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LECTURE 1 :

ENERGY, FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

LECTURE 2 :

EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS

LECTURE 3 :

APPLICATIONS

LECTURE 4:

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND APPLICATIONS

LECTURE 5 :

LECTURE6 :

APPLICATIONS

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

LECTURE 1

BASIC DEFINITION IN CONDUCTORS

CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS

FERMI- DIRAC STATISTICS & ITS

DISTRIBUTION

FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION

FUNCTION

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

The science that deals with the detailed knowledge of

the properties of materials like electrical, dielectric,

conduction,

semi

conduction,

magnetic,

superconductivity, optical etc., is known as `Materials

Science.

In terms of electrical properties, the materials can be

divided into three groups

(1) Conductors ,

(2) Semi conductors and

(3) Dielectrics (or) Insulators.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Electric current

The rate of flow of charge through a conductor is

known as the current. If a charge dq flows through the

conductor for dt second then

Electric current (I)=

dq

dt

Ohms law

At constant temperature, the potential difference

between the two ends of a conductor is directly proportional to

the current that passes through it. where R = resistance of the

conductor

V I (or) V = IR

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Resistance of a conductor

The resistance (R) of a conductor is the ratio of the

potential difference (V) applied to the conductor to the

current (I) that passes through it.

Resistance

(R) =

V

I

The resistance (R) of conductor depends upon its

length (L) and cross sectional area (A) i.e.,

R

L

A

or

R=

L

A

specific resistance (or ) resistivity of the material.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

charge that flows in unit time per unit area of cross section

of the conductor per unit potential gradient. The resistivity

and conductivity of materials are pictured as shown below,

Resistivity ( ohm metre )

10

15

10

12

10

10

Insulators

10

15

10

12

10

Semiconductors

10

10

10

10

10

Metals

10

10

( ohm 1 metre 1 )

Conductors

The materials that conduct electricity when an

electrical potential difference is applied across them are

conductors.

A

= R ohm metre

L

the resistance of the material having unit length and unit

cross sectional area.

The reciprocal of the electrical resistivity is known as

electrical conductivity () and is expressed in ohm1 metre1.

The conductivity ()

=

We Know that,

1

RA

L

RA

R = V/I

Q

t

L

I

=

=

=

V A V A V A

I

L

L

( ) ( ) ( )

can be classified into three categories

1.

Zero resistivity materials

2.

Low resistivity materials

3.

High resistivity materials

1) Zero Resistivity Materials

Superconductors like alloys of aluminium, zinc,

gallium, nichrome, niobium etc., are a special class of

materials that conduct electricity almost with zero

resistance below transition temperature. These materials

are known as zero resistivity materials.

USES

Energy saving in power systems, super conducting

magnets, memory storage elements

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

The metals and alloys like silver, aluminium have very

high electrical conductivity. These materials are known as low

resistivity materials.

USES

Resistors, conductors in electrical devices and in electrical

power transmission and distribution, winding wires in motors

and transformers.

3) High Resistivity Materials

The materials like tungsten, platinum, nichrome etc.,

have high resistivity and low temperature co-efficient of

resistance. These materials are known as high resistivity

materials.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

This law states that, the total fixed amount of energy

is distributed among the various members of an assembly

of identical particles in the most proable distribution.

The Maxwell Boltzmann law is

Where

ni =

gi

e (

+ Ei )

gi number of energy states.

EF

k T

and

1

kT

gas, EF Fermi energy)

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

Therefore, n =

i

[e

gi

( E i E F ) / kT

Classical particles can have any spin.

Particles do not obey Paulis exclusion principle.

Any number of particles may have identical energies.

This statistics applicable to the identical, indistinguishable

particles of half spin.

These particles obey Paulis exclusion principle and are

called fermions (e.g.) Electrons, protons, neutrons ,

In such system of particles, not more than one particle can

be in one quantum state.

Fermi Dirac Distribution Law is

ni =

gi

(e

+ E i

) +1

or ni =

[e

gi

( Ei E F ) / kT

]+1

Example

Let us consider two particles a and a. Let if, these two

particles occupy the three energy levels (1,2,3). The number of

ways of arranging the particles 31=3 (not more than one

particle can be in any one state)

Energy

level

energy level

Function f(E)

Fermi Energy (EF)

Fermi Energy is the energy of the state at which the

probability of electron occupation is at any temperature

above 0 K.

It is also the maximum kinetic energy that a free

electron can have at 0 K.

The energy of the highest occupied level at absolute

zero temperature is called the Fermi Energy or Fermi Level.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

3N

EF =

2/ 3

h2

8m

energy also slightly decreases.

The Fermi energy at nonzero temperatures,

E F = E F0

12

kT

EF

0

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

The free electron gas in a solid obeys Fermi-Dirac

statistics.

Suppose in an assemblage of fermions, there are M(E)

allowed quantum states in an energy range between E and

E+dE and N(E) is the number of particles in the same range.

Then,

The Fermi-Dirac distribution function is defined as,

N (E)

1

=

M ( E ) 1+ exp(E EF )/kT

which are occupied.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

states

described by function f (E), probability of an electron occupying

an energy level E.

If the level is certainly empty, then f(E) = 0.

Generally the f(E) has a value in between zero and unity.

When E< EF (i.e.,) for energy levels lying below EF,

(E EF) is a negative quantity and hence,

1

1

=

=1

f (E) =

1+ 0

1+ e

That means all the levels below EF are occupied by

the electrons.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

(E EF) is a positive quantity

1

1

f(E )=

=

= 0

1+

1+ e

vacant.

At absolute zero, all levels below EF are completely filled

and all levels above EF are completely empty.This level,

which divides the filled and vacant states, is known as the

Fermi energy level.

15PY102L UNIT 1 LECTURE 1

When E = EF ,

f (E ) =

1

1

1

=

=

1+ e0 1+1 2

, at all temperatures

to the Fermi energy in a metal is at any temperature.

At T = 0 K all the energy level upto EF are occupied

and all the energy levels above EF are empty .

When T > 0 K, some levels above EF are partially filled

while some levels below EF are partially empty.

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