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UNIT 1

ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONIC MATERIALS


LECTURE 1 :

INTRODUCTION, ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, CONDUCTORS, FERMI


ENERGY, FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

LECTURE 2 :

VARIATION OF FERMI LEVEL WITH TEMPERATURE IN INTRINSIC AND


EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS

LECTURE 3 :

HALL EFFECT AND DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND THEIR


APPLICATIONS

LECTURE 4:

SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS: NORMAL AND HIGH TEMPERATURE


SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND APPLICATIONS

LECTURE 5 :

PHOTONIC MATERIALS: LED-LCD- PHOTO CONDUCTING MATERIALSPHOTO DETECTORS

LECTURE6 :

PHOTONIC CRYSTALS AND APPLICATIONS AND NLO MATERIALS AND


APPLICATIONS
15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

LECTURE 1
BASIC DEFINITION IN CONDUCTORS
CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS
FERMI- DIRAC STATISTICS & ITS
DISTRIBUTION
FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION
FUNCTION
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ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONIC MATERIALS


The science that deals with the detailed knowledge of
the properties of materials like electrical, dielectric,
conduction,
semi
conduction,
magnetic,
superconductivity, optical etc., is known as `Materials
Science.
In terms of electrical properties, the materials can be
divided into three groups
(1) Conductors ,
(2) Semi conductors and
(3) Dielectrics (or) Insulators.
15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Electric current
The rate of flow of charge through a conductor is
known as the current. If a charge dq flows through the
conductor for dt second then
Electric current (I)=

dq
dt

Ohms law
At constant temperature, the potential difference
between the two ends of a conductor is directly proportional to
the current that passes through it. where R = resistance of the
conductor
V I (or) V = IR
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Resistance of a conductor
The resistance (R) of a conductor is the ratio of the
potential difference (V) applied to the conductor to the
current (I) that passes through it.
Resistance

(R) =

V
I

The specific resistance (or) resistivity of a conductor


The resistance (R) of conductor depends upon its
length (L) and cross sectional area (A) i.e.,
R

L
A

or

R=

L
A

where is a proportional constant and is known as the


specific resistance (or ) resistivity of the material.
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The electrical conductivity is also defined as the


charge that flows in unit time per unit area of cross section
of the conductor per unit potential gradient. The resistivity
and conductivity of materials are pictured as shown below,
Resistivity ( ohm metre )
10

15

10

12

10

10

Insulators

10

15

10

12

10

Semiconductors

10

10

10

10

10

Metals

10

10

( ohm 1 metre 1 )

Conductivities and resistivities of materials

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Conductors
The materials that conduct electricity when an
electrical potential difference is applied across them are
conductors.
A
= R ohm metre
L

The resistivity of the material of a conductor is defined as


the resistance of the material having unit length and unit
cross sectional area.

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The electrical conductivity () of a conductor


The reciprocal of the electrical resistivity is known as
electrical conductivity () and is expressed in ohm1 metre1.
The conductivity ()
=

We Know that,

1
RA

L
RA

R = V/I
Q
t
L
I

=
=
=
V A V A V A
I
L
L

( ) ( ) ( )

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The conducting materials based on their conductivity


can be classified into three categories
1.
Zero resistivity materials
2.
Low resistivity materials
3.
High resistivity materials
1) Zero Resistivity Materials
Superconductors like alloys of aluminium, zinc,
gallium, nichrome, niobium etc., are a special class of
materials that conduct electricity almost with zero
resistance below transition temperature. These materials
are known as zero resistivity materials.
USES
Energy saving in power systems, super conducting
magnets, memory storage elements
15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

2). Low Resistivity Materials


The metals and alloys like silver, aluminium have very
high electrical conductivity. These materials are known as low
resistivity materials.
USES
Resistors, conductors in electrical devices and in electrical
power transmission and distribution, winding wires in motors
and transformers.
3) High Resistivity Materials
The materials like tungsten, platinum, nichrome etc.,
have high resistivity and low temperature co-efficient of
resistance. These materials are known as high resistivity
materials.
15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics (Classical law)


This law states that, the total fixed amount of energy
is distributed among the various members of an assembly
of identical particles in the most proable distribution.
The Maxwell Boltzmann law is
Where

ni =

gi
e (

+ Ei )

ni number of particles having energy Ei.


gi number of energy states.

EF
k T

and

1
kT

(Here k Boltzmann constant; T Absolute temperature of the


gas, EF Fermi energy)
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Therefore, n =
i

[e

gi
( E i E F ) / kT

Particles are distinguishable.


Classical particles can have any spin.
Particles do not obey Paulis exclusion principle.
Any number of particles may have identical energies.

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Fermi-Dirac Statistics (Quantum law)


This statistics applicable to the identical, indistinguishable
particles of half spin.
These particles obey Paulis exclusion principle and are
called fermions (e.g.) Electrons, protons, neutrons ,
In such system of particles, not more than one particle can
be in one quantum state.
Fermi Dirac Distribution Law is
ni =

gi
(e

+ E i

) +1

or ni =

[e

gi

( Ei E F ) / kT

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]+1

Example
Let us consider two particles a and a. Let if, these two
particles occupy the three energy levels (1,2,3). The number of
ways of arranging the particles 31=3 (not more than one
particle can be in any one state)
Energy
level

Possible distribution in various


energy level

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Fermi Energy (EF) and Fermi-Dirac Distribution


Function f(E)
Fermi Energy (EF)
Fermi Energy is the energy of the state at which the
probability of electron occupation is at any temperature
above 0 K.
It is also the maximum kinetic energy that a free
electron can have at 0 K.
The energy of the highest occupied level at absolute
zero temperature is called the Fermi Energy or Fermi Level.
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The Fermi energy at 0 K for metals is given by


3N
EF =

2/ 3

h2

8m

When temperature increases, the Fermi level or Fermi


energy also slightly decreases.
The Fermi energy at nonzero temperatures,
E F = E F0

12

kT

EF
0

Here the subscript 0 refers to the quantities at zero kelvin.


15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function f(E)


The free electron gas in a solid obeys Fermi-Dirac
statistics.
Suppose in an assemblage of fermions, there are M(E)
allowed quantum states in an energy range between E and
E+dE and N(E) is the number of particles in the same range.
Then,
The Fermi-Dirac distribution function is defined as,
N (E)
1
=
M ( E ) 1+ exp(E EF )/kT

N(E) / M(E) is the fraction of the possible quantum


which are occupied.
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states

The distribution of electrons among the levels is


described by function f (E), probability of an electron occupying
an energy level E.
If the level is certainly empty, then f(E) = 0.
Generally the f(E) has a value in between zero and unity.
When E< EF (i.e.,) for energy levels lying below EF,
(E EF) is a negative quantity and hence,

1
1
=
=1
f (E) =

1+ 0
1+ e
That means all the levels below EF are occupied by
the electrons.
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Fermi Dirac distribution function at different temperatures


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When E > EF (i.e.) for energy levels lying above EF,


(E EF) is a positive quantity
1
1
f(E )=
=
= 0

1+
1+ e

This equation indicates all the levels above EF are


vacant.
At absolute zero, all levels below EF are completely filled
and all levels above EF are completely empty.This level,
which divides the filled and vacant states, is known as the
Fermi energy level.
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When E = EF ,

f (E ) =

1
1
1
=
=
1+ e0 1+1 2

, at all temperatures

The probability of finding an electron with energy equal


to the Fermi energy in a metal is at any temperature.
At T = 0 K all the energy level upto EF are occupied
and all the energy levels above EF are empty .
When T > 0 K, some levels above EF are partially filled
while some levels below EF are partially empty.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1