwithtramsandthevehiclesareoftenboardedfromaplatform
andhavethesameheightastheflooroftheLRV(i.e.DDAcompliant)

MaximumspeedofLRVsoperatingintheirownROWmaybeinexcessof100kph.Service
headwaysmaydictatetheneedfortracksidesignalingsystemstobeinstalled.

MostLRTsystemsoperateincityandinnersuburbanareasalthoughtheymayextendlonger
distancesupto20kmfromthecityortowncentre.

InEurope,thetermlightrailisusedtodescribeanyrapidtransitsystemwithalower
frequencyorshortertrainswhencomparedwithunderground/tube/subwaysystems.

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5/9/2016

LRTsystemcarryingcapacityappearstofallbetweenthatofbusesandheavyrail.Fora
tramwaytypesystempassengercapacity/hourisaround12,000persons/hour overshort
distancesusingsingleLRVs.ForaLRTsystemoperatinginitsownrightofwaypassenger
capacitiesofaround20,000passengers/hourcouldbeconsidered.
InSydney,anewLightRailsystemfromCircularQuaytoRandwick/Kingsford(CBD South
EastLightRailSystem)willfeature67marticulatedtramswithathirdrailelectricalpickup
systemthroughtheSydneyCBD(eliminatingoverheadwiresinthestreet).

TransitOrientedDevelopment(TOD)andLRT

TODsaremixeduseresidential/commercialdevelopmentslocatedclosetopublictransport
inordertomaximizeitsuse withhigherdensityresidentialdevelopmentslocatedclosesttoa
train/LRTorbusstop/station asyoumoveawayfromthestop/stationtheresidential
densitiesdecrease.

Theyaregenerallylocatedwithinaradiusof400800mfromastop/station the800m
figurebeingthemaximumapersonwillwalktoastop/stationbaseduponanaverage
walkingtimeof10minutesandspeedof4.8 kph. Itrepresentsalandareaofaround20
Hectaresinsize.

TODscanbeenhancedbymakingthemmorepedestrianuserfriendly(restrictingcarsand
pedestrianonlyareas)

Inthe1980s,thecityofPortland,Oregon,USAcommencedconstructionofaLRTsystem.
Sincethistimeithasbeenestimatedtherehasbeen$10Billioninvestedindevelopments
withinwalkingdistanceoftheLRTstations.

TheaimofTODsistotryandminimizecaruseandmaximizepublictransportuse.
TheTODconceptcouldbeextendedfurtherbytheadoptionofshareableprivatetransport
aspartofwhatiscalledthesharingeconomywheretransportationisregardedasbeing
aboutaccessibilityandnotownership

Asaconsequencewewouldhave:

Sharedcars(carsharing) notethatmostcarssitidlefor90%ofaday
Sharedtrips(ridesharing) triedbefore,easiernowwithmobilephones?
Sharedbikes(publicbikesharing)
Allwiththeaimofreducing:
Roadcongestionandairpollution
Personalvehicleownershipandassociatedcosts
Parkingdemand,
Landdedicatedtoparkingspaces(needtoprovidefewersharedspacesindevelopments)
Enhancingmobilityforthosewhodonotownacar
Suchpoliciesmightresultinfreeorbetterparkingforsharedcarsandbikesatstations/stops,
andcarsharinginapartmentdevelopments

45

TODs+LRTsystemsappeartoprovideagoodfit!

IntheUSA,some24citiesarecurrentlyplanning,designingandconstructingLRT
systemsasawayofstimulatingeconomicdevelopmentandenhancingtransport
optionsbetweenneighbourhoodsandfortryingtomaketheirdowntowndistricts
attractiveplacestolive,workandplay

ThereasonthesecitieshavechosentogowithLRTsystemsis:

Theyareregardedasbeingmorepermanentthanbuslines residentsand
visitorsalikeknowthateventuallythetramwillcome notsowithbuses.
Theyprovideagreaterdegreeofcomfortthanbuses whetherseatedorstanding.
Abilitytogetmorepeopleintothevehiclesi.e.greatercapacity
Lessterminalspacerequired becausevehicleshavecabsateitherend
Inmixedtrafficconditionstheyappearcapableofbeingabletopenetrate
downturnareaseasier.
Newtramscanrunwithoutoverheadwiringinstreets

46

EClasstram
(Bombardier)in
Melbourne&
Proposed
CBDSELight
RailVehiclesin
SydneyCBD
Overheadwires)

Reference:

TroncosoS,PoliciesforShareableCities2:Transportation

http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/policiesforshareablecities2transportation/2014/04/17 (accessed20/4/14)

Streetcarsmakeacomeback,asU.S.citiesseektostimulateeconomy,increasetransitoptions,ProgressiveRailroading,
March2014.

