69 views

Uploaded by Solehah Md Hashim

Definition of joule heating
Effect joule heating towards metal resistance

- HW 3
- Concrete Electrical Resistivity
- chapter 7
- Heat Transfer
- Exp 2 HT Flow Condition Handout
- physicsinvestigatoryproject-00
- Ch6-Current and Resistance
- Heat and Mass Transfer - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers
- esc_comp
- I020 Heat Transfer
- SI Heat 4e Chap01 Lecture
- INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
- gROUND GRID
- Manuale Ingegnere Meccanico_Part5
- TS5
- Tdem Importante
- Resistivity Tanque
- Basics of Mechanical Engineering for Renewable Energy Systems
- week_4_heat_transfer_lecture.pdf
- stdxi-voc-ema-em-3

You are on page 1of 3

4.2 Power

Introduction: What is Power for a connector?

There are several ways to define a power application. The most obvious are the current

and voltage requirements that the connector must meet. Most people would agree

that an application that specifies a current capacity of 30 A is a power application.

Similarly, most people would agree that an application where the applied voltage is

440 V is a power application. In todays marketplace with its emphasis on miniaturization, however, the voltage and current values that define a power application may be

significantly lower.

One way to account for this size related power relationship is to use the temperature

rise of the contact as a function of current as the criterion for a power application. One

such criterion comes from Underwriters Laboratories (UL) a standards organization

directed towards ensuring safe operation in power applications. UL defines a temperature rise, T-rise, of 30 C over the ambient temperature of the application as the

limiting current capacity of a connector. This is an arbitrary but widely use criterion.

Consider the factors that influence T-rise.

4.2.1 General Parameters

4.2.1.1 Temperature Rise

There are two components that determine the T-rise of a conductor carrying electrical

current: the Joule, or I2R, heating and the heat dissipation to the application environment. Consider each component individually.

Joule Heating:

For a given conductor the Joule heating, JH, is given by:

JH = I2R

(4.1)

where I is the current through the conductor, and R, the resistance of the conductor.

L

A

For a circular conductor, Figure 4.12, R is given by

268

R = (L/A)

(4.2)

where is the resistivity of the conductor material, L the length, and A the cross

sectional area of the conductor. For connector contacts the geometry becomes more

complicated, but the Joule heating of the contact always depends on the resistivity of

the contact material and its geometry as will be discussed later.

4.2.1.2 Heat Dissipation

The temperature rise caused by Joule heating is limited by transfer of heat to the

application environment. For a connector there are two main mechanisms of heat

dissipation, conduction and convection. Conduction dissipates heat by transferring the

heat through the contacts and conductors to a cooler portion of the system, generally

the terminating point of the connector, the wire/cable or the Printed Circuit Board, PCB.

Convection dissipates heat by transfer to the application ambient from the conductor

or connector surface.

For a conductor, conductive heat transfer follows:

q = T (A/L)

(4.3)

where q is the heat transfer rate, is the thermal conductivity of the conductor, T is

the temperature difference between the heat source and the sink and A and L are the

cross sectional area and the length of the conductor respectively. This equation would

be modified to reflect the contact geometry as noted previously.

Convective heat transfer follows:

q = h T A

(4.4)

dependent on the ambient (air, water etc.) and the flow, if any, of the ambient over the

over the surface of the conductor/connector.

The temperature a conductor will achieve under a given current flow will be determined by the balance of Joule heat and the heat dissipation mechanisms. For a connector, this balance will, in turn, be dependent on the connector configuration as will

be discussed later.

4.2.1.3 Contact T-rise vs Current

The following is a brief overview of the methodology for determining the T-rise versus

current characteristic of a single mated pair of contacts in air. Recall that the current capacity is determined by the balance of Joule heating and thermal dissipation.

Joule heating and conductive heat dissipation are essentially independent of the test

conditions. Convective heat dissipation does depend on the test conditions. Free air

convection heat dissipation will be greater than with the contacts in a housing, but less

than that if air were flowing over the contacts. These differences must be taken into

account when a test protocol for validating current rating is developed.

269

IV Appendix

Figure 4.13 shows the temperature of the hottest point12 on the subject contact pair

as a function of time for three different current levels, 3, 5, and 7 A. Note that the

temperature rises rapidly initially due to Joule heating. The rate of T-rise slows and

eventually levels off as the heat dissipation mechanisms become active. Note that it

80

70

7A

60

D T to Ambient

50

40

30

5A

20

3A

10

0

10

0

5

t (min)

10

may take a few minutes for the connector to achieve its steady state, constant current

temperature rise. The applied current is increased incrementally until the steady state

temperature exceeds the current rating criterion, a T-rise of 30 C above ambient.

For the data shown, the 30 C-T-rise would occur at a current over 5, but less than

7 A. This contact system could, therefore, be conservatively rated at 5 A. With this

basic performance characteristic in hand, consider how materials and design choices

determine the current rating of a contact system.