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5/9/2016

FreightServiceTypes

Railcarriesapproximately10%ofallfreighthauledinAustralia

Overthelast30years,freightrailsformerlypredominantplaceinfreighthaulage
hasbeentakenbyroadtransportbecauseofitsabilitytobeinvolvedwithdoorto
doorpickup/deliveryoffreight

Sincethe1990s,formerlygovernmentownedrailwaysaroundtheworldhavesold
offtheirfreightrailwayoperationstoprivateoperators.
InAustralia,theprincipalprivateoperatorsarePacificNational,AurizonandSCT.
Inaddition,graincompaniesalsooperatetheirowntrainsforgrainhaulagefrom
inlandbulkterminalstograinelevatorsatthecoastalports.

Lowerspeedsthanpassengertrains

Freighttrainshavespecializedwagonsdependingonthetypeofgoodsbeing
hauled.

Freighttrainsareveryefficient,witheconomyofscaleandhighenergyefficiency

Intermsofmotivepower,thekilowatt/weightratiorequiredusedto
overcomeresistancetomotionis4timeshigherthanitisforfreighttrains
Freighttrainusecanbereducedbylackofflexibility,ifthereisneedfor
transshipmentatbothendsofthelineorduetolackoftrackstothe
pointsofpickupanddelivery
Bulkhandlingrepresentsakeyadvantageforrailtransport
Loworevenzerotransshipmentcostscombinedwithenergyefficiency
andlowinventorycostsallowtrainstohandlebulkgoodsandmaterials
muchcheaperthanbyroad

Characteristics

Metalwheelsonmetalrailshaveasignificantadvantageofovercoming
resistancecomparedtorubbertyredwheelsonanyroadsurface(railway
0.001gat16kphand0.024gat100kph;truck 0.009gat16kphand
0.090at100ph).

Typicalbulkcargoincludescoal,ironore,grainsandliquids.
49

HeavyHaulFreightSystems

50

VIDEO

Characteristics:
Longtrainlength upto300wagons
Heavyaxleload upto42t
UnitTrains thesetrainsusespecializedrollingstockandother
mechanismsformovingabulkmaterialorcommodityfromasingleorigin
toasingledestinatione.g.fromaminetoapowerplantorsteelmill.
Thesetrainsarehighlyefficientsincenointermediatehandlingoccurs;
however,oftenthefreightwagonsreturnempty.
Generallytherearealternativetwotypesofwagon:
1.

bottomdumphopperwagonwithairoperateddoorsformaterial
dischargeunderneaththefloorofthewagon wagonmusthavesloping
sides(atangleofreposeformaterialstoflow(thewagontopiseither
coveredoruncovereddependingonbulkmaterialbeinghandled)

1.

rotarydumportipplerwagons formaterialsthatmayhangupinside
thewagonoraresticky suchwagonsarefittedwithwagoncouplings
thatallowthewagontorotateinsidethetippler
51

GENERALFREIGHT
SwissTrains:Gotthardroute,Wassen,14Sep14
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EUV3XrE2bo
(accessed5/5/16)
SBBsnowtimeinGschenenGotthardSwitzerland
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ianZCLBxSB8 (accessed5/5/16)
SPECIALISEDHANDLING
ModernHopperCarUnloading
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02mwgh2WvPk
(accessed5/5/16)
RotaryDumporTipplerwithCoalTrain
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0EWZimPzNw
(accessed5/5/16)

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5/9/2016

Example:

RioTintoIronOreRailSystem,Pilbara,WA

ContainerorIntermodalFreightRailSystems

Purpose:

Characteristics:

Transportintermodalcontainersonflatorwellwagons

Anintermodalcontainermeansthatthecontainercanbetransferredfromshiptotrainto
truck(andthenoffloadedatacustomerspremise)andviceversa

ISOContainerlengthsvaryfrom6.1mto16m(thetwomostcommonbeing6.1and12.2m.
Heightofcontainersvaryfrom2.4m)to3.2m

Containersmaybestackedonatraineithersinglyorsomeroutesindoublestackmode.
(CurrentlyonlytheeastwestroutefromAdelaidetoPerthissuitablyequippedforcarrying
doublestackedcontainers)

Themethodreducescargohandling,andsoimprovessecurity,reducesdamageandloss,and
allowsfreighttobetransportedfaster.Doublestackingcanincreasecargosecurityby
cradlingthelowercontainerssothattheirenddoorscannotbeopened

IntheUSAabout70%ofallintermodalfreightishandledindoublestackedcontainertrains
thatreducetheneedtoprovideadditionalpathsonrailwaysthatmaybereachingtheir
capacity.

MoveironorethatisblendedatPilbaraminesitetomeetcustomerrequirements
IronoreisshippedbytraintotheexportportonthecoastatDampier.
TherailsystemisanessentialpartofRioTinto's integratedironoreproductionprocessand
directlyaffectstheircapacitytoblendoretomeetcustomerspecifications.

KeyData:

RailDepots:
TomPrice,CapeLambert,andDampier(7Mile)
TrainControlCentre: Perth(adjacenttoAirport)
TrainOperation:
Services14minesviaamainlinetracksystemofapprox.1,400km
WorkingArrangements:Residentialandflyin/flyoutroster
HaulageCapacity:
228milliontonnesoforeperannum
TrainConsist:
Eachtrainisoperatedbyasingledriver,andcomprisesupto 234ore
cars,eachorecarhasaloadcapacityofapprox. 112tonnes.
TareweightofTrain: 31,000tonnes
TrainLength:
2.4km
TrainCycleTime:
35hoursonaverage
Trainheadway:
25minutes(mainline)
Firstyearofoperation: 1966
Ownership: HamersleyIronandRobeRiver;managedbyPilbaraIron
RailwayAssets:
Locomotives:
132locosasfollows 72xGEDash9,56xGEEvo,4xGEDash8
usesHeadendpowerwithdistributedcontrol
Orecars:
845xMesaJwagons(5x163carconsists),PooledFleet:8,000(32x
234carconsists).
53

Othertypesofcontaineraretanktainers(Tanksforcarryingliquids,chemicals)thatsitona
standardcontainerframeandreefersorrefrigeratedcontainersforperishablegoods

Thelattermayobtaintheirpowerfortherefrigeratorsfromaninternalcombustionengine
onthecontainerorelectricallyfromanauxiliarypowerunitonthetrainlocomotive.

Intermodalfreighttrainsmayalsocarrytrucktrailersortheentiretruckonthebackofflator
specialpurposewagons(ChannelTunnelEngland/France)

Atportlocationscontainersaretransferredbetweentrainandshiputilizingcontainergantry
cranes,specialsideliftingreachtrucksorstraddlecarriers

Sincecontainerizationbeganin1959,ithasbecomeimportantinshippingmanufactured
goods,includingliquidandgranularcommodities;especiallyimportsandexportsassociated
withoceantransportmovements

Priortocontainerization,theshippingindustrycouldloadandunloadabout
0.6t/person/hour;by1976thatfigurewas4,235t/person/houranditisnowupto
8000t/person/hour

By2009,containershipswerecapableofcarrying77,000tat25knots(46kph)andwouldbe
inportforonly16hourstounloadandload.Someofthesesameefficienciesapplytorail
transportofgeneralfreight.

54

VIDEOS
USA DoubleStackContainerTrain
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJhOe_AM36w (accessed3/5/16)

55

TrainsCarryingHGVsEurotunnel(FolkestoneCalais)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kByDXzklpc (accessed3/5/16)
HGVsbyTraininSwitzerlandTravellingByTrain
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8faYMD8xlGE
(accessed3/5/16)

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