4.2.2 Connector Effect and Parameters

4.2.2.1 Contact and Housing Considerations

The electrical considerations are different for contacts and connector housings. The

contacts affect the Joule, I2R, heating, due to the R term, and the conductive heat

dissipation due to the thermal conductivity of the contact. The housings are affected by

the voltage side of power, which influences the contact spacing in the housing, and the

convective aspect of heat dissipation through the geometry of the housing.

Housing Considerations

From a materials viewpoint, the polymer electrical parameters of interest include the

volume and surface resistivity and the dielectric breakdown voltage. Suffice it to say

that the polymers used in the manufacture of connector housings easily satisfy the

electrical requirements. There are some differences among polymers in terms of the

270

The determination of the hottest point on a contact pair will be discussed at a later point in this application note.

12

- HW 3Uploaded byMark Luther
- Concrete Electrical ResistivityUploaded bysoulmateforeverforu
- chapter 7Uploaded byBeevy GB
- Heat TransferUploaded bymikeshii
- Exp 2 HT Flow Condition HandoutUploaded byQuanhongLe
- physicsinvestigatoryproject-00Uploaded byVishal Valhellan Arya
- Ch6-Current and ResistanceUploaded bymehdii.heidary1366
- Heat and Mass Transfer - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answersUploaded byBrainKart Com
- esc_compUploaded bygramuiitm
- I020 Heat TransferUploaded byJayvee Francisco
- SI Heat 4e Chap01 LectureUploaded byMatthew Shields
- INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTSUploaded byMahesan Sinthujan
- gROUND GRIDUploaded byvetsas
- Manuale Ingegnere Meccanico_Part5Uploaded bySkander El Amri
- TS5Uploaded byHarishChoudhary
- Tdem ImportanteUploaded byRickyRiccardo
- Resistivity TanqueUploaded byRaul Marihuan González
- Basics of Mechanical Engineering for Renewable Energy SystemsUploaded byRohit Singh Lather
- week_4_heat_transfer_lecture.pdfUploaded byhahaha
- stdxi-voc-ema-em-3Uploaded bycaferaju
- physicsinvestigatoryproject-160111163554Uploaded byHarsh Sharma
- PG Diploma(CCC_CC)_ Entrance Examination Syllabus-2014Uploaded byAnonymous fFsGiy
- mobile communicationUploaded byswathi
- Seleção de MateriaisUploaded byMarcel Souza
- HT Question paperUploaded byRohit pota
- Shimogishi JapanUploaded byAndré Chaves
- Current and ResistanceUploaded byftouf
- Complete Thermal 3 Lab (1)Uploaded byMuhammad Asraf Azmi
- physicsUploaded byTristan George Reyes
- 2-3Uploaded byonie.meiyanto

- 06 DynamicsUploaded byEnrique
- Heat Transfer by RadiationUploaded byyesuplus2
- Questons Phy PodarUploaded byManas J. Aggarwal
- Name: Vo Thanh Minh Tue [Class: M08502] Hoang Kim DinhUploaded byminhtue90
- The Material Point Method in Slope Stability AnalysisUploaded byAnonymous GnfGTw
- Untitled 1Uploaded byAvik Das
- value of gUploaded byAnaya Choudhry
- Exam3 Problems SolUploaded bynancy magana
- Lab 2.1 Impact of a Jet 1Uploaded byShehan Fernando
- Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure.pdfUploaded byjperdigon9634
- Zorn Elastic-fascia 2007Uploaded bysvatantrayabhinava
- 2K methodUploaded byLind D. Qui
- 14.2052012Assignments1and2SolutionUploaded byAbdullrahman Ahmed
- Martynov Paper 2Uploaded byMeera Arun
- Camesa_TechBulletin-008Uploaded byrobin2806
- Dynamics of RotationUploaded byKevin G. Rhoads
- L1F1Uploaded byDaniel
- 1_comparison of BEM and CFD Results for MEXICO Rotor AerodynamicsUploaded byMayra Zezatti
- Mechanics of Pneumatic TiresUploaded bysaddleman
- Solutions Ch18 Spring08Uploaded byhzeem
- Physics (Summarized Giancolli)Uploaded byDarielle Lim Joven
- Triaxial Shear TestUploaded byBella
- Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics, Part IUploaded byMayukh Kansari
- Structural systems transfer their loading through a series of elements to the ground.docxUploaded byalexokorie
- Behavior and Analysis of a Curved and Skewed I-Girder BridgeUploaded byaapennsylvania
- Fluid MachineryUploaded byrinjalb7752
- Fisika Bab 16Uploaded bySeroKeretaMasaroWidiar
- Jet and Droplet Impingement on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.pdfUploaded byAvijit Karmakar
- Paper Stress DistributionUploaded byLuis Alonso SA
- (Solid Mechanics and Its Applications 218) David Wagg, Simon Neild (Auth.)-Nonlinear Vibration With Control_ for Flexible and Adaptive Structures-Springer International Publishing (2015)Uploaded byoscar201140